Sample records for thermal process heat

  1. Value of solar thermal industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.

  2. Solar Thermal Process Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, NewSingapore Jump to: navigation,PanelsLight EnergyJumpProcess

  3. Thermal Energy Storage/Heat Recovery and Energy Conservation in Food Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, R. S.; Boykin, W. B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from waste heat streams for reuse in the processing operations. This paper addresses the recovery of waste heat and the storage of thermal energy as a means of energy conservation in food processing. An energy conservation project in a poultry...

  4. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  5. Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    1 Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock/or evaporation. A practical way of reducing heat loss is by insulating or covering the surfaces. This paper presents methods to quantify heat loss and energy savings from insulating hot surfaces and open tanks

  6. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  7. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

  8. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment:...

  9. Thermal Energy Storage/Heat Recovery and Energy Conservation in Food Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, R. S.; Boykin, W. B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern food processing operations often require that the temperature of the processed foodstuff be raised or lowered. These operations result in energy consumption by refrigeration or heating systems, and a portion of this energy can be recovered...

  10. Heat distribution ceramic processing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

  11. Thermal conductivity and heat transfer in superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Neagu, M.; Borca-Tasciuc, T.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the thermal conductivity and heat transfer processes in superlattice structures is critical for the development of thermoelectric materials and devices based on quantum structures. This work reports progress on the modeling of thermal conductivity of superlattice structures. Results from the models established based on the Boltzmann transport equation could explain existing experimental results on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor superlattices in both in plane and cross-plane directions. These results suggest the possibility of engineering the interfaces to further reduce thermal conductivity of superlattice structures.

  12. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850��������C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys���¢�������� weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation on Cr-carbide on the graphite surface. Ni-electroplating dramatically reduced corrosion of alloys, although some diffusion of Fe and Cr were observed occur through the Ni plating. A pyrolytic carbon and SiC (PyC/SiC) CVD coating was also investigated and found to be effective in mitigating corrosion. The KCl-MgCl2 molten salt was less corrosive than FLiNaK fluoride salts for corrosion tests performed at 850oC. Cr dissolution in the molten chloride salt was still observed and consequently Ni-201 and Hastelloy N exhibited the least depth of attack. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (as measured by weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. Because Cr dissolution is an important mechanism of corrosion, molten salt electrochemistry experiments were initiated. These experiments were performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Using this technique, the reduction potential of Cr was determined against a Pt quasi-reference electrode as well as against a Ni(II)-Ni reference electrode in molten FLiNaK at 650 oC. The integrated current increased linearly with Cr-content in the salt, providing for a direct assessment of the Cr concentration in a given salt of unknown Cr concentration. To study heat transfer mechanisms in these molten salts over the forced and mixed convection regimes, a forced convective loop was constructed to measure heat transfer coefficients, friction factors and corrosion rates in different diameter tubes in a vertical up flow configuration in the laminar flow regime. Equipment and instrumentation for the forced convective loop was designed, constructed, and tested. These include a high temperature centrifugal pump, mass flow meter, and differential pressure sensing capabilities to an uncertainty of < 2 Pa. The heat transfer coefficient for the KCl-MgCl2 salt was measured in t

  13. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  14. Modeling Thermal-Hydrologic Processes for a Heated Fractured Rock System: Impact of a Capillary-Pressure Maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Y.; Buscheck, T. A.; Lee, K. H.; Hao, Y.; James, S. C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    package spac- ing and waste-package heat generation rate,Radioactive heat of decay from waste packages emplaced inwaste packages and emplacement drifts, and for heat ?ow at

  15. Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh, A. A.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

  16. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  17. Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

    ~C. T min Table 3. Problem Table Algorithm Applied to Petrochemicals Process Interval GJ ltiour 'Temperatures ! C! 2 ) ? ~ Cold. Hot Aecumulated Heat Heat FJ.owa Interval Streams StrePlS Deficit. Input OUtput -OUtt!utInput. 20 30 -2... of heat which can be passed on in this manner is performed in column 2 and column 3 of Table 3. It is initially assumed that the heat input from external utilities is zero. This is represented in Table 3 by a zero input to the top interval. Having...

  18. Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under...

  19. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT Thomas F.CENTRAL RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE progressCorporation, RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE I,

  20. Thermal codes benchmarking: HEATING6 results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, C.B.; Childs, K.W.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in support of Sandia National Laboratories Transportation Technology Center, has developed solutions to four model test problems which serve as comparison benchmarks for thermal computer codes currently being used in the design and analysis of nuclear fuel shipping casks. These problems include steady-state and transient simulations; conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer mechanisms; internal heat sources; multiple materials; and one- and two-dimensional geometries. Solutions to these model thermal problems produced by an enhanced version of HEATING6 are presented in this report. 4 refs., 19 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Composites Under Di erent Heating Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Two dimensional heat transfer model #26;(z), and c p (z) represent the thermal conductivity, density

  2. Heat Pipe Technology for Energy Conservation in the Process Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, B. L. Jr.

    HEAT PIPE TECHNOLOGY FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRY Berwin L. Price. Jr. Q-dot Corporation Garland. Texas ABSTRACT Many applications for heat pipe technology have emerged in the relatively short time this technology has been... and utility industries. The heat pipe offers a unique. efficient heat transfer device that can recover valuable thermal energy resulting in reduced equipment and operating costs. Q-dot is the world leader in heat pipe technology and we have applied our...

  3. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  4. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  5. 1.12.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/24 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    of low-temperature (waste) heat, replacing sources of (unnecessarily) high temperature heat (and, 3) outside water heat and 4) heat from another indoor space, or 5) waste heat from a process1.12.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/24 8. Heat

  6. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

  7. Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The focus of the Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate new techniques for thermal energy storage systems that are relevant to utility-scale concentrating solar power plants. The laboratory holds test systems that can provide heat transfer fluids for the evaluation of heat exchangers and thermal energy storage devices. The existing system provides molten salt at temperatures up to 800 C. This unit is charged with nitrate salt rated to 600 C, but is capable of handling other heat transfer fluid compositions. Three additional test bays are available for future deployment of alternative heat transfer fluids such as hot air, carbon dioxide, or steam systems. The Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory performs pilot-scale thermal energy storage system testing through multiple charge and discharge cycles to evaluate heat exchanger performance and storage efficiency. The laboratory equipment can also be utilized to test instrument and sensor compatibility with hot heat transfer fluids. Future applications in the laboratory may include the evaluation of thermal energy storage systems designed to operate with supercritical heat transfer fluids such as steam or carbon dioxide. These tests will require the installation of test systems capable of providing supercritical fluids at temperatures up to 700 C.

  8. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combined with heat pump improve the thermal performance of the heat pump and the global system. The performances of the heating system combining heat pump and solar collectors are higher than that of solar heating system with solar collectors and storage...

  9. Process Integration of Industrial Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, S. J.; Chappell, R. N.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integration of heat pumps into industrial processes shows potential for energy savings. Heat pumps must, however, be integrated properly relative to the process pinch and the unit operations in the process. The shape of the grand composite curve...

  10. Process Integration of Industrial Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, S. J.; Chappell, R. N.

    PROCESS INTEGRATION OF INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMPS* S. J. Priebe EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, Idaho ABSTRACT The integration of heat pumps into industrial processes shows potential for energy savings. Heat pumps must, however, be integrated... properly relative to the process pinch and the unit operations in the process. The shape of the grand composite curve, the type of heat ?pump drive, and the kind of heat pump cycle were examined to determine their effects on the placement of industrial...

  11. High thermal power density heat transfer apparatus providing electrical isolation at high temperature using heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J. F.

    1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to transferring heat from an extremely high temperature source to an electrically isolated lower temperature receiver. The invention is particularly concerned with supplying thermal power to a thermionic converter from a nuclear reactor with electric isolation. Heat from a high temperature heat pipe is transferred through a vacuum or a gap filled with electrically nonconducting gas to a cooler heat pipe. The heat pipe is used to cool the nuclear reactor while the heat pipe is connected thermally and electrically to a thermionic converter. If the receiver requires greater thermal power density, geometries are used with larger heat pipe areas for transmitting and receiving energy than the area for conducting the heat to the thermionic converter. In this way the heat pipe capability for increasing thermal power densities compensates for the comparatively low thermal power densities through the electrically nonconducting gap between the two heat pipes.

  12. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  13. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process configurations for solar power plants with sensible-heatsolar power plant with sensible-heat storage since the chemical~heat storage processsolar power plant with a sulfur-oxide storage process. chemical~heat

  14. A small satellite preliminary thermal control and heat shield analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melani Barreiro, Diego A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a student owned small satellite project, a preliminary thermal control and heat shield analysis was developed to verify acceptable performance requirements for the system. For the thermal control section, the ...

  15. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's presentation about passive solar building design and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications.

  16. Industrial process heat market assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  17. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation covers...

  18. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  19. Integration of heat pumps into industrial processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, R.N. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA)); Priebe, S.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy and others have funded studies to assess the potential for energy savings using industrial heat pumps. The studies included classifications of heat pumps, economic evaluations, and placement of heat pumps in industrial processes. Pinch technology was used in the placement studies to determine the placement, size, and type of heat pumps for a given applications. There appears to be considerable scope for heat pumping in several industries, but, where maximum process energy savings are desired, it is important to consider heat pumping in the context of overall process integration. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Impulsive Spot Heating and Thermal Explosion of Interstellar Grains Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivlev, A V; Vasyunin, A; Caselli, P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of impulsive heating of dust grains in cold, dense interstellar clouds is revisited theoretically, with the aim to better understand leading mechanisms of the explosive desorption of icy mantles. It is rigorously shown that if the heating of a reactive medium occurs within a sufficiently localized spot (e.g., heating of mantles by cosmic rays), then the subsequent thermal evolution is characterized by a single dimensionless number $\\lambda$. This number identifies a bifurcation between two distinct regimes: When $\\lambda$ exceeds a critical value (threshold), the heat equation exhibits the explosive solution, i.e., the thermal (chemical) explosion is triggered. Otherwise, thermal diffusion causes the deposited heat to spread over the entire grain -- this regime is commonly known as the whole-grain heating. The theory allows us to find a critical combination of the physical parameters that govern the explosion of icy mantles due to impulsive spot heating. In particular, the calculations suggest tha...

  1. Thermal response of a flat heat pipe sandwich structure to a localized heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    The temperature distribution across a flat heat pipe sandwich structure, subjected to an intense localized thermal metal foam wick and distilled water as the working fluid. Heat was applied via a propane torch and radiative heat transfer. A novel method was developed to estimate experimentally, the heat flux distribution

  2. Modeling ofHybrid (Heat Radiation and Microwave) High Temperature Processing ofLimestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    Modeling ofHybrid (Heat Radiation and Microwave) High Temperature Processing ofLimestone Shawn M (electromagnetic and thermal) modeling to cover practically valuable scenarios of hybrid (heat radiation is applied to the process of hybrid heating of cylindrical samples of limestone in Ceralink's MAT TM kiln

  3. Solar-thermal reaction processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W; Dahl, Jaimee K; Lewandowski, Allan A; Bingham, Carl; Raska Buechler, Karen J; Grothe, Willy

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In an embodiment, a method of conducting a high temperature chemical reaction that produces hydrogen or synthesis gas is described. The high temperature chemical reaction is conducted in a reactor having at least two reactor shells, including an inner shell and an outer shell. Heat absorbing particles are included in a gas stream flowing in the inner shell. The reactor is heated at least in part by a source of concentrated sunlight. The inner shell is heated by the concentrated sunlight. The inner shell re-radiates from the inner wall and heats the heat absorbing particles in the gas stream flowing through the inner shell, and heat transfers from the heat absorbing particles to the first gas stream, thereby heating the reactants in the gas stream to a sufficiently high temperature so that the first gas stream undergoes the desired reaction(s), thereby producing hydrogen or synthesis gas in the gas stream.

  4. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  5. Thermal Preconditioning and Heat-Shock Protein 72 Preserve Synaptic Transmission during Thermal Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Meldrum

    , exposing the mammalian CNS to nonle- thal heat stress (i.e., thermal preconditioning) increases levels of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) such as Hsp70 and enhances the viability of neurons under subsequent stress., 2000). Among other mechanisms, precondi- tioning involves stress or heat-shock proteins (Hsps

  6. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  7. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  8. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, E.A. (ed.)

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  9. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  10. IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) 5. Heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    ) · Heat conductance as Gheat =1/Rheat = Q/T (unit: W/K or W/°C) · For a plane material with thickness L (m) and conductivity (W/mK): Gheat = ·A/L Rheat = L/(·A) . . . #5/6 IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) VST rz13 10). If is a constant: with thermal conductivity , unit: W/(mK) (sv: termisk konduktivitet eller värmeledningsförmåga

  11. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  12. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  13. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, J [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  14. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

  15. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

  16. Thermal Plasma Systems for Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fey, M. G.; Meyer, T. N.; Reed, W. H.; Philbrook, W. O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    furnaces, extending from below 2000 F to almost any conceivably useful processing temperature, with efficiencies much higher than can be achieved with combustion heating equipment. Numerous applications for plasma systems exist in the chemical...

  17. Solar thermal aerosol flow reaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Pitts, J. Roland; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Tamburini, Joseph R.

    2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an environmentally beneficial process using concentrated sunlight to heat radiation absorbing particles to carry out highly endothermic gas phase chemical reactions ultimately resulting in the production of hydrogen or hydrogen synthesis gases.

  18. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Tairan, E-mail: trfu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  19. Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

  20. Thermal Energy Storage/Waste Heat Recovery Applications in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beshore, D. G.; Jaeger, F. A.; Gartner, E. M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and the Portland Cement Association have studied the potential benefits of using waste heat recovery methods and thermal energy storage systems in the cement manufacturing process. This work was performed under DOE Contract No. EC-77-C-01-50S4. The study has been...

  1. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition This...

  2. Method and apparatus for thermal processing of semiconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiss, CA); Mattson, Brad S. (Los Gatos, CA); Savas, Stephen E. (Alameda, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. The apparatus and method provide the temperature stability and uniformity of a conventional batch furnace as well as the processing speed and reduced time-at-temperature of a lamp-heated rapid thermal processor (RTP). Individual wafers are rapidly inserted into and withdrawn from a furnace cavity held at a nearly constant and isothermal temperature. The speeds of insertion and withdrawal are sufficiently large to limit thermal stresses and thereby reduce or prevent plastic deformation of the wafer as it enters and leaves the furnace. By processing the semiconductor wafer in a substantially isothermal cavity, the wafer temperature and spatial uniformity of the wafer temperature can be ensured by measuring and controlling only temperatures of the cavity walls. Further, peak power requirements are very small compared to lamp-heated RTPs because the cavity temperature is not cycled and the thermal mass of the cavity is relatively large. Increased speeds of insertion and/or removal may also be used with non-isothermal furnaces.

  3. Quantity, quality, and availability of waste heat from United States thermal power generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJthmore »of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.« less

  4. Quantity, quality, and availability of waste heat from United States thermal power generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJth of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  5. Thermal response of process equipment to hydrocarbon fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solberg, D.M.; Borgnes, O.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Requirements for active fire-fighting equipment such as fixed and portable powder extinguishers, foam generators, water guns, and deluge systems, are given in various codes and standards. However, very little is to be found about fire design conditions and passive fire protection. For safety verification of process plants and for designing adequate passive fire protection it is necessary to know the total incident heat fluxes which can occur under realistic conditions and the effects that such heat fluxes may have on process equipment and structures. During the last few years, Det Norske Veritas has been invloved in investigations aimed at estimating realistic fire loads from different types of hydrocarbon fires and the thermal response of process equipment and structures exposed to such fires. These investigations are still in progress and are especially focused on the conditions on off-shore oil and gas production platforms. However, many fire problems will be the same in the land-based process industry. The present paper concentrates on the thermal response of pipes and vessels exposed to a severe hydrocarbon fire with a defined thermal load. (JMT)

  6. Heat Recovery Boilers for Process Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.; Rentz, J.; Flanagan, D.

    of the use of heat recovery due primarily to process considerations. On the other hand, cost and payback are main considerations in the case of gas turbine and incineration plants, where large quantities of gases are exhausted at temperatures varying from 800...

  7. Direct-Contact Process Water Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, M. R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the manufacturing processes utilizing direct steam injection from process boilers to a hot water storage tank. Although the boiler plant was in fair operating condition, the boilers were over 30 years old and had measured seasonal heating efficiencies of 60... water heater. Since the new system was better matched to the plant load, energy savings occurred as a result of the new systems reduced input capacity and higher efficiency. This project, which can be duplicated in other industries with facility...

  8. Title COMBINATION OF THERMAL SOLAR COLLECTORS, HEAT PUMP AND THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR DWELLINGS IN BELGIUM.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contact Raf; De Herdt; Roel De Coninck; Filip Van Den Schoor; Lieve Helsen

    The amount of available solar energy in Belgium is more than sufficient to meet local heat demand for space heating and domestic hot water in a dwelling. However, the timing of both the availability of solar energy and the need for thermal energy, match only to a limited extent. Therefore, compact storage of the surplus of thermal energy is a critical issue. Depending on the temperature at which this energy is available, directly from the sun or indirectly through the storage, different combinations with a heat pump can be considered. By combining solar energy with a heat pump one may benefit on both sides since the fraction of solar energy increases as well as the performance of the heat pump. The aim of this thesis is to select the best out of three configurations that combine thermal solar collectors, heat pump and thermal energy storage for heating purposes in dwellings in Belgium, based on model simulations. Energetic, exergetic and economic criteria are used to evaluate the different configurations, while thermal comfort and domestic hot water tap profiles should be met. One (or more) performance index (indices) is (are) defined enabling an objective comparison between different systems. Today several systems are already commercially available on the international market [4]. Since these systems consist of different components, the system design is a crucial issue. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the sizing of the individual components, the interaction of the components within the global system, and the strategy for operational control. To study the interaction with the building, three types of buildings (already defined in a previous project) are considered.

  9. Discrete thermal element modelling of heat conduction in particle systems: Basic formulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    methodology, termed the discrete thermal element method (DTEM), for the effec- tive modelling of heat rights reserved. Keywords: Discrete thermal element method; Circular particle; Thermal contact; Heat conduction; Boundary (integral) equation/element 1. Introduction Heat transfer in particle systems can

  10. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers biomass-firedboilers.pdf More Documents &...

  11. LABORATORY VI ENERGY AND THERMAL PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VI ENERGY AND THERMAL PROCESSES Lab VI - 1 The change of the internal energy of a system temperature. In this lab you will concentrate on quantifying the changes in internal energy within the framework of conservation of energy. In the problems of this lab, you will master the relation

  12. An evaluation of the thermal characteristics of a flat plate heat pipe spreader

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chesser, Jason Blake

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of the thermal characteristics of a flat plate heat pipe spreader was performed through an analytical, numerical, and experimental analysis. The physical system considered was comprised of a high heat flux heat source attached...

  13. Thermal analysis of an indirectly heat pulsed non-volatile phase change material microwave switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Robert M., E-mail: rm.young@ngc.com; El-Hinnawy, Nabil; Borodulin, Pavel; Wagner, Brian P.; King, Matthew R.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Lee, Michael J. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Electronic Systems, P.O. Box 1521, Baltimore, Maryland 21203 (United States)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We show the finite element simulation of the melt/quench process in a phase change material (GeTe, germanium telluride) used for a radio frequency switch. The device is thermally activated by an independent NiCrSi (nickel chrome silicon) thin film heating element beneath a dielectric separating it electrically from the phase change layer. A comparison is made between the predicted and experimental minimum power to amorphize (MPA) for various thermal pulse powers and pulse time lengths. By including both the specific heat and latent heat of fusion for GeTe, we find that the MPA and the minimum power to crystallize follow the form of a hyperbola on the power time effect plot. We also find that the simulated time at which the entire center GeTe layer achieves melting accurately matches the MPA curve for pulse durations ranging from 75–1500?ns and pulse powers from 1.6–4?W.

  14. Assessment and Prediction of the Thermal Performance of a Centralized Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Utilizing Artificial Neural Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Sawi, A.; Haghighat, F.; Akbari, H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation tool is developed to analyze the thermal performance of a centralized latent heat thermal energy storage system (LHTES) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The LHTES system is integrated with a mechanical ventilation system...

  15. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  16. Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

  17. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in MicrogridsEnvironmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgridsa) ABSTRACT The addition of solar thermal and heat storage

  18. Solar process heat technology in action: The process hot water system at the California Correctional Institution at Tehachapi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, R. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Gee, R.; May, K. (Industrial Solar Technology, Arvada, CO (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar process heat technology relates to solar thermal energy systems for industry, commerce, and government. Applications include water preheating and heating, steam generation, process hot air, ventilation air heating, and refrigeration. Solar process heat systems are available for commercial use. At the present time, however, they are economically viable only in niche markets. This paper describes a functioning system in one such market. The California Department of Corrections (CDOC), which operates correctional facilities for the state of California, uses a solar system for providing hot water and space heating at the California Correctional Institute at Tehachapi (CCI/Tehachapi). CCI/Tehachapi is a 5100-inmate facility. The CDOC does not own the solar system. Rather, it buys energy from private investors who own the solar system located on CCI/Tehachapi property; this arrangement is part of a long-term energy purchase agreement. United Solar Technologies (UST) of Olympia Washington is the system operator. The solar system, which began operating in the fall of 1990, utilizes 2677 m{sup 2} (28,800 ft{sup 2}) of parabolic through solar concentrators. Thermal energy collected by the system is used to generate hot water for showers, kitchen operations, and laundry functions. Thermal energy collected by the system is also used for space heating. At peak operating conditions, the system is designed to meet approximately 80 percent of the summer thermal load. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  20. Firearm suppressor having enhanced thermal management for rapid heat dissipation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A suppressor is disclosed for use with a weapon having a barrel through which a bullet is fired. The suppressor has an inner portion having a bore extending coaxially therethrough. The inner portion is adapted to be secured to a distal end of the barrel. A plurality of axial flow segments project radially from the inner portion and form axial flow paths through which expanding propellant gasses discharged from the barrel flow through. The axial flow segments have radially extending wall portions that define sections which may be filled with thermally conductive material, which in one example is a thermally conductive foam. The conductive foam helps to dissipate heat deposited within the suppressor during firing of the weapon.

  1. Shutdown heat removal system reliability in thermal reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Y.H.; Bari, R.A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of the failure probability per year of the shutdown heat removal system (SHRS) at hot standby conditions for two thermal reactor designs is presented. The selected reactor designs are the Pressurized Water Reactor and the Nonproliferation Alternative System Assessment Program Heavy Water Reactor. Failures of the SHRS following the initiating transients of loss of offsite power and loss of main feedwater system are evaluated. Common mode failures between components are incorporated in this anlaysis via the ..beta..-factor method and the sensitivity of the system reliability to common mode failures is investigated parametrically.

  2. Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Bruce Turner; Tim Brown; Ed Mardiat

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the planned heating and cooling load growth at the Texas Medical Center (TMC), Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) implemented Phase 1 of a Master Plan to install an additional 32,000 tons of chilled water capacity, a 75,000 ton-hour (8.8 million gallon) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank, and a 48 MW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. The Department of Energy selected TMC for a $10 million grant award as part of the Financial Assistance Funding Opportunity Announcement, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology, Recovery Act: Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficiency Industrial Equipment Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000044 to support the installation of a new 48 MW CHP system at the TMC located just outside downtown Houston. As the largest medical center in the world, TMC is home to many of the nationâ??s best hospitals, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, and health care providers. TMC provides care to approximately six million patients each year, and medical instruction to over 71,000 students. A medical center the size of TMC has enormous electricity and thermal energy demands to help it carry out its mission. Reliable, high-quality steam and chilled water are of utmost importance to the operations of its many facilities. For example, advanced medical equipment, laboratories, laundry facilities, space heating and cooling all rely on the generation of heat and power. As result of this project TECO provides this mission critical heating and cooling to TMC utilizing a system that is both energy-efficient and reliable since it provides the capability to run on power independent of the already strained regional electric grid. This allows the medical center to focus on its primary mission â?? providing top quality medical care and instruction â?? without worrying about excessive energy costs or the loss of heating and cooling due to the risk of power outages. TECOâ??s operation is the largest Chilled Water District Energy System in the United States. The company used DOEâ??s funding to help install a new high efficiency CHP system consisting of a Combustion Turbine and a Heat Recovery Steam Generator. This CHP installation was just part of a larger project undertaken by TECO to ensure that it can continue to meet TMCâ??s growing needs. The complete efficiency overhaul that TECO undertook supported more than 1,000 direct and indirect jobs in manufacturing, engineering, and construction, with approximately 400 of those being jobs directly associated with construction of the combined heat and power plant. This showcase industrial scale CHP project, serving a critical component of the nationâ??s healthcare infrastructure, directly and immediately supported the energy efficiency and job creation goals established by ARRA and DOE. It also provided an unsurpassed model of a district energy CHP application that can be replicated within other energy intensive applications in the industrial, institutional and commercial sectors.

  3. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar thermal and heat storage on CO 2 emissions and annual energyenergy costs, heat storage does not directly support solar thermal /energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal

  4. Investigation of bit patterned media, thermal flying height control sliders and heat assisted magnetic recording in hard disk drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Hao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with different heat transfer models for a flying-heightD. B. Bogy, “A heat transfer model for thermal fluctuationsD. B. Bogy, “A heat transfer model for thermal fluctuations

  5. High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

  6. Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Material (MPCM) Slurry in a Coaxial Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kun

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries and coil heat exchangers had been recently studied separately as enhancers of convective heat transfer processes. Due to the larger apparent heat related to the phase change process...

  7. Transient-heat-transfer and stress analysis of a thermal-storage solar cooker module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zengeni, Hazel C

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper details the analysis carried out in Solidworks to determine the best material and configuration of a thermal-storage solar cooker module.The thermal-storage solar cooker utilizes the high-latent-heat lithium ...

  8. Heat recovery and thermal storage : a study of the Massachusetts State Transportation Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjorklund, Abbe Ellen

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the energy system at the Massachusetts State Transportation Building was conducted. This innovative energy system utilizes internal-source heat pumps and a water thermal storage system to provide building heating ...

  9. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the specified performance was realized at the heat-pump, e) whether the pipes for fan-coil units are suitably insulated. Output Heat loss from piping Upward and downward heat flow from hot-water mat Heat loss from piping (boiler - header) Heat loss from...Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment S. Hokoi*, H. Miura*, Y. Huang*, N. Nakahara** and A. Iwamae*** * Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan ** Nakahara Laboratory, Environmental Syst...

  10. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADVANCED THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE CONCEPT DEFINITION STUDY FORSchilling. F. E. , Thermal Energy Storage Using PrestressedNo ~cumulate thermal energy storage. Estimate ESTrof2(

  11. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Efficiency of Generation, Discharging, Gross Electric Generation,e 1% of the gross electric generation. Thermal losses fromNet Electric Power Generation, Discharging, MWe Net Thermal

  12. Thermal conductivity and specific heat of sorghum grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Clinton Frank

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation of Test Canister Ice Jacket ~ Sealing Test Canister in Calorimeter. . 43 44 Testing of Samples. Initial Calorimeter Observations. 49 Insertion of Grain Samples into Calorimeter. . . . 50 Final Test Observations Processing of Data. 54... to Contain the Grain Sample 38 for the Determination of Specific Heat 39 12. Top View of Calorimeter. 40 13. Galvanized Iron Cylinder Used to Form the Ice Jacket Around the Test Canister 42 VIII Figures 14. Clamping Device Used to Hold Test Canister...

  13. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsystem Summary Heat Input to the Receiver - 513 MW Heathours, assuming constant heat input to the receiver, Enoughwhich assumed constant heat input to the central receiver 8

  14. Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolper, Pierre

    Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace Proposition: Combined furnace taking into account convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. The model: Catalysis, Energy Materials, Performance Materials and Recycling. Each business area is divided into market

  15. Thermal and Non-thermal Physiochemical Processes in Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanoscale films of ASW at low temperatures. To study the transport properties (viscosity, diffusivity), the amorphous films can be heated above their glass transition...

  16. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  17. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  18. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  19. The Homopolar Pulse Billet Heating Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith, R. E.; Weldon, W. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - or gas-fired furnace machine. (7) Also during 1981, under the heating. Although most billet heating sponsorship of the Electric Power Research today is done using fuel-fired furnaces, Institute (EPRI), CEM-UT carried out a electric heating... obtained frDm Electromechanics at The University of Texas the EPRI study. at Austin (CEM-UT) has been engaged in research on large pulsed power supplies for use in experiments leading to controlled TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS IN BILLET HEATING...

  20. Thermal processes for heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, A.K.; Sarathi, P.S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This status report summarizes the project BE11B (Thermal Processes for Heavy Oil Recovery) research activities conducted in FY93 and completes milestone 7 of this project. A major portion of project research during FY93 was concentrated on modeling and reservoir studies to determine the applicability of steam injection oil recovery techniques in Texas Gulf Coast heavy oil reservoirs. In addition, an in-depth evaluation of a steamflood predictive model developed by Mobil Exploration and Production Co. (Mobil E&P) was performed. Details of these two studies are presented. A topical report (NIPER-675) assessing the NIPER Thermal EOR Research Program over the past 10 years was also written during this fiscal year and delivered to DOE. Results of the Gulf Coast heavy oil reservoir simulation studies indicated that though these reservoirs can be successfully steamflooded and could recover more than 50% of oil-in-place, steamflooding may not be economical at current heavy oil prices. Assessment of Mobil E&P`s steamflood predictive model capabilities indicate that the model in its present form gives reasonably good predictions of California steam projects, but fails to predict adequately the performance of non-California steam projects.

  1. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  2. A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS...

  3. A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS...

  4. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, N.J.; Davidson, H.L.; Kerns, J.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost. 7 figs.

  5. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for concentrating solar-thermal energy use a large number ofBoth solar power plants absorb thermal energy in high-of a solar power plant that converts thermal energy into

  6. Industrial Process Heat Pumps--Some Unconventional Wisdom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, A.

    to be incorrect and/or i.llusory. Similar situa tions were uncovered in other industries as part of an EPRI-funded pinch analysis by Union Carbide of heat-pumped evaporators in ten processes.(12) Figure 8 from that study shows that heat pumping applications... additional design insights important to the heat pump I s cost effec tiveness. Figure 9. also from the EPRI study. shows how heat pump sizing can be limited to that which is truly useful. taking into account other process heat integration possibilities...

  7. Thermal Modeling of A Friction Bonding Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Dixon; Douglas Burkes; Pavel Medvedev

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A COMSOL model capable of predicting temperature evolution during nuclear fuel fabrication is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Fuel plates are fabricated by friction bonding (FB) uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy foils positioned between two aluminum plates. The ability to predict temperature distribution during fabrication is imperative to ensure good quality bonding without inducing an undesirable chemical reaction between U-Mo and aluminum. A three-dimensional heat transfer model of the FB process implementing shallow pin penetration for cladding monolithic nuclear fuel foils is presented. Temperature distribution during the FB process as a function of fabrication parameters such as weld speed, tool load, and tool rotational frequency are predicted. Model assumptions, settings, and equations are described in relation to standard friction stir welding. Current experimental design for validation and calibration of the model is also demonstrated. Resulting experimental data reveal the accuracy in describing asymmetrical temperature distributions about the tool face. Temperature of the bonded plate drops beneath the pin and is higher on the advancing side than the retreating side of the tool.

  8. Application and Technology Requirements for Heat Pumps at the Process Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, S.; Chappell, R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are basically three categories of equipment used to manage heat energy flows in an industrial process. First, heat exchangers are used to move heat through the process down the temperature gradient. Second, heat pumps are used to move heat...

  9. On the solution of the Heaviside - Klein - Gordon thermal equation for heat transport in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc

    2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report studies of the solution of the Heaviside - Klein - Gordon thermal equation. As the result it is shown that the solution consists of two components: the fast thermal wave and slow diffusion for very large (compared to relaxation time) time period. We argue that the fast thermal wave can be recognized as the indication of the ballistic heat transport. As an example we consider the ballistic heat transport in graphene.

  10. Heat Flux Manipulation with Engineered Thermal Materials Supradeep Narayana and Yuki Sato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Yuki

    Heat Flux Manipulation with Engineered Thermal Materials Supradeep Narayana and Yuki Sato and constructed a new class of artificial materials for thermal conduction. We show that an engineered material materials. We demonstrate this concept by engineer- ing a new class of artificial material for thermal

  11. Optimization of the configuration and working fluid for a micro heat pipe thermal control device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Scott Joseph

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Pipe System : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24 8 Illustration of Embedded Micro Heat Pipe Placement and Orientation 24 9 Thermal Circuit Model Taken from Original Design Illustration : : : 31 10 Thermal Circuit Model... latent heat (kJ=kg) ? length (m) ? viscosity (Ns=m2) ? ratio of speci?c heat ? Boltzmann constant (1:38 ? 10?23 m2kg=s2 ? K) ? density (kg=m3) ? latent heat (kJ=kg) ? kinematic viscosity (m2=s) ? surface tension (N=m) Subscripts a adiabatic b boiling c...

  12. Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, A. W.; Dahl, J. K.; Lewandowski, A. A.; Bingham, C.; Raska Buechler, K. J.; Grothe, W.

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In the methods of the invention where hydrocarbon containing gases are dissociated, fine carbon black particles are also produced. The present invention also provides solar-thermal reactors and solar-thermal reactor systems.

  13. Solar-thermal fluid-wall reaction processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Buechler, Karen J.; Grothe, Willy

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In the methods of the invention where hydrocarbon containing gases are dissociated, fine carbon black particles are also produced. The present invention also provides solar-thermal reactors and solar-thermal reactor systems.

  14. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #2c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing efficiency of industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

  15. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  16. Analysis and control of the thermal runaway of ceramic slab under microwave heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Dongwoo

    Analysis and control of the thermal runaway of ceramic slab under microwave heating Changjun Liu of the dielectrics during microwave heating, in which there is a big jump of the steady-state temperature while the applied microwave power varies slightly. It hinders engineers in the applications of microwave heating

  17. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  18. Proceedings of HT2007 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    Proceedings of HT2007 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference July 8-12, 2007, Vancouver, British Columbia, CANADA HT2007-32219 VALIDATION OF A GENERAL HEAT TRANSFER, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA E-mail: ghajar@ceat.okstate.edu ABSTRACT A general heat transfer correlation

  19. Statistical properties of the energy exchanged between two heat baths coupled by thermal fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    particles kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force. We measure the heat flowingStatistical properties of the energy exchanged between two heat baths coupled by thermal systems in contact with a single heat bath and driven out of equilibrium by external forces [1, 2, 3, 4, 5

  20. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  1. NOTES AND DISCUSSIONS Note on thermal heating efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    ; but there is a dual theorem about the maximum efficiency with which heat at one temperature can be converted into heat part of the world's energy resources are actually used for heating rather than production of work if the engine is reversible. In the latter case the ``wasted energy'' Q1 Carnot Q2 T1 T2 2 is delivered as heat

  2. Advanced Petrochemical Process Heating with the Pyrocore Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krill, W. V.; Minden, A. C.; Donaldson, L. W. Jr.

    natural gas or refinery process gas and designed to take full advantage of the Pyrocore burner's radiant heat transfer characteristics. This will result in a process heater with design and performance attributes that will be attractive to users...ADVANCED PETROCHEMICAL PROCESS HEATING WITH THE PYROCORE BURNER WAYNE V. KRILL ANDREW C. MINDEN LESLIE W. DONALDSON, JR. Vice President Project Engineer Manager, Process Systems Research Alzeta Corporation Alzeta Corporation Gas Research...

  3. 4. Heat exchangers; Steam, steam processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    pictures: KJ05 Temperature distributions of fluid in (a) counterflow, (b) parallel flow, and (c) 1 shell pass and 2 tubes passes. #12;7/74 Heat exchangers: Geometries /3 Temperature distribution in a counter

  4. Investigation into the effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivity of 3-D carbon/carbon fiber composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Burchell, T.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Baker, C.F. (Fiber Materials, Inc., Biddeford, ME (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The material used in this study was a carbon-carbon fiber composite manufactured from precursor yarn and petroleum based pitch through a process of repetitive densification of a woven preform. The resultant high temperature-high strength material exhibits relatively high thermal conductivity and is thus of interest to the fusion energy, plasma materials interactions (PMI) and plasma facing components (PFC) communities. Carbon-carbon fiber composite manufacture involves two distinct processes, preform weaving and component densification. In this study three samples were subjected to an additional heat treatment of 2550, 2750 or 3000{degree}C at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsequent to their fourth graphitization at 2400{degree}C. It should be noted that no effort was made to optimize the composite for thermal conductivity, but rather only to provide a material with which to evaluate the effect of the final heat treatment temperature on the thermal conductivity. The fiber is the primary source of heat conduction in the composite. Consequently, increasing the fiber volume fraction, and/or the fiber thermal conductivity is expected to increase the composite thermal conductivity. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Thermal stability of a spherical shell heated by convection and cooled by boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qaim-Maqami, Hassan

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such high heat transfer rates by forced convection would require extremely high veloc- ities with subsequent high pressure dropsy With nuclee, boiling, however, such high heat transfe. rates an be obtained at much smaller velocities. Boiling heat...THERMAL STABILITY OF A. SPHERICAL SHELL HEATED BY CONVECTION AND COOLED BY BOILING A Thesis HASSAN @AIM-MAQAMI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  6. Heat transmission between a profiled nanowire and a thermal bath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, Christophe; Heron, Jean-Savin; Fournier, Thierry; Bourgeois, Olivier [Institut NÉEL, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Inst NEEL, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal transport through profiled and abrupt contacts between a nanowire and a reservoir has been investigated by thermal conductance measurements. It is demonstrated that above 1?K the transmission coefficients are identical between abrupt and profiled junctions. This shows that the thermal transport is principally governed by the nanowire itself rather than by the resistance of the thermal contact. These results are perfectly compatible with the previous theoretical models. The thermal conductance measured at sub-Kelvin temperatures is discussed in relation to the universal value of the quantum of thermal conductance.

  7. Pulse thermal processing of functional materials using directed plasma arc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Ronald D. (Knoxville, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Harper, David C. (Kingston, TN)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of thermally processing a material includes exposing the material to at least one pulse of infrared light emitted from a directed plasma arc to thermally process the material, the pulse having a duration of no more than 10 s.

  8. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  9. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems inEconomic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems insolar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental

  10. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  11. Simulation of Static Flying Attitudes with Different Heat Transfer Models for a Flying-Height Control Slider with Thermal Protrusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Du; Bogy, David B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bogy, D.B. : A heat transfer model for thermal ?uctuation inA phenomenological heat transfer model for the molecular gasA generalized heat transfer model for thin ?lm bearings at

  12. Method For Brazing And Thermal Processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Dave, Vivek R. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dane (Livermore, CA); Carpenter, II, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method for brazing of two objects or heat treatment of one object. First, object or objects to be treated are selected and initial conditions establishing a relative geometry and material characteristics are determined. Then, a first design of an optical system for directing heat energy onto the object or objects is determined. The initial conditions and first design of the optical system are then input into a optical ray-tracing computer program. The program is then run to produce a representative output of the heat energy input distribution to the object or objects. The geometry of the object or objects, material characteristics, and optical system design are then adjusted until an desired heat input is determined.

  13. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  14. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  15. IMPROVING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DRUM TYPEPACKAGES BY USING HEAT PIPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a feasibility study to improve thermal loading of existing radioactive material packages by using heat pipes. The concept could be used to channel heat in certain directions and dissipate to the environment. The concept is applied to a drum type package because the drum type packages are stored and transported in an upright position. This orientation is suitable for heat pipe operation that could facilitate the heat pipe implementation in the existing well proven package designs or in new designs where thermal loading is high. In this position, heat pipes utilize gravity very effectively to enhance heat flow in the upward direction Heat pipes have extremely high effective thermal conductivity that is several magnitudes higher than the most heat conducting metals. In addition, heat pipes are highly unidirectional so that the effective conductivity for heat transfer in the reverse direction is greatly reduced. The concept is applied to the 9977 package that is currently going through the DOE certification review. The paper presents computer simulations using typical off-the-shelf heat pipe available configurations and performance data for the 9977 package. A path forward is outlined for implementing the concepts for further study and prototype testing.

  16. Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

  17. Maraging superalloys and heat treatment processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K. (Wexford, PA); Gelles, David S. (W. Richland, WA); Thomas, Larry E. (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein are nickel-chromium-iron maraging, gamma prime strengthened superalloys containing about 18 to 25 weight percent nickel, about 4 to 8 weight percent chromium, gamma prime forming elements such as aluminum and/or titanium, and a solid solution strengthening element, such as molybdenum. After heat treatment, which includes at least one ausaging treatment and at least one maraging treatment, a microstructure containing gamma prime phase and decomposed Fe-Ni-Cr type martensite is produced.

  18. Walk, Haydel Approach to Process Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldsmith, R. W.; Hendrickson, M. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    velocities. In a grass roots design, equipment is designed for specific needs, but in a revamp there are usually several alter nate ways existing equipment can be utilized. A11 of the important alternates must be eva1 uated before selecting... bundles are encountered, methods balance costs against incremental heat recovery. Other logic re duces multiple parallel streams and adjusts arrangements considering both temperature level and overall coefficient. The log ic and eva1uat ion...

  19. Vacuum Induction Melting Unit Induction heating is a process wherein induced eddy currents heat conductive materials. This heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Vacuum Induction Melting Unit Induction heating is a process wherein induced eddy currents heat field and circulating eddy currents are induced within the metals. Flow of eddy currents leads an AC current through a water cooled copper coil and a metallic charge is placed in a ceramic (or

  20. Thermal transport in shock wave–compressed solids using pulsed laser heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Lone, B. M., E-mail: lalonebm@nv.doe.gov; Capelle, G.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Veeser, L. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed laser heating method was developed for determining thermal transport properties of solids under shock-wave compression. While the solid is compressed, a laser deposits a known amount of heat onto the sample surface, which is held in the shocked state by a transparent window. The heat from the laser briefly elevates the surface temperature and then diffuses into the interior via one-dimensional heat conduction. The thermal effusivity is determined from the time history of the resulting surface temperature pulse, which is recorded with optical pyrometry. Thermal effusivity is the square root of the product of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity and is the key thermal transport parameter for relating the surface temperature to the interior temperature of the sample in a dynamic compression experiment. Therefore, this method provides information that is needed to determine the thermodynamic state of the interior of a compressed metal sample from a temperature measurement at the surface. The laser heat method was successfully demonstrated on tin that was shock compressed with explosives to a stress and temperature of ?25 GPa and ?1300 K. In this state, tin was observed to have a thermal effusivity of close to twice its ambient value. The implications on determining the interior shock wave temperature of tin are discussed.

  1. Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids and Novel Thermal Storage Concepts...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    were selected under this competitive solicitation: Abengoa: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Acciona Solar: Indirect,...

  2. Industrial Process Heat Pumps--Some Unconventional Wisdom 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research on the cost-effective use of industrial process heat pumps challenges some popularly held perceptions about the appropriate use of this technology. Also challenged are some common approaches to identifying technically sound...

  3. Thermal Insulation Performance in the Process Industries: Facts and Fallacies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tye, R. P.

    Guarded Hot Box Study on Thermal Performance of Fibrous Insulations Used in Lofts," private com munication. 295 ESL-IE-85-05-54 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-15, 1985 ...THERMAL INSULATION PERFORMANCE IN 'mE PROCESS INDUSTRIES: FACTS AND FALLACIES R.P. Tye Dynatech RID Company, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A. ABSTRACT The efficient use of thermal insulation materials and systems for design of cryogenic and elevated...

  4. Proceedings of HT 2007 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Proceedings of HT 2007 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference July 8­12, 2007, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada HT2007-1520 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF THERMAL Engineering Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN USA, 37235 ABSTRACT The effectiveness of a thermoelectric

  5. Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108 K/s C. R of aniline-d7 from a single-crystal surface 0001 of sapphire Al2O3 at a heating rate on the order of 108 K/s was studied using pulsed infrared laser radiation for desorption and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization

  6. Heat of the Moment: Characterizing the Efficacy of Thermal Camera-Based Attacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heat of the Moment: Characterizing the Efficacy of Thermal Camera-Based Attacks Keaton Mowery UC to analyze the data. First, we present code recovery re- sults from human review of our test data set lock on an industrial safe, he found that body heat from the user transferred to the individual keys

  7. Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low, Gwf , test the Wiedemann-Franz (wf) law, and infer the electronic heat capacity, with a minimum value of a Coulomb-interacting electron-hole plasma may result in deviations from the Fermi-liquid values of the Mott

  8. Industrial process heating energy analysis, 1989. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was initiated to analyze and compare the major process heat trends and applications in U.S. industry at a level of detail sufficient to enable GRI to select industries and process heat technologies where potential R D efforts could have the greatest impact on the efficient use of natural gas and thus improve the competitive position of natural gas technologies. This study was conducted as an update of earlier studies from 1980 and 1985 that estimated the amount of process heat energy consumed by industry. Process heat applications were divided into fifteen major categories, which cover a wide range of applications used in over 16 major industry groups (2-digit SICs). Most of the process heat categories cover a wide variety of technologies that are capable of achieving the same result using different fuel types. In addition, many technologies are used in more than one type of process heat application (e.g., rotary kilns are used for both calcining and ore roasting).

  9. Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall; Eung-Soo Kim

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.

  10. Waste Heat Recovery System: Lightweight Thermal Energy Recovery (LIGHTER) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GM is using shape memory alloys that require as little as a 10°C temperature difference to convert low-grade waste heat into mechanical energy. When a stretched wire made of shape memory alloy is heated, it shrinks back to its pre-stretched length. When the wire cools back down, it becomes more pliable and can revert to its original stretched shape. This expansion and contraction can be used directly as mechanical energy output or used to drive an electric generator. Shape memory alloy heat engines have been around for decades, but the few devices that engineers have built were too complex, required fluid baths, and had insufficient cycle life for practical use. GM is working to create a prototype that is practical for commercial applications and capable of operating with either air- or fluid-based heat sources. GM’s shape memory alloy based heat engine is also designed for use in a variety of non-vehicle applications. For example, it can be used to harvest non-vehicle heat sources, such as domestic and industrial waste heat and natural geothermal heat, and in HVAC systems and generators.

  11. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the simulation and the analysis of a solar flat plate collectors combined with a compression heat pump is carried out. The system suggested must ensure the heating of a building without the recourse to an auxiliary energy source...

  12. Heat extraction for the CSPonD thermal storage unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas, Folkers Eduardo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three coiled tube heat exchanger prototypes were designed to extract heat from containers holding 0.5 kg, 2.3 kg, and 10.5 kg of Sodium Nitrate-Potassium Nitrate salt. All of the prototypes were left with an open surface ...

  13. Process and apparatus for thermal enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrill, Jr., Charles E. (Billerica, MA); Smirlock, Martin E. (Brimfield, MA); Krepchin, Ira P. (Newton Upper Falls, MA)

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal treatment apparatus for downhole deployment comprising a combustion stage with an elongated hot wall combustion zone for the substantially complete combustion of the fuel-air mixture and an ignition zone immediately upstream from the combustion zone in which a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and air at or below stoichiometric ratio is ignited; together with a water injection stage immediately downstream from the combustion zone through which essentially partuculate free high temperature combustion products flow from the combustion zone and into which water is sprayed. The resulting mixture of steam and combustion products is injected into an oil formation for enhancing the speed and effectiveness of reservoir response due to physical, chemical, and/or thermal stimulation interactions.

  14. HEATING6 analysis of international thermal benchmark problem sets 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.; Bryan, C.B.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess the heat transfer computer codes used in the analysis of nuclear fuel shipping casks, the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Reactor Physics has defined seven problems for benchmarking thermal codes. All seven of these problems have been solved using the HEATING6 heat transfer code. This report presents the results of five of the problems. The remaining two problems were used in a previous benchmarking of thermal codes used in the United States, and their solutions have been previously published.

  15. Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the evaporative cooler would often be more than 6.5'F lower than that of a conventional evaporative cooling system due to thermal conduction between water and entering air. - Figure 1 Pad type evaporative cooler. DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLER... There are several types of direct evaporative cooler configurations available. Two popular system types are pad type unit and rotary type unit. A number of window mounted units are pad type evaporative coolers (Figure 1). In a pad type cooler, water...

  16. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Fields, Paul R. (Chicago, IL)

    1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  17. MODELING COUPLED PROCESSES OF MULTIPHASE FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wu; S. Mukhopadhyay; K. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is developed for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. The TH model, consisting of three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the unsaturated zone, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, and thermal loading scenario under estimated current and future climate conditions. More specifically, the TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the most updated, best-estimated input parameters. This mountain-scale TH model simulates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale multiphase fluid flow, and evaluates the impact of radioactive waste heat on the hydrogeological system, including thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. For a better description of the ambient geothermal condition of the unsaturated zone system, the TH model is first calibrated against measured borehole temperature data. The ambient temperature calibration provides the necessary surface and water table boundary as well as initial conditions. Then, the TH model is used to obtain scientific understanding of TH processes in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone under the designed schedule of repository thermal load.

  18. The effects of controlled thermal cycling on dislocation creation during semiconductor device processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spaw, William James

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The controlled cycling serves to reduce the temperature gradients existing within the wafers during such high temperature (&1000'C) heat-cycling as encountered during semiconductor device processing. These reduced dislocation densities are compared with those... UNDER THERMAL CYCLING CONDITIONS. V. CONCLUSIONS Page 25 REFERENCES APPENDIX 27 30 VITA LIST OF FIGURES Fi gure Page 3. 1 Furnace temperature during cycling from 800'C to Tmax and back. . . 3. 2 Temperature response curves for Thermco...

  19. THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (and-eventually, spray ponds) that are proposed to be used as ultimate heat sinks in nuclear power plant emergency core cooling systems. The need is derived from the concern...

  20. Thermal performance of direct contact heat exchangers for mixed hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.; Coswami, D.Y.; Demuth, O.J.; Mines, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a physical and a mathematical model for evaluating the tray efficiencies for a direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX). The model is then used to determine the efficiencies for tests conducted on a 60kW sieve tray DCHX as heat is transferred from a geofluid (brine) to a working fluid (mixed hydrocarbons). It is assumed that there are three distinct regions in the column based on the state of the working fluid, as follows: Region I - Preheating with no vaporization; Region II - Preheating with moderate vaporization; and Region III - Major vaporization. The boundaries of these regions can be determined from the experimental data. In the model, mass balance and energy balance is written for a tray ''N'' in each of these regions. Finally, the ''tray efficiency'' or ''heat transfer'' effectiveness of the tray is calculated based on the definition that it is the ratio of the actual heat transfer to the maximum possible, thermodynamically.

  1. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topping of the Steam-Cycle Power Plant . A COMPARISON OFTOPPING OF THE STEAM-CYCLE POWER PLANT The proposed solarreceiver and a steam-cycle power plant. To transport heat, a

  2. Thermal Plasma Systems for Industrial Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fey, M. G.; Meyer, T. N.; Reed, W. H.; Philbrook, W. O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    required to produce hot metal. To plasma superheat wind. energy is transferred to the air stream via a plasma torch. To maximize the coke reduction due to wind superheating. other fuels such as oil. natural gas. coke oven gas. and coal can be considered... tuyere injections of steam. oxygen, methane. natural gas. coke-oven gas. coal gas. fuel oils. or coals of various ranks is a two-stage blast furnace mass and heat balance developed by Rist and Meysson [12.13J and others at IRSID. A constraint...

  3. Visual investigation on the heat dissipation process of a heat sink by using digital holographic interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Bingjing; Zhao, Jianlin, E-mail: jlzhao@nwpu.edu.cn; Wang, Jun; Di, Jianglei; Chen, Xin; Liu, Junjiang [Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Optical Information Technology, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method for visually and quantitatively investigating the heat dissipation process of plate-fin heat sinks by using digital holographic interferometry. A series of phase change maps reflecting the temperature distribution and variation trend of the air field surrounding heat sink during the heat dissipation process are numerically reconstructed based on double-exposure holographic interferometry. According to the phase unwrapping algorithm and the derived relationship between temperature and phase change of the detection beam, the full-field temperature distributions are quantitatively obtained with a reasonably high measurement accuracy. And then the impact of heat sink's channel width on the heat dissipation performance in the case of natural convection is analyzed. In addition, a comparison between simulation and experiment results is given to verify the reliability of this method. The experiment results certify the feasibility and validity of the presented method in full-field, dynamical, and quantitative measurement of the air field temperature distribution, which provides a basis for analyzing the heat dissipation performance of plate-fin heat sinks.

  4. Application and Technology Requirements for Heat Pumps at the Process Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, S.; Chappell, R.

    APPLICATION AND TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR HEAT PUMPS AT THE PROCESS INDUSTRIESl Stephen Priebe Engineering Specialist EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, ID There are basically three categories of equip ment used to manage heat energy flows... in an indus trial process. First, heat exchangers are used to move heat through the process down the temperature gradient. Second, heat pumps are used to move heat through the process up the temperature gra dient. Third, heat engines are used to convert...

  5. Thermal heat radiation, near-field energy density and near-field radiative heat transfer of coated materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermal radiation and thermal near-field energy density of a metal-coated semi-infinite body for different substrates. We show that the surface polariton coupling within the metal coating leads to an enhancement of the TM-mode part of the thermal near-field energy density when a polar substrate is used. In this case the result obtained for a free standing metal film is retrieved. In contrast, in the case of a metal substrate there is no enhancement in the TM-mode part, as can also be explained within the framework of surface plasmon coupling within the coating. Finally, we discuss the influence of the enhanced thermal energy density on the near-field radiative heat transfer between a simple semi-infinite and a coated semi-infinite body for different material combinations.

  6. doi: 10.3176/oil.2008.2.02 © 2008 Estonian Academy Publishers THERMAL PROCESSING OF POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

    This study is concerned with thermal processing of polyvinylchloride (PVC) in the presence of alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the feedstock is heated by mixing with ash from retorted feed-stock combustion, are potentially an

  7. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  8. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  9. Thermal analysis of directly buried conduit heat-distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.B.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The calculations of heat losses and temperature field for directly buried conduit heat distribution systems were performed using the finite element computer programs. The finite element analysis solved two-dimensional, steady-state heat transfer problems involving two insulated parallel pipes encased in the same conduit casing and in separate casings, and the surrounding earth. Descriptions of the theoretical basis, computational scheme, and the data input and outputs of the developed computer programs are presented. Numerical calculations were carried out for predicting the temperature distributions within the existing high temperature hot water distribution system and two insulated pipes covered in the same metallic conduit and the surrounding soil. The predicted results generally agree with the experimental data obtained at the test site.

  10. Heat and mass transfer in the gas tungsten and gas metal arc welding processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, A.D; Smartt, H.B.; Einerson, C.J.; Watkins, J.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat transferred from an electrode negative, argon gas tungsten arc to an anode was measured for a wide range of conditions suitable for mechanized welding. The results are given as (1) the arc efficiency and (2) the anode heat and current input distributions for various anode materials over a range of current and voltage. The nominal arc is Gaussian, {approximately}4 mm in diameter, with {approximately}75{percent}heat transfer efficiency. Variations from these values are discussed in terms of the electrical and thermal energy transport mechanisms. Heat transferred to the workpiece (cathode) during direct current, electrode positive gas metal arc welding (GMAW) was measured for various parameters applicable to machine welding. The results are presented as a function of electrode speed for changing voltages and contact tip to workpiece distances. The total heat transfer efficiency was nominally 85{percent} for a 0.89 mm diameter steel electrode using an argon-2{percent} oxygen shielding gas; the nominal heat transfer efficiency of the droplet component was 40{percent}. The average droplet temperatures ranged from 2400 to 3100 K, depending on the process parameters. A new method of measuring the heat transferred from the arc to the workpiece, using a boiling liquid nitrogen calorimeter, has been developed that gives rapid, accurate values. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Technical resource document for assured thermal processing of wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrow, R.L.; Fisk, G.A.; Hartwig, C.M.; Hurt, R.H.; Ringland, J.T.; Swansiger, W.A.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a concise compendium of resource material covering assured thermal processing of wastes (ATPW), an area in which Sandia aims to develop a large program. The ATPW program at Sandia is examining a wide variety of waste streams and thermal processes. Waste streams under consideration include municipal, chemical, medical, and mixed wastes. Thermal processes under consideration range from various incineration technologies to non-incineration processes such as supercritical water oxidation or molten metal technologies. Each of the chapters describes the element covered, discusses issues associated with its further development and/or utilization, presents Sandia capabilities that address these issues, and indicates important connections to other ATPW elements. The division of the field into elements was driven by the team`s desire to emphasize areas where Sandia`s capabilities can lead to major advances and is therefore somewhat unconventional. The report will be valuable to Sandians involved in further ATPW program development.

  12. Gravity stabilized thermal miscible displacement process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, J.V.

    1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of recovering viscous hydrocarbons from a subterranean reservoir. The reservoir is penetrated by at least one injection well and one production well. The injection well is in fluid communication with the upper portion of the reservoir and the production well is in fluid communication with the lower portion of the reservoir. The injection well and the production well defines a fluid flow path therebetween. The method comprises the steps of: (a) injecting a steam-solvent vapor mixture into the upper portion of the reservoir through the injection well. The steam-solvent vapor mixture is undersaturated in solvent and saturated with steam; (b) reducing the viscosity of the hydrocarbons by heat released upon condensation of the steam-solvent vapor mixture and reducing the viscosity of the hydrocarbons further upon condensation of solvent vapors. The condensed solvent vapors goes into solution with the hydrocarbons; and (c) collecting a mixture of hydrocarbons and solvent accumulated at the bottom of the production well substantially entirely under the force of gravity.

  13. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. The intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding.

  14. The Effect of the Thermal Boundary Resistance on Self-Heating of AlGaN/GaN HFETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effect of the Thermal Boundary Resistance on Self-Heating of AlGaN/GaN HFETs 1. Introduction, performance of these devices has been limited by self-heating [1] [6]. Thus, accurate modeling of heat diffusion and self-heating effects in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures and device optimization based

  15. Determination of temperature-dependent heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.

  16. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICprocess Boeing solar receiver [5J Internal detail of Boeing solar receiver [5J . 2.4 Heat

  17. Transition from cool flame to thermal flame in compression ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzaki, Kotaro; Goto, Yuichi [National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory, 7-42-27 Jindaiji-Higashimachi, Chofu, Tokyo 182-0012 (Japan); Tezaki, Atsumu [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama-shi, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism that initiates thermal flames in compression ignition has been studied. Experimentally, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was used with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane. Arrhenius plots of the heat release rate in the HCCI experiments showed that rates of heat release with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane exhibited a certain activation energy that is identical to that of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition reaction. The same feature was observed in diesel engine operation using ordinary diesel fuel with advanced ignition timing to make ignition occur after the end of fuel injection. These experimental results were reproduced in nondimensional simulations using kinetic mechanisms for DME, n-heptane, and n-decane, the last being developed by extending the n-heptane mechanism. Methanol addition, which suppresses low-temperature oxidation (LTO) and delays the ignition timing, had no effect on the activation energy obtained from the Arrhenius plot of heat release rate. Nevertheless, methanol addition lowered the heat release rates during the prethermal flame process. This is because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation during cool flame was reduced by adding methanol. The mechanism during the transition process from cool flame to thermal flame can be explained quantitatively using thermal explosion theory, in which the rate-determining reaction is H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, assuming that heat release in this period is caused by partial oxidation of DME and HCHO initiated with the reaction with OH produced though H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition. (author)

  18. Thermally Induced Chemistry of Meteoritic Complex Organic Molecules: A New Heat-Diffusion Model for the Atmospheric Entry of Meteorites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shingledecker, Christopher N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research over the past four decades has shown a rich variety of complex organic molecular content in some meteorites. This current study is an attempt to gain a better insight into the thermal conditions experienced by these molecules inside meteorites during atmospheric entry. In particular, we wish to understand possible chemical processes that can occur during entry and that might have had an effect on complex organic or prebiotic species that were delivered in this way to the early Earth. A simulation was written in Fortran to model heating by the shock generated during entry and the subsequent thermal diffusion inside the body of a meteorite. Experimental data was used for the thermal parameters of several types of meteorites, including iron-nickel and several classes of chondrites. A Sutton-Graves model of stagnation-point heating was used to calculate peak surface temperatures and an explicit difference formula was used to generate thermal diffusion profiles for both chondrites and iron-nickel type met...

  19. Heat release by controlled continuous-time Markov jump processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Muratore-Ginanneschi; Carlos Mejía-Monasterio; Luca Peliti

    2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the equations governing the protocols minimizing the heat released by a continuous-time Markov jump process on a one-dimensional countable state space during a transition between assigned initial and final probability distributions in a finite time horizon. In particular, we identify the hypotheses on the transition rates under which the optimal control strategy and the probability distribution of the Markov jump problem obey a system of differential equations of Hamilton-Bellman-Jacobi-type. As the state-space mesh tends to zero, these equations converge to those satisfied by the diffusion process minimizing the heat released in the Langevin formulation of the same problem. We also show that in full analogy with the continuum case, heat minimization is equivalent to entropy production minimization. Thus, our results may be interpreted as a refined version of the second law of thermodynamics.

  20. Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) BestPractices: Process Heating (Fact sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG -EnergyProcess Heating Systems Process heating

  1. Modeling of thermally driven hydrological processes in partially saturated fractured rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, Yvonne; Birkholzer, Jens; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a review of the research that led to an in-depth understanding of flow and transport processes under strong heat stimulation in fractured, porous rock. It first describes the anticipated multiple processes that come into play in a partially saturated, fractured porous volcanic tuff geological formation, when it is subject to a heat source such as that originating from the decay of radionuclides. The rationale is then given for numerical modeling being a key element in the study of multiple processes that are coupled. The paper outlines how the conceptualization and the numerical modeling of the problem evolved, progressing from the simplified to the more realistic. Examples of numerical models are presented so as to illustrate the advancement and maturation of the research over the last two decades. The most recent model applied to in situ field thermal tests is characterized by (1) incorporation of a full set of thermal-hydrological processes into a numerical simulator, (2) realistic representation of the field test geometry, in three dimensions, and (3) use of site-specific characterization data for model inputs. Model predictions were carried out prior to initiation of data collection, and the model results were compared to diverse sets of measurements. The approach of close integration between modeling and field measurements has yielded a better understanding of how coupled thermal hydrological processes produce redistribution of moisture within the rock, which affects local permeability values and subsequently the flow of liquid and gases. The fluid flow in turn will change the temperature field. We end with a note on future research opportunities, specifically those incorporating chemical, mechanical, and microbiological factors into the study of thermal and hydrological processes.

  2. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, James A. (Woodridge, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  3. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

  4. Designing Optimal Heat and Power Systems for Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutkowski, M. A.; Witherell, W. D.

    Power Research Institute (EPRI) of Palo Alto, California. In the paper, the use of Pinch Technology as a tool for analyzing industrial processes is demonstrated along with proper simulation of a corresponding heat and power system. For each process...Xisting design to determine improvement opportunities. INTRODUCTION This paper presents the results of a study conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) by Linnhoff March. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology...

  5. Heat conduction through a trapped solid: effect of structural changes on thermal conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debasish Chaudhuri; Abhishek Chaudhuri; Surajit Sengupta

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conduction of heat across a narrow solid strip trapped by an external potential and in contact with its own liquid. Structural changes, consisting of addition and deletion of crystal layers in the trapped solid, are produced by altering the depth of the confining potential. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and, wherever possible, simple analytical calculations are used to obtain the thermal resistance in the liquid, solid and interfacial regions (Kapitza or contact resistance). We show that these layering transitions are accompanied by sharp jumps in the contact thermal resistance. Dislocations, if present, are shown to increase the thermal resistance of the strip drastically.

  6. Power enhancement of heat engines via correlated thermalization in multilevel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Wolfgang Niedenzu; Paul Brumer; Gershon Kurizki

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze a heat machine based on a periodically-driven quantum system permanently coupled to hot and cold baths. It is shown that the maximal power output of a degenerate $V$-type three-level heat engine is that generated by two independent two-level systems. For $N$ levels, this maximal enhancement is $(N-1)$-fold. Hence, level degeneracy is a thermodynamic resource that may effectively boost the power output. The efficiency, however, is not affected. We find that coherence is not an essential asset in multilevel-based heat machines. The existence of multiple thermalization pathways sharing a common ground state suffices for power enhancement.

  7. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  8. Interaction of a solar space heating system with the thermal behavior of a building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilmer, C.; Warren, M.L.; Auslander, D.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal behavior of a building in response to heat input from an active solar space heating system is analyzed to determine the effect of the variable storage tank temperature on the cycling rate, on-time, and off-time of a heating cycle and on the comfort characteristics of room air temperature swing and of offset of the average air temperature from the setpoint (droop). A simple model of a residential building, a fan coil heat-delivery system, and a bimetal thermostat are used to describe the system. A computer simulation of the system behavior has been developed and verified by comparisons with predictions from previous studies. The system model and simulation are then applied to determine the building response to a typical hydronic solar heating system for different solar storage temperatures, outdoor temperatures, and fan coil sizes. The simulations were run only for those cases where there was sufficient energy from storage to meet the building load requirements.

  9. Thermal Analysis of a Lorentz Force Accelerator with an Open Lithium Heat Pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choueiri, Edgar

    -channel hollow cathode and lithium for pro- pellant promises to solve the cathode erosion prob- lem whileThermal Analysis of a Lorentz Force Accelerator with an Open Lithium Heat Pipe G. Emsellem , A. D pipe, was such that the cathode tip stayed at a tem- perature well below the vapor point of lithium

  10. Controlling the thermal contact resistance of a carbon nanotube heat spreader

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    supports that realize either weak or strong thermal coupling, selectively. Direct imaging by in situ m/W from photothermal current mi- croscopy relying on local heating from a scanning laser. Un to liquid phase transition of low-melting-point 156.6 °C nanoscale indium In islands, acting as binary

  11. Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost...

  12. eXtremes of heat conduction: Pushing the boundaries of the thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    -called "nanofluids" (suspensions in liquids) ­ polymer composites and coatings Fischer (2007) Lehman (2005) #12;Critical aspect ratio for a fiber composite · Isotropic fiber composite with high conductivity fibers (andeXtremes of heat conduction: Pushing the boundaries of the thermal conductivity of materials David

  13. Proceedings of HT2007 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Proceedings of HT2007 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference July 8-BALLISTIC PHONON TRANSPORT IN A CARBON NANOTUBE Junichiro Shiomi Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering The University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan ABSTRACT We report a non

  14. Three-Dimensional Model on Thermal Response of Skin Subject to Laser Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    in human skin [3]. The #12;rst medical lasers were continuous beam lasers such as CO 2 laser, argon laser and Jun Zhang z Laboratory for High Performance Scienti#12;c Computing and Computer Simulation, Department to investigate the transient thermal response of human skin subject to laser heating. The temperature

  15. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of sites suitable for a solar plant with sulfur oxide TableProcess for a Steam Solar Electric Plant Report No. LBL-Summary of the Proposed Solar Power Plant Design The Impact

  16. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Thanh Nhon (Flossmoor, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area.

  17. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, T.N.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area. 12 figs.

  18. Design approaches for solar industrial process-heat systems: nontracking and line-focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.; Dougherty, D.A.; Gee, R.C.; Masterson, P.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design methodology for solar industrial process heat systems is described, and an overview is given of the use of solar energy in industry. A way to determine whether solar energy makes sense for a particular application is described. The basic system configurations used to supply hot water or steam are discussed, and computer-generated graphs are supplied that allow the user to select a collector type. Detailed energy calculations are provided, including the effects of thermal losses and storage. The selection of subsystem components is described, and control systems, installation and start-up details, economics, and safety and environmental issues are explained. (LEW)

  19. List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative FuelEnergy JumpsourceSpaceList

  20. 7-122 A solar pond power plant operates by absorbing heat from the hot region near the bottom, and rejecting waste heat to the cold region near the top. The maximum thermal efficiency that the power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    , and rejecting waste heat to the cold region near the top. The maximum thermal efficiency that the power plant

  1. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  2. The Use of Aluminum Process Reject Heat as the Source of Energy for a District Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCabe, J.; Olszewski, M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rocket Research Company (RRC) is investigating the use of industrial process reject heat as a source of energy for large scale district heating. The District heating System is a network of closed-loop hot water pipes that recover energy from...

  3. TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.

  4. Review and comparison of nanofluid thermal conductivity and heat transfer enhancements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.; Choi, S. U.S.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Korea Inst. of Energy Research

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides a detailed literature review and an assessment of results of the research and development work forming the current status of nanofluid technology for heat transfer applications. Nanofluid technology is a relatively new field, and as such, the supporting studies are not extensive. Specifically, experimental results were reviewed in this study regarding the enhancement of the thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer of nanofluids relative to conventional heat transfer fluids, and assessments were made as to the state-of-the-art of verified parametric trends and magnitudes. Pertinent parameters of particle volume concentration, particle material, particle size, particle shape, base fluid material, temperature, additive, and acidity were considered individually, and experimental results from multiple research groups were used together when assessing results. To this end, published research results from many studies were recast using a common parameter to facilitate comparisons of data among research groups and to identify thermal property and heat transfer trends. The current state of knowledge is presented as well as areas where the data are presently inconclusive or conflicting. Heat transfer enhancement for available nanofluids is shown to be in the 15-40% range, with a few situations resulting in orders of magnitude enhancement.

  5. Thermal modeling of head disk interface system in heat assisted magnetic recording

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vemuri, Sesha Hari; Seung Chung, Pil; Jhon, Myung S., E-mail: mj3a@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Min Kim, Hyung [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A thorough understanding of the temperature profiles introduced by the heat assisted magnetic recording is required to maintain the hotspot at the desired location on the disk with minimal heat damage to other components. Here, we implement a transient mesoscale modeling methodology termed lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for phonons (which are primary carriers of energy) in the thermal modeling of the head disk interface (HDI) components, namely, carbon overcoat (COC). The LBM can provide more accurate results compared to conventional Fourier methodology by capturing the nanoscale phenomena due to ballistic heat transfer. We examine the in-plane and out-of-plane heat transfer in the COC via analyzing the temperature profiles with a continuously focused and pulsed laser beam on a moving disk. Larger in-plane hotspot widening is observed in continuously focused laser beam compared to a pulsed laser. A pulsed laser surface develops steeper temperature gradients compared to continuous hotspot. Furthermore, out-of-plane heat transfer from the COC to the media is enhanced with a continuous laser beam then a pulsed laser, while the temperature takes around 140 fs to reach the bottom surface of the COC. Our study can lead to a realistic thermal model describing novel HDI material design criteria for the next generation of hard disk drives with ultra high recording densities.

  6. Heat Pipe Technology for Energy Conservation in the Process Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, B. L. Jr.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many applications for heat pipe technology have emerged in the relatively short time this technology has been known. Heat pipes incorporated in heat exchangers have been used in tens of thousands of successful heat recovery systems. These systems...

  7. advanced heat process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and applications for water right change or transfer related to heat pump use. Heat Pump Water Use Is a Beneficial Use: Using water to dissipate heat or as a source of heat...

  8. A performance data network for solar process heat systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, G.; Hale, M.J.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar process heat (SPH) data network has been developed to access remote-site performance data from operational solar heat systems. Each SPH system in the data network is outfitted with monitoring equipment and a datalogger. The datalogger is accessed via modem from the data network computer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The dataloggers collect both ten-minute and hourly data and download it to the data network every 24-hours for archiving, processing, and plotting. The system data collected includes energy delivered (fluid temperatures and flow rates) and site meteorological conditions, such as solar insolation and ambient temperature. The SPH performance data network was created for collecting performance data from SPH systems that are serving in industrial applications or from systems using technologies that show promise for industrial applications. The network will be used to identify areas of SPH technology needing further development, to correlate computer models with actual performance, and to improve the credibility of SPH technology. The SPH data network also provides a centralized bank of user-friendly performance data that will give prospective SPH users an indication of how actual systems perform. There are currently three systems being monitored and archived under the SPH data network: two are parabolic trough systems and the third is a flat-plate system. The two trough systems both heat water for prisons; the hot water is used for personal hygiene, kitchen operations, and laundry. The flat plate system heats water for meat processing at a slaughter house. We plan to connect another parabolic trough system to the network during the first months of 1996. We continue to look for good examples of systems using other types of collector technologies and systems serving new applications (such as absorption chilling) to include in the SPH performance data network.

  9. Analysis of Heat Dissipation in Li-Ion Cells & Modules for Modeling of Thermal Runaway (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study are: (1) To develop 3D Li-Ion battery thermal abuse ''reaction'' models for cell and module analysis; (2) To understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-Ion cells and modules; (3) To develop a tool and methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems for PHEVs/HEVs; and (4) To help battery developers accelerate delivery of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems in support of the FreedomCAR's Energy Storage Program.

  10. Analytical evaluation of thermal conductance and heat capacities of one-dimensional material systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saygi, Salih [Department of Physics, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, 60200 Turkey (Turkey)] [Department of Physics, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, 60200 Turkey (Turkey)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically predict some thermal properties versus temperature dependence of one dimensional (1D) material nanowire systems. A known method is used to provide an efficient and reliable analytical procedure for wide temperature range. Predicted formulas are expressed in terms of Bloch-Grüneisen functions and Debye functions. Computing results has proved that the expressions are in excellent agreement with the results reported in the literature even if it is in very low dimension limits of nanowire systems. Therefore the calculation method is a fully predictive approach to calculate thermal conductivity and heat capacities of nanowire material systems.

  11. Disappearance of criticality in a branched-chain thermal explosion with heat loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoya, S.S. [Department of Mathematics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 220005 (Nigeria)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Branched-chain thermal explosions involving simplified initiation, branching, and termination of chains, as well as heat exchange with the surroundings, are considered, but it is assumed that consumption of fuel is negligible for combustion in a mixture of H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} that covers nth Arrhenius kinetics for the chain-branching step. In particular, the effect of heat loss on the problem is considered, Mostly analytical investigations of the simplified model are presented using standard Semenov's techniques. The analytical method provides expressions for criticality and the transition points. Also, the different qualitative effects of varying the dimensionless parameters are investigated.

  12. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  14. Rapid thermal processing of steel using high energy electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J.W.; Newton, A.; Smith, C. Jr.

    1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy electron beams (HEEBs) with megavolt energies represent a new generation of charged particle beams that rapidly deposit up to several hundred joules/pulse over areas on the order of a few square millimeters to 100s of square centimeters. These pulsed beams have energies in the 1 to 10 MeV range, which enables the electrons to deposit large amounts of energy deeply into the material being processed, and these beams have short pulse durations (50 ns) that can heat materials at rates as high as 10{sup 10} {degrees}C/s for a 1000 {degree}C temperature rise in the material. Lower heating rates, on the order of 10{sup 4} {degrees}C/s, can be produced by reducing the energy per pulse and distributing the total required energy over a series of sub-ms pulses, at pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) up to several kHz. This paper presents results from materials processing experiments performed on steel with a 6 MeV electron beam, analyzes these results using a Monte Carlo transport code, and presents a first-order predictive method for estimating the peak energy deposition, temperature, and heating rate for HEEB processed steel.

  15. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet), Thermal Systems Group: CSP Capabilities (TSG)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in theTheoretical Study onThermalEnergy Analysis

  16. Thermal processing of black liquor from alkaline straw pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, J.L.; Garcia, L.; Gea, G.; Bilbao, R.; Arauzo, J. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor is the wastewater from the cooking of wood or straw in the production of pulp and paper. Nowadays new processes are being investigated as alternatives to the traditional recovery boiler used for black liquor treatment. One of the processes which appears to be more promising is gasification, for which further research is needed for its full industrial implementation. There is not much data about the behavior of soda black liquors from straw cooking in the literature. Therefore the thermal decomposition of one of these liquors has been studied in a thermobalance, in inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere. The kinetic constants from isothermal experiments have been obtained.

  17. Thermal radiation of laser heated niobium clusters Nb{sub N}{sup +}, 8 ? N ? 22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Klavs [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Li, Yejun; Kaydashev, Vladimir; Janssens, Ewald [Laboratory of Solid State Physics and Magnetism, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal radiation from small, laser heated, positively charged niobium clusters has been measured. The emitted power was determined by the quenching effect on the metastable decay, employing two different experimental protocols. The radiative power decreases slightly with cluster size and shows no strong size-to-size variations. The magnitude is 40–50 keV/s at the timescale of several microseconds, which is the measured crossover time from evaporative to radiative cooling.

  18. Potential for Heat Pumps in the U.S. Process Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, A. P.; Seetharam, R. V.; Ranade, S. M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two major criteria for successful heat pump installations in process plants are the "appropriate placement" and "appropriate sizing" of the heat pump, consistent with the thermodynamics of the process. Failure to fulfil these conditions will result...

  19. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  20. Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction - Webcast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prev next > SunChallenge to DriveElectrictoProcess Heating

  1. Self-Regulation of Solar Coronal Heating Process via the Collisionless Reconnection Condition Dmitri A. Uzdensky*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Self-Regulation of Solar Coronal Heating Process via the Collisionless Reconnection Condition December 2007) I propose a new paradigm for solar coronal heating viewed as a self-regulating process the main heating process in this model is magnetic reconnection, I will first summarize the recent progress

  2. End-use matching for solar industrial process heat. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, K.C.; Hooker, D.W.; Rabl, A.; Stadjuhar, S.A.; West, R.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of the large energy demand of industry (37% of US demand) and the wide spectrum of temperatures at which heat is required, the industrial sector appears to be very suitable for the matching of solar thermal technology with industrial process heat (IPH) requirements. A methodology for end-use matching has been devised, complete with required data bases and an evaluation program PROSYS/ECONMAT. Six cities in the United States were selected for an analysis of solar applications to IPH. Typical process heat requirements for 70% of the industrial plants in each city were identified and evaluated in conjunction with meteorological and economic data for each site to determine lowest-cost solar systems for each application. The flexibility and scope of PROSYS/ECONMAT is shown in a variety of sensitivity studies that expand the results of the six-city analysis. Case studies of two industrial plants were performed to evaluate the end-use matching procedure; these results are reported.

  3. A survey of geothermal process heat applications in Guatemala: An engineering survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates how process heat from Guatemala's geothermal energy resources can be developed to reduce Guatemala's costly importation of oil, create new employment by encouraging new industry, and reduce fuel costs for existing industry. This investigation was funded by the US Agency for International Development and carried out jointly by the Guatemalan Government and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two sites, Amatitlan and Zunil, are being developed geothermally. Amatitlan is in the better industrial area but Zunil's geothermal development is more advanced. The industry around Zunil is almost exclusively agricultural and the development of an agricultural processing plant (freezing, dehydration, and cold storage) using geothermal heat is recommended. Similar developments throughout the volcanic zones of Guatemala are possible. Later, when the field at Amatitlan has been further developed, an industrial park can be planned. Potential Amatitlan applications are the final stage of salt refining, a thermal power plant, hospital/hotel heating and cooling, steam curing of concrete blocks, production of alcohol from sugar cane, and production of polyethylene from ethanol. Other special developments such as water pumping for the city of Guatemala and the use of moderate-temperature geothermal fluids for localized power production are also possible. 12 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Application of micro-heat pipes for the thermal control of semiconductor devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbett, Brian Patrick

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    to 0. 0135in and then counter drilled to 0. 0355in in diameter to fit the fill tube. A stainless steel hypodermic tube was needed to fit the thin profile of the LHP plate. The second channel was covered with epoxy. Leak tests performed on the LHP... make the charging process difficult. To ensure that the heat pipe is properly sealed before charging, the heat pipe is pressurized to test for leaks. To perform the leak test, a heat pipe is connected to a compressed air source and submerged under...

  5. Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Sandhya

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to measure the effect of thermal cycling on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a nanocomposite material consisting of a eutectic of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate and 1% by mass alumina...

  6. Nonlinear Electron Heat Conduction Equation and Self similar method for 1-D Thermal Waves in Laser Heating of Solid Density DT Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mohammadian Pourtalari; M. A. Jafarizadeh; M. Ghoranneviss

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron heat conduction is one of the ways that energy transports in laser heating of fusible target material. The aim of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is to show that the thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on temperature and the equation of electron heat conduction is a nonlinear equation. In this article, we solve the one-dimensional (1-D) nonlinear electron heat conduction equation with a self-similar method (SSM). This solution has been used to investigate the propagation of 1-D thermal wave from a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane source which occurs when a giant laser pulse impinges onto a DT solid target. It corresponds to the physical problem of rapid heating of a boundary layer of material in which the energy of laser pulse is released in a finite initial thickness.

  7. Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

  8. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial buildings often have extensive periods where one space needs cooling and another heating. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If a building's heating and cooling system could be integrated with the building's structural mass such that the mass can be used to collect, store, and deliver energy, significant energy might be saved. Computer models were developed to simulate this interaction for an existing office building in Seattle, Washington that has a decentralized water-source heat pump system. Metered data available for the building was used to calibrate a base'' building model (i.e., nonintegrated) prior to simulation of the integrated system. In the simulated integration strategy a secondary water loop was manifolded to the main HVAC hydronic loop. tubing in this loop was embedded in the building's concrete floor slabs. Water was routed to this loop by a controller to charge or discharge thermal energy to and from the slabs. The slabs were also in thermal communication with the conditioned spaces. Parametric studies of the building model, using weather data for five other cities in addition to Seattle, predicted that energy can be saved on cooling dominated days. On hot, dry days and during the night the cooling tower can beneficially be used as a free cooling'' source for thermally charging'' the floor slabs using cooled water. Through the development of an adaptive/predictive control strategy, annual HVAC energy savings as large as 30% appear to be possible in certain climates. 8 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  10. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  11. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peletier, Mark A., E-mail: m.a.peletier@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Redig, Frank, E-mail: f.h.j.redig@tudelft.nl [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Vafayi, Kiamars, E-mail: k.vafayi@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ?; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ?² for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ? for the nonlinear heat equation.

  12. Using Waste Heat for External Processes (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese translation of the Using Waste Heat for External Processes fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to use waste heat in industrial applications. The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery method. Figure 1 shows the heat lost in exhaust gases at various exhaust gas temperatures and percentages of excess air. Energy from gases exhausted from higher temperature processes (primary processes) can be recovered and used for lower temperature processes (secondary processes). One example is to generate steam using waste heat boilers for the fluid heaters used in petroleum crude processing. In addition, many companies install heat exchangers on the exhaust stacks of furnaces and ovens to produce hot water or to generate hot air for space heating.

  13. Determination of heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed: Extension to high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, Jarrett A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pokorny, Richard [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat conductivity ({lambda}) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating {lambda} of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the {lambda}(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100°C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the {lambda}(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap.

  14. Diagnostics of the Heating Processes in Solar Flares Using Chromospheric Spectral Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Cheng; M. D. Ding; J. P. Li

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calculated the H$\\alpha$ and Ca {\\sc ii} 8542 {\\AA} line profiles based on four different atmospheric models, including the effects of nonthermal electron beams with various energy fluxes. These two lines have different responses to thermal and nonthermal effects, and can be used to diagnose the thermal and nonthermal heating processes. We apply our method to an X-class flare that occurred on 2001 October 19. We are able to identify quantitatively the heating effects during the flare eruption. We find that the nonthermal effects at the outer edge of the flare ribbon are more notable than that at the inner edge, while the temperature at the inner edge seems higher. On the other hand, the results show that nonthermal effects increase rapidly in the rise phase and decrease quickly in the decay phase, but the atmospheric temperature can still keep relatively high for some time after getting to its maximum. For the two kernels that we analyze, the maximum energy fluxes of the electron beams are $\\sim$ 10$^{10}$ and 10$^{11}$ ergs cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, respectively. However, the atmospheric temperatures are not so high, i.e., lower than or slightly higher than that of the weak flare model F1 at the two kernels. We discuss the implications of the results for two-ribbon flare models.

  15. Review Problems 4-108 The cylinder conditions before the heat addition process is specified. The pressure after the heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    processes. Analysis (a) The first case is a constant volume process. When half of the gas is withdrawn from) The second case is a constant volume and constant mass process. The ideal gas relation for this case yields k4-60 Review Problems 4-108 The cylinder conditions before the heat addition process is specified

  16. Monitoring and simulation of the thermal performance of solar heated outdoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahne, E.; Kuebler, R. (Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany))

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on detailed measurements of two outdoor swimming pools (at Leonberg and Moehringen) a computer model has been developed and validated for the simulation of the thermal behaviour of such pools. The subroutine is compatible to TRNSYS 13.1. Correlations for the heat losses due to evaporation, convection, and radiation were taken from literature and tested in the model. It was not possible to select one optimal correlation for the description of the evaporative heat losses of both swimming pools due to the different exposure to wind. Using the most suitable correlation for the evaporative heat losses of each pool allowed for the simulation of the pool temperature with less than 0.5 K standard deviation between measured and simulated temperature. the major problem was the measurement of the relevant wind speed to be used in the correlations describing the evaporative heat losses under real outdoor conditions. A method is described detailing how to calibrate the model using the heating energy requirement and the measured pool temperature during actual operation periods. The analysis of the measured data of two different outdoor swimming pools under the same climatic conditions showed differences of a factor 2 and more in the heat demand per unit pool area. This was mainly caused by the difference in local wind speed which differed by more than a factor 4. The two pools investigated were heated by solar energy with a fraction of 28% and 14%, respectively, and the seasonal efficiency of the solar systems was 37.7% and 33.4%. Simulations show that a reduction of the water temperature from 24[degrees]C to 22[degrees]C during periods with low outdoor temperatures and few visitors, reduces the fuel consumption to less than half and increases the solar fraction from 28% to 50% in one pool.

  17. Comparison of the thermal performances of two nanofluids at low temperature in a plate heat Thierry Mar *a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of the thermal performances of two nanofluids at low temperature in a plate heat water based nanofluid. The Pôle Cristal of Dinan that has contributed to this study is also gratefully of this study is to compare experimentally the thermal performances of two types of commercial nanofluids

  18. Impacts of Soil and Pipe Thermal Conductivity on Performance of Horizontal Pipe in a Ground-source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Na, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the composition and thermal property of soil are discussed. The main factors that impact the soil thermal conductivity and several commonly-used pipe materials are studied. A model of heat exchanger with horizontal pipes of ground-source...

  19. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  20. Long Term Thermal Stability In Air Of Ionic Liquid Based Alternative Heat Transfer Fluids For Clean Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Elise B; Kendrick, Sarah E.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aging on the thermal stability and chemical structure of seven different ILs so as to explore their suitability for use as a heat transfer fluid. This was accomplished by heating the ILs for 15 weeks at 200?C in an oxidizing environment and performing subsequent analyses on the aged chemicals.

  1. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  2. The thermal expansion coefficient as a key design parameter for thermoelectric materials and its relationship to processing-dependent bloating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Jennifer E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Case, Eldon D [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Schmidt, Robert [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Chun-I [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hogan, Timothy [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Northwestern University, Evanston

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is a key design parameter for thermoelectric (TE) materials, especially in energy harvesting applications since stresses generated by CTE mismatch, thermal gradients, and thermal transients scale with the CTE of the TE material. For the PbTe PbS-based TE material (Pb 0.95 Sn 0.05 Te) 0.92(PbS) 0.08 0.055 % PbI 2 over the temperature ranges of 293 543 and 293 773 K, a CTE, alpha avg , of 21.4 0.3 x 10-6 K-1 was measured using (1) dilatometry and (2) high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) for powder and bulk specimens. The CTE values measured via dilatometry and HT-XRD are similar to the literature values for other Pb-based chalcogenides. However, the processing technique was found to impact the thermal expansion such that bloating (which leads to a hysteresis in thermal expansion) occurred for hot pressed billets heated to temperatures [603 K while specimens fabricated by pulsed electric current sintering and as-cast specimens did not show a bloating-modified thermal expansion even for temperatures up to 663 K. The relationship of bloating to the processing techniques is discussed, along with a pos- sible mechanism for inhibiting bloating in powder processed specimens.

  3. Towards model-based control of a steam Rankine process for engine waste heat recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Towards model-based control of a steam Rankine process for engine waste heat recovery Johan Peralez a critical role in enabling good per- formance of Rankine processes for waste heat recovery from prime movers. INTRODUCTION In the last few years, engine waste heat recovery (WHR) systems based on the Rankine thermodynamic

  4. Reactive Sputter Deposition of Aluminium Nitride Thin Films as Heat Spreaders in IC Processes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    generation is one of today's major yield killers. In the future, the self-heating and thermal coupling, where the use of aggressive isolation techniques guarantees the speed performance, electrical insulators transfer by bonding. The electrical and thermal properties of the material are measured through dedicated

  5. Industrial process heat case studies. [PROSYS/ECONMAT code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, D.W.; May, E.K.; West, R.E.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercially available solar collectors have the potential to provide a large fraction of the energy consumed for industrial process heat (IPH). Detailed case studies of individual industrial plants are required in order to make an accurate assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of applications. This report documents the results of seven such case studies. The objectives of the case study program are to determine the near-term feasibility of solar IPH in selected industries, identify energy conservation measures, identify conditions of IPH systems that affect solar applications, test SERI's IPH analysis software (PROSYS/ECONOMAT), disseminate information to the industrial community, and provide inputs to the SERI research program. The detailed results from the case studies are presented. Although few near-term, economical solar applications were found, the conditions that would enhance the opportunities for solar IPH applications are identified.

  6. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  7. Thermal Process to Strengthen PLGA Nanoparticle Layers Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2009, Vol. 30, No. 9 1985 Thermal Process for Enhancing Mechanical Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Sang

    Thermal Process to Strengthen PLGA Nanoparticle Layers Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2009, Vol. 30, No. 9 1985 Thermal Process for Enhancing Mechanical Strength of PLGA Nanoparticle Layers on Coronary Stents@plaza.snu.ac.kr Received June 5, 2009, Accepted July 14, 2009 Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loading

  8. Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.

  9. The role of radiation transport in the thermal response of semitransparent materials to localized laser heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colvin, Jeffrey; Shestakov, Aleksei; Stoelken, James; Vignes, Ryan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lasers are widely used to modify the internal structure of semitransparent materials for a wide variety of applications, including waveguide fabrication and laser glass damage healing. The gray diffusion approximation used in past models to describe radiation cooling is not adequate for these materials, particularly near the heated surface layer. In this paper we describe a computational model based upon solving the radiation transport equation in 1D by the P{sub n} method with {approx}500 photon energy bands, and by multi-group radiation diffusion in 2D with fourteen photon energy bands. The model accounts for the temperature-dependent absorption of infrared laser light and subsequent redistribution of the deposited heat by both radiation and conductive transport. We present representative results for fused silica irradiated with 2-12 W of 4.6 or 10.6 {mu}m laser light for 5-10 s pulse durations in a 1 mm spot, which is small compared to the diameter and thickness of the silica slab. We show that, unlike the case for bulk heating, in localized infrared laser heating radiation transport plays only a very small role in the thermal response of silica.

  10. Process Waste Heat Recovery in the Food Industry - A System Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundberg, W. L.; Mutone, G. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of an industrial waste heat recovery system concept is discussed. For example purposes, a food processing plant operating an ammonia refrigeration system for storage and blast freezing is considered. Heat is withdrawn from...

  11. Use of Thermal Energy Storage to Enhance the Recovery and Utilization of Industrial Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McChesney, H. R.; Bass, R. W.; Landerman, A. M.; Obee, T. N.; Sgamboti, C. T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recovery and reuse of industrial waste heat may be limited if an energy source cannot be fully utilized in an otherwise available out of phase or unequal capacity end-use process. This paper summarizes the results of a technical and economic...

  12. Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750–800 °C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the cold side and 208–790 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various hydrodynamic entrance region parameters, such as incremental pressure drop number, apparent Fanning friction factor, and hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct have been numerically estimated.

  13. Full-scale study of a building equipped with phase change material wallboards and a multi-layer rack latent heat thermal energy store system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -layer rack latent heat thermal energy store system Julien Borderon1 , Joseph Virgone2 , Richard Cantin1 installed as wallboard and as latent heat thermal energy storage system coupled with the ventilation system for the ventilation air is efficient. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, thermal energy storage systems are one way for reducing

  14. atom heat processing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    accepted by industry, will fall into one of the three cycle categories. In a closed cycle heat pump, a working fluid exchanges heat... Priebe, S. J.; Chappell, R. N. 16 TOPICAL...

  15. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  16. Study on Commissioning Process for Control Logic of Thermal Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shioya, M.; Tsubaki, M.; Nakahara, N.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermal storage system in an actual building using the CLT. Introduction In thermal storage systems, as large temperature difference between the supply water and the return water as possible should be maintained in order to ensure high system..., at the secondary water circuit of a heat exchanger installed between the thermal storage system and secondary HVAC system of an actual building. One of the authors, Nakahara, acted as Commissioning Authority during construction phase and later as a consultant...

  17. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  18. Thermal History of the Felsite Unit, Geysers Geothermal Field, From Thermal Modeling of 40Ar/39Ar Incremental Heating Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. M. Harrison (U of California); G. B. Dalrymple (Oregon State U); J. B. Hulen (U of Utah); M. A. Lanphere; M. Grove; O. M. Lovera

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An Ar-40/Ar-39 and U-Pb study was performed of the Geysers plutonic complex of the Geysers Geothermal Field in California. Sixty-nine ion microprobe spot analyses of zircons from four granite samples from the plutonic complex that underlies the Geysers geothermal field yielded Pb-207/Pb-206 vs. U-238/Pb-206 concordia ages ranging from 1.13 {+-} 0.04 Ma to 1.25 {+-} 0.04 Ma. The U-Pb ages coincide closely with Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum plateau and ''terminal'' ages from coexisting K-feldspars and with the eruption ages of overlying volcanic rocks. The data indicate that the granite crystallized at 1.18 Ma and had cooled below 350 C by {approximately}0.9-1.0 Ma. Interpretation of the feldspar Ar-40/Ar-39 age data using multi-diffusion domain theory indicates that post-emplacement rapid cooling was succeeded either by slower cooling from 350-300 C between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma or transitory reheating to 300-350 C at about 0.4-0.6 Ma. Heat flow calculations constrained with K-feldspar thermal histories and the pre sent elevated regional heal flow anomaly demonstrate that appreciable heat input from sources external to the known Geysers plutonic complex is required to maintain the geothermal system. This requirement is satisfied by either a large, underlying, convecting magma chamber (now solidified) emplaced at 1.2 Ma or episodic intrusion of smaller bodies from 1.2-0.6 Ma.

  19. SHORT CIRCUITS IN THERMALLY IONIZED PLASMAS: A MECHANISM FOR INTERMITTENT HEATING OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Alexander; McNally, Colin P.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark, E-mail: ahubbard@amnh.org, E-mail: cmcnally@nbi.dk, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th St. at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States)

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Many astrophysical systems of interest, including protoplanetary accretion disks, are made of turbulent magnetized gas with near-solar metallicity. Thermal ionization of alkali metals in such gas exceeds non-thermal ionization when temperatures climb above roughly 1000 K. As a result, the conductivity, proportional to the ionization fraction, gains a strong, positive dependence on temperature. In this paper, we demonstrate that this relation between the temperature and the conductivity triggers an exponential instability that acts similarly to an electrical short, where the increased conductivity concentrates the current and locally increases the Ohmic heating. This contrasts with the resistivity increase expected in an ideal magnetic reconnection region. The instability acts to focus narrow current sheets into even narrower sheets with far higher currents and temperatures. We lay out the basic principles of this behavior in this paper using protoplanetary disks as our example host system, motivated by observations of chondritic meteorites and their ancestors, dust grains in protoplanetary disks, that reveal the existence of strong, frequent heating events that this instability could explain.

  20. Thermal casting process for the preparation of membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caneba, G.T.M.; Soong, D.S.

    1985-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for providing anisotropic polymer membrane from a binary polymer/solvent solution using a thermal inversion process. A homogeneous binary solution is cast onto a support and cooled in such a way as to provide a differential in cooling rate across the thickness of the resulting membrane sheet. Isotropic or anisotropic structures of selected porosities can be produced, depending on the initial concentration of polymer in the selected solvent and on the extent of the differential in cooling rate. This differential results in a corresponding gradation in pore size. The method may be modified to provide a working skin by applying a rapid, high-temperature pulse to redissolve a predetermined thickness of the membrane at one of its faces and then freezing the entire structure.

  1. Investigations in cool thermal storage: storage process optimization and glycol sensible storage enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Michaela Marie

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process. This method minimizes the amount of required compressor work, per unit mass of ice produced, by adjusting evaporating temperatures and/or heat exchanger size. The heat transfer irreversibility is also used to exemplify the usefulness...

  2. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  3. The Role of Thermal Energy Storage in Industrial Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications is a major thrust of the Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. Utilizing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with process or reject heat recovery systems has been shown to be extremely...

  4. Radiation heat transfer in multitube, alkaline-metal thermal-to-electric converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tournier, J.M.P.; El-Genk, M.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor anode, multitube Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converters (AMTECs) are being considered for a number of space missions, such as the NASA Pluto/Express (PX) and Europa missions, scheduled for the years 2004 and 2005, respectively. These static converters can achieve a high fraction of Carnot efficiency at relatively low operating temperatures. An optimized cell can potentially provide a conversion efficiency between 20 and 30 percent, when operated at a hot-side temperature of 1000--1200 K and a cold-side temperature of 550--650 K. A comprehensive modeling and testing program of vapor anode, multitube AMTEC cells has been underway for more than three years at the Air Force Research Laboratory`s Power and Thermal Group (AFRL/VSDVP), jointly with the University of New Mexico`s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the readiness of AMTECs for flight on future US Air Force space missions. A fast, integrated AMTEC Performance and Evaluation Analysis Model (APEAM) has been developed to support ongoing vacuum tests at AFRL and perform analyses and investigate potential design changes to improve the PX-cell performance. This model consists of three major components (Tournier and El-Genk 1998a, b): (a) a sodium vapor pressure loss model, which describes continuum, transition and free-molecule flow regimes in the low-pressure cavity of the cell; (b) an electrochemical and electrical circuit model; and (c) a radiation/conduction heat transfer model, for calculating parasitic heat losses. This Technical Note describes the methodology used to calculate the radiation view factors within the enclosure of the PX-cells, and the numerical procedure developed in this work to determine the radiation heat transport and temperatures within the cell cavity.

  5. Modulation and amplification of radiative far field heat transfer : towards a simple radiative thermal transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jeremie; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show in this article that phase change materials (PCM) exhibiting a phase transition between a dielectric state and a metallic state are good candidates to perform modulation as well as amplification of radiative thermal flux. We propose a simple situation in plane parallel geometry where a so-called radiative thermal transistor could be achieved. In this configuration, we put a PCM between two blackbodies at different temperatures. We show that the transistor effect can be achieved easily when this material has its critical temperature between the two blackbody temperatures. We also see, that the more the material is reflective in the metallic state, the more switching effect is realized whereas the more PCM transition is stiff in temperature, the more thermal amplification is high. We finally take the example of VO2 that exhibits an insulator-metallic transition at 68{\\textdegree}C. We show that a demonstrator of a radiative transistor could easily be achieved in view of the heat flux levels predicted. F...

  6. Thermal Analysis of Novel Underfill Materials with Optimum Processing Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    - date the morphology of these composites. © 2005 Wiley Peri- odicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 98: 1300 chip. Polymers are thermally insulating mate- rials; the thermal conductivity of a typical polymer the compos- ite thermal conductivity up to 32.5 W/m K at the maximum filler loading of 78 vol %. Polymer

  7. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one in a series of sourcebooks to help manufacturers optimize their industrial systems; this particular sourcebook addresses process heating systems.

  8. SELF-HEATING PROCESS IN MICROWAVE TRANSISTORS Anthony E. Parker(1) and James G. Rathmell(2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SELF-HEATING PROCESS IN MICROWAVE TRANSISTORS Anthony E. Parker(1) and James G. Rathmell(2) (1 of self-heating. The impact on circuit performance is that distortion and intermodulation, which vary with bias and load conditions, additionally vary with self-heating. This additional dependence is overlooked

  9. Measuring the heat exchange of a quantum process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Goold; Ulrich Poschinger; Kavan Modi

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Very recently, interferometric methods have been proposed to measure the full statistics of work performed on a driven quantum system [Dorner et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 230601 (2013)] and [Mazzola et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 230602 (2013)]. The advantage of such schemes is that they replace the necessity to make projective measurements by performing phase estimation on an appropriately coupled ancilla qubit. These proposals are one possible route to the tangible experimental exploration of quantum thermodynamics, a subject which is the centre of much current attention due to the current control of mesoscopic quantum systems. In this Letter we demonstrate that a modification of the phase estimation protocols can be used in order to measure the heat distribution of a quantum process. In addition we demonstrate how our scheme may be implemented using ion trap technology. Our scheme should pave the way for the first experimental explorations of the Landauer principle and hence the intricate energy to information conversion in mesoscopic quantum systems.

  10. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Suntec solar collector with heat-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Suntec solar collector, with heat-formed glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  11. Heat Transfer -1 You are given the following information for a fluid with thermal conductivity of k = 0.0284 W/m-K that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 1 You are given the following information for a fluid with thermal conductivity the flow is laminar near the wall. a) (30 points) Determine the corresponding heat transfer coefficient the heat transfer coefficient as a function of x. c) (25 points) Determine the average heat transfer

  12. Impact of the Position of a Radiator to Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESL-IC-10/05-35 1 Impact of the Position of the Radiator on Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System Xiangyang Gong David E... the energy consumption and thermal comfort distribution in a typical office with a mixed radiant and convective heating system for two different locations of radiant heat sources. Accurately estimating the energy consumption in a mixed heating space...

  13. Impact of the Position of a Radiator to Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESL-IC-10/05-35 1 Impact of the Position of the Radiator on Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System Xiangyang Gong David E... the energy consumption and thermal comfort distribution in a typical office with a mixed radiant and convective heating system for two different locations of radiant heat sources. Accurately estimating the energy consumption in a mixed heating space...

  14. Thermal Transistor: Heat Flux Switching and Modulating Wei Chung LO1;4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baowen

    is an efficient heat control device which can act as a heat switch as well as a heat modulator. In this paper, we

  15. PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two for the production of hydrogen from water and high temperature thermal energy are presented and compared. Increasing for the production of hydrogen from water has received considerable attention.1 High temperature thermal energy

  16. Flexible Macroscopic Models for Dense-Fluid Shockwaves: Partitioning Heat and Work; Delaying Stress and Heat Flux; Two-Temperature Thermal Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wm. G. Hoover; Carol G. Hoover; Francisco J. Uribe

    2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Macroscopic models which distinguish the longitudinal and transverse temperatures can provide improved descriptions of the microscopic shock structures as revealed by molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, we can include three relaxation times in the models, two based on Maxwell's viscoelasticity and its Cattaneo-equation analog for heat flow, and a third thermal, based on the Krook-Boltzmann equation. This approach can replicate the observed lags of stress (which lags behind the strain rate) and heat flux (which lags behind the temperature gradient), as well as the eventual equilibration of the two temperatures. For profile stability the time lags cannot be too large. By partitioning the longitudinal and transverse contributions of work and heat and including a tensor heat conductivity and bulk viscosity, all the qualitative microscopic features of strong simple-fluid shockwave structures can be reproduced.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-LOOP FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER FACILITY FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR REACTOR THERMAL HYDRAULIC AND HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility for advanced nuclear applications is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Molten salts have been identified as excellent candidate heat transport fluids for primary or secondary coolant loops, supporting advanced high temperature and small modular reactors (SMRs). Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed. A preliminary design configuration will be presented, with the required characteristics of the various components. The loop will utilize advanced high-temperature compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) operating at prototypic intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) conditions. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750°C), high-pressure (7 MPa) helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4) flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa) at a temperature of ~450°C. Experiment design challenges include identification of suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. Corrosion and high temperature creep behavior are major considerations. The facility will include a thermal energy storage capability designed to support scaled process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will also provide important data for code ve

  18. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  19. Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuhlman, Myron Ira (Houston, TX); Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Baker, Ralph Sterman (Fitchburg, MA); Heron, Goren (Keene, CA)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Methods for treating a subsurface treatment area in a formation may include introducing a fluid into the formation from a plurality of wells offset from a treatment area of an in situ heat treatment process to inhibit outward migration of formation fluid from the in situ heat treatment process.

  20. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  1. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri (Houston, TX)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  2. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  3. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  4. IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) 4. Heat exchangers;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Temperature distributions of fluid in (a) counterflow, (b) parallel flow, and (c) 1 shell pass and 2 tubes Temperature distribution in a counter-flow heat exchanger. Note: the exit temperature TC,o of the cold stream

  5. Identification of existing waste heat recovery and process improvement technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Dodge, R.E.; Smith, S.A.; Ames, K.R.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    General information is provided on waste heat recovery opportunities. The currently available equipment for high- and low-temperature applications are described. Other equipment related to wasteheat recovery equipment such as components, instruments and controls, and cleaning equipment is discussed briefly. A description of the microcomputer data base is included. Suppliers of waste heat equipment are mentioned throughout the report, with specific contacts, addresses, and telephone numbers provided in an Appendix.

  6. Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.

  7. Theoretical Design of Thermosyphon for Process Heat Transfer from NGNP to Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ~ 1300K) and industrial scale power transport (=50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization / condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e. without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) or vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  8. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  9. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  10. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  11. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  12. Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, Richard L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

  13. advanced thermal processing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 301 Thermal properties of advanced aerogel insulation MIT - DSpace Summary: Buildings consume too much energy. For example,...

  14. Representation of thermal energy in the design process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Shaun

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of thermal design is to go beyond the comfort zone. In spatial design architects don't just look up square footage requirements and then draw a rectangle that satisfies the givens. There must be an interpretation. ...

  15. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    I/ton of product; and the estimated average potential energy HVings falla in 20-30% range. ;0, .666 ESL-IE-86-06-108 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, June 17-19, 1986 'i. Improving mainrenallce. tll... fuels . The unit consists 0i metallic oi:!lt:ments that are alternately heated ..lI1d ..:oolt:'d, Elements are contained in a subdivided cylinder that rotates illside a casing. Hot flue gas flows through one side of this cylinder and heats...

  16. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pete McGrail

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  17. A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING A SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report LBL 8520. ) A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING Aenergy. A new type of solar thermal receiver based on thisThe success of the solar thermal electric power program

  18. Studies of non-diffusive heat conduction through spatially periodic and time-harmonic thermal excitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Kimberlee C. (Kimberlee Chiyoko)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of non-diffusive heat conduction provide insight into the fundamentals of heat transport in condensed matter. The mean free paths (MFPs) of phonons that are most important for conducting heat are well represented ...

  19. Experimental Investigation on Thermal Properties of a Steel-jacketed Steam Heating Pipeline with Vacuum Insulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Na, W.; Zou, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steel-jacketed steam heating pipeline employs vacuum insulation to improve the insulating effect and reduce the corrosion, and hence increases the heat transfer efficiency of the heating network and building energy efficiency. It is important...

  20. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P(t) UAB time constant. Heat input power from a fan coil orof a building in response to heat input from an active solarS.R. of a building under heat input conditions for active

  1. ITER HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM SYSTEM & PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    normal pulse operation, the heat deposited in the in-vessel components is released into the environment. Ito 1 , P. Lorenzetto 4 , Y. Okawa 5 1 ITER Joint Central Team, 11025 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA; 2 ITER Joint Central Team, Naka, Japan; 3 ITER Joint Central Team, Garching

  2. Smoothing HCCI heat release with vaporization-cooling-induced thermal stratification using ethanol.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber. The low sensitivity of the autoignition reactions to variations of the local fuel concentration allows the temperature variations to govern the combustion event. This results in a sequential autoignition event from leaner and hotter zones to richer and colder zones, lowering the overall combustion rate compared to operation with a uniform fuel/air mixture. The amount of partial fuel stratification was varied by adjusting the fraction of fuel injected late to produce stratification, and also by changing the timing of the late injection. The experiments show that a combination of 60-70% premixed charge and injection of 30-40 % of the fuel at 80{sup o}CA before TDC is effective for smoothing the HRR. With CA50 held fixed, this increases the burn duration by 55% and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate by 40%. Combustion stability remains high but engine-out NO{sub x} has to be monitored carefully. For operation with strong reduction of the peak HRR, ISNO{sub x} rises to around 0.20 g/kWh for an IMEP{sub g} of 440 kPa. The single-cylinder HCCI research engine was operated naturally aspirated without EGR at 1200 rpm, and had low residual level using a CR = 14 piston.

  3. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor as the basis for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity, hydrogen production, and process heat applications. The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. An intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding. This report describes the preliminary results of a scoping study that evaluated the diffusion welding process parameters and the resultant mechanical properties of diffusion welded joints using Alloy 800H. The long-term goal of the program is to progress towards demonstration of small heat exchanger unit cells fabricated with diffusion welds. Demonstration through mechanical testing of the unit cells will support American Society of Mechanical Engineers rules and standards development, reduce technical risk, and provide proof of concept for heat exchanger fabrication methods needed to deploy heat exchangers in several potential NGNP configurations.1 Researchers also evaluated the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools (Thermo-Calc and Dictra) in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using 15 {micro}m nickel foil as joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved

  4. Estimation of Biomass Heat Storage Using Thermal Infrared Imagery: Application to a Walnut Orchard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garai, Anirban; Kleissl, Jan; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NOTE Estimation of Biomass Heat Storage Using Thermalmethod to estimate tree biomass heat storage from thermalinfrared (TIR) imaging of biomass surface temperature is

  5. A statistical method for estimating wood thermal diffusivity and probe geometry using in situ heat response curves from sap flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R.; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by inferring the velocity of water through a porous medium from the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale; and consequently, to up-scale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for estimating the wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing simutaneously from in-situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio apparatus. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require known probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential to obtain reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests are conducted during different seasons and automated using the existing data logging system. The seasonality of wood thermal diffusivity is obtained as a by-product of the parameter estimation process, and it is shown to be affected by both moisture content and temperature. Empirical factors are often introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and they are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology can be applied for the calibration of existing heat ratio sap flow systems at other sites. It is especially useful when an alternative transpiration calibration device, such as a lysimeter, is not available.

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 32, NO. 7, JULY 2013 1045 Analytical Thermal Model for Self-Heating in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013 1045 Analytical Thermal Model for Self-Heating in Advanced FinFET Devices With Implications- mulated for the analysis of self-heating effects in FinFETs, under both steady-state and transient stress characteristics, were used to understand the nature of self-heating in FinFETs and calibrate the proposed model

  7. 598 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 26, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2003 Thermal Design Methodology for High-Heat-Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Weilin

    598 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 26, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2003 Thermal Design Methodology for High-Heat-Flux Single-Phase and Two-Phase Micro-Channel Heat Sinks Weilin of single-phase and two-phase micro-channel heat sinks. The first part of the paper concerns single

  8. Energy, Exergy and Uncertainty Analyses of the Thermal Response Test for a Ground Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Shayea, Naser Abdul-Rahman

    exchanger, Ground coupled heat pump Corresponding author, Tel.: +1-617-308-7214, Fax: +1-617-253-3484, E calibration DAS data acquisition system g ground H heater loss1 losses from the heating section loss2 losses heating and cooling, water heating, crop drying, agricultural greenhouses, etc. In vertical U

  9. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  10. EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at...

  11. Manual for the thermal and hydraulic design of direct contact spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for us in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geo-thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heat ingeothermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heat inthermal energy, geo/ocean-thermal energy, wasted heat in

  13. Comparison of closed and open thermochemical processes, for long-term thermal energy storage applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Comparison of closed and open thermochemical processes, for long-term thermal energy storage-term thermal storage, second law analysis * Corresponding author: E-mail: mazet@univ-perp.fr Nomenclature c Energy Tecnosud, Rambla de la thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan, France b Université de Perpignan Via

  14. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES D Hillel, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - lengths, is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature Tof the body's surface. This lawTHERMAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES D Hillel, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Ã? 2005, Elsevier, and microbial activity. Soil temperature varies in response to changes in the radiant, thermal, and latent

  15. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  16. Three important parts of an integrated plant are reactors, separators and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery. Within the process engineering community, much

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery. Within the process engineering community, much attention has beeni ABSTRACT Three important parts of an integrated plant are reactors, separators and a heat and in particular to optimal operation of HENs. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also

  17. THE INTEGRATION OF PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

  18. Cooling/heating augmentation during turbine startup/shutdown using a seal positioned by thermal response of turbine parts and consequent relative movement thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a turbine rotor, a thermal mismatch between various component parts of the rotor occurs particularly during transient operations such as shutdown and startup. A thermal medium flows past and heats or cools one part of the turbine which may have a deleterious thermal mismatch with another part. By passively controlling the flow of cooling medium past the one part in response to relative movement of thermally responsive parts of the turbine, the flow of thermal medium along the flow path can be regulated to increase or reduce the flow, thereby to regulate the temperature of the one part to maintain the thermal mismatch within predetermined limits.

  19. Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Sandhya

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    in a separate cold tank, and then is circulated through the collector field, where it is heated again. Figure 3: Schematic of an active direct storage system (Solar Tres Power Plant) (3) The SEGS I plant included a direct two-tank storage system... Thomas Lalk Committee Member Michael Schuller Head of Department, Dennis O?Neal May 2011 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Thermal Cycling Effects on the Nanoparticle Distribution...

  20. Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of Heat Transfer Fluid Requirements and Characteristics for Coupling A Hydrogen Production Plant to a High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. B. Davis; C. H. Oh; R. B. Barner; D. F. Wilson

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the hightemperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant, may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. Seven possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermalhydraulic and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermalhydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various configurations were also determined. The evaluations determined which configurations and coolants are the most promising from thermal-hydraulic and efficiency points of view. These evaluations also determined which configurations and options do not appear to be feasible at the current time.

  1. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar con- trols test facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory The interaction of baseboard, radiant panel, and furnace heating

  2. Thermal mass assessment: an explanation of the mechanisms by which building mass influences heating and cooling energy requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.; Courville, G.E.; Bales, E.L.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence that building mass has on energy consumption for heating and cooling has been the subject of some controversy. This controversy is, in part, due to a lack of understanding of the heat transfer mechanics occurring within a building and of how they affect energy usage. This report offers a step-by-step development of the principles of heat transfer in buildings as they pertain to thermal mass. The report is targeted for persons who are unfamiliar with the topic of thermal mass, but who possess some technical background. It is concluded that for the mass of a building to reduce energy usage, the building must undergo alternating periods of net energy gain and loss. In other words, during the heating season the indoor temperature must at times float above the thermostat set point temperature to reduce energy consumption. During the cooling season, the indoor temperature must occasionally drop below the set point temperature. Other issues addressed include the effects of mass on peak loads, equipment cycling, thermostat setback, and comfort. Strategies to maximize benefits of mass are discussed.

  3. Engineering atom-atom thermal entanglement via two-photon process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Q. Guo; L. Zhou; H. S. Song

    2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the system that two atoms simultaneously interact with a single-mode thermal field via different couplings and different spontaneous emission rates when two-photon process is involved. It is found that we indeed can employ the different couplings to produce the atom-atom thermal entanglement in two-photon process. The different atomic spontaneous emission rates are also utilizable in generating thermal entanglement. We also investigate the effect of the cavity leakage. To the initial atomic state $|ee> ,$a slight leakage can relieve the restriction of interaction time and we can obtain a large and steady entanglement.

  4. Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N[sub 2] is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation. 7 figs.

  5. Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzay, Tuncer M. (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N.sub.2 is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation.

  6. Description of TASHA: Thermal Analysis of Steady-State-Heat Transfer for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, D.G.; Chen, N.C.; Nelson, W.R.; Yoder, G.L.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the code used to perform Thermal Analysis of Steady-State-Heat-Transfer for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor (TASHA). More specifically, the code is designed for thermal analysis of the fuel elements. The new code reflects changes to the High Flux Isotope Reactor steady-state thermal-hydraulics code. These changes were aimed at both improving the code`s predictive ability and allowing statistical thermal-hydraulic uncertainty analysis to be performed. A significant portion of the changes were aimed at improving the correlation package in the code. This involved incorporating more recent correlations for both single-phase flow and two-phase flow thermal limits, including the addition of correlations to predict the phenomenon of flow excursion. Since the code was to be used in the design of the ANS, changes were made to allow the code to predict limiting powers for a variety of thermal limits, including critical heat flux, flow excursion, incipient boiling, oxide spallation, maximum centerline temperature, and surface temperature equal to the saturation temperature. Statistical uncertainty analysis also required several changes to the code itself as well as changes to the code input format. This report describes these changes in enough detail to allow the reader to interpret code results and also to understand where the changes were made in the code programming. This report is not intended to be a stand alone report for running the code, however, and should be used in concert with the two previous reports published on the original code. Sample input and output files are also included to help accomplish these goals. In addition, a section is included that describes requirements for a new, more modem code that the project planned to develop.

  7. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective Plastics are less expensive, lighter, and require less energy to process than metals; however,...

  8. Automated Process for the Fabrication of Highly Customized Thermally...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 of 2 A project member completes cuts foam insulating via a process known as computer numerically controlled (CNC) foam cutting. Image: Worcester Polytechnic Institute...

  9. Automated Process for the Fabrication of Highly Customized Thermally...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Polytechnic Institute 2 of 2 A project member completes cuts foam insulating via a process known as computer numerically controlled (CNC) foam cutting. Image: Worcester...

  10. Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prev next > SunChallenge to DriveElectrictoProcessProcess

  11. Hybrid joule heating/electro-osmosis process for extracting contaminants from soil layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Joule (ohmic) heating and electro-osmosis are combined in a hybrid process for removal of both water-soluble contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids from contaminated, low-permeability soil formations that are saturated. Central to this hybrid process is the partial desaturation of the formation or layer using electro-osmosis to remove a portion of the pore fluids by induction of a ground water flow to extraction wells. Joule heating is then performed on a partially desaturated formation. The joule heating and electro-osmosis operations can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially if the desaturation by electro-osmosis occurs initially. Joule heating of the desaturated formation results in a very effective transfer or partitioning of liquid state contaminants to the vapor phase. The heating also substantially increases the vapor phase pressure in the porous formation. As a result, the contaminant laden vapor phase is forced out into soil layers of a higher permeability where other conventional removal processes, such as steam stripping or ground water extraction can be used to capture the contaminants. This hybrid process is more energy efficient than joule heating or steam stripping for cleaning low permeability formations and can share electrodes to minimize facility costs.

  12. Global Heat Kernel Estimate for Relativistic Stable Processes in Exterior Open Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhen-Qing

    ,1 exterior open sets as well as for half-space-like open sets. The ideas of [8] have been adaptedGlobal Heat Kernel Estimate for Relativistic Stable Processes in Exterior Open Sets Zhen-Qing Chen for the transition densities of relativistic -stable processes with mass m (0, 1] in C1,1 exterior open sets

  13. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal energy to bring about...

  14. Inverse three-dimensional method for fast evaluation of temperature and heat flux fields during rolling process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is therefore needed. Therefore highly heterogeneous temperature fields and heat fluxes can be evaluating. Asymptotic developments enable to take into account variations of thermal properties depending on temperatureInverse three-dimensional method for fast evaluation of temperature and heat flux fields during

  15. Surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sethl, V.K.; Satchwell, R.M.; Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological studies have shown that there are many surface or near-surface deposits in the United States that contain large quantities of petroleum. In the State of Wyoming, a high concentration of such deposits exists in the Wind River, Big Horn, and Powder River Basins. These shallow deposits typically occur as unconsolidated or friable formations that contain millions of barrels of oil. Conventional petroleum production techniques have been attempted in many of these deposits with little or no economic success. In an attempt to improve the production economics, the Western Research Institute was solicited to develop a technique for the recovery of oil from these deposits. WRI, with support from the Economic and Community Development Division of the State of Wyoming, and as a part of the WRI/US Department of Energy, Jointly Sponsored Research program, proposed to develop, test, and demonstrate a viable and economical technology for the recovery of oil using mining and surface recovery processes. Reneau Energy, Inc. of La Quinta, California, agreed to participate in the project in providing a test site and mined materials. The goal of the proposed project to be completed in two phases, was to develop existing energy resources which are not presently being utilized. Phase 1 of the project, consisting of six specific tasks, was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various surface processing schemes. Phase 1 also included gravity drainage tests to determine if recovery techniques such as horizontal drilling could be applied. Phase 1 work was completed, and a final report was prepared and submitted to the funding agencies. Based on the results obtained in Phase 1 of the project, fluidized-bed based thermal recovery appeared to be a viable option. A 100 tons per day pilot plant was designed, constructed, and operated in the field. This report describes the results and experiences of the Phase 2 testing.

  16. Processing and thermal properties of molecularly oriented polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skow, Erik (Erik Dean)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High molecular weight polymers that are linear in molecular construction can be oriented such that some of their physical properties in the oriented direction are enhanced. For over 50 years polymer orientation and processing ...

  17. About influence of gravity on heat conductivity process of the Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. O. Gladkov; Anil Yadav; Saibal Ray; F. Rahaman

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study it is shown that the interaction of a quasi-static gravitational wave through density fluctuations gives rise to a heat conductivity coefficient and hence temperature. This fact is a very important characteristics to establish a heat equilibrium process of such massive body as the Earth and other Planets. To carry out this exercise general mechanism has been provided, which makes a bridge between classical physics and quantum theory, and specific dependence of heat conductivity coefficient in wide region is also calculated.

  18. Effects of axial plate heat conduction on the thermal performance of a laminar counterflow flat plate heat exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demko, Jonathan Alexander

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THEN THE CENTERLINE TEHPERATUBES EY USING THZ ENERGY EQUATION AIONG THE CENTERLINE FINALLY E VAL HAT I THE FLO W FIELD EPS= 1, OD-04 DO 999 K=1, 850 REST=0 ~ 0 DO DO 70 J=1rM TH {N, J)= (4 DU?TH (8-1, J) -TH(8-2 ~ J) ) /3 DO DO 60 I= 2, 8L TH (I, M) = (DY2... thermal conductivity ratios of the plate to the fluid, dimensionless plate thicknesses, Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my thanks to all those who gave me support while I was working toward this goal. Dr. Louis...

  19. Radiative component and combined heat transfer in the thermal calculation of finned tube banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehlik, P. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For more exact calculation of combined heat transfer in the case of finned tube banks (e.g., in the convective section of a furnace), the radiative heat transfer cannot be neglected. A new method for relatively simple calculation of total heat flux (convection + radiation + conduction in fins) is fully compatible with that for bare tube banks/bundles developed earlier. It is based on the method of radiative coefficients. However, the resulting value of heat flux must be corrected due to fin thickness and especially due to the fin radiative influence. For this purpose the so-called multiplicator of heat flux was introduced. The applicability of this methods has been demonstrated on a tubular fired heater convective section. A developed computer program based on the method has also been used for an analysis of the influence of selected parameters to show the share of radiation on the total heat flux.

  20. Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prev next > SunChallenge to DriveElectrictoProcess

  1. A feasibility study of solar ponds for Wisconsin industrial process heat applications -- Impact of lining material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, M.A.; Reid, R.L. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An economic feasibility study of a salinity gradient solar pond for providing industrial process heat (IPH) in the state of Wisconsin is presented. A survey of current low temperature energy load demands of several companies within Wisconsin was completed. The data obtained was analyzed using a microcomputer based program to assess feasibility. Economic feasibility and thermal performance depends upon area. The area of the pond would determine the corresponding quantities of excavation, salt and lining material required to establish a salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP). The cost of the lining material also has a large impact upon the economic feasibility of a SGSP. The results of the economic feasibility study of a SGSP based on the selection of four types of liners is presented. These liners are a high density polyethylene (HDPE) liner, two forms of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a chemical and weather resistant polymer coated polyester fabric liner (XR-5). For a load of 10,000 GJ/month on an annual operating schedule for the most favorable economic performance resulted from a geosynthetic clay liner with a high density polyethylene backing. For a 10,000 m{sup 2} pond a payback of 8.4 years can be obtained with a unit cost of $43.20/m{sup 2}. It was also determined that if a larger load was demanded and the corresponding optimal area was provided the economic feasibility of a SGSP increased greatly. For a load of 100,000 GJ/Month on an annual operating schedule, using the same lining material, the optimal pond area was found to be 35,800 m{sup 2}, with a discounted payback of 3.8 years and a unit cost of $35.40/ms{sup 2}. Similar results were obtained for the other materials. From these findings it appears that a SGSP using a geosynthetic clay liner with HDPE backing will be economically feasible for a load of 10,000 GJ/month. The economic feasibility improves with increased thermal load and the corresponding optimal pond area.

  2. A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling rates of chondrules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connolly Jr, Harold C.

    A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling for the thermal processing of particles in shock waves typical of the solar nebula. This shock model improves are accounted for in their ef fects on the mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Also, besides thermal exchange

  3. Estimation of Biomass Heat Storage Using Thermal Infrared Imagery: Application to a Walnut Orchard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garai, Anirban; Kleissl, Jan; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    remote areas and the holes drilled for the in situ tempera- ture sensors may affect the measurement through local changes in heat

  4. Temperature and heat flux datasets of a complex object in a fire plume for the validation of fire and thermal response codes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jernigan, Dann A.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is necessary to improve understanding and develop temporally- and spatially-resolved integral scale validation data of the heat flux incident to a complex object in addition to measuring the thermal response of said object located within the fire plume for the validation of the SIERRA/FUEGO/SYRINX fire and SIERRA/CALORE codes. To meet this objective, a complex calorimeter with sufficient instrumentation to allow validation of the coupling between FUEGO/SYRINX/CALORE has been designed, fabricated, and tested in the Fire Laboratory for Accreditation of Models and Experiments (FLAME) facility. Validation experiments are specifically designed for direct comparison with the computational predictions. Making meaningful comparison between the computational and experimental results requires careful characterization and control of the experimental features or parameters used as inputs into the computational model. Validation experiments must be designed to capture the essential physical phenomena, including all relevant initial and boundary conditions. This report presents the data validation steps and processes, the results of the penlight radiant heat experiments (for the purpose of validating the CALORE heat transfer modeling of the complex calorimeter), and the results of the fire tests in FLAME.

  5. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.

  6. Proceedings of HT2007 2007 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    to a more complicated data set, forced and mixed convection developing laminar flow in a horizontal tube LAMINAR HEAT TRANSFER IN A HORIZONTAL TUBE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK L. M. Tam (1) Department variables on our forced convective turbulent heat transfer data in a horizontal tube (Ghajar and Tam, 1994

  7. An investigation into the thermal properties of selected sensible and latent heat storage materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stanley Clayton

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the latent heat of fusion. Considerable work has been done in analyzing latent heat storage systems. Telkes and Raymond [lj did early work with a sodium sulfate system using sealed drums. iVore recent experimental work was conducted with other salt...

  8. An investigation into the thermal properties of selected sensible and latent heat storage materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stanley Clayton

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the latent heat of fusion. Considerable work has been done in analyzing latent heat storage systems. Telkes and Raymond [lj did early work with a sodium sulfate system using sealed drums. iVore recent experimental work was conducted with other salt...

  9. AQUIFER BIOTHERMOREMEDIATION USING HEAT PUMPS: SOUND THEORETICAL BASIS AND RESULTS ON THERMAL, GEOCHEMICAL AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    example, the long-term use of groundwater heat pumps for air conditioning of homes or buildings can induce and hydrogeological background. The presence of organic pollutants in the aquifer can amplify these phenomena/or the well productivity, (ii) an inappropriate temperature for the use of groundwater heat pumps for air

  10. Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of Floor Radiant Heating System with Enclosed Phase Change Material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, L.; Wu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper, a kind of enclosed phase change material (PCM) used in solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating is investigated. On the basis of obtaining the best performance of PCM properties, a new radiant heating structure...

  11. Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

  12. Effects of self-heating and phase change on the thermal profile of hydrogen isotopes in confined geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxamusa, S., E-mail: baxamusa1@llnl.gov; Field, J.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; Suratwala, T.; Sater, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.

  13. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  14. Turbulent thermalization process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jürgen Berges; Björn Schenke; Sören Schlichting; Raju Venugopalan

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the onset of the thermalization process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions from a weak coupling perspective, using classical-statistical real-time lattice simulations as a first principles tool to study the pre-equilibrium dynamics. Most remarkably, we find that the thermalization process is governed by a universal attractor, where the space-time evolution of the plasma becomes independent of the initial conditions and exhibits the self-similar dynamics characteristic of wave turbulence. We discuss the consequences of our weak coupling results for the thermalization process in heavy-ion experiments and briefly comment on the use of weak coupling techniques at larger values of the coupling.

  15. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications is disclosed. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  16. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B. (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)); Rivas, O. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  17. Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kush, E. A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An outline of possibilities for effective use of PV/T collectors with a Solar Assisted Heat Pump is given. A quantitative analysis of the performance and cost of the various configurations as a function of regional climates, using up-to-date results from solar heat pump and PV/T collector studies, will be required for more definitive assessment; and it is recommended that these be undertaken in the PV/T Program. Particular attention should be paid to development of high performance PV/T collectors, matching of heat pump electrical system to PV array and power conditioning characteristics, and optimization of storage options for cost effectiveness and utility impact.

  18. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of Floor Radiant Heating System with Enclosed Phase Change Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, L.; Wu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water temperatures. With the method of enthalpy , the PCM thermal storage time is studied under different supply water temperatures, supply water flows, distances between water wipe in the floor construction, floor covers and insulation conditions....

  20. Critical evaluation of anomalous thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer enhancement in nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prabhat, Naveen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While robust progress has been made towards the practical use of nanofluids, uncertainties remain concerning the fundamental effects of nanoparticles on key thermo-physical properties. Nanofluids have higher thermal ...

  1. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  2. THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THERMAL WATER SPLITTING PROCESSES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on thermal water splitting processes is presented. Results of the analysis show that the overall efficiency of any thermal water splitting process operating between two temperature limits is proportional to the Carnot efficiency. Implications of thermodynamic efficiency limits and the impacts of loss mechanisms and operating conditions are discussed as they pertain specifically to hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis. Overall system performance predictions are also presented for high-temperature electrolysis plants powered by three different advanced nuclear reactor types, over their respective operating temperature ranges.

  3. Gas-chromatographic identification of volatile products from thermal processing of Bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenkevich, I.G.; Ventura, K. [Advanced Chemical Engineering Institute, Pardubice (Czechoslovakia)

    1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The variety of bitumen industrial brands is evident in the significant variation of composition and ratio of volatile thermal processing products, which makes their detailed characterization difficult. For that reason, in the authors` opinion a simple and easily reproducible method for gas chromatographic analysis and identification of these substances should be of greater interest than gathering more such results. In this report the authors discuss the selection of an optimal combination of group and individual gas chromatographic methods for identification of volatile thermal processing products in the presence of air, using the example of AP bitumen, the main brand used in Czechoslavakia for production of asphalt. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  4. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A DUAL-CHANNEL, HELIUM-COOLED, TUNGSTEN HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    high heat fluxes. The high temperature helium can then be used to power a gas turbine for high the high efficiency power conversion available from new generation gas turbines. It is envisioned

  5. Numerical Investigation of Thermal Hydraulic Behavior of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Compact Heat Exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatima, Roma

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    volume method using a commercial software FLUENT. Three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models were developed to simulate the flow and heat transfer for three different geometries – a single semi-circular channel, a series of nine parallel...

  6. An analog analysis of transient heat flow in solids with temperature-dependent thermal properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dwain Edward

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    they both are based on the same approximation of the thermal properties. Since these two methods of solution of the same problem produce almost the same results, the usefulness of the constant property analog method of solution must be found elsewhere... calculations. Therefore, it is concluded that the better the approximation of the variation of the thermal properties allowed by a method of solution, the more closely that method of solution will agree with the actual physical problem. In particular...

  7. Analytical solution for thermal runaway in the surface heating of plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamar, C.R. (Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, AL (United States))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical solution is developed for the high-energy heating of metals in which the surface heat flux increases with temperature. Two cases are studied in particular: a case of an insulated rear surface and a convectively cooled rear surface. The solutions result in purely imaginary eigenvalues, which lead to temperature solutions that can increase exponentially with time. A simple expression for avoiding such a temperature solution is derived. 4 refs.

  8. REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL University Denmark ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for decentralized power performance parameters will be identified. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Micro CHP System INTRODUCTION

  9. ORIGINALS ORIGINALARBEITEN The effect of log heating temperature on the peeling process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    with deeper and more spaced checks than high temperatures when checks are closer and less deep, becoming even by soaking--immersing the whole logs in hot water basins--or by steaming them in vats. These traditionalORIGINALS ORIGINALARBEITEN The effect of log heating temperature on the peeling process and veneer

  10. Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat into electrical energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carati, Andrea

    Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat.g. by means of a solar concentrator), or can be the waste heat from an industrial pro- cess, or part of a co) Abstract We analyse a device aimed at the conversion of heat into electrical energy, based on a closed

  11. Domestic olivine vs magnesite as a thermal-energy-storage material: performance comparisons for electrically heated room-size units in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 94. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W.R.; Schoenhals, R.J.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H. III

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically heated thermal-energy-storage (TES) heaters employing high-heat-capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these heaters, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored heat from the core by forced air circulation. Recently significant interest in the use of off-peak TES units in the US has occured, leading to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but under-utilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper, the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat-storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two small room-sized commercially available TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons between the two materials are made and conclusions are drawn.

  12. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. The model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, O.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  13. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  14. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-Lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  15. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  16. Potential for Heat Pumps in the U.S. Process Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, A. P.; Seetharam, R. V.; Ranade, S. M.

    , under contract to the Texas Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has developed d pinch-based procedure for the optimum placement of heat pumps. This work has been reported elsewhere [7 , 8 , 9] and 1s not discussed in detail here. A... simplified version of the EPRI procedure has been used by TENSA Services in a study, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (U.S.DOE), aimed at identifying the scope for cost effective heat pump installations in the process industries...

  17. Calculation of heat flow and temperature fields for building envelopes containing thermal bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a preliminary meeting held at the Princeton University Center for Energy and Environmental Studies on March 14-15, 1988, Soviet and American representatives discussed these problems in some detail. After minor modifications, final problem definitions for six of the thermal bridges were generated. The seventh thermal bridge, originally submitted by the USSR, was withdrawn temporarily to add some further clarification. A common format for presenting the results was agreed upon, and both American and Soviet specialists subsequently solved the six problems. This paper presents the US solutions prepared at ORNL. 52 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process localiser la chambre à vapeur. INTRODUCTION [1] Huge quantities of heavy oils (heavy oil, extra heavy oil. Larribau 64018 Pau Cedex, France Oil and Gas Science and Technology 2012, 67 (6), 1029-1039, doi:10

  19. Magnetic-field control of near-field radiative heat transfer and the realization of highly tunable hyperbolic thermal emitters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncada-Villa, Edwin; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Cuevas, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive theoretical study of the magnetic field dependence of the near-field radiative heat transfer (NFRHT) between two parallel plates. We show that when the plates are made of doped semiconductors, the near-field thermal radiation can be severely affected by the application of a static magnetic field. We find that irrespective of its direction, the presence of a magnetic field reduces the radiative heat conductance, and dramatic reductions up to 700% can be found with fields of about 6 T at room temperature. We show that this striking behavior is due to the fact that the magnetic field radically changes the nature of the NFRHT. The field not only affects the electromagnetic surface waves (both plasmons and phonon polaritons) that normally dominate the near-field radiation in doped semiconductors, but it also induces hyperbolic modes that progressively dominate the heat transfer as the field increases. In particular, we show that when the field is perpendicular to the plates, the semicond...

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF NON-HEAT GENERATING OUTDOOR OBJECTS IN THERMAL SCENES FOR AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Leah B.

    describes a physics-based adaptive Bayesian pattern classification model that uses a passive thermal as a result of the diurnal cycle of solar energy. The model that we present will allow bots to "see beyond by the classes of objects and design our Adaptive Bayesian Classification Model. We demonstrate that our novel

  1. Heat blanketing envelopes and thermal radiation of strongly magnetized neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Y. Potekhin; G. Chabrier; D. G. Yakovlev

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong (B >> 10^9 G) and superstrong (B > 10^{14} G) magnetic fields profoundly affect many thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of dense plasmas in neutron star envelopes. In particular, they produce strongly anisotropic thermal conductivity in the neutron star crust and modify the equation of state and radiative opacities in the atmosphere, which are major ingredients of the cooling theory and spectral atmosphere models. As a result, both the radiation spectrum and the thermal luminosity of a neutron star can be affected by the magnetic field. We briefly review these effects and demonstrate the influence of magnetic field strength on the thermal structure of an isolated neutron star, putting emphasis on the differences brought about by the superstrong fields and high temperatures of magnetars. For the latter objects, it is important to take proper account of a combined effect of the magnetic field on thermal conduction and neutrino emission at densities \\rho > 10^{10} g cm^{-3}. We show that the neutrino emission puts a B-dependent upper limit on the effective surface temperature of a cooling neutron star.

  2. Heat exchanger cleaning in support of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) - electronics subsystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, D.F.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronics systems supporting the development of biofouling countermeasures for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) are described. Discussed are the thermistor/thermopile amplifiers, heaters, flowmeters, temperature measurement, control systems for chlorination, flow driven brushes, and recirculating sponge rubber balls. The operation and troubleshooting of each electronic subsystem is documented.

  3. ThermalEngineeringLaboratory,VanderbiltUniversity Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    into spherical or linear chains of particles while models assume well dispersed solutions 1. 2. http in real systems · Benefits of nanofluids ­ reduced sedimentation and viscosity ­ reduced damage loading (%) calculated di-water Maxwell's model H-S bounds 8/10 #12;ThermalEngineeringLa

  4. Non-Hermitian heat engine with all-quantum-adiabatic-process cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Lin; Z. Song

    2015-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-Hermitian system is expected to describe an open system which exchanges energy and particles with external reservoirs. Correspondingly, such an exchange can be adiabatic in the context of quantum mechanics. We investigate a non-Hermitian quantum heat engine (QHE) by a concrete simple two-level system, which is an S = 1/2 spin in a complex external magnetic field. The non- Hermitian PT -symmetric Hamiltonian, as a self-contained one, describes both working medium and reservoirs. A heat-engine cycle is composed of completely quantum adiabatic processes. The heat efficiency is obtained to be the same as that of Hermitian quantum Carnot cycle. The power output of this scheme can be arbitrary high, because the corresponding quantum adiabatic passages do not require a long time scale. A classical analogue of this scheme is also presented.

  5. Conjugate heat transfer and particle transport in outside vapor deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, M.; Song, Y.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical study of conjugate heat transfer and particle transport has been carried out for the outside vapor deposition process. A buoyant jet flow impinging on a two-layered cylinder has been analyzed including heat conduction occurring through the two-layered cylinder, which consists of the original target rod and the deposited porous layers. Temperature and flow fields have been obtained by an iterative method, and thermophoretic particle deposition has been studied. Of particular interest are the effects of the thickness of deposited layers, the torch speed, the rotation speed of the cylinder, and the distance between the torch and the cylinder on the heat transfer and particle deposition. Effects of variable properties and tube rotation are also included.

  6. THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS. PROGRESS REPORT BY 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98.

  7. Thermal convection with large viscosity variation in an enclosure with localized heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.Y.; Hickox, C.E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study is undertaken in order to gain an understanding of convective transport in a magma chamber. We have chosen to represent the chamber by an enclosure with localized heating from below. Results of both laboratory experiments and computer modeling are reported. The experimental apparatus consists of a transparent enclosure with a square planform. An electrically heated strip, with a width equal to one-fourth of the length of a side of the enclosure, is centered on the lower inside surface of the enclosure. For the experiments reported here, the top of the fluid layer is maintained at a constant temperature and the depth of the layer is equal to the width of the heated strip. The large viscosity variation characteristic of magma convection is simulated by using corn syrup as the working fluid. Measured velocity and temperature distribution as well as overall heat transfer rates are presented. The experiment is numerically simulated through use of a finite element computer program. Numerically predicted streamlines, isotherms, and velocity distributions are presented for the transverse vertical midplane of the enclosure. Good agreement is demonstrated between predictions and measurements. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. On the heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations S. Ciliberto1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by an elastic force. Our results set strong constrains on the energy exchanged between coupled nano-systems kept on systems in contact with a single heat bath and driven out-of-equilibrium by external forces or fields [3 Brownian particles kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force [11, 12]. Thus it gives

  9. On the heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations S. Ciliberto1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by an elastic force. Our results set strong constrains on the energy exchanged between coupled nano-systems held kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force [13, 19]. Thus it gives more insight into the properties of the heat flux produced by mechanical coupling, in the famous Feymann ratchet [22­24] widely

  10. Evolution of the Loop-Top Source of Solar Flares--Heating and Cooling Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Wei Jiang; Siming Liu; Wei Liu; Vahe Petrosian

    2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the spatial and spectral evolution of the loop-top (LT) sources in a sample of 6 flares near the solar limb observed by {\\it RHESSI}. A distinct coronal source, which we identify as the LT source, was seen in each of these flares from the early ``pre-heating'' phase through the late decay phase. Spectral analyses reveal an evident steep power-law component in the pre-heating and impulsive phases, suggesting that the particle acceleration starts upon the onset of the flares. In the late decay phase the LT source has a thermal spectrum and appears to be confined within a small region near the top of the flare loop, and does not spread throughout the loop, as is observed at lower energies. The total energy of this source decreases usually faster than expected from the radiative cooling but much slower than that due to the classical Spitzer conductive cooling along the flare loop. These results indicate the presence of a distinct LT region, where the thermal conductivity is suppressed significantly and/or there is a continuous energy input. We suggest that plasma wave turbulence could play important roles in both heating the plasma and suppressing the conduction during the decay phase of solar flares. With a simple quasi-steady loop model we show that the energy input in the gradual phase can be comparable to that in the impulsive phase and demonstrate how the observed cooling and confinement of the LT source can be used to constrain the wave-particle interaction.

  11. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  12. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  13. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chiller is supplied by waste heat from CHP units as well aswith HX can utilize waste heat for heating or cooling

  14. Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Erickson, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation result is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.

  15. EFFECT OF THERMAL PROCESSES ON COPPER-TIN ALLOYS FOR ZINC GETTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Golyski, M.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A contamination mitigation plan was initiated to address the discovery of radioactive zinc‐65 in a glovebox. A near term solution was developed, installation of heated filters in the glovebox piping. This solution is effective at retaining the zinc in the currently contaminated area, but the gamma emitting contaminant is still present in a system designed for tritium beta. A project was initiated to develop a solution to contain the {sup 65}Zn in the furnace module. Copper and bronze (a Cu/Sn alloy) were found to be candidate materials to combine with zinc‐65 vapor, using thermodynamic calculations. A series of binary Cu/Sn alloys were developed (after determining that commercial alloys were unacceptable), that were found to be effective traps of zinc vapor. The task described in this report was undertaken to determine if the bronze substrates would retain their zinc gettering capability after being exposed to simulated extraction conditions with oxidizing and reducing gases. Pure copper and three bronze alloys were prepared, exposed to varying oxidation conditions from 250 to 450{degree}C, then exposed to varying reduction conditions in He-H{sub 2} from 250-450{degree}C, and finally exposed to zinc vapor at 350{degree}C for four hours. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass change, and visual observation. It was observed that the as fabricated samples and the reduced samples all retained their zinc gettering capacity while samples in the "as-oxidized" condition exhibited losses in zinc gettering capacity. Over the range of conditions tested, i.e., composition, oxidation temperature, and reduction temperature, no particular sample composition appeared better. Samples reduced at 350{degree}C exhibited the greatest zinc capacity, although there were some testing anomalies associated with these samples. This work clearly demonstrated that the zinc gettering was not adversely affected by exposure to simulated process conditions and a full scale lithium and zinc trap should be fabricated for testing in the Tritium Extraction Facility.

  16. Polymer heat transport enhancement in thermal convection: the case of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Boffetta; A. Mazzino; S. Musacchio; L. Vozella

    2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of polymer additives on turbulence generated by the ubiquitous Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Numerical simulations of complete viscoelastic models provide clear evidence that the heat transport is enhanced up to 50% with respect to the Newtonian case. This phenomenon is accompanied by a speed up of the mixing layer growth. We give a phenomenological interpretation of these results based on small-scale turbulent reduction induced by polymers.

  17. Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II, Billy John (Houston, TX)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for reducing heat load applied to a frozen barrier by a heated formation is described. The system includes heat interceptor wells positioned between the heated formation and the frozen barrier. Fluid is positioned in the heat interceptor wells. Heat transfers from the formation to the fluid to reduce the heat load applied to the frozen barrier.

  18. Determination of the controlling process in coupled heat and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, B.; Kakavas, T.; Herold, K.E. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Environmental Energy Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of non-condensable gases on condensation is well known going back to Nusselt. The non-condensables tend to form a blanket around the cooled surface which can significantly slow condensation rates by introducing a controlling mass transfer resistance. The coupled heat and mass transfer process that results has a significant impact on the optimum design of compact condenser bundles. One of the questions that arises in analyzing such a coupled process is which of the two processes is controlling the overall transfer process? One way to quantify a solution to this problem is to take a thermodynamic perspective and to compute the entropy generation associated with each of the individual processes. Then, the process that contributes the largest entropy generation is viewed as the controlling process. The result of such a determination provides insight as to how to augment the overall transfer process. The approach taken in this study is to use available CFD (computational fluid dynamics) codes to formulate and solve the condenser problem to gain insight into the coupled process. The resulting temperature, velocity and concentration data can then be analyzed to determine the entropy generation associated with each of the processes. Results are presented for a series of simplified geometries that define the magnitude of the effects contributed by each of the transfer processes.

  19. Monoenergetic acceleration of a target foil by circularly polarized laser pulse in RPA regime without thermal heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khudik, V.; Yi, S. A.; Siemon, C.; Shvets, G. [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, One University Station C1500, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A kinetic model of the monoenergetic acceleration of a target foil irradiated by the circularly polarized laser pulse is developed. The target moves without thermal heating with constant acceleration which is provided by chirping the frequency of the laser pulse and correspondingly increasing its intensity. In the accelerated reference frame, bulk plasma in the target is neutral and its parameters are stationary: cold ions are immobile while nonrelativistic electrons bounce back and forth inside the potential well formed by ponderomotive and electrostatic potentials. It is shown that a positive charge left behind of the moving target in the ion tail and a negative charge in front of the target in the electron sheath form a capacitor whose constant electric field accelerates the ions of the target. The charge separation is maintained by the radiation pressure pushing electrons forward. The scalings of the target thickness and electromagnetic radiation with the electron temperature are found.

  20. Investigation of bit patterned media, thermal flying height control sliders and heat assisted magnetic recording in hard disk drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Hao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissipated Heat in the Wave Guide and Heat Input of thein the absence of heat input into the slider. (a) (b) Figureare “on” with equal heat input (i.e. , P 1 : P 2 = 1 : 1 ,

  1. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY 1981, analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. A study to evaluate thermal storage concepts for a liquid metal receiver was initiated. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts are being studied, including ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

  2. Heat Pump Application- An Industrial Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shukla, D.; Umoh, R.

    of additional compressor work required to lift thermal energy from a low source temperature to a high sink temperature. A reduction of this work improves the heat pump economics. This paper presents the results of a heat pump study conducted by TENSA... technology and by making some process modifications, the compressor work can be reduced significantly. INTRODUCTION Heat pumps, used in conjunction with conventional heat exchangers networks (HEN) provide an effective means for reducing the energy...

  3. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are 100 mm (GW 10 K) and 145 mm (85 mm GW and 60 mm styrol-sponge), respectively. Figure 2 shows the structure of the floor. Low-E pair glasses, whose overall heat transfer coefficient is 2.7 W/m2K, glaze all windows and the solar transmittance is 0... of the water temperature is easy while water flow rate is difficult. 5.5 Usage of Resident 1) design intent and commissioned items: solar shading is controlled by suitably operating the electrically driven blind installed on the outside, which also serves...

  4. Commissioning Process and Operational Improvement in the District Heating and Cooling-APCBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takase,T.; Takada,O; Shima,K.; Moriya, M.; Shimoda,Y.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : 2,900kW TR1,2 Centrifugal Chiller (Constant Speed ) Cooling Capacity : 3,516kW (1,000RT) 2 TR3,4 Inverter Centrifugal Chiller Cooling Capacity : 1,758kW (500RT) 2 BTR1,2 Centrifugal Chiller for Ice Storage Cooling Capacity : 1,571kW (447RT) 2 Ice... Making Capacity : 1297kW (369RT) IST1,2 Ice Storage Tank Capacity of Thermal Storage :11,603kWh (3,300RTh) 2 BO1,2 Hot Water Boiler Heating Capacity : 465kW 2 7 ABOUT THE DHC PLANT ESL-IC-14-09-25 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference...

  5. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

  6. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

  7. Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, S.J.; Stulen, R.H.; Toly, N.F.

    1983-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

  8. Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA); Toly, Norman F. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

  9. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  10. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 3: Plasma hearth process testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, J.M.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffman, D.P.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma hearth process (PHP) presented in this report has been tested at a facility at Ukiah, California, in a cooperative effort between the Department of Energy (DOE), Science Applications International Corporation, Inc., and ReTech, Inc. The electrically heated plasma gas is used to destroy organic materials and bind radionuclides and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals in the glassy slag. Proof-of-principle tests were conducted successfully using nonhazardous and non-radioactive materials placed in 30-gal steel drums. On-line analyses of the gaseous effluents indicated complete combustion; emissions of CO, NO{sub x}, and particulates were low. The process also produced highly stable solid waste forms. The experiments for the next phase have been planned employing surrogates for the hazardous and radioactive components of the simulated waste streams. Natural cerium oxide is selected to simulate the behavior of radioactive actinide and transuranium elements, while natural cesium chloride is simulated for the study of relatively volatile radioactive fission products. For RCRA organics, naphthalene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene are semivolatile compounds selected to represent significant challenges to thermal destruction, whereas chlorobenzene is selected for the study of relatively volatile organics. Salts of chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium are chosen to represent the twelve regulated toxic metals for emission and partitioning studies. The simulated waste packages presented in the text do not necessarily represent an individual waste stream within the DOE complex; rather, they were formulated to represent the most probable components in generic waste stream categories.

  11. Modeling of thermally driven hydrological processes in partially saturated fractured rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Yvonne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of high-level nuclear waste releases heat that will increaseinfinite string of waste containers (heat source) emplacedof fluid and heat flow near high-level waste containers

  12. A study of heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Baum, H.R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process have been studied for general values of the torch speed. Three-dimensional temperature fields have been obtained over the entire cross section of the tube and the effects of tube rotation and localized torch heating in the axial and circumferential directions have been studied. The particle trajectories have been calculated from a formulation that includes the contributions from forced flow, i.e., Poiseuille flow in the axial direction, rigid body rotation about the tube axis, and thermophoretic contributions in the axial, radial, and angular directions. The particle trajectories are helices and are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation.

  13. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  14. Energy Distribution of Heating Processes in the Quiet Solar Sam Krucker 1;2 and Arnold O. Benz 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Distribution of Heating Processes in the Quiet Solar Corona S¨am Krucker 1;2 and Arnold O region of the Sun. The emission measure is found to vary significantly in at least 85% of all the pixels is calculated from the observed increases in emission measure and the derived temperature. Heating events have

  15. New field programmable gate array-based image-oriented acquisition and real-time processing applied to plasma facing component thermal monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, V. [Pulsar Team-Project, INRIA Sophia Antipolis, Sophia Antipolis F-06902 (France); Dunand, G.; Moncada, V. [Sophia Conseil Company, Sophia Antipolis F-06560 (France); Jouve, M.; Travere, J.-M. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During operation of present fusion devices, the plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat fluxes. Understanding and preventing overheating of these components during long pulse discharges is a crucial safety issue for future devices like ITER. Infrared digital cameras interfaced with complex optical systems have become a routine diagnostic to measure surface temperatures in many magnetic fusion devices. Due to the complexity of the observed scenes and the large amount of data produced, the use of high computational performance hardware for real-time image processing is then mandatory to avoid PFC damages. At Tore Supra, we have recently made a major upgrade of our real-time infrared image acquisition and processing board by the use of a new field programmable gate array (FPGA) optimized for image processing. This paper describes the new possibilities offered by this board in terms of image calibration and image interpretation (abnormal thermal events detection) compared to the previous system.

  16. Electrodynamics of Magnetars III: Pair Creation Processes in an Ultrastrong Magnetic Field and Particle Heating in a Dynamic Magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Thompson

    2008-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the details of the QED processes that create electron-positron pairs in magnetic fields approaching and exceeding 10^{14} G. The formation of free and bound pairs is addressed, and the importance of positronium dissociation by thermal X-rays is noted. We calculate the collision cross section between an X-ray and a gamma ray, and point out a resonance in the cross section when the gamma ray is close to the threshold for pair conversion. We also discuss how the pair creation rate in the open-field circuit and the outer magnetosphere can be strongly enhanced by instabilities near the light cylinder. When the current has a strong fluctuating component, a cascade develops. We examine the details of particle heating, and show that a high rate of pair creation can be sustained close to the star, but only if the spin period is shorter than several seconds. The dissipation rate in this turbulent state can easily accommodate the observed radio output of the transient radio-emitting magnetars, and even their infrared emission. Finally, we outline how a very high rate of pair creation on the open magnetic field lines can help to stabilize a static twist in the closed magnetosphere and to regulate the loss of magnetic helicity by reconnection at the light cylinder.

  17. Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  19. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  20. FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF MACROSCOPIC MACHINING PROCESSES -IMPLEMENTATION OF TIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Alfred

    force and heat flux prediction is triggered that calculates the mechanical and thermal load. It is modeled mathematically by linking heat con- duction equation with the deformation equation on a time with a process model for prediction of cutting forces and heat flux, thermal and mechanical effects during

  1. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  2. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  3. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)] [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)] [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  5. Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 <Department ofDepartment ofEnergyFebruaryProcess Heating

  6. Latex and two-roll mill processing of thermally-exfoliated graphite oxide/natural rubber nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latex and two-roll mill processing of thermally-exfoliated graphite oxide/natural rubber t Thermally-exfoliated graphite oxide (TEGO) is a graphene-based material that has been previously shown to graphene-based materials [4]. GO can be exfoliated in water into single-layer graphene oxide platelets

  7. Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    source and cooling water overall (in comparison with normal system 15% of energy saving) -Adopt large-scale ice heat storage system and realize equalization of electricity load -Adopt turbo chiller and heat recovery facilities as high efficiency heat... screw heat pump - 838MJ/? 1 IHP/Water source screw heat pump (Ice storage and heat recovery) Cool water? 3,080MJ/h Ice Storage? 1,936MJ/h Cool water heat recovery? 3,606MJ/h Ice storage heat recovery? 2,448MJ/h 8Unit ?16? TR1 Water cooling turbo...

  8. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  9. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D1ST2630 3Z FORMATI/3X. *HEAT INPUT TO KEBOILER IS NOTlargest source of heat input into the storage system (theresults in a ratio of solar heat input to the two systems of

  10. Heat Hyperbolic Diffusion in Planck Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslaw Kozlowski; Janina Marciak-Kozlowska

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate the diffusion of the thermal pulse in Planck Gas. We show that the Fourier diffusion equation gives the speed of diffusion, v > c and breaks the causality of the thermal processes in Planck gas .For hyperbolic heat transport v

  11. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  12. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  13. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  14. Site-specific investigations of aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D R; Hattrup, M P; Watts, R L

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated using aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) to reduce space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. The work was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Management. The ultimate goal of DOE's Thermal Energy Storage Program is to successfully transfer ATES technology to industrial and commercial sectors. The primary objective of this study was to identify prospective sites and determine the technical and economic feasibility of implementing chill ATES technology. A secondary objective was to identify site-specific factors promoting or inhibiting the application of chill ATES technology so that other potentially attractive sites could be more easily identified and evaluated. A preliminary investigation of the feasibility of commercializing chill ATES in automotive assembly facilities was completed. The results suggested that automotive assembly facilities was completed. The results suggested that automotive assembly facilities represent a good entry market for chill ATES, if the system is cost-effective. As a result, this study was undertaken to identify and evaluate prospective chill ATES applications in the automotive industry. The balance of the report contains two main sections. Section 2.0 describes the site identification process. Site feasibility is addressed in Section 3.0. Overall study conclusions and recommendations are than presented in Section 4.0.

  15. COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS FOR SYNTHESIS OF A MICROWAVE HEATING PROCESS RESULTING IN THE UNIFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    .qwed.com.pl) including the QW Basic Heating Module (QW-BHM) and the QW Heat Flow Module (QW-HFM) responsible for updating

  16. Isolated many-body quantum systems far from equilibrium: Relaxation process and thermalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres-Herrera, E. J.; Santos, Lea F. [Physics Department, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of our recent numerical and analytical results on the dynamics of isolated interacting quantum systems that are taken far from equilibrium by an abrupt perturbation. The studies are carried out on one-dimensional systems of spins-1/2, which are paradigmatic models of many-body quantum systems. Our results show the role of the interplay between the initial state and the post-perturbation Hamiltonian in the relaxation process, the size of the fluctuations after equilibration, and the viability of thermalization.

  17. Thermal stability of TaSi/sub x/-GaAs Schottky barriers in rapid thermal processing. [Self-aligned gate fabrication of GaAs MESFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, T.E.; Han, C.C.; Lau, S.S.; Picraux, S.T.; Chu, W.K.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-sputtered TaSi/sub x/ films on GaAs have been examined as potential refractory Schottky barrier contacts suitable for self-aligned gate fabrication of GaAs MESFETs. Thermal stability of electrical and physical characteristics has been studied following furnace annealing and rapid thermal processing of contacts with compositions near Ta/sub 5/Si/sub 3/ (x = 0.6). Assessment of integrity of the annealed contacts has been made based on measurement of electrical characteristics, interface interdiffusion, and evaporation of GaAs through the contact. Superior stability as a function of anneal temperature up to 900/sup 0/C was achieved for TaSi/sub 0.6/ contacts using rapid thermal processing (RTP) techniques rather than furnace annealing. Current-voltage characteristics were found to be insensitive to RTP temperature between 700 and 900/sup 0/C.

  18. Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1The heating and cooling system used in Osaka’s Nakanoshima district uses heat pumps and river water to achieve the efficient use of the heat source and mitigate the heat... source -Utilize waste heat discharged from substation, and supply in large difference of temperature Water intake Heat exchangers Water discharge Turbo chiller Screw heat pump pumps ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference...

  19. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  20. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  1. Modeling of thermally driven hydrological processes in partially saturated fractured rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Yvonne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the heat source and encounters cooler rock, it condenses,fractured rock near the radioactive-decay heat source isrock, giving rise to a reflux of liquid back to the heat source.

  2. RCS pressure under reduced inventory conditions following a loss of residual heat removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmrose, D.E.; Hughes, E.D.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed-reactor coolant system to loss of residual heat removal (RHR) cooling is investigated. The processes examined include: core coolant boiling and steam generator reflux condensation, pressure increase on the primary side, heat transfer mechanisms on the steam generator primary and secondary sides, and effects of noncondensible gas on heat transfer processes.

  3. RCS pressure under reduced inventory conditions following a loss of residual heat removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmrose, D.E.; Hughes, E.D.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed-reactor coolant system to loss of residual heat removal (RHR) cooling is investigated. The processes examined include: core coolant boiling and steam generator reflux condensation, pressure increase on the primary side, heat transfer mechanisms on the steam generator primary and secondary sides, and effects of noncondensible gas on heat transfer processes.

  4. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  5. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  6. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  7. aerogel thermal isolation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interstitial layers; Isolation of heat affected regions with thermal insulation--aerogels; Dissipation of unwanted thermal energy through efficient heat transfer--heat...

  8. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  9. Numerical analysis of heat transfer by conduction and natural convection in loose-fill fiberglass insulation--effects of convection on thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmas, A.A.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-dimensional code for solving equations of convective heat transfer in porous media is used to analyze heat transfer by conduction and convection in the attic insulation configuration. The particular cases treated correspond to loose-fill fiberglass insulation, which is characterized by high porosity and air permeability. The effects of natural convection on the thermal performance of the insulation are analyzed for various densities, permeabilities, and thicknesses of insulation. With convection increasing the total heat transfer through the insulation, the thermal resistance was found to decrease as the temperature difference across the insulating material increases. The predicted results for the thermal resistance are compared with data obtained in the large-scale climate simulator at the Roof Research Center using the attic test module, where the same phenomenon has already been observed. The way the wood joists within the insulation influence the start of convection is studied for differing thermophysical and dynamic properties of the insulating material. The presence of wood joists induces convection at a lower temperature difference.

  10. Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on an experimental residential retrofit incorporating thermal storage, and extensive subsequent modeling, a commercial design was developed and implemented to use hot thermal storage to significantly reduce electric demand and utility energy...

  11. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  12. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  13. Rheological and thermal study of the curing process of a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin: application to the optimization of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Rheological and thermal study of the curing process of a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin: application-4-67-14-37-80; Fax: 33-4-67-14-40-28 ABSTRACT The curing process of a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin was defined using of structure-properties relationships. Keywords: curing kinetics, epoxy resin, dynamic mechanical properties

  14. Thermal single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests for determining fracture-matrix heat transfer area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.; Doughty, C.

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests involve injection of traced fluid and subsequent tracer recovery from the same well, usually with some quiescent time between the injection and withdrawal periods. SWIW are insensitive to variations in advective processes that arise from formation heterogeneities, because upon withdrawal, fluid parcels tend to retrace the paths taken during injection. However, SWIW are sensitive to diffusive processes, such as diffusive exchange of conservative or reactive solutes between fractures and rock matrix. This paper focuses on SWIW tests in which temperature itself is used as a tracer. Numerical simulations demonstrate the sensitivity of temperature returns to fracture-matrix interaction. We consider thermal SWIW response to the two primary reservoir improvements targeted with stimulation, (1) making additional fractures accessible to injected fluids, and (2) increasing the aperture and permeability of pre-existing fractures. It is found that temperature returns in SWIW tests are insensitive to (2), while providing a strong signal of more rapid temperature recovery during the withdrawal phase for (1).

  15. An experimental study on the effect of ultrasonication on viscosity and heat transfer performance of aqueous suspensions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Paritosh

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    transfer. The impact of ultrasonication energy on CNT nanofluids processing, and the corresponding effects on flow and thermal properties were studied in detail. The properties measured were viscosity, thermal conductivity and the convective heat transfer...

  16. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Trimmer Dist. Condenser Turbine Steam Leaks LP TurbineWaste Heat Trimmer Turbine Steam Leaks LP Turbine CondenserHR) CARRIED BY LP TURBINE STEAM. *STC OFL RH ll~ PRESSURE

  17. Liquid-vapour phase change and multiphase flow heat transfer in single micro-channels using pure liquids and nano-fluids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuan

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat management in high thermal-density systems such as CPU chips, nuclear reactors and compact heat exchangers is confronting rising challenges due to ever more miniaturized and intensified processes. While searching ...

  18. How to Put the Dollar Value on Waste Heat Recovery in the Process Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campagne, W. V. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste heat recovery projects should be evaluated on their actual fuel savings and not on Btu recovery. By equating waste heat recovery with potential steam savings, the fuel (or dollar) values of the waste heat as function of its temperature can...

  19. How to Put the Dollar Value on Waste Heat Recovery in the Process Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campagne, W. V. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste heat recovery projects should be evaluated on their actual fuel savings and not on Btu recovery. By equating waste heat recovery with potential steam savings, the fuel (or dollar) values of the waste heat as function of its temperature can...

  20. Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L., E-mail: vlmathe@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Das, A. K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 125–1000?Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6?kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

  1. Rapid thermal annealing of ion implanted 6H-SiC by microwave processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, J.A.; Rao, M.V.; Tian, Y.L. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Holland, O.W.; Roth, E.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chi, P.H. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ahmad, I. [FM Technologies, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid thermal processing utilizing microwave energy has been used to anneal N, P, and Al ion-implanted 6H-SiC. The microwaves raise the temperature of the sample at a rate of 200{degree}C/min vs 10{degree}C/min for conventional ceramic furnace annealing. Samples were annealed in the temperature range of 1400-1700{degree}C for 2-10 min. The implanted/annealed samples were characterized using van der Pauw Hall, Rutherford backscattering, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. For a given annealing temperature, the characteristics of the microwave-annealed material are similar to those of conventional furnace anneals despite the difference in cycle time. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Deployment of an innovative thermally enhanced soil mixing process augmented with zero-valent iron.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, P. L.

    1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative in-situ soil treatment process, referred to as soil mixing/thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction (SM/TESVE), was used to remediate the 317 Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (i.e., Argonne), which is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Following the initial soil treatment, polishing was required to reduce residual concentrations of contaminants. A study of polishing methods was conducted. It determined that injecting metallic iron particles into the soil, in conjunction with soil mixing, would reduce residual VOC concentrations more effectively than the original conventional soil ventilation approach. After the effectiveness of iron injection was verified, it replaced the soil ventilation step. The modified process involved mixing the soil while hot air and steam were injected into it. Off-gases were captured in a hood over the treatment area. During this process, an iron slurry, consisting of up to 50% iron particles in water with guar gum added as a thickening agent, was injected and mixed into the soil by the mixing equipment. Approximately 6,246 m{sup 3} (8, 170 yd{sup 3}) of soil was treated during this project. Confirmatory samples were then collected. In these samples, VOC concentrations were usually reduced by more than 80%.

  3. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970`s and 1980`s in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures ({approx} 525--600{degree}C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB`s) with 99.9999% (``six-nines``) destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste.

  4. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief. Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Brochure).

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122 DOE Technologies Office2 DOEandMaterials

  5. Industrial food processing and space heating with geothermal heat. Final report, February 16, 1979-August 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunze, J.F.; Marlor, J.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A competitive aware for a cost sharing program was made to Madison County, Idaho to share in a program to develop moderate-to-low temperature geothermal energy for the heating of a large junior college, business building, public shcools and other large buildings in Rexburg, Idaho. A 3943 ft deep well was drilled at the edge of Rexburg in a region that had been probed by some shallower test holes. Temperatures measured near the 4000 ft depth were far below what was expected or needed, and drilling was abandoned at that depth. In 1981 attempts were made to restrict downward circulation into the well, but the results of this effort yielded no higher temperatures. The well is a prolific producer of 70/sup 0/F water, and could be used as a domestic water well.

  6. Materials Reliability Program: Development of a New Process for Calculating RPV Heat-Up and Cool-Down Curves - Proof of Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. EricksonKirk

    2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A strategy and framework were developed for incorporating best-estimate, fracture toughness models and methodologies into procedures for fracture safety assessment of nuclear RPVs during normal heat-up and cool-down operations. The process included detailed process flow diagramming to identify all details of the current process for obtaining heat-up and cool-down curves.

  7. absorption heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating capacity k jet nozzle Closed Cycles: AbsorptionAdsorption heat pump thermal compressor driven by waste heat1 Industrial heat pumps in Germany - potentials,...

  8. absorption heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating capacity k jet nozzle Closed Cycles: AbsorptionAdsorption heat pump thermal compressor driven by waste heat1 Industrial heat pumps in Germany - potentials,...

  9. Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

  10. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with heat recovery, solar thermal collection, and thermallynatural gas combustion solar thermal CHP heat storageelectric load thermal storage solar thermal storage charging

  11. Overshooting by differential heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrássy, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the long nuclear time scale of stellar main-sequence evolution, even weak mixing processes can become relevant for redistributing chemical species in a star. We investigate a process of "differential heating," which occurs when a temperature fluctuation propagates by radiative diffusion from the boundary of a convection zone into the adjacent radiative zone. The resulting perturbation of the hydrostatic equilibrium causes a flow that extends some distance from the convection zone. We study a simplified differential-heating problem with a static temperature fluctuation imposed on a solid boundary. The astrophysically relevant limit of a high Reynolds number and a low P\\'eclet number (high thermal diffusivity) turns out to be interestingly non-intuitive. We derive a set of scaling relations for the stationary differential heating flow. A numerical method adapted to a high dynamic range in flow amplitude needed to detect weak flows is presented. Our two-dimensional simulations show that the flow reaches a sta...

  12. Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system-an energy efficiency and environment friendly system-is becoming popular in many parts of China. However, an imbalance usually exists between the annual heat extracted from and rejected to the ground due...

  13. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  14. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE`s Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford`s MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford`s calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  15. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L. (Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, Mail Stop N1-42, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States))

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A shielded storage rack has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which processes and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGs. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  16. The cyclo-synchrotron process and particle heating through the absorption of photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Katarzynski; G. Ghisellini; R. Svensson; J. Gracia

    2006-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new approximation for the cyclo-synchrotron emissivity of a single electron. In the second part of this work, we discuss a simple application for our approximation, and investigate the heating of electrons through the self-absorption process. Finally, we investigate the self-absorbed part of the spectrum produced by a power-law population of electrons. In comparison to earlier approximations, our formula provides a few significant advantages. Integration of the emissivity over the whole frequency range, starting from the proper minimal emitting frequency, gives the correct cooling rate for any energy particle. Further, the spectrum of the emission is well approximated over the whole frequency range, even for relatively low particle energies (beta energy particles, independent of the shape of the particle distribution responsible for the self-absorbed synchrotron emission. We find that the energy gains for low energy particles are always higher than energy losses by cyclo-synchrotron emission. We show also that the spectral index of the self-absorbed part of the spectrum at very low frequencies differs significantly from the well known standard relation I(nu) ~ nu^(5/2).

  17. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy, geo-thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wastedenergy, geothermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heatthermal energy, geo/ocean-thermal energy, wasted heat in

  18. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

  19. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) BestPractices: Process Heating (Fact sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMayEnergy Metal Organic Heat Carriers

  20. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating purposes. BACKGROUND The reduction of heat transfer rates by the use of thermal infraredheating applications should become available on the marketplace. Due to their high reflectivity to thermal infrared

  1. Characterization of oxygen and nitrogen rapid thermal annealing processes for ultra-low-k SiCOH films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Characterization of oxygen and nitrogen rapid thermal annealing processes for ultra-low-k Si is suggested and characterized in this work for improvement of SiCOH ultra-low-k (k 2.4) film properties. Low is decreased, and the ultra-low-k films (k

  2. Experimental Measurement of the Interface Heat Conductance Between Nonconforming Beryllium and Type 316 Stainless Steel Surfaces Subjected to Nonuniform Thermal Deformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelson, Robert Dean; Abdou, Mohamed A. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In fusion blanket designs that employ beryllium as a neutron multiplier, the interface conductance h plays a key role in evaluating the blanket's thermal profile. Therefore, an extensive experimental program was conducted to measure the magnitude of h between nonconforming beryllium and Type 316 stainless steel surfaces subjected to nonuniform thermal deformations. The magnitude of h was measured as a function of relevant environmental, surface, and geometric parameters, including surface roughness, contact pressure, gas pressure, gas type, and magnitude and direction of heat flow. The results indicate the following: (a) Decreasing the interfacial surface roughness from 6.28 to 0.28 {mu}m, in 760 Torr of helium, increased the magnitude of h by up to 100%; however, increasing the surface roughness reduced the dependence of h on the magnitude of the contact pressure. (b) The interface conductance was significantly higher for measurements made in helium gas as opposed to air. Additionally, the sensitivity of h to the gas pressure was significantly greater for runs conducted in helium and/or with smoother surfaces. This sensitivity was reduced in air and/or with roughened surfaces, and it was essentially nonexistent for the 6.25-{mu}m specimen for air pressures exceeding 76 Torr. (c) For runs conducted in vacuum, the interface conductance was more sensitive to heat flux than when runs were conducted in 760 Torr of helium. (d) The interface conductance was found to be dependent on the direction of heat flux. When the specimens were arranged so that heat flowed from the steel to the beryllium disk, the magnitude of h was generally greater than in the opposite direction.

  3. Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop: New Concepts and Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat-Transfer Fluids, May 20, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes a workshop on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) that was held in Golden, Colorado, on May 20, 2011. The event was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. The objective was to engage the university and laboratory research communities to identify and define research directions for developing new high-temperature materials and systems that advance thermal energy storage for CSP technologies. This workshop was motivated, in part, by the DOE SunShot Initiative, which sets a very aggressive cost goal for CSP technologies -- a levelized cost of energy of 6 cents per kilowatt-hour by 2020 with no incentives or credits.

  4. Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and Thermal/Energy Sciences Naval Postgraduate School Monterey-track faculty position at the assistant professor level in the areas of Heat Transfer and Thermal/Fluid Sciences

  5. Thermal Processing Effects on Microstructure and Composition of Cu3SbSe3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majsztrik, Paul W [ORNL; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Garcia Negron, Valerie [Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (PUPR); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Skoug, Eric [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Morelli, Donald [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the effects of thermal processing on the microstructure and composition of a system with overall stoichiometry of 3Cu:1Sb:3Se with the aim of producing single-phase Cu3SbSe3. It was found that slowly cooling from the melt produced a multiphase material consisting of Cu2Se and CuSbSe2, but devoid of Cu3SbSe3. Cooling rapidly from the melt resulted in three-phase microstructures consisting of Cu2Se, CuSbSe2, and Cu3SbSe3. Subsequent annealing of the three-phase material between 325 C and 400 C shifted composition towards nearly pure Cu3SbSe3, the target compound of this work. The kinetics of the transformation into Cu3SbSe3 is successfully described using a modified Avrami model, which suggests that diffusion is the rate-controlling step. Values of Young s modulus and hardness, obtained by nanoindentation, are reported for Cu2Se, CuSbSe2, and Cu3SbSe3.

  6. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  7. Wafer heating mechanisms in a molecular gas, inductively coupled plasma: in situ, real time wafer surface measurements and three-dimensional thermal modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titus, M. J.; Graves, D. B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report measurements and modeling of wafer heating mechanisms in an Ar/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The authors employed a commercially available on-wafer sensor system (PlasmaTemp developed by KLA-Tencor) consisting of an on-board electronics module housing battery power and data storage with 30 temperature sensors embedded onto the wafer at different radial positions. This system allows for real time, in situ wafer temperature measurements. Wafer heating mechanisms were investigated by combining temperature measurements from the PlasmaTemp sensor wafer with a three-dimensional heat transfer model of the wafer and a model of the ICP. Comparisons between pure Ar and Ar/O{sub 2} discharges demonstrated that two additional wafer heating mechanisms can be important in molecular gas plasmas compared to atomic gas discharges. The two mechanisms are heating from the gas phase and O-atom surface recombination. These mechanisms were shown to contribute as much as 60% to wafer heating under conditions of low bias power. This study demonstrated how the 'on-wafer' temperature sensor not only yields a temperature profile distribution across the wafer, but can be used to help determine plasma characteristics, such as ion flux profiles or plasma processing temperatures.

  8. Thermal Performance of a Novel Heat Transfer Fluid Containing Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumuluri, Kalpana

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present research work aims to develop a new heat transfer fluid by combining multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). Stable nanofluids have been prepared using different sizes of multiwalled...

  9. Thermal Performance of a Novel Heat Transfer Fluid Containing Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumuluri, Kalpana

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present research work aims to develop a new heat transfer fluid by combining multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). Stable nanofluids have been prepared using different sizes of multiwalled...

  10. Two typical processes ... Isentropic("mechanical" reversible, elastic)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    is coupled and accompanied with energy conversions and dissipation to heat/thermal energy ... Carnot cycle12/28/2011 1 Two typical processes ... · Isentropic("mechanical" reversible, elastic) where useful provides for de-coupling of thermal energy from other types and, YES!, for reversible heat transfer

  11. Proceedings: Heat exchanger workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer processes are of controlling importance in the operation of a thermal power plant. Heat exchangers are major cost items and are an important source of problems causing poor power plant availability and performance. A workshop to examine the improvements that can be made to heat exchangers was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on June 10-11, 1986, in Palo Alto, California. This workshop was attended by 25 engineers and scientists representing EPRI-member utilities and EPRI consultants. A forum was provided for discussions related to the design, operation and maintenance of utility heat transfer equipment. The specific objectives were to identify research directions that could significantly improve heat exchanger performance, reliability and life cycle economics. Since there is a great diversity of utility heat transfer equipment in use, this workshop addressed two equipment categories: Boiler Feedwater Heaters (FWH) and Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG). The workshop was divided into the following panel sessions: functional design, mechanical design, operation, suggested research topics, and prioritization. Each panel session began with short presentations by experts on the subject and followed by discussions by the attendees. This report documents the proceedings of the workshop and contains recommendations of potentially valuable areas of research and development. 4 figs.

  12. Thermodynamics -2 A cogeneration plant (plant which provides both electricity and thermal energy) executes a cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    ) executes a cycle while receiving from a thermal reservoir at 900 K, supplying heat to a process at 400 K, rejecting heat to the environment at 325 K, and producing power. In the cycle shown, steam enters at P3 = 30 kPa. All components of the plant are well insulated, pressure drops in heat exchangers

  13. Fabrication process development for micro heat pipes using orientation dependent etching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Akther Salehuddin

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between the chip and the working fluid. FINS CONOENSER WICK sELLows sacrloN GROOVE EVAPORAIOR CHIP Fig. 2. Indirect heat pipe application of Eldridge and Peterson [14] Kroman et al (1986) proposed an integral heat pipe where heat generated... wafer would have to be vertically etched to obtain that structure. 23 NOZZLE CHARGING EL ECTROOE DEFLECTION PLATES PAPER (IOO SI I V O N 4I (IIO) n-Sl P I I n-SI . 5mm ~ ~ ~ ~ 4I250 V ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ 7. 5 mm ~ i ~ ~ GUTTER Oto...

  14. Acoustic sensor for real-time control for the inductive heating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, John Bruce; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a system and method for providing closed-loop control of the heating of a workpiece by an induction heating machine, including generating an acoustic wave in the workpiece with a pulsed laser; optically measuring displacements of the surface of the workpiece in response to the acoustic wave; calculating a sub-surface material property by analyzing the measured surface displacements; creating an error signal by comparing an attribute of the calculated sub-surface material properties with a desired attribute; and reducing the error signal below an acceptable limit by adjusting, in real-time, as often as necessary, the operation of the inductive heating machine.

  15. Heat transfer and oil displacement models for tar sands reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, C.E.; Ward, G.D.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat transfer model and one dimensional displacement model applicable to tar sands and heavy oils for use with a microcomputer are presented. The convective heat transfer model describes the temperature profiles in a thermal operation. The displacement model offers insight into the effect of process variables on the steam/oil or air/oil ratio of thermal operations. A method is presented for predicting the fuel burn in a fireflood.

  16. Enhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic field processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    of thermal conductance in a composite material assuming a linear law of mixing, and nanotube­polymerEnhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube CNT -polymer composites are significantly enhanced

  17. Thermal imaging measurement of lateral thermal diffusivity in continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J. G.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

    2000-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared thermal imaging has become a common technique for nondestructive evaluation and measurement of thermal properties in ceramic specimens. Flash thermal imaging can be used to determine two-dimensional through-thickness thermal diffusivity in a planar specimen. In this study, the authors extended the method to determine lateral, or transverse, thermal diffusivity in the specimen. During the flash thermal imaging test, pulsed heat energy is applied to a specimen's back surface, which is partially shielded, and the change of temperature distribution on the front surface is monitored by an infrared thermal imaging system. The temperature distribution represents the effect of both the normal heat transfer through the specimen's thickness and the lateral heat transfer through the interface between the shielded and unshielded back-surface regions. Those temperature distributions are then fitted with a theoretical solution of the heat transfer process to determine the lateral thermal diffusivity at the interface. This technique has been applied to measure lateral thermal diffusivity in a steel plate and a continuous fiber ceramic composite specimen.

  18. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows and stream conditions in steam power cycle. Table 4.1in the low-temperature reactor system. Steam power cycle 8.1Heat Storage System for a Solar Steam Power Plant." 12th

  19. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat available at night) Gas Turbine Work Table 3.2. StreamTurbine (small turbine) Gas Turbine Parasitic Power BFW PumpHours) Generator Terminals Gas Turbine Parasitic Power BFW

  20. Surface Reductive Capacity of Carbon Nanomaterials after Various Heating and Aging Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chunghoon

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , commercially available carbon black, carbon nanotubes, standard reference materials, fullerenes, graphenes and acetylene soot generated in the lab were used. The carbon nanomaterials were subjected to heating at various temperatures in various atmospheres up...