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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Solar Thermal Process Heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarThermalProcessHeat&oldid267198" Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

2

List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Process Heat Incentives Process Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 204 Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 204) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas Other Distributed Generation Technologies Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Solar Pool Heating Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Process Heat

3

Thermal Processes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

4

Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock-0210 Phone: (937) 229-2852 Fax: (937) 229-4766 Email: Kelly.Kissock@notes.udayton.edu ABSTRACT Open tanks

Kissock, Kelly

5

Integration of solar thermal energy into processes with heat demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An integration of solar thermal energy can reduce the utility cost and the environmental impact. A proper integration of solar thermal energy is required in order to achieve ... objective of this study is to maxi...

Andreja Nemet; Zdravko Kravanja…

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This technical brief is a guide to selecting high-temperature metallic materials for use in process heating applications such as burners, electrical heating elements, material handling, load support, and heater tubes, etc.

7

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Fundamental heat transfer processes related to phase change thermal storage media  

SciTech Connect

Research on fundamental heat transfer processes which occur in phase-change thermal storage systems is described. The research encompasses both melting and freezing, and includes both experiment and analysis. The status of four research problems is discussed. One of the freezing problems was focused on investigating, via experiment, the extent to which freezing can be enhanced by the attachment of fins to the external surface of a cooled vertical tube situated in a liquid phase-change medium. Very substantial enhancements were encountered which neutralize the degradation of freezing due to the thermal resistance of the frozen layer and to natural convection in the liquid phase. The second of the freezing problems was analytical in nature and sought to obtain solutions involving both the phase-change medium and the heat transfer fluid used either to add heat to or extract heat from the medium. For freezing on a plane wall, it was possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution, while for freezing about a coolant-carrying circular tube, a new numerical methodology was devised to obtain finite-difference solutions. For melting, quantitative design-quality heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally for melting adjacent to a heated vertical tube. These experiments explored the effects of solid-phase subcooling and of open versus closed top containment on the coefficients. A dimensionless correlation enables these results to be used for a wide range of phase-change media. Studies on melting of a phase-change material situated within a circular tube are in progress.

Sparrow, E. M.; Ramsey, J. W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Thermal Energy Storage/Heat Recovery and Energy Conservation in Food Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

discharges can be made more economically attrac tank holding several thousand gallons of water tive by incorporating thermal energy storage in a maintained at 128-130?F. This scald tank is con heat recovery system. Thermal energy storage can stantly... the ultimate energy end use. of wasting this hot water to the plant drain, a heat A project conducted by the Georgia Tech exchanger was installed at the Gold Kist plant to Engineering Experiment Station to demonstrate preheat scald tank makeup water...

Combes, R. S.; Boykin, W. B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment:...

11

Optimization and heat integration of hollow fiber based thermal swing adsorption process for CO2 capture from flue gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work studies the optimization of a hollow fiber contactor operated in a rapid temperature swing adsorption (RTSA) mode for CO2 capture from flue gas. A hollow fiber contactor enables rapid heat and mass transfer and an efficient heat integration whereby parasitic loads on power plants can be reduced significantly compared to the traditional thermal swing adsorption processes. In this paper we employ a dynamic optimization strategy to predict the optimal operating conditions of a hollow fiber RTSA process for different process design objectives. The objective function considered was to maximize the feed throughput of the process with constraints for the required CO2 purity and recovery. Furthermore, the external heat and cold utilities must be minimized. The optimization requires a dynamic heat integration i.e. redistributing the hot and cold stream outlet between different parts of a cycle which is challenging and unconventional. This has been performed using a binary decision variable which switches the outlet water stream between hot and cold tanks. We also show that a multi- objective optimization approach can be employed to determine the optimal trade-off between heat duty and process throughput. Optimization was performed using a single discretization approach within gPROMS.

Subramanian Swernath; Fateme Rezaei; Jayashree Kalyanaraman; Ryan. P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Domestic Heating and Thermal Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... DIGEST 133 of the Building Research Station, entitled "Domestic Heating and Thermal Insulation" (Pp. 7. London : H.M. Stationery Office, 1960. 4insulation, the standard of heating, the ventilation-rate and the length of the heating season ...

1960-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

13

Thermal energy recovery of low grade waste heat in hydrogenation process; Återvinning av lågvärdig spillvärme från en hydreringsprocess.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The waste heat recovery technologies have become very relevant since many industrial plants continuously reject large amounts of thermal energy during normal operation which… (more)

Hedström, Sofia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Solar Thermal Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of solar energy for desalination purposes was one of ... The process is based on the use of solar thermal energy to evaporate water, thus separating pure ... brine. In this chapter an overview of solar thermal

M.T. Chaibi; Ali M. El-Nashar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Proceedings of the ASME Heat Transfer Division. Volume 4: Natural convection within a horizontal circular cylinder heated from below and cooled from above; Numerical methods for coupled fluid-thermal-structural interaction; Thermal analysis in waste processing and disposal; Heat transfer in fire and combustion systems; HTD-Volume 335  

SciTech Connect

The first two sections as listed in the title contain 7 papers. The third section on thermal analysis contains 18 papers arranged into the following topical areas: Thermal treatment and municipal wastes; Thermal hydraulics in hazardous and nuclear waste processing and disposal; and Waste processing. Heat transfer in fire and combustion systems contains 17 papers arranged into the following topical sections: Soot/radiation; Combustion systems; Multiphase combustion; and Flames and fires. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Pepper, D.W. [ed.] [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Douglass, R.W. [ed.] [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heinrich, J.C. [ed.] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) introduces methods to improve thermal efficiency of heating equipment. This tool helps industrial users survey process heating equipment that consumes fuel, steam, or electricity, and identifies the most energy-intensive equipment. The tool can be used to perform a heat balance that identifies major areas of energy use under various operating conditions and test "what-if" scenarios for various options to reduce energy use.

17

Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850��������C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys���¢�������� weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation on Cr-carbide on the graphite surface. Ni-electroplating dramatically reduced corrosion of alloys, although some diffusion of Fe and Cr were observed occur through the Ni plating. A pyrolytic carbon and SiC (PyC/SiC) CVD coating was also investigated and found to be effective in mitigating corrosion. The KCl-MgCl2 molten salt was less corrosive than FLiNaK fluoride salts for corrosion tests performed at 850oC. Cr dissolution in the molten chloride salt was still observed and consequently Ni-201 and Hastelloy N exhibited the least depth of attack. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (as measured by weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. Because Cr dissolution is an important mechanism of corrosion, molten salt electrochemistry experiments were initiated. These experiments were performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Using this technique, the reduction potential of Cr was determined against a Pt quasi-reference electrode as well as against a Ni(II)-Ni reference electrode in molten FLiNaK at 650 oC. The integrated current increased linearly with Cr-content in the salt, providing for a direct assessment of the Cr concentration in a given salt of unknown Cr concentration. To study heat transfer mechanisms in these molten salts over the forced and mixed convection regimes, a forced convective loop was constructed to measure heat transfer coefficients, friction factors and corrosion rates in different diameter tubes in a vertical up flow configuration in the laminar flow regime. Equipment and instrumentation for the forced convective loop was designed, constructed, and tested. These include a high temperature centrifugal pump, mass flow meter, and differential pressure sensing capabilities to an uncertainty of < 2 Pa. The heat transfer coefficient for the KCl-MgCl2 salt was measured in t

Kumar Sridharan; Mark Anderson; Todd Allen; Michael Corradini

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

Solar Industrial Process Heat Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An overview of state of the art in producing industrial process heat via solar energy is presented. End-use matching methodology for assessing solar industrial process heat application potential is described f...

E. Özil

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort  

SciTech Connect

Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

Jalalzadeh, A. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Modeling Thermal-Hydrologic Processes for a Heated Fractured Rock System: Impact of a Capillary-Pressure Maximum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

drift-scale thermal test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Lawrencemechanical analyses of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test–waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The modeling

Sun, Y.; Buscheck, T. A.; Lee, K. H.; Hao, Y.; James, S. C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Process Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Roadmap for Process Heating Technology Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems Save Energy Now in Your Process...

22

Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and refrigeration systems. In many instances these real heat engines may appear as a complex process consisting of flash vessels, heat exchangers, compressors, furnaces, etc. See Figure 18a, which shows a simplified diagram of a "steam Rankine cycle." How... and rejection profiles of the real machine. For example, the heat acceptance and re jection profiles for the steam Rankine cycle shown in Figure 18a have been drawn on T,H coordinates in Figure 18b. Thus providing we know the heat acceptance and rejection...

Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

23

Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power.

24

Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable...

25

NREL: Learning - Solar Process Heat  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Process Heat Process Heat Photo of part of one side of a warehouse wall, where a perforated metal exterior skin is spaced about a foot out from the main building wall to form part of the transpired solar collector system. A transpired collector is installed at a FedEx facility in Denver, Colorado. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be impractical for a home. These technologies include ventilation air preheating, solar process heating, and solar cooling. Space Heating Many large buildings need ventilated air to maintain indoor air quality. In cold climates, heating this air can use large amounts of energy. But a

26

SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT Thomas F.CENTRAL RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE progressCorporation, RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE I,

Baldwin, Thomas F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under the Thermal Storage FOA, plans to develop a prototype thermal energy storage...

28

Effect of nanofluids on thermal performance of heat pipes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? A relatively new way for utilizing the thermal performance of heat pipes is to use nanofluids as working fluids in the heat pipes. Heat… (more)

Ferizaj, Drilon

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Storage in Solar Process Heat Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The subject of this paper is the integration of solar energy into industrial heat supply systems – focusing on the use of solar tanks. Within the framework of the project “Solar Process Heat Standards” funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) load profiles of electroplating processes were measured, a typical load profile was described and simulations were done regarding the dimensioning of the solar tank volume. Depending on the load profile and process temperature, either a large tank volume or a tank-less system leads to the highest solar yields. Furthermore, a new concept of hydraulic tank integration is presented. It facilitates the quick supply of high solar temperatures which are often demanded for solar process heat applications. State of the art tank integration makes the solar system thermally inert, while simulations and measurements have already proven a considerable advantage of the new alternative. Moreover four solar process heat applications are analyzed; three belong to the electroplating industry while the fourth uses solar energy for heating water in the food industry (193 – 570 m2). Especially two of the four solar process heat plants presented severe operating errors and a high optimizing potential. One solar plant was improved in order to facilitate the new storage concept. This modification ensures the possibility of shifting between the conventional storage integration and the innovative approach for a comparative evaluation.

Sebastian Schramm; Mario Adam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Changing World Technologies' Changing World Technologies' Thermal Conversion Process Commercial Demonstration Plant DOE/EA 1506 Weld County, Colorado December 2004 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GOLDEN FIELD OFFICE 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology Commercial Demonstration - Weld County, CO TABLE OF CONTENTS Environmental Assessment Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology Commercial Demonstration Project Weld County, Colorado SUMMARY............................................................................................................................. S-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1-1 1.1. National Environmental Policy Act and Related Procedures...........................1-1

31

The effect of thermal contact resistance on heat management in the electronic packaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of thermal contact resistance on heat management in the electronic packaging M. Grujicic the role of thermal contact resistance on heat management within a simple central processing unit (CPU interface materials on the maximum temperature experienced by the CPU. Two classes of thermal interface

Grujicic, Mica

32

Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids and Novel Thermal Storage Concepts...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Lehigh University: Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Terrafore: Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten...

34

Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

Not Available

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of...

36

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Cross-cutting Research and Development Priorities Speaker(s): Sachin Nimbalkar Date: January 17, 2013 - 11:00am Location: 90-2063 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Aimee McKane Waste heat is generated from several industrial systems used in manufacturing. The waste heat sources are distributed throughout a plant. The largest source for most industries is exhaust / flue gases or heated air from heating systems. This includes the high temperature gases from burners in process heating, lower temperature gases from heat treat, dryers, and heaters, heat from heat exchangers, cooling liquids and gases etc. The previous studies and direct contact with the industry as well as equipment suppliers have shown that a large amount of waste heat is not

37

Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Management Options Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases - combustion products - Temperature from 300 deg. F. to 3000 deg.F. * Radiation-Convection heat loss - From temperature source of 500 deg. F. to 2500 deg. F. * Sensible-latent heat in heated product - From temperature 400 deg. F. to 2200 deg. F. * Cooling water or other liquids - Temperature from 100 deg. F. to 180 deg. F.

38

Flow and heat transfer in porous micro heat sink for thermal management of high power LEDs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel porous micro heat sink system is presented for thermal management of high power LEDs, which has high heat transport capability. The operational principle and heat transfer characteristics of porous micro heat sink are analyzed. Numerical model ... Keywords: Heat dissipation, High heat flux, High power LEDs, Porous media, Porous micro heat sink

Z. M. Wan; J. Liu; K. L. Su; X. H. Hu; S. S. M

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Choose the best heat-recovery method for thermal oxidizers  

SciTech Connect

Thermal oxidation is current the most economically favorable add-on method of controlling hydrocarbon air emissions of moderate to low concentration (below 10,000 ppm). This concentration range covers emissions from a wide variety of chemical process industries (CPI) sources, including dryers, reactor vents, tank vents, and coaters. Thermal oxidizer systems consist of three basic sub-systems--burner, combustion chamber, and primary heat recovery. Selecting the type of primary heat recovery is probably the most important decision in the design of a thermal oxidizer, and requires consideration of a wide range of factors. The two most widely used types of primary heat recovery--recuperative and regenerative--each have distinct advantages and disadvantages. In general, recuperative oxidizers are simpler and less costly to purchase, whereas regenerative oxidizers offer substantially lower operating costs. Selecting between recuperative and regenerative heat recovery requires balancing a number of factors, such as capital and operating costs, exhaust gas composition and temperature, and secondary heat demand. This article provides guidance on when, where, and how to use each.

Klobucar, J.M.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Economics of Nuclear Process Heat Applications  

SciTech Connect

Attractive applications for nuclear process heat are driven primarily by the opportunity to displace natural gas and other premium fuels, and to respond to incentives to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Using high temperature process heat to provide the heat of reaction in steam reforming of natural gas is one of the most promising applications and serves to maximize the production of synthesis gas from available methane. High temperature water-splitting technologies are also being developed that can reduce the amount of electricity needed and maximize the role of thermal energy that can be provided by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Production of steam for oil sands and viscous liquids recovery represents another opportunity for nuclear process heat to displace natural gas. This paper presents the results of conceptual design work and economics developed for these applications, and highlights the levels of investment that will be required and the sensitivities to key drivers like the future price of natural gas and other fuels, and the values placed on CO{sub 2} emissions. (authors)

Kuhr, Reiner W. [Stone and Webster Management Consultants, Inc., One Main Street, Cambridge MA 02142 (United States); Bolthrunis, Charles; Corbett, Michael [Shaw Stone and Webster Process, One Main Street, Cambridge MA 02142 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Provider Energy Efficiency '''''This program reopened on October 3, 2011 for 2012 applications. Funding is limited and must be reserved through online application before the installation of qualifying solar water heating systems. See Gulf Power's [http://www.gulfpower.com/renewable/solarThermal.asp Solar Water Heating] web site for more information.''''' Gulf Power offers a Solar Thermal Water Heating rebate to customers who install water heaters. This program started after the original pilot

42

Underhood Thermal Management [Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Underhood Thermal Underhood Thermal Management Capabilities Engineering Computation and Design Engineering and Structural Mechanics Systems/Component Design, Engineering and Drafting Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Overview Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems Underhood Thermal Management Combustion Simulations Advanced Model and Methodology Development Multi-physics Reactor Performance and Safety Simulations Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Bookmark and Share Underhood Thermal Management Hybrid Vehicle Underhood Thermal Analysis Hybrid Vehicle Underhood Thermal Analysis. Click on image to view larger image. In addition to nuclear system applications, the section applies its

43

Thermal Conductivity of Composites Under Di erent Heating Scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal Conductivity of Composites Under Di#11;erent Heating Scenarios H.T. Banks #3; , J.H. Hogan of composites under three di#11;erent heating scenarios: (i) a laser pulse heat source, (ii) a preheated composite sample, and (iii) a continuous heat source. 1 Introduction Adhesives such as epoxies, gels

44

Training: Process Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Process Heating System Assessment - 1-day workshop Availability: Onsite instructor-led and online self-paced workshop This workshop provides an introduction to process...

45

Use of Thermal Energy Storage to Enhance the Recovery and Utilization of Industrial Waste Heat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

evaluation involving process data from 12 industrial plants to determine if thermal energy storage (TES) systems can be used with commercially available energy management equipment to enhance the recovery and utilization of industrial waste heat. Results...

McChesney, H. R.; Bass, R. W.; Landerman, A. M.; Obee, T. N.; Sgamboti, C. T.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Heat transfer and thermal management of electric vehicle batteries with phase change materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines a passive thermal management system for electric vehicle batteries, consisting of encapsulated phase change material ( ... process to absorb the heat generated by a battery. A new configuratio...

M. Y. Ramandi; I. Dincer; G. F. Naterer

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Thermal response of a flat heat pipe sandwich structure to a localized heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metal foam wick and distilled water as the working fluid. Heat was applied via a propane torch and radiative heat transfer. A novel method was developed to estimate experimentally, the heat flux distribution rights reserved. Keywords: Flat heat pipe; Thermal spreader; Heat transfer; Evaporator; Condenser 1

Wadley, Haydn

48

Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams  

SciTech Connect

The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Scale control in thermal desalination processes  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desalination processes involve the heating of seawater to form water vapor which is then condensed to produce salt free water. Multiple Effect Evaporation (ME) and Multiple-Stage Flash distillation (MSF) are the two main processes used for thermal distillation. MSF distillation, currently is the dominant process. MSF distillation is run under pressure at relatively high temperatures (90--125 C). Scale formation is one of the most critical problems affecting both processes. In the case of MSF, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide and calcium sulfate are the main scale forming salts. The first two scale forming salts are usually controlled by keeping neutral the pH of the system by the addition of acid. Scale inhibitors are used to prevent calcium sulfate scale. Because of economical reasons, the trend in the industry is to operate systems at as high a temperature and concentration factor as possible in order to increase purified water production at a lower cost. Safety concerns have also increased the need for acid feed elimination as a mean of controlling pH. These practices increased the scaling tendencies in MSF processes and created the need for more effective treatment programs to control scale formation on heat exchangers. A new multi-component inhibitor program that enable operation of MSF systems without the need of acid feed for pH control has been developed. The program prevent scale formation and allows to operate the system under typical or higher concentration factors and temperatures than normally found in MSF evaporators operating with acid feed.

Perez, L.A.; Polizzotti, D.M. [BetzDearborn, Trevose, PA (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Thermal analysis of an innovative heat pump operated desalination plant  

SciTech Connect

Sea and brackish water desalination can contribute to solve the problem of fresh water shortage in many and regions of the world. Nowadays most of the installed desalination plants employ distillation processes, like Multistage Flash (MSF), Multi effect Distillation (MED) and Vapor Compression (VC). VC process is called Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) when it employs a mechanical compressor, while it is called Thermal Compression when it employs a steam-ejector compressor. In this paper a new distillation plant for the treatment of sea water for drinking water purposes is presented. The most innovative feature of this system is the use of a heat pump as part of the desalting unit. The use of the heat pump in the proposed system enables desalting water evaporation and steam condensation at the same temperature, unlike conventional VC desalting systems where a steam compression stage is necessary. A thermal analysis of the heat pump-operated desalination (HPD) plant and a comparison between the HPD and a conventional MVC plant is presented, in order to determine the main advantages and disadvantages of the new system.

Site, V.D. [National Research Council of Italy, Rome (Italy)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Seven Ways to Optimize Your Process Heat System | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Optimize Your Process Heat System This brief outlines the seven Best Bets for Process Heating System Savings and Improvements. Seven Ways to Optimize Your Process Heat System...

52

Waste-heat recovery in batch processes using heat storage  

SciTech Connect

The waste-heat recovery in batch processes has been studied using the pinch-point method. The aim of the work has been to investigate theoretical and practical approaches to the design of heat-exchanger networks, including heat storage, for waste-heat recovery in batch processes. The study is limited to the incorporation of energy-storage systems based on fixed-temperature variable-mass stores. The background for preferring this to the alternatives (variable-temperature fixed-mass and constant-mass constant-temperature (latent-heat) stores) is given. It is shown that the maximum energy-saving targets as calculated by the pinch-point method (time average model, TAM) can be achieved by locating energy stores at either end of each process stream. This theoretically large number of heat-storage tanks (twice the number of process streams) can be reduced to just a few tanks. A simple procedure for determining a number of heat-storage tanks sufficient to achieve the maximum energy-saving targets as calculated by the pinch-point method is described. This procedure relies on combinatorial considerations, and could therefore be labeled the combinatorial method for incorporation of heat storage in heat-exchanger networks. Qualitative arguments justifying the procedure are presented. For simple systems, waste-heat recovery systems with only three heat-storage temperatures (a hot storage, a cold storage, and a heat store at the pinch temperature) often can achieve the maximum energy-saving targets. Through case studies, six of which are presented, it is found that a theoretically large number of heat-storage tanks (twice the number of process streams) can be reduced to just a few tanks. The description of these six cases is intended to be sufficiently detailed to serve as benchmark cases for development of alternative methods.

Stoltze, S.; Mikkelsen, J.; Lorentzen, B.; Petersen, P.M.; Qvale, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Lab. for Energetics

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Single-family unit: $2,000 Two- to three-family units: $4,000 Multi-family units (four or more): $10,000 Businesses: $25,000 Program Info Start Date 03/2010 Expiration Date 12/31/2013 State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 25% of costs Provider Minnesota Power Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings; $10,000 for buildings

54

Computational simulations of latent heat thermal energy storage systems - with innovative and first-principles based simulation for the underlying unsteady melting (and solidification) processes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis develops an effective modeling and simulation procedure for a specific thermal energy storage system commonly used and recommended for various applications (such… (more)

Gumaste, Rohan Achyut

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems [Heat Transfer and Fluid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Hydraulic Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems Capabilities Engineering Computation and Design Engineering and Structural Mechanics Systems/Component Design, Engineering and Drafting Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Overview Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems Underhood Thermal Management Combustion Simulations Advanced Model and Methodology Development Multi-physics Reactor Performance and Safety Simulations Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Bookmark and Share Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems Accelerator Driven Test Facility Target Accelerator Driven Test Facility Target. Click on image to view larger

56

Modelling the vertical heat exchanger in thermal basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In geographical area characterize by specific geological conformations such as the Viterbo area which comprehend active volcanic basins, it is difficult to use conventional geothermal plants. In fact the area presents at shallow depths thermal falde ... Keywords: heat, thermal aquifer, thermal energy

Maurizio Carlini; Sonia Castellucci

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING PONDS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING PONDS R. K. Hadlock 0 . B. Abbey Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories Prepared for U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission b + NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, nor assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, pro- duct or process disclosed, nor represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. F Available from National Technical Information Service

58

Investigation of new heat exchanger design performance for solar thermal chemical heat pump.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The emergence of Thermally Driven Cooling system has received more attention recently due to its ability to utilize low grade heat from engine, incinerator… (more)

Cordova, Cordova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Solar-thermal reaction processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an embodiment, a method of conducting a high temperature chemical reaction that produces hydrogen or synthesis gas is described. The high temperature chemical reaction is conducted in a reactor having at least two reactor shells, including an inner shell and an outer shell. Heat absorbing particles are included in a gas stream flowing in the inner shell. The reactor is heated at least in part by a source of concentrated sunlight. The inner shell is heated by the concentrated sunlight. The inner shell re-radiates from the inner wall and heats the heat absorbing particles in the gas stream flowing through the inner shell, and heat transfers from the heat absorbing particles to the first gas stream, thereby heating the reactants in the gas stream to a sufficiently high temperature so that the first gas stream undergoes the desired reaction(s), thereby producing hydrogen or synthesis gas in the gas stream.

Weimer, Alan W; Dahl, Jaimee K; Lewandowski, Allan A; Bingham, Carl; Raska Buechler, Karen J; Grothe, Willy

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems...

63

Process Integration of Industrial Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, COP Carnot T W---i Figure 6. Grand composite curve with electric drive system The COP for a prime heat system assumes the exhaust heat from the driver is used in the process. The COP is then the ratio of total heat delivered (Q4 + QZ.... Nomenclature is as given in Figures 6-8. The electric drive heat pump is the most widely understood system. It has the advantage of simplic ity and requires little disruption of the process. However, an electric drive may upset the utility power/heat...

Priebe, S. J.; Chappell, R. N.

64

Diffusion-Welded Microchannel Heat Exchanger for Industrial Processes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of next generation reactors is to increase energy ef?ciency in the production of electricity and provide high-temperature heat for industrial processes. The ef?cient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process. The need for ef?ciency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more ef?cient industrial processes. Modern compact heat exchangers can provide high compactness, a measure of the ratio of surface area-to-volume of a heat exchange. The microchannel heat exchanger studied here is a plate-type, robust heat exchanger that combines compactness, low pressure drop, high effectiveness, and the ability to operate with a very large pressure differential between hot and cold sides. The plates are etched and thereafter joined by diffusion welding, resulting in extremely strong all-metal heat exchanger cores. After bonding, any number of core blocks can be welded together to provide the required ?ow capacity. This study explores the microchannel heat exchanger and draws conclusions about diffusion welding/bonding for joining heat exchanger plates, with both experimental and computational modeling, along with existing challenges and gaps. Also, presented is a thermal design method for determining overall design speci?cations for a microchannel printed circuit heat exchanger for both supercritical (24 MPa) and subcritical (17 MPa) Rankine power cycles.

Piyush Sabharwall; Denis E. Clark; Michael V. Glazoff; Michael G. McKellar; Ronald E. Mizia

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

In-Situ Preparation and thermal shock resistance of mullite-cordierite heat tube material for solar thermal power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve the thermal shock resistance of solar thermal heat transfer tube material, the mullite-cordierite composite ceramic as solar thermal heat transfer tube material were fabricated by...?-Al2O3......

Xiaohong Xu ???; Xionghua Ma; Jianfeng Wu…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Latent Heat or Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been explained in sections 1.6 and 1.6.2 how phase change materials (PCM) have considerably higher thermal energy storage densities compared to sensible heat storage materials and are able to absorb or rel...

H. P. Garg; S. C. Mullick; A. K. Bhargava

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Synthesis report on thermally driven coupled processes  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this report is to document observations and data on thermally coupled processes for conditions that are expected to occur within and around a repository at Yucca Mountain. Some attempt is made to summarize values of properties (e.g., thermal properties, hydrologic properties) that can be measured in the laboratory on intact samples of the rock matrix. Variation of these properties with temperature, or with conditions likely to be encountered at elevated temperature in the host rock, is of particular interest. However, the main emphasis of this report is on direct observation of thermally coupled processes at various scales. Direct phenomenological observations are vitally important in developing and testing conceptual models. If the mathematical implementation of a conceptual model predicts a consequence that is not observed, either (1) the parameters or the boundary conditions used in the calculation are incorrect or (2) the conceptual basis of the model does not fit the experiment; in either case, the model must be revised. For example, the effective continuum model that has been used in thermohydrology studies combines matrix and fracture flow in a way that is equivalent to an assumption that water is imbibed instantaneously from fractures into adjacent, partially saturated matrix. Based on this approximation, the continuum-flow response that is analogous to fracture flow will not occur until the effective continuum is almost completely saturated. This approximation is not entirely consistent with some of the experimental data presented in this report. This report documents laboratory work and field studies undertaken in FY96 and FY97 to investigate thermally coupled processes such as heat pipes and fracture-matrix coupling. In addition, relevant activities from past years, and work undertaken outside the Yucca Mountain project are summarized and discussed. Natural and artificial analogs are also discussed to provide a convenient source of material documenting the conceptual and mathematical basis for modeling coupled phenomena. The actual models and codes, and their specific empirical and theoretical bases, will be documented in a separate report to be delivered in FY99.

Hardin, E.L.

1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Thermal insulation by heat resistant polymers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is a layer of heat-barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case and the propellant. The… (more)

Ahmed, Ashraf Fathy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

71

Ocean heat uptake processes: a model intercomparison  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We compare the quasi-equilibrium heat balances, as well as their responses to 4×CO2 perturbation, among three global climate models with the aim to identify and explain inter-model differences in ocean heat uptake (OHU) processes. We find that, in ...

Eleftheria Exarchou; Till Kuhlbrodt; Jonathan M. Gregory; Robin S. Smith

72

High temperature latent heat thermal energy storage: Phase change materials, design considerations and performance enhancement techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A very common problem in solar power generation plants and various other industrial processes is the existing gap between the period of thermal energy availability and its period of usage. This situation creates the need for an effective method by which excess heat can be stored for later use. Latent heat thermal energy storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy through which the disparity between energy production or availability and consumption can be corrected, thus avoiding wastage and increasing the process efficiency. This paper reviews a series of phase change materials, mainly inorganic salt compositions and metallic alloys, which could potentially be used as storage media in a high temperature (above 300 °C) latent heat storage system, seeking to serve the reader as a comprehensive thermophysical properties database to facilitate the material selection task for high temperature applications. Widespread utilization of latent heat storage systems has been held back by the poor thermal conductivity and some other inherent drawbacks of the use of PCMs; this paper reviews several heat transfer and performance enhancement techniques proposed in the literature and discusses a number of design considerations that must be taken into account aiming to provide a broad overview for the design of high temperature latent heat based thermal energy storage systems.

Bruno Cárdenas; Noel León

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries  

SciTech Connect

The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Applications of heat pipes for high thermal load beam lines  

SciTech Connect

The high flux beam produced by insertion devices often requires special heat removal techniques. For the optical elements used in such high thermal load beam lines, the required precision demands a highly accurate design. Heat pipe cooling of critical elements of the X-1 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. This method reduces vibrations caused by water cooling systems and simplifies the design. In some of these designs, deposited heat must be transferred through unbonded contact interfaces. A pinhole assembly and a beam position monitor designed for the X-1 beam line both transfer heat through such interfaces in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The fundamental design objective is that of removing the heat with minimal interface thermal resistance. We present our test method and results for measuring the thermal resistance across metallic interfaces as a function of contact pressure. The design of some devices which utilize both heat pipes and thermal contact interfaces will also be described. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Shu, D.; Mortazavi, P.; Rarback, H.; Howells, M.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Convective heat transfer enhancement of laminar flow of latent functionally thermal fluid in a circular tube with constant heat flux: internal heat source model and its application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the convective heat transfer enhancement mechanism of latent heat functionally thermal fluid. By using the proposed internal heat source model, the influence of each factor affecting the heat

Yinping Zhang; Xianxu Hu; Qing Hao; Xin Wang

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Evaluating the ignition sensitivity of thermal battery heat pellets  

SciTech Connect

Thermal batteries are activated by the ignition of heat pellets. If the heat pellets are not sensitive enough to the ignition stimulus, the thermal battery will not activate, resulting in a dud. Thus, to assure reliable thermal batteries, it is important to demonstrate that the pellets have satisfactory ignition sensitivity by testing a number of specimens. There are a number of statistical methods for evaluating the sensitivity of a device to some stimulus. Generally, these methods are applicable to the situation in which a single test is destructive to the specimen being tested, independent of the outcome of the test. In the case of thermal battery heat pellets, however, tests that result in a nonresponse do not totally degrade the specimen. This peculiarity provides opportunities to efficiently evaluate the ignition sensitivity of heat pellets. In this paper, a simple strategy for evaluating heat pellet ignition sensitivity (including experimental design and data analysis) is described. The relatively good asymptotic and small-sample efficiencies of this strategy are demonstrated.

Thomas, E.V.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments  

SciTech Connect

Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

Fu, Tairan, E-mail: trfu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Thermally stable booster explosive and process for manufacture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally stable booster explosive and process for the manufacture of the explosive. The product explosive is 2,4,7,9-tetranitro-10H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-b]indole (TNBFI). A reactant/solvent such as n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) or dimethyl formamide (DMF) is made slightly basic. The solution is heated to reduce the water content. The solution is cooled and hexanitrostilbene is added. The solution is heated to a predetermined temperature for a specific time period, cooled, and the product is collected by filtration.

Quinlin, William T. (Amarillo, TX); Thorpe, Raymond (Amarillo, TX); Lightfoot, James M. (Amarillo, TX)

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems This fact sheet describes ten effective ways to save...

82

Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition This...

83

ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers biomass-firedboilers.pd...

84

Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Fact Sheet  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This fact sheet describes how industrial plants can improve their process heating system performance using AMO's Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST)

85

Method and apparatus for thermal processing of semiconductor substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and method for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. The apparatus and method provide the temperature stability and uniformity of a conventional batch furnace as well as the processing speed and reduced time-at-temperature of a lamp-heated rapid thermal processor (RTP). Individual wafers are rapidly inserted into and withdrawn from a furnace cavity held at a nearly constant and isothermal temperature. The speeds of insertion and withdrawal are sufficiently large to limit thermal stresses and thereby reduce or prevent plastic deformation of the wafer as it enters and leaves the furnace. By processing the semiconductor wafer in a substantially isothermal cavity, the wafer temperature and spatial uniformity of the wafer temperature can be ensured by measuring and controlling only temperatures of the cavity walls. Further, peak power requirements are very small compared to lamp-heated RTPs because the cavity temperature is not cycled and the thermal mass of the cavity is relatively large. Increased speeds of insertion and/or removal may also be used with non-isothermal furnaces.

Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiss, CA); Mattson, Brad S. (Los Gatos, CA); Savas, Stephen E. (Alameda, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Method and apparatus for thermal processing of semiconductor substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and method for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. The apparatus and method provide the temperature stability and uniformity of a conventional batch furnace as well as the processing speed and reduced time-at-temperature of a lamp-heated rapid thermal processor (RTP). Individual wafers are rapidly inserted into and withdrawn from a furnace cavity held at a nearly constant and isothermal temperature. The speeds of insertion and withdrawal are sufficiently large to limit thermal stresses and thereby reduce or prevent plastic deformation of the wafer as it enters and leaves the furnace. By processing the semiconductor wafer in a substantially isothermal cavity, the wafer temperature and spatial uniformity of the wafer temperature can be ensured by measuring and controlling only temperatures of the cavity walls. Further, peak power requirements are very small compared to lamp-heated RTPs because the cavity temperature is not cycled and the thermal mass of the cavity is relatively large. Increased speeds of insertion and/or removal may also be used with non-isothermal furnaces.

Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiss, CA); Mattson, Brad S. (Los Gatos, CA); Savas, Stephen E. (Alameda, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Thermal Energy Storage/Waste Heat Recovery Applications in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the Portland Cement Association have studied the potential benefits of using waste heat recovery methods and thermal energy storage systems in the cement manufacturing process. This work was performed under DOE Contract No. EC-77-C-01-50S4. The study has been...

Beshore, D. G.; Jaeger, F. A.; Gartner, E. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes...

89

Thermal behavior in the LENS process  

SciTech Connect

Direct laser metal deposition processing is a promising manufacturing technology which could significantly impact the length of time between initial concept and finished part. For adoption of this technology in the manufacturing environment, further understanding is required to ensure robust components with appropriate properties are routinely fabricated. This requires a complete understanding of the thermal history during part fabrication and control of this behavior. This paper will describe research to understand the thermal behavior for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process, where a component is fabricated by focusing a laser beam onto a substrate to create a molten pool in which powder particles are simultaneously injected to build each layer. The substrate is moved beneath the laser beam to deposit a thin cross section, thereby creating the desired geometry for each layer. After deposition of each layer, the powder delivery nozzle and focusing lens assembly is incremented in the positive Z-direction, thereby building a three dimensional component layer additively. It is important to control the thermal behavior to reproducibly fabricate parts. The ultimate intent is to monitor the thermal signatures and to incorporate sensors and feedback algorithms to control part fabrication. With appropriate control, the geometric properties (accuracy, surface finish, low warpage) as well as the materials` properties (e.g., strength, ductility) of a component can be dialed into the part through the fabrication parameters. Thermal monitoring techniques will be described, and their particular benefits highlighted. Preliminary details in correlating thermal behavior with processing results will be discussed.

Griffith, M.L.; Schlienger, M.E.; Harwell, L.D. [and others

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Aquifer thermal energy storage costs with a seasonal heat source.  

SciTech Connect

The cost of energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system from a seasonal heat source was investigated. This investigation considers only the storage of energy from a seasonal heat source. Cost estimates are based upon the assumption that all of the energy is stored in the aquifer before delivery to the end user. Costs were estimated for point demand, residential development, and multidistrict city ATES systems using the computer code AQUASTOR which was developed specifically for the economic analysis of ATES systems. In this analysis the cost effect of varying a wide range of technical and economic parameters was examined. Those parameters exhibiting a substantial influence on ATES costs were: cost of purchased thermal energy; cost of capital; source temperature; system size; transmission distance; and aquifer efficiency. ATES-delivered energy costs are compared with the costs of hot water heated by using electric power or fuel-oils. ATES costs are shown as a function of purchased thermal energy. Both the potentially low delivered energy costs available from an ATES system and its strong cost dependence on the cost of purchased thermal energy are shown. Cost components for point demand and multi-district city ATES systems are shown. Capital and thermal energy costs dominate. Capital costs, as a percentage of total costs, increase for the multi-district city due to the addition of a large distribution system. The proportion of total cost attributable to thermal energy would change dramatically if the cost of purchased thermal energy were varied. It is concluded that ATES-delivered energy can be cost competitive with conventional energy sources under a number of economic and technical conditions. This investigation reports the cost of ATES under a wide range of assumptions concerning parameters important to ATES economics. (LCL)

Reilly, R.W.; Brown, D.R.; Huber, H.D.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Flexibility in heat demand at the TU Delft campus smart thermal grid with phase change materials:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Plans have been made to change the current district heating grid at the TU Delft to a smart thermal grid. New heat suppliers will be… (more)

Van Vliet, E.H.A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Potential of thermal insulation and solar thermal energy in domestic hot water and space heating and cooling sectors in Lebanon in the period 2010 - 2030.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The potential of thermal insulation and solar thermal energy in domestic water heating, space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings Lebanon is studied… (more)

Zaatari, Z.A.R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Thermal characterization of submicron polyacrylonitrile fibers based on optical heating and electrical thermal sensing  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the thermal diffusivity of single submicron ({approx}800 nm) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers is characterized using the recently developed optical heating and electrical thermal sensing technique. In the experiment, a thin Au film (approximately in the nanometer range) is coated on the surface of nonconductive PAN fibers. A periodically modulated laser beam is used to irradiate suspended individual fibers to achieve noncontact periodical heating. The periodical temperature response of the sample is monitored by measuring the electrical resistance variation of the thin Au coating. The experimental results for three different synthesized PAN fibers with varying Au coating thickness are presented and discussed.

Hou Jinbo; Wang Xinwei; Zhang Lijun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, N104 Walter Scott Engineering Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0656 (United States)

2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

94

The Big Picture on Process Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Publications Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems...

95

Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

We are developing a continuous fabrication process for high thermal conductivity polyethylene (PE) films While high thermal conductivity in (PE) has been shown in isolated...

96

Energy Efficient Integration of Heat Pumps into Solar District Heating Systems with Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar district heating (SDH) with seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) is a technology to provide heat for space heating and domestic hot water preparation with a high fraction of renewable energy. In order to improve the efficiency of such systems heat pumps can be integrated. By preliminary studies it was discovered, that the integration of a heat pump does not always lead to improvements from an overall energy perspective, although the operation of the heat pump increases the efficiency of other components of the system e. g. the STES or the solar collectors. Thus the integration of heat pumps in SDH systems was investigated in detail. Usually, the heat pumps are integrated in such a way, that the STES is used as low temperature heat source. No other heat sources from the ambience are used and only that amount of energy consumed by the heat pump is additionally fed into the system. In the case of an electric driven heat pump, this is highly questionable concerning economic and CO2-emission aspects. Despite that fact the operation of the heat pump influences positively the performance of other components in the system e. g. the STES and makes them more efficient. If the primary energy consumption of the heat pump is lower than the energetic benefits of all other components, the integration makes sense from an energetic point of view. A detailed assessment has been carried out to evaluate the most promising system configurations for the integration of a heat pump. Based on this approach a system concept was developed in which the integration of the heat pump is energetically further improved compared to realised systems. By means of transient system simulations this concept was optimised with regard to the primary energy consumption. A parameter study of this new concept has been performed to identify the most sensitive parameters of the system. The main result and conclusion are that higher solar fractions and also higher primary energy savings can be achieved by SDH systems using heat pumps compared systems without heat pumps.

Roman Marx; Dan Bauer; Harald Drueck

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The Homopolar Pulse Billet Heating Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of homopolar generators operated in the pulse mode to heat forging billets offers several possible advantages over present heating methods. Because heating is uniform throughout the entire cross section, billets can safely be heated...

Keith, R. E.; Weldon, W. F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSING OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR THERMAL INSULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSING OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR THERMAL INSULATION CHANJOONG KIM was proposed and evaluated for the application of thermal insulation. For the production of polyurethane foam correspondence should be sent. #12;Key Words: Foam; Polyurethane; Thermal insulation; Nucleation; Growth

Kim, Chanjoong

99

Utilizing Solar Thermal Energy in Textile Processing Units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents the prospects of solar thermal energy utilization in the textile processing units in Pakistan. Various solar thermal technologies suitable for thermal energy production and their application...

Asad Mahmood; Khanji Harijan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Operational Performance Results of an Innovative Solar Thermal Cooling and Heating Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar thermal cooling and heating plants with single-effect sorption chillers/heat pumps promise primary energy savings compared to electric vapor compression chiller systems. Yet, the need of auxiliary electric a nd fossil energy for the operation and backup of the thermal cooling system possibly worsen the primary energy balance. An auspicious approach to overcome this problem is the application of a more efficient multi -stage sorption chiller with flexible operational modes. A pilot installation of that innovative solar thermal heating and cooling plant comprising a two stage absorption chiller/heat pump is presented. Beginning with the motivation and the system concept, a detailed analysis of the 2011/2012 cooling and heating periods is shown. The influence of the different system components – especially the absorption chiller – on the overall system performance is analyzed and a comparison to data from a detailed dynamic model is carried out. Recommendations for the improvement with respect to efficiency and economic aspects are given based on the installation process and the operational experience gained in the last 1 ½ years.

Manuel Riepl; Felix Loistl; Richard Gurtner; Martin Helm; Christian Schweigler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

itself * Waste heat recovery or auxiliary or adjoining systems within a plant * Waste heat to power conversion Recycle Copyrighted - E3M Inc. August 20, 2009 Arvind Thekdi, E3M...

102

High Magnetic Field Processing - A Heat-Free Heat Treating Method  

SciTech Connect

The High and Thermal Magnetic Processing/Electro-magnetic Acoustic Transducer (HTMP/EMAT) technology has been shown to be an enabling disruptive materials processing technology, that can achieve significant improvements in microstructure and consequently material performance beyond that achievable through conventional processing, and will lead to the next generation of advanced performance structural and functional materials. HTMP exposure increased the reaction kinetics enabling refinement of microstructural features such as finer martensite lath size, and finer, more copious, homogeneous dispersions of strengthening carbides leading to combined strength and toughness improvements in bainitic steels. When induction heating is applied in a high magnetic field environment, the induction heating coil is configured so that high intensity acoustic/ultrasonic treatment occurs naturally. The configuration results in a highly effective electromagnetic acoustical transducer (EMAT). HTMP combined with applying high-field EMAT, produce a non-contact ultrasonic treatment that can be used to process metal alloys in either the liquid state resulting in significant microstructural changes over conventional processing. Proof-of-principle experiments on cast irons resulted in homogeneous microstructures in small castings along with improved casting surface appearance. The experiment showed that by exposing liquid metal to the non-contact acoustic/ultrasonic processing technology developed using HMFP/EMAT wrought-like microstructures were developed in cast components. This Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) project sponsored by the DOE EERE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) demonstrated the following: (1) The reduction of retained austenite in high carbon/high alloy steels with an ambient temperature HTMP process, replacing either a cryogenic or double tempering thermal process normally employed to accomplish retained austenite transformation. HTMP can be described as a 'heat-free', heat treating technology. Lower residual stresses in HTMP treated materials are anticipated since no thermal strains are involved in inducing the transformation of retained austenite to martensite in high alloy steel. (2) The simultaneous increase of 12% in yield strength and 22% in impact energy in a bainitic alloy using HTMP processing. This is a major breakthrough in materials processing for the next generation of structural materials since conventionally processed materials show a reduction in impact toughness with an increase in yield strength. HTMP is a new paradigm to beneficially increase both yield strength and impact energy absorption simultaneously. (3) HTMP processing refined both the martensite lath population and the carbide dispersion in a bainitic steel alloy during Gausstempering. The refinement was believed to be responsible for the simultaneous increase in strength and toughness. Hence, HTMP significantly impacts nucleation and growth phenomenon. (4) HTMP processing developed comparable ultimate tensile strength and twice the impact energy in a lower cost, lower alloy content ({approx}8% alloy content) steel, compared to highly alloyed, (31% alloy elements involving Ni, Co, and Mo) 250-grade margining steel. Future low-cost HTMP alloys appear viable that will exceed the structural performance of highly alloyed materials that are conventionally processed. This economic benefit will enable U.S. industry to reduce cost (better more competitive worldwide) while maintaining or exceeding current performance. (5) EMAT processed cast iron exhibits significantly higher hardness (by 51% for a 9T condition) than a no-field processed sample. (6) EMAT produced microstructures in cast iron resulted in an unique graphite nodule morphology, a modified pearlite content, and unique carbide types, that formed during solidification and cooling. (7) EMAT processed nanoparticle dispersions in Mg resulted in a very fine, unagglomerated distribution of the nanoparticles in the magnesium matrix. This provides a breakthrough technology to make the next generation of

Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Manuel, Michele [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Murphy, Bart L [ORNL

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

None

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

104

In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

105

Liquid Metal as a Heat Transport Fluid for Thermal Solar Power Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to increase the thermal efficiency and produce process heat for hydrogen production, the operating temperature of the heat transfer fluid in thermal solar plants needs to increase. In addition reaching 900 °C would also increase the heat storage density and the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle by using a combined cycle for electricity production. The benefits of hydrogen (e.g., for fuel cells) and a more efficient thermodynamic cycle would allow a plant to have a higher energy output per square acre of land use, thereby increasing its economic competiveness. Today, solar thermal plants do not operate at these high temperatures due to the fact that conventional heat transport fluids begin to disintegrate around 600 °C [1,2]. For non-solar applications, low melting-temperature metals, such as wood's metal and lead- bismuth eutectic alloy, have been examined as heat-transport media, because of the large temperature ranges over which they remain liquid. Lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE; 45% Pb, 55% Bi) melts at 125 °C and does not boil until 1670 °C, making it an ideal heat-transfer medium for application in thermal solar power [3]. The main obstacle to using LBE is finding structural materials that can withstand the harsh corrosion environments at high temperatures. In this work the key issues of materials exposed to liquid metal are described while initial data on carious steels tested in liquid metal are provided. While corrosion is a significant issue in this environment, mechanical failure of steels in liquid metal are discussed as well.

D. Frazer; E. Stergar; C. Cionea; P. Hosemann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal absorption solar photo- storage chiller thermalbetween solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHPimpact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO 2 emissions

Marnay, Chris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in MicrogridsEnvironmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgridsa) ABSTRACT The addition of solar thermal and heat storage

Marnay, Chris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Firearm suppressor having enhanced thermal management for rapid heat dissipation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A suppressor is disclosed for use with a weapon having a barrel through which a bullet is fired. The suppressor has an inner portion having a bore extending coaxially therethrough. The inner portion is adapted to be secured to a distal end of the barrel. A plurality of axial flow segments project radially from the inner portion and form axial flow paths through which expanding propellant gasses discharged from the barrel flow through. The axial flow segments have radially extending wall portions that define sections which may be filled with thermally conductive material, which in one example is a thermally conductive foam. The conductive foam helps to dissipate heat deposited within the suppressor during firing of the weapon.

Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

109

Experimental investigation of plastic finned-tube heat exchangers, with emphasis on material thermal conductivity  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, two modified types of polypropylene (PP) with high thermal conductivity up to 2.3 W/m K and 16.5 W/m K are used to manufacture the finned-tube heat exchangers, which are prospected to be used in liquid desiccant air conditioning, heat recovery, water source heat pump, sea water desalination, etc. A third plastic heat exchanger is also manufactured with ordinary PP for validation and comparison. Experiments are carried out to determine the thermal performance of the plastic heat exchangers. It is found that the plastic finned-tube heat exchanger with thermal conductivity of 16.5 W/m K can achieve overall heat transfer coefficient of 34 W/m{sup 2} K. The experimental results are compared with calculation and they agree well with each other. Finally, the effect of material thermal conductivity on heat exchanger thermal performance is studied in detail. The results show that there is a threshold value of material thermal conductivity. Below this value improving thermal conductivity can considerably improve the heat exchanger performance while over this value improving thermal conductivity contributes very little to performance enhancement. For the finned-tube heat exchanger designed in this paper, when the plastic thermal conductivity can reach over 15 W/m K, it can achieve more than 95% of the titanium heat exchanger performance and 84% of the aluminum or copper heat exchanger performance with the same dimension. (author)

Chen, Lin; Li, Zhen; Guo, Zeng-Yuan [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Thermal self-oscillations in radiative heat exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the effect of relaxation-type self-induced temperature oscillations in the system of two parallel plates of SiO$_2$ and VO$_2$ which exchange heat by thermal radiation in vacuum. The nonlinear feedback in the self-oscillating system is provided by metal-insulator transition in VO$_2$. Using the method of fluctuational electrodynamics we show that under the action of external laser of a constant power, the temperature of VO$_2$ plate oscillates around its phase transition value.

Dyakov, Sergey; Yan, Min; Qiu, Min

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

1.12.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/24 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pumps, heat pipes, cold thermal energy storage Ron Zevenhoven Ã?bo Akademi University Thermal and Flow for heating is referred to as a heat pump (mostly based on a vapour-compression cycle) Heat pumps make use electricity!) for heating and air conditioning purposes Heat pumps became popular in the 1970s

Zevenhoven, Ron

112

Industrial Process Heat Pumps--Some Unconventional Wisdom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS HEAT PUMPS--SOME UNCONVENTIONAL WISDOM ALAN KARP Project Manager Electric Power Research Institute Palo Alto, California ABSTRACT Recent research on the cost-effective use of industrial process heat pumps challenges... integration insights. BUilding on previously formulated prin ciples of "appropriate placement," a generic metho dology has been developed for examining heat pump ing as an alternative to increased heat integration in any process. PC-based software...

Karp, A.

113

Thermal properties for the thermal-hydraulics analyses of the BR2 maximum nominal heat flux.  

SciTech Connect

This memo describes the assumptions and references used in determining the thermal properties for the various materials used in the BR2 HEU (93% enriched in {sup 235}U) to LEU (19.75% enriched in {sup 235}U) conversion feasibility analysis. More specifically, this memo focuses on the materials contained within the pressure vessel (PV), i.e., the materials that are most relevant to the study of impact of the change of fuel from HEU to LEU. This section is regrouping all of the thermal property tables. Section 2 provides a summary of the thermal properties in form of tables while the following sections present the justification of these values. Section 3 presents a brief background on the approach used to evaluate the thermal properties of the dispersion fuel meat and specific heat capacity. Sections 4 to 7 discuss the material properties for the following materials: (i) aluminum, (ii) dispersion fuel meat (UAlx-Al and U-7Mo-Al), (iii) beryllium, and (iv) stainless steel. Section 8 discusses the impact of irradiation on material properties. Section 9 summarizes the material properties for typical operating temperatures. Appendix A elaborates on how to calculate dispersed phase's volume fraction. Appendix B shows the evolution of the BR2 maximum heat flux with burnup.

Dionne, B.; Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G. L. (Nuclear Engineering Division) [Nuclear Engineering Division

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

114

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar thermal and heat storage on CO 2 emissions and annual energyenergy costs, heat storage does not directly support solar thermal /energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal

Marnay, Chris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADVANCED THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE CONCEPT DEFINITION STUDY FORSchilling. F. E. , Thermal Energy Storage Using PrestressedNo ~cumulate thermal energy storage. Estimate ESTrof2(

Baldwin, Thomas F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Solar Water Heating and Design Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy has been used to heat water for many years, and the design requirements of solar water heating equipment have been studied for ... because that upto this time other sources of energy have been more economical

H. P. Garg

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Thermal conductivity and specific heat of sorghum grain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of Test Canister Ice Jacket ~ Sealing Test Canister in Calorimeter. . 43 44 Testing of Samples. Initial Calorimeter Observations. 49 Insertion of Grain Samples into Calorimeter. . . . 50 Final Test Observations Processing of Data. 54... to Contain the Grain Sample 38 for the Determination of Specific Heat 39 12. Top View of Calorimeter. 40 13. Galvanized Iron Cylinder Used to Form the Ice Jacket Around the Test Canister 42 VIII Figures 14. Clamping Device Used to Hold Test Canister...

Miller, Clinton Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

An analog analysis of transient heat flow in solids with temperature-dependent thermal properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) used a nonlinear material known as Metrosil to simulate the nonlinear variations of thermal properties for combined conductive and radiant heat transfer. Since that time, Friedmann (8) has used nonlinear resistances in conjunction with an electronic... at end of this thesis. K = thermal conductivity of heat conducting media, and K and S are functions of the temperature t. Since the formation of these equations, solutions of transient heat flow problems involving materials in which the thermal...

Lee, Dwain Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

119

Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Material (MPCM) Slurry in a Coaxial Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries and coil heat exchangers had been recently studied separately as enhancers of convective heat transfer processes. Due to the larger apparent heat related to the phase change process...

Yu, Kun

2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

120

Thermal storage of solar energy as sensible heat at medium temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model has been solved in order to determine the thermal losses of a storage tank, where thermal energy is stored as sensible heat of a diathermic fluid at medium temperatures. A parametric analysis has been ...

C. Bellecci; A. Bonanno; M. Camarca; M. Conti; L. La Rotonda…

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Transient-heat-transfer and stress analysis of a thermal-storage solar cooker module  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper details the analysis carried out in Solidworks to determine the best material and configuration of a thermal-storage solar cooker module.The thermal-storage solar cooker utilizes the high-latent-heat lithium ...

Zengeni, Hazel C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Optimization of the configuration and working fluid for a micro heat pipe thermal control device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a micro heat pipe system containing a working fluid with physical properties having been speciffcally selected such that the heat pipes, as a whole, vary in effective thermal conductance, thereby providing a level of temperature regulation...

Coughlin, Scott Joseph

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

123

Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Modeling the heating of the Green Energy Lab in Shanghai by the geothermal heat pump combined with the solar thermal energy and ground energy storage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This work involves the study of heating systems that combine solar collectors, geothermal heat pumps and thermal energy storage in the ground. Solar collectors… (more)

Yu, Candice Yau May

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Heat-Transfer fluid Heat-Transfer Gas Helium Helium Gaswater vapor as a fluids, heat~transfer Problems associatedthermal energy by a heat-transfer fluid and used directly or

Baldwin, Thomas F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, 4: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at an existing facility at U.S. Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 19, 1991 EA-0534: Finding of No Significant Impact Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication July 19, 1991 EA-0534: Final Environmental Assessment Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication

127

On the heat flux vector for flowing granular materials--Part I: effective thermal conductivity and background  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer plays a major role in the processing of many particulate materials. The heat flux vector is commonly modelled by the Fourier’s law of heat conduction and for complex materials such as nonlinear fluids, porous media, or granular materials, the coeffcient of thermal conductivity is generalized by assuming that it would depend on a host of material and kinematical parameters such as temperature, shear rate, porosity or concentration, etc. In Part I, we will give a brief review of the basic equations of thermodynamics and heat transfer to indicate the importance of the modelling of the heat flux vector. We will also discuss the concept of effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in granular and porous media. In Part II, we propose and subsequently derive a properly frame-invariant constitutive relationship for the heat flux vector for a (single phase) flowing granular medium. Standard methods in continuum mechanics such as representation theorems and homogenization techniques are used. It is shown that the heat flux vector in addition to being proportional to the temperature gradient (the Fourier’s law), could also depend on the gradient of density (or volume fraction), and D (the symmetric part of the velocity gradient) in an appropriate manner. The emphasis in this paper is on the idea that for complex non-linear materials it is the heat flux vector which should be studied; obtaining or proposing generalized form of the thermal conductivity is not always appropriate or suffcient.

Massoudi, Mehrdad

2006-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

128

Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and helps plant personnel identify the most energy-intensive equipment. Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Introduction (January 30, 2007) More Documents & Publications...

129

Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial process heating systems.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This fact sheet describes how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial process heating systems.

131

Using Waste Heat for External Processes | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer...

132

A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS...

Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for concentrating solar-thermal energy use a large number ofBoth solar power plants absorb thermal energy in high-of a solar power plant that converts thermal energy into

Baldwin, Thomas F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost. 7 figs.

Colella, N.J.; Davidson, H.L.; Kerns, J.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

135

Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #2c  

SciTech Connect

This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing efficiency of industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

Not Available

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Project to develop and validate a continuous manufacturing process for polyethylene fibers and sheets yielding a thermal conductivity value greater than 60 W/m.K.

138

Enhancing the heat transfer in a heat treatment furnace through improving the combustion process in the radiation tubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......energy efficiency in the heating processes. The heat...chamber and lead to shorter heating time to achieve the objective...chamber as a part of oil quenching heat treatment...energy efficiency in the heating processes. The heat...The rising of fuel prices and the increasing requirements......

E. M. Elmabrouk; Y. Wu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

A Mountain-Scale Thermal Hydrologic Model for Simulating FluidFlow and Heat Transfer in Unsaturated Fractured Rock  

SciTech Connect

A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), Nevada. The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulations predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields for assessing the repository performance under thermal loading conditions.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

140

On the solution of the Heaviside - Klein - Gordon thermal equation for heat transport in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report studies of the solution of the Heaviside - Klein - Gordon thermal equation. As the result it is shown that the solution consists of two components: the fast thermal wave and slow diffusion for very large (compared to relaxation time) time period. We argue that the fast thermal wave can be recognized as the indication of the ballistic heat transport. As an example we consider the ballistic heat transport in graphene.

Magdalena Pelc

2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108 K/s C. R of aniline-d7 from a single-crystal surface 0001 of sapphire Al2O3 at a heating rate on the order of 108 K.e., pulsed heating of the sapphire surface on the nanosecond time scale leads to thermal desorption and rapid

Zare, Richard N.

142

eXtremes of heat conduction: Pushing the boundaries of the thermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

eXtremes of heat conduction: Pushing the boundaries of the thermal conductivity of materials David. · For example, simplest case of thermal conductivity where resistive scattering dominates C() v() l() d C for the highest thermal conductivity any material (higher conductivity than diamond) Yu et al. (2005) Maruyama

Braun, Paul

143

Controlling the thermal contact resistance of a carbon nanotube heat spreader  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controlling the thermal contact resistance of a carbon nanotube heat spreader Kamal H. Baloch,1 electron thermal microscopy shows that the thermal contact resistance of a nanotube weakly coupled to its Norvik Voskanian,2 and John Cumings2,a 1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute

Li, Teng

144

Thermoeconomic optimization of sensible heat thermal storage for cogenerated waste-to-energy recovery  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the feasibility of employing thermal storage for cogenerated waste-to-energy recovery such as using mass-burning water-wall incinerators and topping steam turbines. Sensible thermal storage is considered in rectangular cross-sectioned channels through which is passed unused process steam at 1,307 kPa/250 C (175 psig/482 F) during the storage period and feedwater at 1,307 kPa/102 C (175 psig/216 F) during the recovery period. In determining the optimum storage configuration, it is found that the economic feasibility is a function of mass and specific heat of the material and surface area of the channel as well as cost of material and fabrication. Economic considerations included typical cash flows of capital charges, energy revenues, operation and maintenance, and income taxes. Cast concrete is determined to be a potentially attractive storage medium.

Abdul-Razzak, H.A. [Texas A and M Univ., Kingsville, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Porter, R.W. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Analysis and control of the thermal runaway of ceramic slab under microwave heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis and control of the thermal runaway of ceramic slab under microwave heating Changjun Liu of the dielectrics during microwave heating, in which there is a big jump of the steady-state temperature while the applied microwave power varies slightly. It hinders engineers in the applications of microwave heating

Sheen, Dongwoo

146

Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Advanced thermal processing alternatives for solid waste management  

SciTech Connect

The 1990`s have seen a resurgence of interest in the development of new thermal processing alternatives for municipal solid waste (MSW). Sparked by increasingly stringent environmental regulations, much of this creative energy has been applied to technologies for the gasification of MSW: converting the solid, hard to handle material into a clean, medium to high-Btu fuel gas. Other developers have focussed on full combustion technology but with a {open_quotes}twist{close_quotes} that lowers emissions or reduces cost. A comprehensive study of these new technologies was recently completed under the sponsorship of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. The study characterized the state-of-the-art among emerging MSW thermal processing technologies that have reached the point of `incipient commercialization.` More than 45 technologies now under development were screened to develop a short list of seven processes that have passed through the idea stage, laboratory and benchscale testing, and have been prototyped at an MSW feed rate of at least several tons per hour. In-depth review of these seven included inspections of operating pilot or prototype units and a detailed analysis of technical, environmental and economic feasibility issues. No attempt was made to select `the best` technology since best can only be defined in the context of the constraints, aspirations and circumstances of a specific, local situation. The basic flowsheet, heat and material balances and available environmental data were summarized to help the reader grasp the underlying technical concepts and their embodiment in hardware. Remaining development needs, as seen by the study team are presented. Economic analysis shows the general balance of capital and operating costs.

Niessen, W.R. [Camp Dresser & McKee Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Heat exchanger for coal gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

149

MODELING OF THERMALLY DRIVEN HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES IN PARTIALLY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) incorporation of a full set of thermal-hydrological processes into a numerical simulator, (2) realistic AND BACKGROUND [2] The containment of spent fuel from nuclear power plants in a geological repositoryMODELING OF THERMALLY DRIVEN HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES IN PARTIALLY SATURATED FRACTURED ROCK Y. W

Jellinek, Mark

150

Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

152

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

153

Method For Brazing And Thermal Processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a method for brazing of two objects or heat treatment of one object. First, object or objects to be treated are selected and initial conditions establishing a relative geometry and material characteristics are determined. Then, a first design of an optical system for directing heat energy onto the object or objects is determined. The initial conditions and first design of the optical system are then input into a optical ray-tracing computer program. The program is then run to produce a representative output of the heat energy input distribution to the object or objects. The geometry of the object or objects, material characteristics, and optical system design are then adjusted until an desired heat input is determined.

Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Dave, Vivek R. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dane (Livermore, CA); Carpenter, II, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

154

The flow and heat transfer characteristics of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore coupled with flow in heavy oil reservoirs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As a new improved oil-recovery technique, multi-thermal fluid injection technology through a horizontal well has been widely used in the development process of heavy oil reservoirs. The flow and heat transfer characteristic of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore is significantly important for the productivity evaluation and parameters design of the horizontal well. Considering the specific physical properties of multi-thermal fluid, fluid absorption in perforation holes and pressure drop characteristics along the horizontal wellbore, this paper developed the flow and heat transfer model of multi-thermal fluid in perforated horizontal wellbore. In order to evaluate the heating effect of the multi-thermal fluid, a concept of effective heating length of a horizontal well is proposed. Then, a sensitivity analysis process is performed to study the influence of reservoir/fluid parameters and operating parameters on the flowing process of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore. Simultaneously, using the method of orthogonal numerical test, differential analysis and variance analysis are also conducted. Results show that the flowing process of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore includes a single-phase flowing process and a gas–liquid two-phase flowing process. The influence of oil viscosity on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore is most significant. Thereafter, the solution of our semi-analytical model is compared against the test results of an actual horizontal well from an oilfield in China. It is shown that the model results are in good agreement with the real test results. This model could be used to calculate and predict the flow and heat transfer characteristics of multi-thermal fluid (or saturated steam) in a perforated horizontal wellbore.

Xiaohu Dong; Huiqing Liu; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Changjiu Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area, Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area, Cassia County, Idaho (1974-1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area, Cassia County, Idaho (1974-1976) Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Basin and Range Province; Cassia County Idaho; economic geology; exploration; geophysical surveys; geothermal energy; heat flow; heat flux; Idaho; North America; Raft River basin; south-central Idaho; surveys; temperature; thermal conductivity; United States; USGS Author(s): Urban, T.C.; Diment, W.H.; Nathenson, M.; Smith, E.P.; Ziagos, J.P.; Shaeffer, M.H. Published: Open-File Report - U. S. Geological Survey, 1/1/1986 Document Number: Unavailable

156

Geothermal Resource-Reservoir Investigations Based On Heat Flow And Thermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resource-Reservoir Investigations Based On Heat Flow And Thermal Resource-Reservoir Investigations Based On Heat Flow And Thermal Gradient Data For The United States Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Geothermal Resource-Reservoir Investigations Based On Heat Flow And Thermal Gradient Data For The United States Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of

157

Use of Heat From, and Thermal Management of, Photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In flat plate PV/T collectors air or water are used for heat removal. Heat removal from concentrated photovoltaic systems has been accomplished using fluids such as air and water (Royne et al. 2003; Saki et al. 1...

Brian Norton

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Control of thermal processes in a fluidized bed combustor (FBC)  

SciTech Connect

Heat and mass balance equations for the transient process of a fluidized bed furnace are described. The equations involve heat release from char and volatiles combustion, heat consumption during moisture evaporation, and heating of char and circulating particles. Calculations and experimental data for steady-state and unsteady conditions are compared. The results show that the height of the dense bed, the excess-air ratio and kinetic features of the fuel affect the rate of the transient process. The time constant for a disturbance by a change of the air flow rate was found to be smaller than the one for a change of the fuel input.

Munts, V.A.; Filippovskij, N.F.; Baskakov, A.P.; Pavliok, E.J. [Ural State Technical Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Heat Power Dept.; Leckner, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Simulation of Static Flying Attitudes with Different Heat Transfer Models for a Flying-Height Control Slider with Thermal Protrusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zhang, S. , Bogy, D.B. : A heat transfer model for thermal ?A phenomenological heat transfer model for the molecular gasWong, C.H. : A generalized heat transfer model for thin ?lm

Chen, Du; Bogy, David B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Designing Optimal Heat and Power Systems for Industrial Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial heat and power systems are complex and not fully understood as integrated systems. Within the context of the overall manufacturing process, they represent enormous capital investments and substantially contribute to the total operating...

Rutkowski, M. A.; Witherell, W. D.

162

Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Program fact sheet describes ten effective ways to save energy and money in industrial process heating systems by making some changes in equipment, operations, and maintenance.

Not Available

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool User Manuals  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

PHAST 3.0 User Manuals are available for Electrotechnology and Fuel Fired Technology (for US and International units). The PHAST tool can be used to assess energy use and estimate energy use reduction for industrial process heating equipment.

164

Nanofluid \\{PCMs\\} for thermal energy storage: Latent heat reduction mechanisms and a numerical study of effective thermal storage performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The latent heat of fusion of paraffin-based nanofluids has been examined to investigate the use of enhanced phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. The nanofluid approach has often been exploited to enhance thermal conductivity of PCMs, but the effects of particle addition on other thermal properties affecting TES are relatively ignored. An experimental study of paraffin-based nanofluids containing various particle sizes of multi-walled carbon nanotubes has been conducted to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on latent heat of fusion. Results demonstrated that the magnitude of nanofluid latent heat reduction increases for smaller diameter particles in suspension. Three possible mechanisms – interfacial liquid layering, Brownian motion, and particle clustering – were examined to explain further reduction in latent heat, through the weakening of molecular bond structures. Although additional research is required to explore detailed mechanisms, experimental evidence suggests that interfacial liquid layering and Brownian motion cannot explain the degree of latent heat reduction observed. A finite element model is also presented as a method of quantifying nanofluid PCM energy storage performance. Thermal properties based on modified effective medium theory and an empirical relation for latent heat of fusion were applied as model parameters to determine energy stored and extracted over a given period of time. The model results show that while micro-scale particle inclusions exhibit some performance enhancement, nanoparticles in \\{PCMs\\} provide no significant improvement in TES performance. With smaller particles, the enhancement in thermal conductivity is not significant enough to overcome the reduction in latent heat of fusion, and less energy is stored over the PCM charge period. Therefore, the nanofluid approach may not be justifiable for energy storage applications. However, since the model parameters are dependent on the material properties of the system observed, storage performance may vary for differing nanofluid materials.

Aitor Zabalegui; Dhananjay Lokapur; Hohyun Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Analyzing the efficiency of a photovoltaic-thermal solar collector based on heat pipes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structure of a photovoltaic/thermal solar collector based on aluminum heat pipes and ... , along with the results from analyzing its efficiency. Its optimum mode of operation is shown...

S. M. Khairnasov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Process and apparatus for thermal enhancement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermal treatment apparatus for downhole deployment comprising a combustion stage with an elongated hot wall combustion zone for the substantially complete combustion of the fuel-air mixture and an ignition zone immediately upstream from the combustion zone in which a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and air at or below stoichiometric ratio is ignited; together with a water injection stage immediately downstream from the combustion zone through which essentially partuculate free high temperature combustion products flow from the combustion zone and into which water is sprayed. The resulting mixture of steam and combustion products is injected into an oil formation for enhancing the speed and effectiveness of reservoir response due to physical, chemical, and/or thermal stimulation interactions.

Burrill, Jr., Charles E. (Billerica, MA); Smirlock, Martin E. (Brimfield, MA); Krepchin, Ira P. (Newton Upper Falls, MA)

1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

167

THERMAL PROCESSING OF OIL SHALE/SANDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

)-based simulation tools to a modified in-situ process for production of oil from oil shale. The simulation tools

Michal Hradisky; Philip J. Smith; Doe Award; No. De-fe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Thermal Analysis of Novel Underfill Materials with Optimum Processing Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal Analysis of Novel Underfill Materials with Optimum Processing Characteristics Yang Liu,1 Yi evolution. Boron nitride, silica-coated alu- minum nitride, and alumina ceramic powders were used as fillers poly- merization. The effects of the filler type and composition on the thermal and mechanical

Harmon, Julie P.

169

SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with Sensible- Heat Storage Solar Power Plant with Sulfurof the Solar Power Plant Storage-Vessel Design, . . . . .System for Chemical Storage of Solar Energy. UC Berkeley,

Baldwin, Thomas F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

PBMR as an Ideal Heat Source for High-Temperature Process Heat Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is an advanced helium-cooled, graphite-moderated High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). A 400 MWt PBMR Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) for the production of electricity is being developed in South Africa. This PBMR technology is also an ideal heat source for process heat applications, including Steam Methane Reforming, steam for Oil Sands bitumen recovery, Hydrogen Production and co-generation (process heat and/or electricity and/or process steam) for petrochemical industries. The cycle configuration used to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant or to convert the reactor's heat into electricity or steam directly influences the cycle efficiency and plant economics. The choice of cycle configuration depends on the process requirements and is influenced by practical considerations, component and material limitations, maintenance, controllability, safety, performance, risk and cost. This paper provides an overview of the use of a PBMR reactor for process applications and possible cycle configurations are presented for applications which require high temperature process heat and/or electricity. (authors)

Correia, Michael; Greyvenstein, Renee [PBMR - Pty Ltd., 1279 Mike Crawford Avenue, Centurion, 0046 (South Africa); Silady, Fred; Penfield, Scott [Technology Insights, 6540 Lusk Blvd, Suite C-102, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Analysis of thermal response of a food self-heating system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a distributed model of heat transfer in a self-heating unit for group meals and its numerical simulation. A magnesium alloy and water exothermic reaction provides the necessary energy. The resulting governing equations of chemical reaction and heat conduction that depicts the heater performance were solved to develop an approximate analytical solution, to which experimental data found from literature were compared and curve fitted. Then, a model of a complete food-heating unit for group meals, which include a stack of four sets of food tray, heating tray, and heater sandwiched between them, as well as the cardboard container, was developed. The governing equations for heat conduction in the complete model were solved. The response in thermal performance of the heating system to the parameters that influence heating profiles of the heater such as decay constant and heat generation capacity were studied. The results show that the system thermal performance is most significantly affected by heat generation and a proper combination of heaters with different heat generation capacity can improve temperature uniformity between food trays. The results are useful for designing and optimizing self-heating multi-food tray units.

Son H. Ho; Muhammad M. Rahman; Aydin K. Sunol

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to compensate the deficit. In this case a traditional solar heating system having the same characteristics with regard to the solar collecting area and the volume of storage tank is used. It can be concluded that the space heating system using a solar energy...

Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROCESSES The first candidate process evaluated was the propane-propylene splitter. The vapor recompression cycle appropriate for that column was previously given in Figure 2. The equipment specifications and operating conditions are given in Table I..., the estimates of cost are given in Table II, and an example of the revenue calculations are given in Table III. PROPANE/PRopn~E SPLlrrEA SPECIFICATIONS ColWZln: C",paei ty = 38,300 Ib/hr (eqoiv. to 200 J: 10' Ib/yr propylene) AT ~ 10?F Reflex Ratio. 16...

Harris, G. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

The self-heating of damp cellulosic materials: I. High thermal conductivity and diffusivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......self-heating of damp cellulosic materials: I. High thermal conductivity...stockpiles of cellulosic materials are analysed. The model...distinct bifurcation diagrams. In particular it is...stockpile sizes for materials prone to self-heating...surfaces by breakage on handling. In such circumstances......

R. A. SISSON; A. SWIFT; G. C. WAKE; B. F. GRAY

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

An experimental study of heat pipe thermal management system with wet cooling method for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An effective battery thermal management (BTM) system is required for lithium-ion batteries to ensure a desirable operating temperature range with minimal temperature gradient, and thus to guarantee their high efficiency, long lifetime and great safety. In this paper, a heat pipe and wet cooling combined BTM system is developed to handle the thermal surge of lithium-ion batteries during high rate operations. The proposed BTM system relies on ultra-thin heat pipes which can efficiently transfer the heat from the battery sides to the cooling ends where the water evaporation process can rapidly dissipate the heat. Two sized battery packs, 3 Ah and 8 Ah, with different lengths of cooling ends are used and tested through a series high-intensity discharges in this study to examine the cooling effects of the combined BTM system, and its performance is compared with other four types of heat pipe involved BTM systems and natural convection cooling method. A combination of natural convection, fan cooling and wet cooling methods is also introduced to the heat pipe BTM system, which is able to control the temperature of battery pack in an appropriate temperature range with the minimum cost of energy and water spray.

Rui Zhao; Junjie Gu; Jie Liu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Potentials of Demand Side Management Using Heat Pumps with Building Mass as a Thermal Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Within this work, load-shifting possibilities of heat pumps in residential buildings as well as its influencing and limiting factors are displayed. The intermediate storage is achieved by using the thermal mass of the building so the heat supply can be postponed from the heat demand for a certain period, depending on the characteristics of the building. No additional water storage is considered.

Charlotte Ellerbrok

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Influence of Moisture Content on the Evaluation of Latent Heat of Molten Salts used for Thermal Energy Storage Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Precise measurements of the thermo-physical properties are essential for the process design of thermal energy storage systems. This paper is concerned with the measurement of heat of fusion of molten salts, which plays a key role in determining the storage capacity of latent heat based thermal energy storage units. The focus of the work is on the effect of moisture content of molten salts on latent heat measurements using a differential scanning calorimetry. The results reveal that, the change in the mass of the samples investigated is due to moisture content, and hence, this leads to a reduction in the value of the heat of fusion of the phase change material. For instance, the heat of fusion for one of the wet samples (containing moisture) was determined to be 314.29J/g. However, the calculated heat of fusion for the same sample without moisture is found to be 350.029J/g. This is associated with the methodology of the DSC analysis, which does not consider the mass of the moisture in the sample. It is found that, the deviation in the heat of fusion due to the effect of the moisture content in the investigated samples is proportional to the amount of moisture in the original sample. Therefore, it is imperative to consider the effect of the moisture content on the evaluation of the latent heat of molten salts. In order to obtain reliable findings, either the samples should be dried and then weighed promptly, or weighed after the test and then re-evaluate the latent heat using the new weight.

Salama Omran; Peter Heggs; Yulong Ding

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Active charge/passive discharge solar heating systems: thermal analysis  

SciTech Connect

The performance of active charge/passive discharge solar space-heating systems is analyzed. This type of system combines liquid-cooled solar collector panels with a massive integral storage component that passively heats the building interior by radiation and free convection. The TRNSYS simulation program is used to evaluate system performance and to provide input for the development of a simplified analysis method. This method, which provides monthly calculations of delivered solar energy, is based on Klein's Phi-bar procedure and data from hourly TRNSYS simulations. The method can be applied to systems using a floor slab, a structural wall, or a water tank as the storage component. Important design parameters include collector area and orientation, building heat loss, collector and heat-exchanger efficiencies, storage capacity, and storage to room coupling.

Swisher, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

NOTES AND DISCUSSIONS Note on thermal heating efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This is the conversion problem faced in every home, where one has heat from a gas, oil, wood, or coal flame but wants, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 Received 25 April 2002; accepted for publication 26 July

Rodriguez, Carlos

180

Visual investigation on the heat dissipation process of a heat sink by using digital holographic interferometry  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for visually and quantitatively investigating the heat dissipation process of plate-fin heat sinks by using digital holographic interferometry. A series of phase change maps reflecting the temperature distribution and variation trend of the air field surrounding heat sink during the heat dissipation process are numerically reconstructed based on double-exposure holographic interferometry. According to the phase unwrapping algorithm and the derived relationship between temperature and phase change of the detection beam, the full-field temperature distributions are quantitatively obtained with a reasonably high measurement accuracy. And then the impact of heat sink's channel width on the heat dissipation performance in the case of natural convection is analyzed. In addition, a comparison between simulation and experiment results is given to verify the reliability of this method. The experiment results certify the feasibility and validity of the presented method in full-field, dynamical, and quantitative measurement of the air field temperature distribution, which provides a basis for analyzing the heat dissipation performance of plate-fin heat sinks.

Wu, Bingjing; Zhao, Jianlin, E-mail: jlzhao@nwpu.edu.cn; Wang, Jun; Di, Jianglei; Chen, Xin; Liu, Junjiang [Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Optical Information Technology, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

Charles V Park

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

184

Thermal heat radiation, near-field energy density and near-field radiative heat transfer of coated materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the thermal radiation and thermal near-field energy density of a metal-coated semi-infinite body for different substrates. We show that the surface polariton coupling within the metal coating leads to an enhancement of the TM-mode part of the thermal near-field energy density when a polar substrate is used. In this case the result obtained for a free standing metal film is retrieved. In contrast, in the case of a metal substrate there is no enhancement in the TM-mode part, as can also be explained within the framework of surface plasmon coupling within the coating. Finally, we discuss the influence of the enhanced thermal energy density on the near-field radiative heat transfer between a simple semi-infinite and a coated semi-infinite body for different material combinations.

Svend-Age Biehs

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Domestic demand-side management (DSM): Role of heat pumps and thermal energy storage (TES) systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat pumps are seen as a promising technology for load management in the built environment, in combination with the smart grid concept. They can be coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) systems to shift electrical loads from high-peak to off-peak hours, thus serving as a powerful tool in demand-side management (DSM). This paper analyzes heat pumps with radiators or underfloor heating distribution systems coupled with TES with a view to showing how a heat pump system behaves and how it influences the building occupants' thermal comfort under a DSM strategy designed to flatten the shape of the electricity load curve by switching off the heat pump during peak hours (16:00–19:00). The reference scenario for the analysis was Northern Ireland (UK). The results showed that the heat pump is a good tool for the purposes of DSM, also thanks to the use of TES systems, in particular with heating distribution systems that have a low thermal inertia, e.g. radiators. It proved possible to achieve a good control of the indoor temperature, even if the heat pump was turned off for 3 h, and to reduce the electricity bill if a “time of use” tariff structure was adopted.

A. Arteconi; N.J. Hewitt; F. Polonara

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

A genetic rule weighting and selection process for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the use of weighted linguistic fuzzy rules in combination with a rule selection process to develop accurate fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the intelligent control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems concerning ... Keywords: BEMS, building energy management system, FLC, fuzzy logic controller, Fuzzy logic controllers, GA, genetic algorithm, Genetic algorithms, HVAC systems, HVAC, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, KB, knowledge base, PMV, predicted mean vote index for thermal comfort, Rule selection, Weighted fuzzy rules

Rafael Alcalá; Jorge Casillas; Oscar Cordón; Antonio González; Francisco Herrera

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Energy storage for desalination processes powered by renewable energy and waste heat sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Desalination has become imperative as a drinking water source for many parts of the world. Due to the large quantities of thermal energy and high quality electricity requirements for water purification, the desalination industry depends on waste heat resources and renewable energy sources such as solar collectors, photovoltaic arrays, geothermal and wind and tidal energy sources. Considering the mismatch between the source supply and demand and intermittent nature of these energy resources, energy storage is a must for reliable and continuous operation of desalination facilities. Thermal energy storage (TES) requires a suitable medium for storage and circulation while the photovoltaic/wind generated electricity needs to be stored in batteries for later use. Desalination technologies that utilize thermal energy and thus require storage for uninterrupted process operation are multi-stage flash distillation (MSF), multi-effect evaporation (MED), low temperature desalination (LTD) and humidification–dehumidification (HD) and membrane distillation (MD). Energy accumulation, storage and supply are the key components of energy storage concept which improve process performance along with better resource economics, and minimum environmental impact. Similarly, the battery energy storage (BES) is essential to store electrical energy for electrodialysis (ED), reverse osmosis (RO) and mechanical vapor compression (MVC) technologies. This research-review paper provides a critical review on current energy storage options for different desalination processes powered by various renewable energy and waste heat sources with focus on thermal energy storage and battery energy storage systems. Principles of energy storage (thermal and electrical energy) are discussed with details on the design, sizing, and economics for desalination process applications.

Veera Gnaneswar Gude

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Thermal behavior of spiral fin-and-tube heat exchanger having fly ash deposit  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates the effect of fly-ash deposit on thermal performance of a cross-flow heat exchanger having a set of spiral finned-tubes as a heat transfer surface. A stream of warm air having high content of fly-ash is exchanging heat with a cool water stream in the tubes. In this study, the temperature of the heat exchanger surface is lower than the dew point temperature of air, thus there is condensation of moisture in the air stream on the heat exchanger surface. The affecting parameters such as the fin spacing, the air mass flow rate, the fly-ash mass flow rate and the inlet temperature of warm air are varied while the volume flow rate and the inlet temperature of the cold water stream are kept constant at 10 l/min and 5 C, respectively. From the experiment, it is found that as the testing period is shorter than 8 h the thermal resistance due to the fouling increases with time. Moreover, the deposit of fly-ash on the heat transfer surface is directly proportional to the dust-air ratio and the amount of condensate on heat exchange surface. However, the deposit of fly-ash is inversely proportional to the fin spacing. The empirical model for evaluating the thermal resistance is also developed in this work and the simulated results agree well with those of the measured data. (author)

Nuntaphan, Atipoang [Thermal Technology Research Laboratory, Mae Moh Training Center, Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Mae Moh, Lampang 52220 (Thailand); Kiatsiriroat, Tanongkiat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics The report addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1) provide greater insight and understanding into the role of elevated temperature and pressure regimes on physical properties of reconsolidated crushed salt, 2) can supplement an existing database used to develop a reconsolidation constitutive model and 3) provide data for model evaluation. The constitutive model accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent

190

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics The report addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1) provide greater insight and understanding into the role of elevated temperature and pressure regimes on physical properties of reconsolidated crushed salt, 2) can supplement an existing database used to develop a reconsolidation constitutive model and 3) provide data for model evaluation. The constitutive model accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent

191

A Mountain-Scale Thermal Hydrologic Model for Simulating Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Unsaturated Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Simulating Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Unsaturatedcomplex multiphase fluid flow and heat-transfer processes.of the coupled fluid-flow and heat-transfer processes has

Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Minor ion heating in spectra of linearly and circularly polarized Alfvén waves: Thermal and non-thermal motions associated with perpendicular heating  

SciTech Connect

Minor ion (such as He{sup 2+}) heating via nonresonant interaction with spectra of linearly and circularly polarized Alfvén waves (LPAWs and CPAWs hereafter) is studied. The obtained analytic solutions are in good agreement with the simulation results, indicating that newborn ions are heated by low-frequency Alfvén waves with finite amplitude in low-beta plasmas such as the solar corona. The analytic solutions also reproduce the preferential heating of heavy ions in the solar wind. In the presence of parallel propagating Alfvén waves, turbulence-induced particle motion is clearly observed in the wave (magnetic field) polarized directions. After the waves diminish, the newborn ions are heated, which is caused by the phase difference (randomization) between ions due to their different parallel thermal motions. The heating is dominant in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The perpendicular heating, ?=(T{sub i?}{sup R}?T{sub i0?}{sup R})/T{sub i0?}{sup R} (where T{sub i0?}{sup R} and T{sub i?}{sup R} are the perpendicular temperature of species i before and after genuine heating, respectively), in the spectrum of CPAWs is a factor of two stronger than that of LPAWs. Moreover, we also study the effect of field-aligned differential flow speed of species i relative to H{sup +}, ?v{sub ip}=(v{sub i}?v{sub p})·B/|B| (where v{sub i} and v{sub p} denote vector velocities of the H{sup +} and species i, respectively), on the perpendicular heating. It reveals that large drift speed, v{sub d}=?v{sub ip}, has an effect on reducing the efficiency of perpendicular heating, which is consistent with observations.

Dong, Chuanfei, E-mail: dcfy@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States) [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Numerical simulation of heat transfer performance of an air-cooled steam condenser in a thermal power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulation of the thermal-flow characteristics and heat transfer performance is made of an air-cooled steam condenser (ACSC) in a thermal power plant by considering the effects of ambient wind speed and...

Xiufeng Gao; Chengwei Zhang; Jinjia Wei; Bo Yu

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Impacts of Soil and Pipe Thermal Conductivity on Performance of Horizontal Pipe in a Ground-source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the composition and thermal property of soil are discussed. The main factors that impact the soil thermal conductivity and several commonly-used pipe materials are studied. A model of heat exchanger with horizontal pipes of ground...

Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Na, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction of Diesel Engine Heating Components by the Strain-Range Partitioning Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, first the loading condition of thermal load of marine diesel engine is analyzed, and then the stress-strain ... carried on the thermal fatigue life prediction of diesel engine heating components by...

Senior Engineer Gu Zetong; Hu Gan…

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Ferrocyanide safety program: Heat load and thermal characteristics determination for selected tanks  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was conducted to determine the heat loads, conductivities, and heat distributions of waste tanks 241-BY-105, -106, -108, -110, -111, and 241-C-109 at the Hanford Site. The heat distribution of tank 241-BY-111 was determined to be homogeneously distributed throughout the sludge contained in the tank. All of the other tanks, with the exception of 241-C-109, showed evidence of a heat-producing layer at the bottom of the tanks. No evidence of a heat-producing layer in a position above the bottom was found. The thermal conductivities were determined to be within the ranges found by previous laboratory and computer analysis. The heat loads of the tanks were found to be below 2.81 kW (9,600 Btu/hr).

McLaren, J.M.; Cash, R.J.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Determination of temperature-dependent heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed  

SciTech Connect

The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.

Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Review of combined photovoltaic/thermal collector: solar assisted heat pump system options  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of using photovoltaic (PV) and combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors in conjunction with residential heat pumps are examined. The thermal and electrical power requirements of similar residences in New York City and Fort Worth are the loads under consideration. The TRNSYS energy balance program is used to simulate the operations of parallel, series, and cascade solar assisted heat pump systems. Similar work involving exclusively thermal collectors is reviewed, and the distinctions between thermal and PV/T systems are emphasized. Provided the defrost problem can be satisfactorily controlled, lifecycle cost analyses show that at both locations the optimum collector area is less than 50 m/sup 2/ and that the parallel system is preferred.

Sheldon, D.B.; Russell, M.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Heat dissipation performance of a high-brightness LED package assembly using high-thermal conductivity filler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a thermal analysis and experimental validation of natural convective heat transfer of a high-brightness light-emitting diode (LED) package assembly. The substrate...

Yung, K C; Liem, H; Choy, H S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Using the reversability of the peltier effect to reduce the heat-scattering surfaces of thermal cooling batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose and analyze a method for significant reduction in the area of heat scattering surfaces in thermal cooling batteries, where the latter are used to cool....

E. K. Iordanishvili

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

202

Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

Morman, James A. (Woodridge, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

4th Generation District Heating (4GDH): Integrating smart thermal grids into future sustainable energy systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have to be developed further into a new generation in order to play such a role. Unlike the first three generations, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as being an integrated part of the operation of smart energy systems, i.e. integrated smart electricity, gas and thermal grids.

Henrik Lund; Sven Werner; Robin Wiltshire; Svend Svendsen; Jan Eric Thorsen; Frede Hvelplund; Brian Vad Mathiesen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Thermal monitoring and optimization of geothermal district heating systems using artificial neural network: A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with determine the energy and exergy efficiencies and exergy destructions for thermal optimization of a geothermal district heating system by using artificial neural network (ANN) technique. As a comprehensive case study, the Afyonkarahisar geothermal district heating system (AGDHS) in Afyonkarahisar/Turkey is considered and its actual thermal data as of average weekly data are collected in heating seasons during the period 2006–2010 for ANN based monitoring and thermal optimization. The measured data and calculated values are used at the design of Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) based multi-layer perceptron (MLP) in Matlab program. The results of the study are described graphically. The results show that the developed model is found to quickly predict the thermal performance and exergy destructions of the AGDHS with good accuracy. In addition, two main factors play important roles in the thermal optimization: (i) ambient temperature and (ii) flow rates in energy distribution cycle of the AGDHS. Various cases are investigated to determine how to change the energy and exergy efficiencies of the AGDHS for the temperature and flow rate. Finally, a monitoring and performance evaluation of a geothermal district heating system and its components by ANN will reduce the losses and human involvement and make the system more effective and efficient.

Ali Keçeba?; ?smail Yabanova

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix for providing simultaneous heat transfer and mass transfer at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, whereby the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process is significantly improved. The small channel heat exchange matrix is comprised of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 mm. The channels are connected to an inlet header for supplying a two-phase coolant to the channels and an outlet header for receiving the coolant horn the channels. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within a separation column, whereby liquid descends along the exterior surfaces of the cooling channels and vapor ascends between adjacent channels within the matrix. Preferably, a perforated and concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel, such that liquid further descends along the concave surfaces of the sheets and the vapor further ascends through the perforations in the sheets. The size and configuration of the small channel heat exchange matrix allows the heat and mass transfer device to be positioned within the separation column, thereby allowing precise control of the local operating conditions within the column and increasing the energy efficiency of the process.

Tran, Thanh Nhon

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

THE INFLUENCE OF REPOSITORY THERMAL LOAD ON MULTIPHASE FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the impact of proposed repository thermal-loading on mountain-scale flow and heat transfer in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this context, a model has been developed to study the coupled thermal-hydrological (TH) processes at the scale of the entire Yucca Mountain. This mountain-scale TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the latest rock thermal and hydrological properties. The TH model consists of a two-dimensional north-south vertical cross section across the entire unsaturated zone model domain and uses refined meshes near and around the proposed repository block, based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climatic conditions. The model simulations provide insights into thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and elevated water and rock temperature, which in turn allow modelers to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts.

Yu-Shu Wu, Sumit Mukhopadhyay, Keni Zhang, and G. S. Bodvarsson

2006-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

207

Heat conduction through a trapped solid: effect of structural changes on thermal conductance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the conduction of heat across a narrow solid strip trapped by an external potential and in contact with its own liquid. Structural changes, consisting of addition and deletion of crystal layers in the trapped solid, are produced by altering the depth of the confining potential. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and, wherever possible, simple analytical calculations are used to obtain the thermal resistance in the liquid, solid and interfacial regions (Kapitza or contact resistance). We show that these layering transitions are accompanied by sharp jumps in the contact thermal resistance. Dislocations, if present, are shown to increase the thermal resistance of the strip drastically.

Debasish Chaudhuri; Abhishek Chaudhuri; Surajit Sengupta

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

208

Non-thermal solar wind heating by supra-thermal ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of a new energy source due to energies transferred from supra-thermal secondary ions on the temperature profile of the solar wind has been considered. For this purpose ... solution of a tri-fluid model...

H. J. Fahr

1973-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Power enhancement of heat engines via correlated thermalization in multilevel systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze a heat machine based on a periodically-driven quantum system permanently coupled to hot and cold baths. It is shown that the maximal power output of a degenerate $V$-type three-level heat engine is that generated by two independent two-level systems. For $N$ levels, this maximal enhancement is $(N-1)$-fold. Hence, level degeneracy is a thermodynamic resource that may effectively boost the power output. The efficiency, however, is not affected. We find that coherence is not an essential asset in multilevel-based heat machines. The existence of multiple thermalization pathways sharing a common ground state suffices for power enhancement.

David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Wolfgang Niedenzu; Paul Brumer; Gershon Kurizki

2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

210

Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief  

SciTech Connect

This technical brief is a guide to help plant operators reduce waste heat losses associated with process heating equipment.

Not Available

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

8-22E The thermal efficiency and the second-law efficiency of a heat engine are given. The source temperature is to be determined.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8 8-22E The thermal efficiency and the second-law efficiency of a heat engine are given. The source, for the maximum work, the turbine must be adiabatic. #12;8-62 Steam is throttled from a specified state to a specified pressure. The decrease in the exergy of the steam during this throttling process

Kostic, Milivoje M.

213

ThermalEngineeringLaboratory,VanderbiltUniversity Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Commercial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Commercial Electronic Cooling Systems N.A. Roberts and D.G. Walker Department of Mechanical Engineering in real systems · Benefits of nanofluids ­ reduced sedimentation and viscosity ­ reduced damageThermalEngineeringLaboratory,VanderbiltUniversity Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids

Walker, D. Greg

214

Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost...

Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

DRAIN-BACK PROTECTED LOW-FLOW SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM WITH DISTRIBUTED ELEVATED THERMALLY STRATIFIED STORAGE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Design considerations concerning a drain-back freeze and overheat protection system are given with emphasis on nitrogen management and thermal stratification of an elevated distributed storage. The actual system of GNT in Berg, Federal Republic of Germany is described. KEYWORDS Solar Heating; Freeze Protection; Overheat Protection; Drain-Back System;

W.B. VELTKAMP; J. VAN BERKEL; A.T. KEESMAN

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of Floor Radiant Heating System with Enclosed Phase Change Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the energy storage floor is designed,which places heat pipes in the enclosed phase change material (PCM) layer, without concrete in it. The PCM thermal storage time is studied in relation to the floor surface temperature under different low-temperature hot...

Qiu, L.; Wu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Process Heating Roadmap to Help U.S. Industries Be Competitive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This brief summarizes the development of a comprehensive plan for meeting industrial process heating needs started by the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA) and DOE in 1999.

218

The role of impact and radiogenic heating in the early thermal evolution of Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The planetary differentiation models of Mars are proposed that take into account core-mantle and core-mantle-crust differentiation. The numerical simulations are presented for the early thermal evolution of Mars spanning up to the initial 25 million years (Ma) of the early solar system, probably for the first time, by taking into account the radiogenic heating due to the short-lived nuclides, 26Al and 60Fe. The influence of impact heating during the accretion of Mars is also incorporated in the simulations. The early accretion of Mars would necessitate a substantial role played by the short-lived nuclides in its heating. 26Al along with impact heating could have provided sufficient thermal energy to the entire body to substantially melt and trigger planetary scale differentiation. This is contrary to the thermal models based exclusively on the impact heating that could not produce widespread melting and planetary differentiation. The early onset of the accretion of Mars perhaps within the initial ~1.5 Ma in t...

Sahijpal, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

220

Heating of thermal non-equilibrium ions by Alfvén wave via nonresonant interaction  

SciTech Connect

Pickup of thermal non-equilibrium ions by Alfvén wave via nonresonant wave-particle interaction is investigated by means of analytical test-particle theory. Some interesting and new results are found. No matter what the initial velocity distribution is, if the background magnetic field, the Alfvén speed, and the Alfvén magnetic field are fixed, the average parallel velocity never changes when t??. Heating effects in the perpendicular and parallel direction just depend on the initial temperature, and the perpendicular temperature increase is more prominent. It is noted that the heating effect of thermal non-equilibrium ions (Kappa ions) is weaker than that of the Maxwellian. This phenomenon may be relative to the heating of ions in the solar corona as well as in some toroidal confinement fusion devices.

Liu, Hai-Feng; Wang, Shi-Qing [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China) [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); The Engineering and Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000 (China); Li, Ke-Hua [The Engineering and Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000 (China)] [The Engineering and Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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221

Thermal and economical analysis of a central solar heating system with underground seasonal storage in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal performance and economic feasibility of two types of central solar heating system with seasonal storage under four climatically different Turkey locations are investigated. The effects of storage volume and collector area on the thermal performance and cost are studied for three load sizes. The simulation model of the system consisting of flat plate solar collectors, a heat pump, under ground storage tank and heating load based on a finite element analysis and finite element code ANSYS™ is chosen as a convenient tool. In this study, the lowest solar fraction value for Trabzon (41°N) and the highest solar fraction value for Adana (37°N) are obtained. Based on the economic analysis, the payback period of system is found to be about 25–35 years for Turkey.

A. Ucar; M. Inalli

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Countermeasures to Microbiofouling in Simulated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Heat Exchangers with Surface and Deep Ocean Waters in Hawaii  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thermal energy from warm ocean waters. A small fraction...converted to electrical power and waste heat is rejected...water pumped from the ocean depth. Solar energy absorbed by the ocean surface provides the heat...Thermal losses, the power requirements to pump large...

Leslie Ralph Berger; Joyce A. Berger

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Solar Thermal Power Generation and Industrial Process Heat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A solar chimney power plant consists of a transparent tubular chimney over 200 m tall rising from a...2 covered with a transparent material (Haaf et al. 1983). At the base of the chimney is located a turbine driv...

Brian Norton

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Compression of felt?type thermal insulation layer for underfloor heating system and floor impact sound  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Korea almost every house uses underfloor heating which has advantages of thermal comfort and energy efficiency. However when it is constructed for high?rise apartment houses it yields a problem in floor impact sound insulation. It accounts for the fact that a foam?type thermal insulator sandwiched between structural slab and heating floor functions as a spring and easily transmits impacts on the floor to the slab. In that case the system's transmissibility is determined by dynamic stiffness of the thermal insulation layer and the lower the dynamic stiffness is the more the floor impact is isolated. For that reason apartments construction companies are attempting to lower the dynamic stiffness of the thermal insulation layer for impact sound reduction. As part of the attempt felt?type materials with relatively low dynamic stiffness such as glass wool or polyester felt are considered as a substitution for the foam?type thermal insulator. However there is a possibility that compression of the felt?type materials would increase the dynamic stiffness and the impact sound insulation effect at early stage might be weakened in the long term. This paper investigates the correlation between gradual compression of the felt?type thermal insulation layer and the impact sound variation.

Tongjun Cho; Hyun?Min Kim

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

THERMAL NON-EQUILIBRIUM REVISITED: A HEATING MODEL FOR CORONAL LOOPS  

SciTech Connect

The location and frequency of events that heat the million-degree corona are still a matter of debate. One potential heating scenario is that the energy release is effectively steady and highly localized at the footpoints of coronal structures. Such an energy deposition drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions in the hydrodynamic equations in longer loops. This heating scenario was considered and discarded by Klimchuk et al. on the basis of their one-dimensional simulations as incapable of reproducing observational characteristics of loops. In this paper, we use three-dimensional simulations to generate synthetic emission images, from which we select and analyze six loops. The main differences between our model and that of Klimchuk et al. concern (1) dimensionality, (2) resolution, (3) geometrical properties of the loops, (4) heating function, and (5) radiative function. We find evidence, in this small set of simulated loops, that the evolution of the light curves, the variation of temperature along the loops, the density profile, and the absence of small-scale structures are compatible with the characteristics of observed loops. We conclude that quasi-steady footpoint heating that drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions cannot yet be ruled out as a viable heating scenario for EUV loops.

Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Rd., Ste. 170, San Diego, CA 92121-2910 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Mok, Yung, E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov, E-mail: ymok@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 4129 Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

Influence of Hydraulics and Control of Thermal Storage in Solar Assisted Heat Pump Combisystems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper studies the influence of hydraulics and control of thermal storage in systems combined with solar thermal and heat pump for the production of warm water and space heating in dwellings. A reference air source heat pump system with flat plate collectors connected to a combistore was defined and modeled together with the IEA SHC Task 44/HPP Annex 38 (T44A38) “Solar and Heat Pump Systems” boundary conditions of Strasbourg climate and SFH45 building. Three and four pipe connections as well as use of internal and external heat exchangers for DHW preparation were investigated as well as sensor height for charging of the DHW zone in the store. The temperature in this zone was varied to ensure the same DHW comfort was achieved in all cases. The results show that the four pipe connection results in 9% improvement in SPF compared to three pipe and that the external heat exchanger for DHW preparation leads to a 2% improvement compared to the reference case. Additionally the sensor height for charging the DHW zone of the store should not be too low, otherwise system performance is adversely affected.

Stefano Poppi; Chris Bales

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Influence of Proposed Repository Thermal Load on Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in the Unsaturated Zone of Yucca Mountain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

development of fluid flow and heat transfer models at otherTOUGH2 code [22]. Fluid flow and heat-transfer processes inand heat transfer through fractured rock is based on the DKM method. This approach considers global fluid and

Wu, Y.-S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Heat flow determinations and implied thermal regime of the Coso geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

determinations and implied thermal regime of the Coso geothermal determinations and implied thermal regime of the Coso geothermal area, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Heat flow determinations and implied thermal regime of the Coso geothermal area, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Obvious surface manifestations of an anomalous concentration of geothermal energy at the Coso Geothermal Area, California, include fumarolic activity, active hot springs, and associated hydrothermally altered rocks. Abundant Pleistocene volcanic rocks, including a cluster of thirty-seven rhyolite domes, occupy a north-trending structural and topographic ridge near the center of an oval-shaped zone of late Cenozoic ring faulting. In an investigation of the thermal regime of the geothermal

230

Pressurized heat treatment of glass-ceramic to control thermal expansion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

Kramer, Daniel P. (Dayton, OH)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

LATERAL HEAT FLOW INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR THICKNESS INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION OF THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY IN CFRP  

SciTech Connect

In conventional infrared thermography, determination of thermal diffusivity requires thickness information. Recently GE has been experimenting with the use of lateral heat flow to determine thermal diffusivity without thickness information. This work builds on previous work at NASA Langley and Wayne State University but we incorporate thermal time of flight (tof) analysis rather than curve fitting to obtain quantitative information. We have developed appropriate theoretical models and a tof based data analysis framework to experimentally determine all components of thermal diffusivity from the time-temperature measurements. Initial validation was carried out using finite difference simulations. Experimental validation was done using anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. We found that in the CFRP samples used, the in-plane component of diffusivity is about eight times larger than the through-thickness component.

Tralshawala, Nilesh; Howard, Don; Knight, Bryon; Plotnikov, Yuri; Ringermacher, Harry [Nondestructive Technologies Laboratory, GE--Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 1: Feasibility  

SciTech Connect

Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been, typically, very expensive for their rating. The need to keep the liquid flowing within the collectors as cool as possible to enhance collector thermal efficiency, conflicts with the need to operate the absorption chiller at a higher temperature. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and much more efficient. In addition, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures and, therefore, a smaller chiller is required. The economic consequences of these benefits will be presented in Part 2.

Fineblum, S. [Megadyne Inc., Rochester, NY (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 2: Energy and economics  

SciTech Connect

Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been very expensive for their rating. To enhance collector thermal efficiency the liquid flowing within the collectors must be kept as cool as possible. However, there is also a need to operate the absorption reported earlier. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and more efficient. As noted in Part 1, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures. Therefore, a smaller, less expensive chiller is required. The reduced investment in solar arrays and absorption chillers is estimated along with a range of paybacks.

Fineblum, S. [Megadyne Inc., Rochester, NY (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

A New Solar Carbon Capture Process: Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo (STEP) Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A New Solar Carbon Capture Process: Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo (STEP) Carbon Capture ... CO2 can be captured from 34% to over 50% solar energy efficiency (depending on the level of solar heat inclusion), as solid carbon and stored, or used as carbon monoxide to be available for a feedstock to synthesize (with STEP generated hydrogen) solar diesel fuel, synthetic jet fuel, or chemical production. ... STEP Iron, a Chemistry of Iron Formation without CO2 Emission: Molten Carbonate Solubility and Electrochemistry of Iron Ore Impurities ...

Stuart Licht; Baohui Wang; Susanta Ghosh; Hina Ayub; Dianlu Jiang; Jason Ganley

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

235

HTGR process heat program design and analysis. Semiannual progress report, October 1, 1979-March 28, 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of concept design studies implemented at General Atomic Company (GA) during the first half of FY-80. The studies relate to a plant design for an 842-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor utilizing an intermediate helium heat transfer loop to provide high temperature thermal energy for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas (H/sub 2/ + CO) by steam-reforming a light hydrocarbon. Basic carbon sources may be coal, residual oil, or oil shale. Work tasks conducted during this period included the 842-MW(t) plant concept design and cost estimate for an 850/sup 0/C reactor outlet temperature. An assessment of the main-loop cooling shutdown system is reported. Major component cost models were prepared and programmed into the Process Heat Reactor Evaluation and Design (PHRED) code.

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Eighth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Feasibility of combined solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems in cold climate, Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This document presents a study for examining the viability of hybrid ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems that use solar thermal collectors as the supplemental component in heating dominated buildings. Loads for an actual house in the City of Milton near Toronto, Canada, were estimated. TRNSYS, a system simulation software tool, was used to model yearly performance of a conventional GSHP system as well as a proposed hybrid GSHP system. Actual yearly data collected from the site were examined against the simulation results. This study demonstrates that hybrid ground source heat pump system combined with solar thermal collectors is a feasible choice for space conditioning for heating dominated houses. It was shown that the solar thermal energy storage in the ground could reduce a large amount of ground heat exchanger (GHX) length. Combining three solar thermal collectors with a total area of 6.81 m2 to a GSHP system will reduce GHX length by 15%. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for different cities of Canada and resulted that Vancouver, with mildest climate compared to other cities, was the best candidate for the proposed solar hybrid GSHP system with a GHX length reduction to solar collector area ratio of 7.64 m/m2. Overall system economic viability was also evaluated using a 20-year life-cycle cost analysis. The analysis showed that there is small economic benefit in comparing to the conventional GSHP system. The net present value of the proposed hybrid system based on the 20-year life-cycle cost analysis was estimated to be in a range of 3.7%–7.6% (or $1500 to $3430 Canadian dollar) lower than the conventional GSHP system depending on the drilling cost.

Farzin M. Rad; Alan S. Fung; Wey H. Leong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Thermal and membrane processe economics: Optimized selection for seawater desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While the fuel cost has increased in the past years, the desalinated water demand has also increased sharply, especially in the deserted areas. The challenge is to be able to meet such future demand, minimizing the water production costs. The desalination concepts have evolved, achieving substantial progress: desalination thermal process is moving from MSF to MED, hybrids involving both thermal and membrane process are more and more implemented. Reduction in cost and the improved economics of desalination plants are essential elements for the development of communities. Energy, capital, and operating costs are key issues of water desalination economics. This will lead to an optimized process selection on a case by case approach: the choice will depend on the specific conditions prevailing on site, such as existing facilities, power and water demand increase, land availability, raw water quality of water to be produced, ratio between power and water production, ratio between thermal and membrane desalination. The presentation will focus on these various aspects of seawater desalination economics.

Jacques Andrianne; Félix Alardin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Heat transfer deterioration in tubes caused by bulk flow acceleration due to thermal and frictional influences  

SciTech Connect

Severe deterioration of forced convection heat transfer can be encountered with compressible fluids flowing through strongly heated tubes of relatively small bore as the flow accelerates and turbulence is reduced because of the fluid density falling (as the temperature rises and the pressure falls due to thermal and frictional influence). The model presented here throws new light on how the dependence of density on both temperature and pressure can affect turbulence and heat transfer and it explains why the empirical equations currently available for calculating effectiveness of forced convection heat transfer under conditions of strong non-uniformity of fluid properties sometimes fail to reproduce observed behaviour. It provides a criterion for establishing the conditions under which such deterioration of heat transfer might be encountered and enables heat transfer coefficients to be determined when such deterioration occurs. The analysis presented here is for a gaseous fluid at normal pressure subjected strong non-uniformity of fluid properties by the application of large temperature differences. Thus the model leads to equations which describe deterioration of heat transfer in terms of familiar parameters such as Mach number, Reynolds number and Prandtl number. It is applicable to thermal power plant systems such as rocket engines, gas turbines and high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors. However, the ideas involved apply equally well to fluids at supercritical pressure. Impairment of heat transfer under such conditions has become a matter of growing interest with the active consideration now being given to advanced water-cooled nuclear reactors designed to operate at pressures above the critical value. (authors)

Jackson, J. D. [Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Determination of thermal accommodation coefficients from heat transfer measurements between parallel plates.  

SciTech Connect

Thermal accommodation coefficients have been derived for a variety of gas-surface combinations using an experimental apparatus developed to measure the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates at unequal temperature separated by a gas-filled gap. The heat flux is inferred from temperature-difference measurements across the plates in a configuration where the plate temperatures are set with two carefully controlled thermal baths. Temperature-controlled shrouds provide for environmental isolation of the opposing test plates. Since the measured temperature differences in these experiments are very small (typically 0.3 C or less over the entire pressure range), high-precision thermistors are used to acquire the requisite temperature data. High-precision components have also been utilized on the other control and measurement subsystems in this apparatus, including system pressure, gas flow rate, plate alignment, and plate positions. The apparatus also includes the capability for in situ plasma cleaning of the installed test plates. Measured heat-flux results are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code calculations to determine the thermal accommodation coefficients. Thermal accommodation coefficients have been determined for three different gases (argon, nitrogen, helium) in contact with various surfaces. Materials include metals and alloys such as aluminum, gold, platinum, and 304 stainless steel. A number of materials important to fabrication of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices have also been examined. For most surfaces, coefficient values are near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Only slight differences in accommodation as a function of surface roughness have been seen. Surface contamination appears to have a more significant effect: argon plasma treatment has been observed to reduce thermal accommodation by as much as 0.10 for helium. Mixtures of argon and helium have also been examined, and the results have been compared to DSMC simulations incorporating thermal-accommodation values from single-species experiments.

Gallis, Michail A.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Rader, Daniel John; Torczynski, John Robert; Trott, Wayne Merle

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Characterization of penetration induced thermal runaway propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the mechanisms of penetration induced thermal runaway (TR) propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery pack. A 6-battery module is built with 47 thermocouples installed at critical positions to record the temperature profiles. The first battery of the module is penetrated to trigger a TR propagation process. The temperature responses, the voltage responses and the heat transfer through different paths are analyzed and discussed to characterize the underlying physical behavior. The temperature responses show that: 1) Compared with the results of TR tests using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) with uniform heating, a lower onset temperature and a shorter TR triggering time are observed in a penetration induced TR propagation test due to side heating. 2) The maximum temperature difference within a battery can be as high as 791.8 °C in a penetration induced TR propagation test. The voltage responses have a 5-stage feature, indicating that the TR happens in sequence for the two pouch cells packed inside a battery. The heat transfer analysis shows that: 1) 12% of the total heat released in TR of a battery is enough to trigger the adjacent battery to TR. 2) The heat transferred through the pole connector is only about 1/10 of that through the battery shell. 3) The fire has little influence on the TR propagation, but may cause significant damage on the accessories located above the battery. The results can enhance our understandings of the mechanisms of TR propagation, and provide important guidelines in pack design for large format lithium ion battery.

Xuning Feng; Jing Sun; Minggao Ouyang; Fang Wang; Xiangming He; Languang Lu; Huei Peng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Thermal comfort, skin temperature distribution, and sensible heat loss distribution in the sitting posture in various asymmetric radiant fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aimed at investigating the thermal comfort for the whole body as well as for certain local areas, skin temperatures, and sensible heat losses in various asymmetric radiant fields. Human subject experiments were conducted to assess the overall comfort sensation and local discomfort, and local skin temperatures were measured. Through thermal manikin experiments, we discovered a new method for the precise measurement of the local sensible heat loss in nonuniform thermal environments. The local sensible heat losses were measured by the use of a thermal manikin that had the same local skin temperatures as the human subjects. The experimental conditions consisted of the anterior–posterior, right–left, and up–down asymmetric thermal environments created by radiation panels. A total of 35 thermal environmental conditions were created ranging from 25.5 to 30.5 °C for air temperature, from 11.5 to 44.5 °C for surface temperature of radiation panels, from 40% RH to 50% RH for humidity, and less than 0.05 m/s for inlet air velocity to the climatic chamber. The local skin temperature changed depending on the environmental thermal nonuniformity, even if the mean skin temperature remained almost the same. It is essential to use the skin temperature distribution as well as mean skin temperature for expressing thermal comfort in nonuniform environments. The local sensible heat loss changed depending on the environmental thermal nonuniformity, even if the mean sensible heat loss remained almost the same. The relationship between the local skin temperature and local sensible heat loss cannot be depicted by a simple line; instead, it varies depending on the environmental thermal nonuniformity. The local heat discomfort in the head area was dependent on both the local skin temperature and local sensible heat loss. However, the local cold discomfort in the foot area was related only to the local skin temperature.

Tomonori Sakoi; Kazuyo Tsuzuki; Shinsuke Kato; Ryozo Ooka; Doosam Song; Shengwei Zhu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

New Li-ion Battery Evaluation Research Based on Thermal Property and Heat Generation Behavior of Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We do a new Li-ion battery evaluation research on the effects of cell resistance and polarization on the energy loss in batteries based on thermal property and heat generation behavior of battery. Series of 18650 cells with different capacities and electrode materials are evaluated by measuring input and output energy which change with charge-discharge time and current. Based on the results of these tests, we build a model of energy loss in cells' charge-discharge process, which include Joule heat and polarization heat impact factors. It was reported that Joule heat was caused by cell resistance, which included DC-resistance and reaction resistance, and reaction resistance could not be easily obtained through routine test method. Using this new method, we can get the total resistance R and the polarization parameter ?. The relationship between R, ?, and temperature is also investigated in order to build a general model for series of different Li-ion batteries, and the research can be used in the performance evaluation, state of charge prediction and the measuring of consistency of the batteries.

Zhe Lv; Xun Guo; Xin-ping Qiu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

September 16, 2014 NIKKEN SEKKEI Research Institute Naoki Takahashi Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International... of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 District heating and cooling system in Nakanoshima 4 Characteristics of heat supply plant in Nakanoshima district -River water is utilized as heat...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Thermal Properties of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys: Phase Decomposition Effects of Heat Treatments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to generate computational estimates of the alloys specific heat and thermal conductivity. Section 2 describes the technical background in which this thesis is based, including uranium metal alloy theory and properties. Section 3 describes the experimental... the phases and distorted phases that occur during phase decomposition. The authors conducted numerous experiments involving uranium, plutonium, and neptunium, as well as alloys with other metals. In the a0 = 3.4808 ! 0.00314 xMo !" Mox ? 10 case...

Creasy, John Thomas

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

Potential for Heat Pumps in the U.S. Process Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

POTENTIAL FOR HEAT PUMPS IN THE U. S. PROCESS INDUSTRIES A.P. ROSSITER, R.V. SEETHARAM AND S.M. RANADE TENSA Services Houston, ABSTRACT Two major criteria for successful heat pump installations in process plants are the "appropriate... placement" and "appropriate sizing" of the heat pump, consistent with the thermodynamics of the process. Failure to fulfil these conditions will result in the heat pump not achieving the anticipated savings and may even cause a net increase in process...

Rossiter, A. P.; Seetharam, R. V.; Ranade, S. M.

247

List of Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Space Heat Incentives Space Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 499 Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 499) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas Other Distributed Generation Technologies Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Solar Pool Heating Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat

248

Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials  

SciTech Connect

Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is significant as higher thermal and electrical conductivities of the surface layer are critical for a successful development of integrated optoelectronic devices; and (3) PTP provides low thermal budget dopant activation with a controlled depth profile, which can be exploited for high performance device development with selective patterning of the substrate. This project has successfully demonstrated that a low thermal budget annealing technique, such as PTP, is critical to defining the path for low cost electronic devices integrated on glass or polymeric substrates. This project is complimentary to the goals of the Solid State Lighting Program within DOE. It involves new manufacturing techniques for light emitting materials that are potentially much lower cost and energy efficient than existing products. Significant opportunity exists for further exploration of AppliCote's material and device technology in combination with ORNL's PTP technique, modeling, and characterization capabilities.

Duty, C.; Quick, N. (AppliCote Associates, LLC) [AppliCote Associates, LLC

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

249

Temperature and thermal stress distributions for the HFIR permanent reflector generated by nuclear heating  

SciTech Connect

The beryllium permanent reflector of the High Flux Isotope Reactor has the main functions for slowing down and reflecting the neutrons and housing the experimental facilities. The reflector is heated as a result of the nuclear reaction. Heat is removed mainly by the cooling water passing through the densely distributed coolant holes along the vertical or axial direction of the reflector. The reflector neutronic distribution and its heating rate are calculated by J.C. Gehin of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory by applying the Monte Carlo Code MCNP. The heat transfer boundary conditions along several reflector interfaces are estimated to remove additional heat from the reflector. The present paper is to report the calculation results of the temperature and the thermal stress distributions of the permanent reflector by applying the computer aided design code I-DEAS and the finite element code ABAQUS. The present calculation is to estimate the high stress areas as a result of the new beam tube cutouts along the horizontal mid-plane of the reflector of the recent reactor upgrade project. These high stresses were not able to be calculated in the preliminary design analysis in earlier 60`s. The heat transfer boundary conditions are used in this redesigned calculation. The material constants and the acceptance criteria for the allowable stresses are mainly based on that assumed in the preliminary design report.

Chang, S.J.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

251

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Analysis of Zinc 65 Contamination after Vacuum Thermal Process  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive contamination with a gamma energy emission consistent with {sup 65}Zn was detected in a glovebox following a vacuum thermal process. The contaminated components were removed from the glovebox and subjected to examination. Selected analytical techniques were used to determine the nature of the precursor material, i.e., oxide or metallic, the relative transferability of the deposit and its nature. The deposit was determined to be borne from natural zinc and was further determined to be deposited as a metallic material from vapor.

Korinko, Paul S.; Tosten, Michael H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Modeling and co-simulation of a parabolic trough solar plant for industrial process heat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present paper a tri-dimensional non-linear dynamic thermohydraulic model of a parabolic trough collector was developed in the high-level acausal object-oriented language Modelica and coupled to a solar industrial process heat plant modeled in TRNSYS. The integration is performed in an innovative co-simulation environment based on the TLK interconnect software connector middleware. A discrete Monte Carlo ray-tracing model was developed in SolTrace to compute the solar radiation heterogeneous local concentration ratio in the parabolic trough collector absorber outer surface. The obtained results show that the efficiency predicted by the model agrees well with experimental data with a root mean square error of 1.2%. The dynamic performance was validated with experimental data from the Acurex solar field, located at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, South-East Spain, and presents a good agreement. An optimization of the IST collector mass flow rate was performed based on the minimization of an energy loss cost function showing an optimal mass flow rate of 0.22 kg/s m2. A parametric analysis showed the influence on collector efficiency of several design properties, such as the absorber emittance and absorptance. Different parabolic trough solar field model structures were compared showing that, from a thermal point of view, the one-dimensional model performs close to the bi-dimensional. Co-simulations conducted on a reference industrial process heat scenario on a South European climate show an annual solar fraction of 67% for a solar plant consisting on a solar field of 1000 m2, with thermal energy storage, coupled to a continuous industrial thermal demand of 100 kW.

R. Silva; M. Pérez; A. Fernández-Garcia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Using Waste Heat for External Processes (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of the Using Waste Heat for External Processes fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to use waste heat in industrial applications. The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery method. Figure 1 shows the heat lost in exhaust gases at various exhaust gas temperatures and percentages of excess air. Energy from gases exhausted from higher temperature processes (primary processes) can be recovered and used for lower temperature processes (secondary processes). One example is to generate steam using waste heat boilers for the fluid heaters used in petroleum crude processing. In addition, many companies install heat exchangers on the exhaust stacks of furnaces and ovens to produce hot water or to generate hot air for space heating.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Nonlinear Electron Heat Conduction Equation and Self similar method for 1-D Thermal Waves in Laser Heating of Solid Density DT Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron heat conduction is one of the ways that energy transports in laser heating of fusible target material. The aim of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is to show that the thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on temperature and the equation of electron heat conduction is a nonlinear equation. In this article, we solve the one-dimensional (1-D) nonlinear electron heat conduction equation with a self-similar method (SSM). This solution has been used to investigate the propagation of 1-D thermal wave from a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane source which occurs when a giant laser pulse impinges onto a DT solid target. It corresponds to the physical problem of rapid heating of a boundary layer of material in which the energy of laser pulse is released in a finite initial thickness.

A. Mohammadian Pourtalari; M. A. Jafarizadeh; M. Ghoranneviss

2011-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

256

Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State  

SciTech Connect

A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Enhanced-oil-recovery thermal processes, annex IV. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE fossil-energy report IV-1  

SciTech Connect

The Agreement between the United States and Venezuela was designed to further energy research and development in six areas. This report focuses on Annex IV - Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Thermal Processes which was divided into seven tasks. This report will discuss the information developed within Task I related to the Department of Energy providing data on the performance of insulated oil-well tubulars. Surface generated steam has been traditionally used in thermal enhanced oil recovery processes. In past years the tubing through which the steam is injected into the reservoir has been bare with relatively high heat losses. In recent years however various materials and designs for insulating the tubing to reduce heat losses have been developed. Evaluation of several of these designs in an instrumented test tower and in an oil field test environment was undertaken. These tests and the resulting data are presented.

Peterson, G.; Schwartz, E.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Large Deviations in Stochastic Heat-Conduction Processes Provide a Gradient-Flow Structure for Heat Conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter $m$, a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP$(m)$ and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the GBEP($a$). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP$(m)$, and give a formal derivation for the GBEP($a$). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form $-\\log \\rho$; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order $\\rho^2$ for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of $\\rho$ for the nonlinear heat equation.

Mark A. Peletier; Frank Redig; Kiamars Vafayi

2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

259

Carbon Nanostructures As Thermal Interface Materials: Processing And Properties.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The power density of electronic packages has substantially increased. The thermal interface resistance involves more than 50% of the total thermal resistance in current high-power… (more)

Memon, Muhammad Omar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Determination of heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed: Extension to high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The heat conductivity ({lambda}) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating {lambda} of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the {lambda}(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100°C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the {lambda}(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap.

Rice, Jarrett A.; Pokorny, Richard; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Monitoring and simulation of the thermal performance of solar heated outdoor swimming pools  

SciTech Connect

Based on detailed measurements of two outdoor swimming pools (at Leonberg and Moehringen) a computer model has been developed and validated for the simulation of the thermal behaviour of such pools. The subroutine is compatible to TRNSYS 13.1. Correlations for the heat losses due to evaporation, convection, and radiation were taken from literature and tested in the model. It was not possible to select one optimal correlation for the description of the evaporative heat losses of both swimming pools due to the different exposure to wind. Using the most suitable correlation for the evaporative heat losses of each pool allowed for the simulation of the pool temperature with less than 0.5 K standard deviation between measured and simulated temperature. the major problem was the measurement of the relevant wind speed to be used in the correlations describing the evaporative heat losses under real outdoor conditions. A method is described detailing how to calibrate the model using the heating energy requirement and the measured pool temperature during actual operation periods. The analysis of the measured data of two different outdoor swimming pools under the same climatic conditions showed differences of a factor 2 and more in the heat demand per unit pool area. This was mainly caused by the difference in local wind speed which differed by more than a factor 4. The two pools investigated were heated by solar energy with a fraction of 28% and 14%, respectively, and the seasonal efficiency of the solar systems was 37.7% and 33.4%. Simulations show that a reduction of the water temperature from 24[degrees]C to 22[degrees]C during periods with low outdoor temperatures and few visitors, reduces the fuel consumption to less than half and increases the solar fraction from 28% to 50% in one pool.

Hahne, E.; Kuebler, R. (Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication  

SciTech Connect

DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A comparison of two heat transfer models for estimating thermal drawdown in Hot Dry Rock reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of thermal drawdown in Hot Dry Rock geothermal systems have been made with two different models of heat transfer from hydraulically fractured reservoir rock blocks to water circulated through the fracture permeability. One model is based on deconvolution of experimental tracer response curves into a network of flowpaths connected in parallel with heat transfer calculated individually in each flowpath. The second model is based on one-dimensional flow through the rock with a block size distribution described as a group of equivalent-radius spheres for which the heat transfer equations can be solved analytically. The two models were applied to the planned Phase II long-term thermal drawdown experiment at Fenton Hill, NM. The results show good agreement between the two models, with estimates of temperature cooldown from 240ºC to 150ºC in a few years depending on selected operation parameters, but with somewhat differing cooldown curve characteristic shapes. Data from the long-term experiment will be helpful in improving the two models.

Robinson, Bruce A.; Kruger, Paul

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Economic analysis of community solar heating systems that use annual cycle thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

The economics of community-scale solar systems that incorporate a centralized annual cycle thermal energy storage (ACTES) coupled to a distribution system is examined. Systems were sized for three housing configurations: single-unit dwellings, 10-unit, and 200-unit apartment complexes in 50-, 200-, 400-, and 1000-unit communities in 10 geographic locations in the United States. Thermal energy is stored in large, constructed, underground tanks. Costs were assigned to each component of every system in order to allow calculation of total costs. Results are presented as normalized system costs per unit of heat delivered per building unit. These methods allow: (1) identification of the relative importance of each system component in the overall cost; and (2) identification of the key variables that determine the optimum sizing of a district solar heating system. In more northerly locations, collectors are a larger component of cost. In southern locations, distribution networks are a larger proportion of total cost. Larger, more compact buildings are, in general, less expensive to heat. For the two smaller-scale building configurations, a broad minima in total costs versus system size is often observed.

Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.; Hooper, F.C.; McClenahan, J.D.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Transport properties, specific heat and thermal conductivity of GaN nanocrystalline ceramic  

SciTech Connect

The structural and transport properties (resistivity, thermopower and Hall effect), specific heat and thermal conductivity have been measured for GaN nanocrystalline ceramic prepared by hot pressing. It was found that the temperature dependence of resistivity in temperature range 10-300 K shows the very low activation energy, which is ascribed to the shallow donor doping originating in amorphous phase of sample. The major charge carriers are electrons, what is indicated by negative sign of Hall constant and Seebeck coefficient. The thermopower attains large values (-58 {mu}V/K at 300 K) and was characterized by linear temperature dependence which suggests the diffusion as a major contribution to Seebeck effect. The high electron concentration of 1.3x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and high electronic specific heat coefficient determined to be 2.4 mJ/molK{sup 2} allow to conclude that GaN ceramic demonstrates the semimetallic-like behavior accompanied by very small mobility of electrons ({approx}0.1 cm{sup 2}/V s) which is responsible for its high resistivity. A low heat conductivity of GaN ceramics is associated with partial amorphous phase of GaN grains due to high pressure sintering. - Graphical Abstract: Thermal resistivity and thermopower measurements indicates the high phonon scattering and lack of phonon-drag contribution to thermopower in GaN nanoceramics pressed under 4 GPa at 800 {sup o}C.

Sulkowski, Czeslaw [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); ChuchmaLa, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.chuchmala@pwr.wroc.p [Wroclaw University of Technology, Institute of Electrical Engineering Fundamentals (I7), Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Zaleski, Andrzej J.; Matusiak, Marcin; Mucha, Jan; GLuchowski, PaweL; Strek, WiesLaw [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Performance investigation of thermal energy storage system with Phase Change Material (PCM) for solar water heating application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to harvest solar energy, thermal energy storage (TES) system with Phase Change Material (PCM) has been receiving greater attention because of its large energy storage capacity and isothermal behavior during charging and discharging processes. In the present experimental study, shell and tube TES system using paraffin wax was used in a water heating system to analyze its performance for solar water heating application. Energy and exergy including their cost analyses for the TES system were performed. Accordingly, total life cycle cost was calculated for different flow rates of the Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF). With 0.033 kg/min and 0.167 kg/min flow rates of water as HTF, energy efficiencies experienced were 63.88% and 77.41%, respectively, but in exergy analysis, efficiencies were observed to be about 9.58% and 6.02%, respectively. Besides, the total life cycle cost was predicted to be $ 654.61 for 0.033 kg/min flow rate, which could be reduced to $ 609.22 by increasing the flow rate to 0.167 kg/min. Therefore it can be summarized that total life cycle cost decreases with the increase of flow rate.

M.H. Mahfuz; M.R. Anisur; M.A. Kibria; R. Saidur; I.H.S.C. Metselaar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Enhancing the heat transfer in a heat treatment furnace through improving the combustion process in the radiation tubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......predicted and measured data. The CFD simulations...methods to improve the heat transfer rate and provide quantitative data which can be used...important in the combustion and the heat transfer processes...models on hydrogen-hydrocarbon combustion modelling......

E. M. Elmabrouk; Y. Wu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The concentration of alumina nanoparticles in this material was measured using neutron activation analysis. The average specific heat of the uncycled material was found to be 1.37 J/g°C.The average specific heat of the thermally cycled material was between 1.7-2.1 J...

Shankar, Sandhya

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

271

HeatProbe: a Thermal-based Power Meter System for Tracking Per-user Power Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HeatProbe: a Thermal-based Power Meter System for Tracking Per-user Power Consumption Nan-Chen Chen Technology Innovation, Academic Sinica2 {b97006, b96118, b95701241}@csie.ntu.edu.tw, cwyou@citi.sinica.edu.tw, hchu@csie.ntu.edu.tw, mschen@citi.sinica.edu.tw Abstract. This paper proposes HeatProbe, a per

Chu, Hao-hua

272

Process Waste Heat Recovery in the Food Industry - A System Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analysis of an industrial waste heat recovery system concept is discussed. For example purposes, a food processing plant operating an ammonia refrigeration system for storage and blast freezing is considered. Heat is withdrawn from...

Lundberg, W. L.; Mutone, G. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Heat Sweep Analysis of Thermal Breakthrough at Los Humeros and La Primavera Fields, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Early evaluation of the potential for geothermal breakthrough of reinjected fluids in newly developed geothermal fields can be obtained with the SGP one-dimensional heat sweep model. The model was used to estimate fluid cooldown from wells selected for the first wellhead generating units to be installed at the Los Humeros and La Primavera geothermal fields in Mexico, based on staff-compiled geometric and geologic data, thermal properties of the reservoir rock, and expected production conditions. Geometric considerations were evaluated with respect to known and postulated fault zones and return flow angle of the reinjected fluid. The results show the range of parameter values that affect the rate of thermal breakthrough to an abandonment temperature of 170 ºC corresponding to the minimum inlet pressure to the CFE 5-MW wellhead generator units. 9 figs., 4 tabs., 11 refs.

Kruger, P.; Lam, S.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.

1987-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

274

Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium and heat transfer between arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz force and the radiative heat transfer occurring between two arbitrary bodies, each one held at a given temperature, surrounded by environmental radiation at a third temperature. The system, in stationary configuration out of thermal equilibrium, is characterized by a force and a heat transfer depending on the three temperatures, and explicitly expressed in terms of the scattering operators of each body. We find a closed-form analytic expression valid for bodies of any geometry and dielectric properties. As an example, the force between two parallel slabs of finite thickness is calculated, showing the importance of the environmental temperature as well as the occurrence of a repulsive interaction. An analytic expression is also provided for the force acting on an atom in front of a slab. Our predictions can be relevant for experimental and technological purposes.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

275

Thermal shock and fatigue resistance of tungsten materials under transient heat loading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Transient heat loading tests were performed on rolled pure tungsten (PW) and lanthanum oxide doped tungsten (WL10) as well as swaged + rolled potassium doped tungsten (W-K) samples using an electron beam. In thermal shock tests, the cracking threshold was 0.44–0.66, 0.17–0.22 and 0.44–0.66 GW/m2 for PW, WL10 and W-K, respectively. The melting threshold was over 1.1 GW/m2 for PW and W-K while 0.66–0.88 GW/m2 for WL10. In thermal fatigue tests, the obvious roughening threshold was over 1000 cycles for PW and WL10 while 1–100 cycles for W-K. The cracking threshold was 100–1000 cycles for PW, 1–100 cycles for WL10 and over 1000 cycles for W-K alloy. WL10 displayed worse thermal and fatigue resistance while W-K exhibited better properties compared with PW, which was attributed to differences in thermal–mechanical properties of the three tungsten alloys, in addition to the size and number density of La2O3 particles and potassium bubbles.

Xiaoxin Zhang; Qingzhi Yan; Shaoting Lang; Min Xia; Xiang Liu; Changchun Ge

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Analysis of combined cooling, heating, and power systems under a compromised electric–thermal load strategy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Following the electric load (FE) and following the thermal load (FT) strategies both have advantages and disadvantages for combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems. In this paper, the performance of different strategies is evaluated under operation cost (OC), carbon dioxide emission (CDE) and exergy efficiency (EE). Analysis of different loads in one hour is conducted under the assumption that the additional electricity is not allowed to be sold back to the grid. The results show that FE produces less OC, less CDE, and FT produces higher EE when the electric load is larger. However, FE produces less OC, less CDE and higher EE when the thermal load is larger. Based on a hybrid electric–thermal load (HET) strategy, compromised electric–thermal (CET) strategies are innovatively proposed using the efficacy coefficient method. Additional, the CCHP system of a hotel in Tianjin is analyzed for all of the strategies. The results for an entire year indicate the first CET strategy is the optimal one when dealing with OC, CDE and EE. And the second CET is the optimal one when dealing with OC and EE. Moreover, the laws are strictly correct for different buildings in qualitative terms.

Gang Han; Shijun You; Tianzhen Ye; Peng Sun; Huan Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

279

Seasonal thermal signatures of heat transfer by water exchange in an underground vault  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......such a cavity, water phases do not need...place, and vertical water flow can be small...Aburatsubo, with a recovery time larger than...heat transfer by water exchange. This...evaporation and condensation process. If the...Monitoring the atmospheric temperature in a......

Frédéric Perrier; Pierre Morat; Toshio Yoshino; Osam Sano; Hisashi Utada; Olivier Gensane; Jean-Louis Le Mouël

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Potential Assessment in Mexico for Solar Process Heat Applications in Food and Textile Industries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Industrial sector of Mexico is the second energy consumer, approximately 28% of the national consumption, according to the National Balance of Energy. A potential study carried out within the micro and small food and textile industries has established that they are using 68% of the total energy consumption as thermal energy, most supplied by liquefied gas and followed by natural gas and diesel. The processes use water, low and medium pressure steam mainly at temperatures from 60 to 180 °C. In this context, solar concentrators, especially parabolic troughs, could give an important portion of the required thermal energy. The introduction in the country of a strategy change in the use of the energy is a formidable challenge. Beginning in the country with the erection of small parabolic trough plants in such industries could allow a technical and economic advancement of the technology and the benefits could be presented almost immediately. The methodology for the potential assessment for solar process heat applications in food and textile industries was based on statistical information from the National Balance of Energy, the National Directory of Economic Units and together with questionnaires, phone calls, workshops and in some cases personal interviews. According to such considerations, three scenarios were established and will be described within this paper in terms of the potential of the parabolic trough technology applied in the appropriated industries.

C. Ramos; R. Ramirez; J. Beltran

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

282

Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility  

SciTech Connect

In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750–800 °C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the cold side and 208–790 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various hydrodynamic entrance region parameters, such as incremental pressure drop number, apparent Fanning friction factor, and hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct have been numerically estimated.

Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Thermal insulation constructal optimization for steel rolling reheating furnace wall based on entransy dissipation extremum principle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analogizing with the heat conduction process, the entransy dissipation extremum principle for thermal insulation process can be described as: for a ... heat loss) with certain constraints, the thermal insulation ...

HuiJun Feng; LinGen Chen; ZhiHui Xie; FengRui Sun

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Latent Heat Based High Temperature Solar Thermal Energy Storage for Power Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The design of a phase change material based high temperature solar thermal energy storage device is presented. Said unit will be used as an energy reserve for a 1 kWe domestic CCHP system using a Stirling engine to produce electric power. The thermal energy storage is conducted by means of the exploitation of the latent heat of fusion of the material contained inside the tank. This method was chosen because a great energy density is obtained and, at the same time, it is possible to extract the stored energy with very small variations on the temperature, which is a favorable feature for its intended purpose. The selection of the phase change material is discussed and the design of the different components of the proposed storage model is described. It is analyzed, as well, the insulating solution applied that minimizes heat losses. Finally, a comparison between experimental results of the tests performed on the first built to scale prototype and the data obtained from computer simulations is shown.

Bruno Cárdenas; Noel León

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Thermal performance analysis of a direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater (DX-SAHPWH) is described, which can supply hot water for domestic use during the whole year. The system mainly employs a bare flat-plate collector/evaporator with a surface area of 4.2 m2, an electrical rotary-type hermetic compressor, a hot water tank with the volume of 150 L and a thermostatic expansion valve. R-22 is used as working fluid in the system. A simulation model based on lumped and distributed parameter approach is developed to predict the thermal performance of the system. Given the structure parameters, meteorological parameters, time step and final water temperature, the numerical model can output operational parameters, such as heat capacity, system COP and collector efficiency. Comparisons between the simulation results and the experimental measurements show that the model is able to give satisfactory predictions. The effect of various parameters, including solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and compressor speed, has been analyzed on the thermal performance of the system.

X.Q. Kong; D. Zhang; Y. Li; Q.M. Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

SHORT CIRCUITS IN THERMALLY IONIZED PLASMAS: A MECHANISM FOR INTERMITTENT HEATING OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

SciTech Connect

Many astrophysical systems of interest, including protoplanetary accretion disks, are made of turbulent magnetized gas with near-solar metallicity. Thermal ionization of alkali metals in such gas exceeds non-thermal ionization when temperatures climb above roughly 1000 K. As a result, the conductivity, proportional to the ionization fraction, gains a strong, positive dependence on temperature. In this paper, we demonstrate that this relation between the temperature and the conductivity triggers an exponential instability that acts similarly to an electrical short, where the increased conductivity concentrates the current and locally increases the Ohmic heating. This contrasts with the resistivity increase expected in an ideal magnetic reconnection region. The instability acts to focus narrow current sheets into even narrower sheets with far higher currents and temperatures. We lay out the basic principles of this behavior in this paper using protoplanetary disks as our example host system, motivated by observations of chondritic meteorites and their ancestors, dust grains in protoplanetary disks, that reveal the existence of strong, frequent heating events that this instability could explain.

Hubbard, Alexander; McNally, Colin P.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark, E-mail: ahubbard@amnh.org, E-mail: cmcnally@nbi.dk, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th St. at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Towards model-based control of a steam Rankine process for engine waste heat recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Towards model-based control of a steam Rankine process for engine waste heat recovery Johan Peralez steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery from a spark-ignition engine, focusing in particular results on a steam process for SI engines, [3] on generic control issues and [4] which provides a comp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

Applications of COMSOL Multiphysics Software to Heat Transfer Processes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis used the study of Heat Transfer and COMSOL Multiphysics software as a reference which was made for the purpose of future education in… (more)

Xiong, Wei

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers Reducing Superheater Corrosion to Enable Maximum Energy Effi ciency This project will develop...

290

Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition  

SciTech Connect

This is one in a series of sourcebooks to help manufacturers optimize their industrial systems; this particular sourcebook addresses process heating systems.

Not Available

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Boost Process Heating Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) can help industrial plants indentify opportunities to save energy.

Not Available

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Enhanced oil recovery: miscible flooding; thermal methods; and process implementation. Annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The individual papers in this volume covering miscible flooding, thermal methods, and process implementation were indexed.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

On-line inspection and thermal properties comparison for laser deposition process .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??"This thesis is focused on comparing the laser deposition cladding with intended design model and comparing the effect of laser deposition process on thermal properties… (more)

Yang, Yu, 1973-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Thermal diffusion processes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The experimental results for the Soret coefficients are variable, but suggest a trend with NaCl concentration that is consistent with electrolyte solution behavior. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficients is in approximate agreement with previous measurements obtained using other techniques. In general, the Soret coefficient values are best interpreted based on the expansion of the fluid inclusion migration fields. The high temperature values for {sigma} at 1.0 N NaCl concentration suggest an expansion of the migration field to smaller inclusion sizes, which for a single halite crystal at these conditions, approach a dimension of one micron. The corresponding fluid inclusion size for the polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries retard the migration, is approximately 10 microns. Although the Soret results obtained in the present study provide additional data for high temperature applications in nuclear waste isolation, more experimentation and new equipment design are required in order to obtain data at temperatures above 80{degree}C. The experimental approach utilized in this study is limited in that respect. The almost immeasurable nature of the thermal diffusion process for the brines as examined in the laboratory, suggests that this effect will be insignificant (outside of fluid inclusion migration) in most rock-water interactions associated with a rocksalt nuclear waste repository. Other effects, such as convective fluid transport, pressure solution, and groundwater flow, will be orders-of-magnitude more important in evaluating the critical nature of brine migration, waste canister corrosion, and the potential for leaching radioisotopes from waste repositories.

Cygan, R.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jarrell, G.D. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Reduced-Order Model of a Chevron Plate Heat Exchanger for Rapid Thermal Management by Using Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The heat flux demands for electronics cooling applications are quickly approaching the limits of conventional thermal management systems. To meet the demand of next generation electronics, a means for rejecting high heat fluxes at low temperatures...

Niedbalski, Nicholas

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

296

Modeling the thermal-hydrologic processes in a large-scale underground heater test in partially saturated fractured tuff  

SciTech Connect

The Drift Scale Test (DST) is being conducted in an underground facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to probe the coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes likely to occur in the fractured rock mass around a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Thermal-hydrological processes in the DST have been simulated using a three-dimensional numerical model. The model incorporates the realistic test configuration and all available site-specific measurements pertaining to the thermal and hydrological properties of the unsaturated fractured tuff of the test block. The modeled predictions were compared to the extensive set of measured data collected in the first year of this 8-year-long test. The mean error between the predictions and measurement at 12 months of heating for over 1600 temperature sensors is about 2 degrees C. Heat-pipe signature in the temperature data, indicating two-phase regions of liquid-vapor counterflow, is seen in both the measurements and simulated results. The redistribution of moisture content in the rock mass (resulting from vaporization and condensation) was probed by periodic air-injection testing and geophysical measurements. Good agreement also occurred between the model predictions and these measurements. The general agreement between predictions from the numerical simulations and the measurements of the thermal test indicates that our fundamental understanding of the coupled thermal-hydrologic processes at Yucca Mountain is sound. However, effects of spatial heterogeneity from discrete fractures that are observed in the temperature data are not matched by simulations from the numerical model, which treat the densely spaced fractures as a continuum.

Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

1999-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

297

Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

Kumar, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri (Houston, TX)

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

299

Heat Transfer -1 You are given the following information for a fluid with thermal conductivity of k = 0.0284 W/m-K that  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Transfer - 1 You are given the following information for a fluid with thermal conductivity the flow is laminar near the wall. a) (30 points) Determine the corresponding heat transfer coefficient the heat transfer coefficient as a function of x. c) (25 points) Determine the average heat transfer

Virginia Tech

300

Numerical investigation of transient hydrothermal processes around intrusions: heat-transfer and fluid-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical investigation of transient hydrothermal processes around intrusions: heat the intrusion. Keywords: Hydrothermal processes, numerical modelling, magmatic intrusion, permeability- depth around magmatic intrusions have been obtained through coupled hydrothermal numerical modelling that takes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Temperature dependence of the thermal expansivity and the specific heat near the nematic-isotropic (NI) phase transition in PAA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperature dependence of the thermal expansivity ?p and the specific heat Cp has been studied for the nematic-isotropic (NI) phase transition (TNI = 133.9 °C) of PAA. Our calculated thermal expansivity is in good agreement with the prediction of Maier and Saupe. Our calculated specific heat is compared with the experimental Cp near the transition temperature TNI. Above and below TNI, calculated and observed Cp exhibit some discrepancies for PAA. Discrepancies may be due to the approximations used in our analysis given here.

E. Kilit; H. Yurtseven

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Methods for treating a subsurface treatment area in a formation may include introducing a fluid into the formation from a plurality of wells offset from a treatment area of an in situ heat treatment process to inhibit outward migration of formation fluid from the in situ heat treatment process.

Kuhlman, Myron Ira (Houston, TX); Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Baker, Ralph Sterman (Fitchburg, MA); Heron, Goren (Keene, CA)

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

303

Experiments and thermal modeling on hybrid energy supply system of gas engine heat pumps and organic Rankine cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a hybrid energy supply system, which is composed of two subsystems (gas engine-driven heat pump system (GEHP) and organic Rankine cycle system (ORC)) and three major thermodynamic cycles (the vapor compression refrigeration cycle, the internal combustion gas engine cycle and ORC). In order to convert the low-grade gas engine waste heat into high-grade electricity, the ORC system is built up using R245fa, \\{R152a\\} and R123 as working fluids, and the ORC thermal model is also developed. Meanwhile, experiments of \\{GHEPs\\} in cooling mode are conducted, and several factors which influence the cooling performance are also discussed. The results indicate that the cooling capacity, gas engine energy consumption, gas engine waste heat increase with increasing of gas engine speed and decrease with decreasing of evaporator water inlet temperature. The waste heat recovered from gas engine is more than 55% of gas engine energy consumption. F6urthermore, R123 in ORC system yields the highest thermal and exergy efficiency of 11.84% and 54.24%, respectively. Although, thermal and exergy efficiency of \\{R245fa\\} is 11.42% and 52.25% lower than that of R123, its environmental performance exhibits favorable utilization for ORC using gas engine waste heat as low-grade heat source.

Huanwei Liu; Qiushu Zhou; Haibo Zhao; Peifeng Wang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Thermally conductive cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1998  

SciTech Connect

Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98. The developed thermally conductive grout consists of cement, water, a particular grade of silica sand, superplasticizer and a small amount of bentonite. While the primary function of the grout is to facilitate heat transfer between the U-loop and surrounding formation, it is also essential that the grout act as an effective borehole sealant. Two types of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests was conducted to evaluate the sealing performance of the cement-sand grout. Additional properties of the proposed grout that were investigated include bleeding, shrinkage, bond strength, freeze-thaw durability, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, Poisson`s ratio and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Semianalytical thermal analysis of the heat capacity of YAG laser rods  

SciTech Connect

Based on the theory of semianalytical thermal analysis, we investigate the heat capacity of Nd:YAG laser rods for pumping and cooling. A general expression for the temperature field within Nd:YAG laser rod crystals is obtained for the pumping stage and the relation of the maximum temperature rise with pumping time. We also achieve an expression for the temperature field for the cooling stage and the relation of the maximum temperature rise with cooling time. These results show that, when using the output power of 300 W LD pumped Nd:YAG laser rod crystals for 5 s, the maximum temperature rise in the center of the pump face is 154.79 deg. C. After we stop the pumping for 30 s, the maximum temperature rise drops to 0.8%. These results are in agreement with those reported by others. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the optimized design of a LD end-pumped heat capacity laser.

Shi Peng; Bai Bing; Zhang Linli; Li Long; Xin Yu

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

306

Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.

Not Available

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon Mark H. Clarka Strain in B-implanted laser thermal processed LTP silicon is reduced by coimplantation of In. Strain in the codoped layer is calculated using lattice constants measured by high-resolution x-ray diffraction

Florida, University of

308

Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman 2 Last Eqn on page Second Ti should be Ti-1 #12;Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes "radiation on" to "radiation at solar noon on" Second equation Change G to Gb + Gd Six lines from bottom

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

309

Representation of thermal energy in the design process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of thermal design is to go beyond the comfort zone. In spatial design architects don't just look up square footage requirements and then draw a rectangle that satisfies the givens. There must be an interpretation. ...

Roth, Shaun

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

Pete McGrail

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Thermal storage studies for solar heating and cooling: applications using chemical heat pumps. Final report, September 15, 1979-April 15, 1980  

SciTech Connect

TRNSYS-compatible subroutines for the simulation of chemical heat pumps have been written, and simulations (including heating, cooling, and domestic hot water) have been performed for Washington, DC and Ft. Worth, Texas. Direct weekly comparisons of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and CaCl/sub 2//CH/sub 3/OH cycles have been carried out. Projected performance of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3//NH/sub 3/ cycle has also been investigated, and found to be essentially identical to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O. In all cases simulated, the solar collector is a fixed evacuated tube system, which is necessary because chemical heat pumps operate at higher solar collector temperatures (> 100/sup 0/C) than conventional solar systems. With standard residential loads, the chemical heat pumps performed surprisingly well. In the Ft. Worth climate, less than 45 m/sup 2/ of collectors were required to meet over 90% of the heating and cooling loads. In Washington, DC, the area required to meet the cooling load was smaller (as little as 20 m/sup 2/, depending on window shading), but was sufficient to meet only 50 to 60% of the heating load. However, gas-fired backup via the heat pump was quite effective in reducing fossil fuel consumption: the thermal COPs in the heating mode were in the range 1.6 to 1.7. Since chemical heat pumps are designed to reject heat at relatively high temperatures, they were also effective in providing domestic hot water, supplying ca. 70% of the DHW in summer, ca. 50% in winter, and nearly 100% in spring and fall.

Offenhartz, P O.D.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in various applications. Examples of two applications are presented. The first describes the development of heat balance data for a solvent refined coal processing unit. The second describes the measurement of heat loss and thermal resistance in a double...

Seeber, S. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Generalized constructal optimization for solidification heat transfer process of slab continuous casting based on heat loss rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Based on constructal theory, generalized constructal optimization of a solidification heat transfer process of slab continuous casting is carried out by taking a complex function as optimization objective. The complex function is composed of the functions of the heat loss rate and surface temperature gradient of the slab subjected to the constraints of shell thickness, surface temperature and liquid core length of the slab. For the specified total water flow rate, the “optimal construct” of the water distribution in the secondary cooling zone is obtained. Comparing the optimal results with the initial ones, it is shown that the complex function, the functions of the heat loss rate and the surface temperature gradient after optimization are decreased by 35.04%, 2.14% and 59.48%, respectively. Therefore, the scheme of the “optimal construct” of the water distribution reduces the heat loss rate and surface temperature gradient of the slab simultaneously, that is, improves its energy retention and quality simultaneously. The optimization results obtained in this paper can provide some guidelines for parameter designs and dynamic operations of the solidification heat transfer process of slab continuous casting.

Huijun Feng; Lingen Chen; Zhihui Xie; Zemin Ding; Fengrui Sun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Economics of power plant district and process heating in Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The economic feasibility of utilizing hot water from nuclear reactors to provide district heating for private residences in Richland, Washington, and space and process heating for nearby offices, part of the Hanford Reservation, and the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant is assessed. Specifically, the practicality of using hot water from the Washington Public Power Supply System's WNP-1 reactor, which is currently under construction on the Hanford Reservation, just north of the City of Richland is established. World-wide experience with district heating systems and the advantages of using these systems are described. The GEOCITY computer model used to calculate district heating costs is described and the assumptions upon which the costs are based are presented. District heating costs for the city of Richland, process heating costs for the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant, district heating costs for the Horn Rapids triangle area, and process heating costs for the 300 and 3000 areas are discussed. An economic analysis is discussed and institutional restraints are summarized. (MCW)

Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Determination of thermal conductivity and formation temperature from cooling history of friction-heated probes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity of rocks or sediments...the formation temperature and thermal conductivity. Ideally, to...measurements require extra battery power supply and an additional...cooling curve for deducing the thermal properties has been contemplated......

Tien-Chang Lee; A. D. Duchkov; S. G. Morozov

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING A SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Report LBL 8520. ) A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING Aenergy. A new type of solar thermal receiver based on thisThe success of the solar thermal electric power program

Hunt, Arlon J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Energy partition and conversion of solar and thermal radiation into sensible and latent heat in a greenhouse under arid conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For a greenhouse thermal analysis, it is essential to know the energy partition and the amount of solar and thermal radiation converted into sensible and latent heat in the greenhouse. Factors that are frequently needed are: efficiency of utilization of incident solar radiation (?), and sensible and latent heat factors (? and ?). Previous studies considered these factors as constant parameters. However, they depend on the environmental conditions inside and outside the greenhouse, plants and soil characteristics, and structure, orientation and location of the greenhouse. Moreover, these factors have not yet been evaluated under the arid climatic conditions of the Arabian Peninsula. In this study, simple energy balance equations were applied to investigate ?, ? and ?; energy partitioning among the greenhouse components; and conversion of solar and thermal radiation into sensible and latent heat. For this study, we used an evaporatively cooled, planted greenhouse with a floor area of 48 m2. The parameters required for the analysis were measured on a sunny, hot summer day. The results showed that value of ? was almost constant (?0.75); whereas the values of ? and ? strongly depended on the net radiation over the canopy (Rna); and could be represented by exponential decay functions of Rna. At a plant density corresponding to a leaf area index (LAI) of 3 and an integrated incident solar energy of 27.7 MJ m?2 d?1, the solar and thermal radiation utilized by the greenhouse components were 20.7 MJ m?2 d?1 and 3.74 MJ m?2 d?1, respectively. About 71% of the utilized radiation was converted to sensible heat and 29% was converted to latent heat absorbed by the inside air. Contributions of the floor, cover and plant surfaces on the sensible heat of the inside air were 38.6%, 48.2% and 13.2%, respectively.

I.M. Al-Helal; A.M. Abdel-Ghany

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Thermal Sensitivity to Single and Double Heat Treatments in Normal Canine Liver  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...magnitude of delayed heat damage in the liver...correlated best with heat dose were: evi dence of hepatocyte loss; focal fibrosis...temperature. The distribution of histopatholog...sensitive to therapeutic heat treatments. Thermotolerance...

Stavros D. Prionas; Mark A. Taylor; Luis F. Fajardo; Nancy I. Kelly; Thomas S. Nelsen; and George M. Hahn

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A Low-Temperature Thermal Process for the Decomposition of Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...indeed to become the energy carrier of the future...primary heat or solar energy into electricity would...and potentially even converters of solar to thermal energy. We present here a...the top layer of the ocean to meteorological events...

Bernard M. Abraham; Felix Schreiner

1973-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Thermal and economical analysis of an underground seasonal storage heating system in Thrace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economical analysis of the solar heating system with seasonal storage, which was established in Edirne (41°39?54?N) in order to provide the heat requirement of buildings, has been fulfilled. Optimum collector area for the heating system has been determined. Total heat requirement of 69% has been met by means of heating system concerning the space heating and domestic water heating. In the accordance with the results of the economical analysis, the payback time of the heating system has been determined as 19–20 years.

Berrin Karacavus; Ahmet Can

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Estimation of Biomass Heat Storage Using Thermal Infrared Imagery: Application to a Walnut Orchard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOTE Estimation of Biomass Heat Storage Using Thermalmethod to estimate tree biomass heat storage from thermalinfrared (TIR) imaging of biomass surface temperature is

Garai, Anirban; Kleissl, Jan; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

7-122 A solar pond power plant operates by absorbing heat from the hot region near the bottom, and rejecting waste heat to the cold region near the top. The maximum thermal efficiency that the power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

calculated above. 7-123 A Carnot heat engine cycle is executed in a closed system with a fixed mass of steam can have is to be determined. Analysis The highest thermal efficiency a heat engine operating between transfer. Therefore, the maximum efficiency of the actual heat engine will be lower than the value

Bahrami, Majid

323

SELF-HEATING PROCESS IN MICROWAVE TRANSISTORS Anthony E. Parker(1) and James G. Rathmell(2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the complex signals used in communication systems. Self-heating [1] and charge-trapping related to impactSELF-HEATING PROCESS IN MICROWAVE TRANSISTORS Anthony E. Parker(1) and James G. Rathmell(2) (1 of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, AUSTRALIA 2006, mailto: jimr

324

Barriers to solar process heat projects: Fifteen highly promising (but cancelled) projects  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed technical, economic, and institutional barriers encountered by the solar industry in penetrating the market of solar thermal systems as applied in industry, commerce, and government. The barriers discussed are not theoretical or developed by conducting marketing research surveys of potential users. Rather, they are barriers that precluded implementing actual solar projects for 15 ``highly promising`` prospective users. The efforts to determine their technical and economic feasibility were funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat (SPH) program. Each year, the SPH program conducts a prefeasibility studies activity -- an engineering assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. These studies also assess institutional issues that impact the feasibility of the proposed project and develop an action plan for the project`s implementation. In FY 1991 and FY 1992, the program funded a total of 11 studies in which solar projects were investigated for 21 potential users. Of these 21 potential users, only three have made firm commitments to acquire solar systems, yielding a 14% success rate (decisions by three other companies are still pending). The low success rate is disappointing because the solar companies had complete freedom to select ``highly promising`` potential users. We therefore evaluated the reasons for the low success rate and the implications for market penetration.

Carwile, C. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Industrial Technologies] [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Industrial Technologies; Hewett, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Transient Heat and Material Flow Modeling of Friction Stir Processing of Magnesium Alloy using Threaded Tool  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to investigate the material flow and heat transfer during friction stir processing (FSP) in an AZ31B magnesium alloy. The material was assumed to be a non-Newtonian viscoplastic fluid, and the Zener-Hollomon parameter was used to describe the dependence of material viscosity on temperature and strain rate. The material constants used in the constitutive equation were determined experimentally from compression tests of the AZ31B Mg alloy under a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. A dynamic mesh method, combining both Lagrangian and Eulerian formulations, was used to capture the material flow induced by the movement of the threaded tool pin. Massless inert particles were embedded in the simulation domain to track the detailed history of material flow. The actual FSP was also carried out on a wrought Mg plate where temperature profiles were recorded by embedding thermocouples. The predicted transient temperature history was found to be consistent with that measured during FSP. Finally, the influence of the thread on the simulated results of thermal history and material flow was studied by comparing two models: one with threaded pin and the other with smooth pin surface.

Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Choo, Hahn [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Abstract --The beneficial effect of AlN heat spreaders in terms of reduction of thermal resistance is tested on silicon-on-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract -- The beneficial effect of AlN heat spreaders in terms of reduction of thermal resistance such as SiO2 and SiNx can also lead to a very high thermal resistance. This has been demonstrated it is shown that PVD AlN layers result in a significant reduction of thermal resistance in a single device

Technische Universiteit Delft

327

PWR blowdown heat transfer separate-effects program - Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test 177. [Contains microfiche data  

SciTech Connect

Reduced instrument responses are presented for Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test 177, which is part of the ORNL Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program. Objective of the program is to investigate the thermal-hydraulic phenomenon governing the energy transfer and transport processes that occur during a loss-of-coolant accident in a PWR system. Test 177 was conducted at the request of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory ''for use in the independent assessment of RELAP4/MOD6.'' Primary purpose of this report is to make the reduced instrument responses during test 177 available. The responses are presented in graphical form in engineering units and have been analyzed only to the extent necessary to assure reasonableness and consistency. The data are presented in microfiche form.

Clemons, V.D.; Flanders, R.M.; Craddick, W.G.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

A DISCUSSION OF HEAT MIRROR FILM: PERFORMANCE, PRODUCTION PROCESS, AND COST ESTIMATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transfer thnough a window by using Intrex film as a heatwindow construction will be PROCESS DESCRIPTION Intrex filmWindows and Lighting Program Building 90, Room 2056 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Berkeley, California -ii- A DISCUSSION OF HEAT MIRROR FILM:

Levin, B. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Some aspects of the computer simulation of conduction heat transfer and phase change processes  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects of phase change processes in materials are discussd including computer modeling, validation of results and sensitivity. In addition, the possible incorporation of cognitive activities in computational heat transfer is examined.

Solomon, A. D.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Plasma processing of spent nuclear fuel by two-frequency ion cyclotron resonance heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A previously developed method for analyzing the plasma processing of spent nuclear fuel is generalized to a plasma containing multicharged fuel ions. In such a plasma, ion cyclotron resonance heating of nuclear a...

A. V. Timofeev

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Ion-heated thermal Comptonization models and x-ray spectral correlations in active galactic nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Recent Ginga observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies NGC 4051 and MCG 6-30-15 show a positive correlation between the 2-10 keV luminosity and photon spectral index {alpha}. Similar behavior has also been reported in Exosat and Einstein observations of other active galactic nuclei, and is suggested in hard x-ray low-state data of the galactic black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1. A two-temperature thermal Comptonization model with internal soft-photon production provides a simple explanation for this correlation. The electron temperature, determined by a balance between ion heating and radiative cooling, decreases in response to an enhancement of the soft photon flux, resulting in a softening of the spectrum and an increase in the soft x-ray luminosity. The bulk of the soft photons are produced through pion production in collisions between the hot ions. Pivoting of the spectrum at photon energies {var epsilon} > 50 keV is a consequence of variations in the ion temperature. An important test of the model would be time correlations between soft and hard x-ray bands. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Dermer, C.D.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This sourcebook describes basic process heating applications and equipment, and outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements. It also discusses the merits of using a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. It is not intended to be a comprehensive technical text on improving process heating systems, but serves to raise awareness of potential performance improvement opportunities, provides practical guidelines, and offers suggestions on where to find additional help.

333

Comparison of closed and open thermochemical processes, for long-term thermal energy storage applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Comparison of closed and open thermochemical processes, for long-term thermal energy storage-term thermal storage, second law analysis * Corresponding author: E-mail: mazet@univ-perp.fr Nomenclature c Energy Tecnosud, Rambla de la thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan, France b Université de Perpignan Via

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

DETERMINATION OF THE UAV POSITION BY AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF THERMAL IMAGES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DETERMINATION OF THE UAV POSITION BY AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF THERMAL IMAGES Wilfried Hartmann.hartmann, sebastian.tilch, henri.eisenbeiss, konrad.schindler)@geod.baug.ethz.ch KEY WORDS: Thermal, UAV, Camera, Calibration, Bundle, Photogrammetry, GPS/INS ABSTRACT: If images acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

Schindler, Konrad

335

Modeling Process Characteristics and Performance of Fixed and Fluidized Bed Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling Process Characteristics and Performance of Fixed and Fluidized Bed Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer ... (7)?Cheng, W.-H.; Chou, M.-S.; Lee, W.-S.; Huang, B.-J. Applications of Low-Temperature Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers to Treat Volatile Organic Compounds. ...

Pietropaolo Morrone; Francesco P. Di Maio; Alberto Di Renzo; Mario Amelio

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

336

Thermal Management of Structured Adsorbents in CO2 Capture Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In our previous study,(8) we presented a new methodology to find the optimal adsorbent structure and showed that for dilute systems, parallel channel adsorbents in the form of laminate structures exhibit substantially better performance than other structures, but for the sake of computational simplicity we confined our study to the case of isothermal operation only. ... Heat capacities of bulk and adsorbed CO2 are assumed negligible. ...

Fateme Rezaei; Mattias Grahn

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

337

Three-body radiative heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium for arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz force and the radiative heat transfer in a system consisting of three bodies held at three independent temperatures and immersed in a thermal environment, the whole system being in a stationary configuration out of thermal equilibrium. The theory we develop is valid for arbitrary bodies, i.e. for any set of temperatures, dielectric and geometrical properties, and describes each body by means of its scattering operators. For the three-body system we provide a closed-form unified expression of the radiative heat transfer and of the Casimir-Lifshitz force (both in and out of thermal equilibrium). This expression is thus first applied to the case of three planar parallel slabs. In this context we discuss the non-additivity of the force at thermal equilibrium, as well as the equilibrium temperature of the intermediate slab as a function of its position between two external slabs having different temperatures. Finally, we consider the force acting on an atom inside a planar cavity. We show that, differently from the equilibrium configuration, the absence of thermal equilibrium admits one or more positions of minima for the atomic potential. While the corresponding atomic potential depths are very small for typical ground state atoms, they may become particularly relevant for Rydberg atoms, becoming a promising tool to produce an atomic trap.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

338

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

339

Swimming pools as heat sinks for air conditioners: Model design and experimental validation for natural thermal behavior of the pool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Swimming pools as thermal sinks for air conditioners could save approximately 40% on peak cooling power and 30% of overall cooling energy, compared to standard residential air conditioning. Heat dissipation from pools in semi-arid climates with large diurnal temperature shifts is such that pool heating and space cooling may occur concurrently; in which case heat rejected from cooling equipment could directly displace pool heating energy, while also improving space cooling efficiency. The performance of such a system relies on the natural temperature regulation of swimming pools governed by evaporative and convective heat exchange with the air, radiative heat exchange with the sky, and conductive heat exchange with the ground. This paper describes and validates a model that uses meteorological data to accurately predict the hourly temperature of a swimming pool to within 1.1 °C maximum error over the period of observation. A thorough review of literature guided our choice of the most appropriate set of equations to describe the natural mass and energy exchange between a swimming pool and the environment. Monitoring of a pool in Davis, CA, was used to confirm the resulting simulations. Comparison of predicted and observed pool temperature for all hours over a 56 day experimental period shows an R-squared relatedness of 0.967.

Jonathan Woolley; Curtis Harrington; Mark Modera

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Detailed heat balance analysis of the thermal load variations depending on the blind location and glazing type  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays, curtain wall is the norm, due to which there is an increase in direct solar gain and heat loss through the window inside the building, causing massive thermal load. Use of blinds has been one of the best counter measures for this. In this study, EnergyPlus modeling has been used to measure the effect of reflectance of blind on heating and cooling load when the blind is located inside or outside for winter and summer condition. Modeling showed that in summer, as blind reflectance increased, cooling load decreased in case of internal blind and increased in case of external blind whereas in winter, the opposite was true for heating load. However, solar energy transmittance increased proportionately with the increase in reflectance of blind irrespective of position in either season. In addition, the heating load profiles under different window material compositions were determined mainly by the U-value variations, which were directly connected to the infrared and convective heat flows from the window into the space. SHGC also showed effect on the heating load to some extent by affecting the solar transmittance and convective and radiant heat flows from the blind into the space.

Yeo Beom Yoon; Dong Soo Kim; Kwang Ho Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Scattering-matrix approach to Casimir-Lifshitz force and heat transfer out of thermal equilibrium between arbitrary bodies  

SciTech Connect

We study the radiative heat transfer and the Casimir-Lifshitz force occurring between two bodies in a system out of thermal equilibrium. We consider bodies of arbitrary shape and dielectric properties, held at two different temperatures and immersed in environmental radiation at a third different temperature. We derive explicit closed-form analytic expressions for the correlations of the electromagnetic field and for the heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force in terms of the bodies' scattering matrices. We then consider some particular cases which we investigate in detail: the atom-surface and the slab-slab configurations.

Messina, Riccardo [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8630, UPMC, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Antezza, Mauro [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier (France)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Scattering-matrix approach to Casimir-Lifshitz force and heat transfer out of thermal equilibrium between arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the radiative heat transfer and the Casimir-Lifshitz force occurring between two bodies in a system out of thermal equilibrium. We consider bodies of arbitrary shape and dielectric properties, held at two different temperatures, and immersed in a environmental radiation at a third different temperature. We derive explicit closed-form analytic expressions for the correlations of the electromagnetic field, and for the heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force, in terms of the bodies scattering matrices. We then consider some particular cases which we investigate in detail: the atom-surface and the slab-slab configurations.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

343

Development and testing of improved heat transfer media for regenerative thermal oxidizers in the wood products industry  

SciTech Connect

Recently regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) have been used to control gaseous hydrocarbon air pollutant emissions from wood products plants. Two major problems related to the ceramic saddle heat transfer matrix in conventional RTOs have been encountered, cold face fouling and breakdown of the ceramic matrix. A structured packing heat transfer media having straight airflow passages of constant cross section was developed to remedy these problems. Results of pilot scale testing has shown that the structured packing is resistant to cold face fouling and breakdown of the ceramic matrix. In addition, in a full scale retrofit application, improvements in pollutant reduction effectiveness and operating efficiency were measured. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Klobucar, J.M. [Duerr Industries, Inc., Plymouth, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Non-thermal Plasma Processing for Dilute VOCs Decomposition Combined with the Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma process combined with the new catalyst for...2...) named as the carbon balance. For better carbon balance, SED of the electric discharge is more than 90 J/L which is pretty...

Tetsuji Oda; Hikaru Kuramochi; Ryo Ono

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two. The performance of energy conversion processes can be evaluated using several types of efficiencies.2 Nowadays Gross,*, Ad Verkooijen, and Signe Kjelstrup, Department of Process & Energy, Delft Uni

Kjelstrup, Signe

346

Applications of the thermal DeNO{sub x} process to FBC boilers  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents graphical and tabular information on Exxon Research and Engineering Company`s proprietary NH{sub 3} based selective non-catalytic nitrogen oxides reduction process. The process is applicable to boilers, incinerators, and fired heaters. Process operating parameters, technology, and equipment are outlined. Thermal performance data and simplified flow diagrams are also presented.

McIntyre, A.D. [Exxon Research & Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Automated Process for the Fabrication of Highly Customized Thermally...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Institute 2 of 2 A project member completes cuts foam insulating via a process known as computer numerically controlled (CNC) foam cutting. Image: Worcester Polytechnic Institute...

348

Evaluation Methodology for Advance Heat Exchanger Concepts Using Analytical Hierarchy Process  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the secondary/process heat exchanger (SHX) for power production and process heat application for a Next Generation Nuclear Reactors (NGNR). The potential options for use as an SHX are explored such as shell and tube, printed circuit heat exchanger. A shell and tube (helical coiled) heat exchanger is a recommended for a demonstration reactor because of its reliability while the reactor design is being further developed. The basic setup for the selection of the SHX has been established with evaluation goals, alternatives, and criteria. This study describes how these criteria and the alternatives are evaluated using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP).

Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Turbines Electricity On-Site Consumption Sold to Utility Fuel Natural Gas Propane Biogas Landfill Gas Coal Steam Waste Products Others Generator Heat Exchanger Thermal Process...

350

Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Acciona Solar, under the Thermal Storage FOA, plans to develop a prototype thermal energy storage (TES) module with high efficiency. This project is looking at a packed or structured bed TES tank with molten salt flowing through it.

351

Thermal Recovery Methods  

SciTech Connect

Thermal Recovery Methods describes the basic concepts of thermal recovery and explains the injection patterns used to exploit reservoir conditions. Basic reservoir engineering is reviewed with an emphasis on changes in flow characteristics caused by temperature. The authors discuss an energy balance for steam and combustion drive, and they explain in situ reactions. Heat loss, combustion drive, and steam displacement also are examined in detail, as well as cyclic steam injection, downhole ignition, well heating, and low-temperature oxidation. Contents: Thermal processes; Formation and reservoir evaluations; Well patterns and spacing; Flow and process equations; Laboratory simulation of thermal recovery; Heat loss and transmission; Displacement and production; Equipment; Basic data for field selection; Laboratory evaluation of combustion characteristics; Thermal properties of reservoirs and fluids.

White, P.D.; Moss, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Determination of Thermal Contact Conductance of Metal Tabs for Battery Ultrasonic Welding Process  

SciTech Connect

A new experimental apparatus and data analysis algorithm were used to determine the thermal contact conductance between 0.2-mm-thick pure aluminum battery tabs as a function of contact pressure from 3.6 to 14.4 MPa. Specimens were sandwiched between one optically transparent and one infrared (IR) transparent glass windows, and heated up from one side by an intense short pulse of flash light. The temperature transient on the other side was measured by an IR camera. In order to determine the thermal contact conductance, two experiment configurations having different number of Al specimen layers were used. Numerical heat conduction simulations showed that the thermal contact conductance strongly depended on the ratio of the maximum temperature rise between the two configurations. Moreover, this ratio was not sensitive to the uncertainties of other thermal properties. Through the simulation results, a simple correlation between the gap conductance and the ratio was established. Therefore, once the ratio of the temperature rise between two configurations was experimentally measured, the thermal contact conductance could be readily determined from the correlation. The new method was fast and robust. Most importantly, the data analysis algorithm improved the measurement accuracy by considerably reducing the uncertainties associated with the thermophysical properties of materials and measurement system.

Chen, Jian [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL] [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Thermal performance of phase change material energy storage floor for active solar water-heating system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conventional active solar water-heating floor system contains a big water tank to store energy in the day time for heating at night, which takes much building space and is very heavy. In order to reduce the w...

Ruolang Zeng; Xin Wang; Wei Xiao…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Thermal Profile of a Bacillus Species (ATCC 27380) Extremely Resistant to Dry Heat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of interest to determine the thermal response of the isolate to...TEMPERATURE (C.) FIG. 2. Thermal resistance curve of Bacillus...of reaction (1). From a battery of standard biochemical tests...and C. F. Schmidt. 1968. Thermal destruction of microorganisms...

Walter W. Bond; Martin S. Favero

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Processing and thermal properties of molecularly oriented polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High molecular weight polymers that are linear in molecular construction can be oriented such that some of their physical properties in the oriented direction are enhanced. For over 50 years polymer orientation and processing ...

Skow, Erik (Erik Dean)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of Heat Transfer Fluid Requirements and Characteristics for Coupling A Hydrogen Production Plant to a High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the hightemperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant, may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. Seven possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermalhydraulic and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermalhydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various configurations were also determined. The evaluations determined which configurations and coolants are the most promising from thermal-hydraulic and efficiency points of view. These evaluations also determined which configurations and options do not appear to be feasible at the current time.

C. B. Davis; C. H. Oh; R. B. Barner; D. F. Wilson

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Simulation and Optimization of Distillation Processes for Separating the Methanol–Chlorobenzene Mixture with Separate Heat-Pump Distillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For a special distillation column with a large temperature difference between the bottom and top, the direct heating of the bottom by compressing the top stream would cause excessive energy consumption by the compressor, which would result in an increase in the overall energy consumption and operating costs; therefore, this method would not meet the energy-saving principle of heat-pump distillation. ... Rivera-Ortega, P.; Picón-Núñez, M.; Torres-Reyes, E.; Gallegos-Muñoz, A.Thermal Integration of Heat Pumping Systems in Distillation Columns Appl. ... Fonyo, Z.; Mizsey, P.Economic Application of Heat Pumps in Integrated Distillation Systems Heat Recovery Syst CHP 1994, 14, 249– 263 ...

Xiaoxin Gao; Zhengfei Ma; Limin Yang; Jiangquan Ma

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

358

Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar thermal utilization photovoltaic solar thermal electric storage heatDER technologies as PV, solar thermal, electric and heat

Stadler, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Solar pond technology for large-scale heat processing in a Chilean mine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coppermining is the largest industrial activity in Northern Chile a region that relies mostly on imported energy resources thus making the mining sector vulnerable to the rising cost of fuel oil and electricity. The extraction of copper is mostly accomplished by hydrometallurgy a three-step low energy process consisting of heap leaching concentration by solvent extraction and metal recovery by electro-winning. Since the content of copper in its ore tends to degrade as the mining operation proceeds higher leaching temperatures would be needed along with increasing energy requirements. In order to address this demand and considering that the region has one of the highest levels of solar radiation and clear skies the authors assessed the solar pond technology for rising the temperature of the leaching stream. The working principle of such technology is presented as well as its mathematical formulation restrictions and assumptions aiming to simulate the performance of a solar pond and to size a suitable setup. The results indicate that this technology can provide sufficient heat to raise the temperature to a range of 50 to 70?°C throughout the year with an annual gross thermal supply of 626?GWh. In order to minimize the loss of water and salt from the pond a closed salt cycle is suggested. Savings of up to 59 000 tons of diesel oil per year and the avoidance of 164 000 tons of CO2 per year could be achieved with a solar pond effective area of 1.43 km2 reaching an average efficiency of 19.4%. Thus solar pond technology is suitable for attaining the goal of increasing the leaching temperature while diminishing fuel costs and greenhouse emissions.

F. Garrido; R. Soto; J. Vergara; M. Walczak; P. Kanehl; R. Nel; J. García

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Model of thermally induced wavefront distortion and birefringence in side-pumped Nd-doped YAG and phosphate glass heat capacity rod lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop an analytic model to describe the dynamic average thermal distortion and phase difference between the two principal polarizations in side-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:glass heat...

Liu, Liang; Wang, Xiaobo; Guo, Shaofeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Lu, Qisheng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling rates of chondrules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling for the thermal processing of particles in shock waves typical of the solar nebula. This shock model improves are accounted for in their ef fects on the mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Also, besides thermal exchange

Connolly Jr, Harold C.

362

Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Process heating plays a key role in producing steel, aluminum, and glass and in manufacturing products made from these materials. Faced with regulatory and competitive pressures to control emissions and reduce operating costs, metal and glass manufacturers are considering a variety of options for reducing overall energy consumption. As 38% of the energy used in U.S. industrial plants is consumed for process heating applications, metal and glass manufacturers are discovering that process heating technologies provide significant opportunities for improving industrial productivity, energy efficiency, and global competitiveness. This fact sheet is the first in a series to describe such opportunities that can be realized in industrial systems by conducting plant-wide assessments (PWA).

363

Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration  

SciTech Connect

Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system and the economic allocation of electricity and heat resources. Safety issues include changes in regulatory constraints imposed on the facilities. Modeling and analysis tools, such as System Dynamics for time dependent operational and economic issues and RELAP5 3D for chemical transient affects, are evaluated. The results of this study advance the body of knowledge toward integration of nuclear reactors and process heat applications.

J'Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Solid Particles Solar Thermal Loop for Production of Heat at 1000°C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experiment presented concerns the evaluation of solid particle materials as a medium for direct conversion of focused solar radiation into heat in the range of 1000°C .

C. Royere

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Estimation of Biomass Heat Storage Using Thermal Infrared Imagery: Application to a Walnut Orchard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

remote areas and the holes drilled for the in situ tempera- ture sensors may affect the measurement through local changes in heat

Garai, Anirban; Kleissl, Jan; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Modeling of the moving induction heating used as secondary heat source in weld-based additive manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To combat thermal-induced problems such as residual stress, deformation, and crack, induction heating is introduced into weld-based additive manufacturing process as a controlled thermal intervention. To ... nume...

Xingwang Bai; Haiou Zhang; Guilan Wang

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Introduction to Energy Savings in Process Heating for the Corn Refining  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Savings in Process Heating for the Corn Savings in Process Heating for the Corn Refining Industry Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

368

IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics (2002) 67, 419439 Modelling thermal front dynamics in microwave heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an electric field is applied to materials with high resistivity, the dipole moments of the molecules alignIMA Journal of Applied Mathematics (2002) 67, 419­439 Modelling thermal front dynamics in microwave July 2000; revised on 6 December 2001] The formation and propagation of thermal fronts in a cylindrical

Xin, Jack

369

Structural considerations and modeling in the synthesis of heat integrated thermally coupled distillation sequences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the reduction in energy consumption, there is a price to be paid when using thermally coupled systems: 1 Mellon University. Pittsburgh, PA. USA. Abstract This paper deals with the design of mixed thermally is likely the most studied unit operation in the history of Chemical Engineering. This research effort

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

370

Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

None

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Development of one-dimensional computer code DESOPT for thermal hydraulic design of sodium-heated once through steam generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Once-through Steam Generator (SG) is a critical component of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plant. It is a counter current heat exchanger, in which heat is transferred from the hot sodium flowing on the shell side to water/steam in tube side. High pressure subcooled water enters the SG tube from bottom, gets heated up to saturation, goes through nucleate boiling, dry out and post dry out heat transfer, getting converted to saturated steam and finally gets superheated. For this the process design needs to be carried out accurately. A computer code DESOPT has been developed for the process design of straight vertical, serpentine and helical geometries and validated against reported designs in literature. Recently a test facility to test a 5.5 MWt sodium heated steam generator has been commissioned. The predictions of the code have been compared with the measurements and found satisfactory. This paper brings out different heat transfer mechanisms in SG and describes the one-dimensional code, its validation based on literature and in-house tests and presents the results of comparison between predicted and actual operation at different part loads.

G. Vaidyanathan; A.L. Kothandaraman; L.S. Siva Kumar; V. Vinod; I.B. Noushad; K.K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

An evaluation of the thermal characteristics of a flat plate heat pipe spreader  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

loss could bc determined. Duc to the axisymmetric nature of the i. echnique, it was necessary to define the effective radial heat pipe dimensions. ln the case of a disk shaped flat heat pipe, the effective radius is equal to the radius of the disk...

Chesser, Jason Blake

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

AQUIFER BIOTHERMOREMEDIATION USING HEAT PUMPS: SOUND THEORETICAL BASIS AND RESULTS ON THERMAL, GEOCHEMICAL AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

example, the long-term use of groundwater heat pumps for air conditioning of homes or buildings can induce and hydrogeological background. The presence of organic pollutants in the aquifer can amplify these phenomena/or the well productivity, (ii) an inappropriate temperature for the use of groundwater heat pumps for air

Boyer, Edmond

374

An investigation into the thermal properties of selected sensible and latent heat storage materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the latent heat of fusion. Considerable work has been done in analyzing latent heat storage systems. Telkes and Raymond [lj did early work with a sodium sulfate system using sealed drums. iVore recent experimental work was conducted with other salt...

Wood, Stanley Clayton

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A DANISH SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY DATA BASE FOR HEATING SYSTEM DESIGN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Successful design of solar heating systems is readily achieved if the designer has access to representative weather data and tested performance algorithms. This paper describes how updated solar radiation data have been provided via a public database system in Denmark. This work was carried out in cooperation with VE-data at Ålborg University and with the support of the Danish National Council of Technology (Teknologirådet). The product of this work is Solar Energy Program Package (SEPP) for IBM PC compatible computers. The Package provides a tool based on the f-chart method1 for use in the design and evaluation of solar water heating systems and solar space/hot water heating systems. A program for the economic evaluation of solar energy heating system is also supplied. KEYWORDS Solar energy database; f-chart method; Kt method; weather data; economics of solar heating; IBM compatible; software.

lektor Frank Bason

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Strengthening the applicability of self-heating retorting process to oil shale via co-retorting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Recently a facile low-energy-input retorting route but without marked loss in the shale-oil yield is developed, which is achieved by a self-heating effect, that is, spontaneously increasing retorting temperature in the absence of external heat provision (Guo et al., 2013, 2014). In this work, the applicability of self-heating retorting (SHR) process to three Chinese oil shales from different places (i.e., Longkou, Huadian and Fushun) is studied. Of these three oil shales, Fushun oil shale is associated with coal and was previously abandoned during coal mining due to its not high kerogen or oil content. The results show that it’s hard for Fushun oil shale to obtain satisfying self-heating effect, while Longkou or Huadian oil shale with higher kerogen or oil content shows satisfactory SHR. However, by adding suitable amounts of Longkou or Huadian oil shale into Fushun oil shale, a satisfying self-heating effect can be obtained as well. Thus, the relatively low-grade Fushun oil shale can also be well utilized to produce shale oil via this facile SHR route. Moreover, to utilize Fushun oil shale with a greener SHR process, the process can be performed by co-retorting Fushun oil shale with pine needles, a kind of renewable biomass. This finding also provides a new starting point for exploring plentiful biomass resources to utilize low-grade oil shale to produce oil in the future work.

Hongfan Guo; Yindong Yang; Kuikui Wang; Yansong Pei; Qicheng Wu; Yunyi Liu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs  

SciTech Connect

The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Process and Systems Process and Components Laboratory may include: * CSP technology developers * Utilities * Certification laboratories * Government agencies * Universities * Other National laboratories Contact Us If you are interested in working with NREL's Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory, please contact: ESIF Manager Carolyn Elam Carolyn.Elam@nrel.gov 303-275-4311 Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory The focus of the Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate new techniques for thermal energy storage systems that are relevant to utility-scale concentrating solar power plants. The laboratory holds

379

Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Effects of self-heating and phase change on the thermal profile of hydrogen isotopes in confined geometries  

SciTech Connect

Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.

Baxamusa, S., E-mail: baxamusa1@llnl.gov; Field, J.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; Suratwala, T.; Sater, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

382

Comparison of the Thermal Performance of a Solar Heating System with Open and Closed Solid Sorption Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this paper is to compare two solar heating systems with different solid sorption storage concepts; an open storage concept with material transport and external reactor and a closed sorption storage concept with the material reservoir as reactor. Both storage concepts are part of system concepts that have been investigated during national projects for a period of more than 3 years each. A TRNSYS model has been developed for each concept and the corresponding mathematical model is described. An emphasis is given on the model simplifications and thus its up- and downscaling possibilities. TRNSYS simulation studies were performed using similar boundary conditions. Hence the simulation results can be compared directly, thus the advantages and disadvantages of both concepts under investigation can be elaborated and assessed. TRNSYS simulations have been performed for each system concept using the properties of two different thermochemical storage materials (TCM). It is shown that the type of TCM has a significant influence on the systems fractional thermal energy savings. Using silica gel as TCM, both system concepts’ performances are only slightly better compared to a standard water-filled storage tank of the same size. The TCM zeolite 13 XBF, a binder free 13 X zeolite, leads to significantly better fractional thermal energy savings. Although the two systems under investigation behave differently, the fractional thermal energy savings are similar. High solar thermal fractions up to a complete solar coverage can be achieved for both storage concepts with moderate collector array and store sizes.

Florian Bertsch; Dagmar Jaehnig; Sebastian Asenbeck; Henner Kerskes; Harald Drueck; Waldemar Wagner; Werner Weiss

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Novel Latent Heat Storage Devices for Thermal Management of Electric Vehicle Battery Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A major aspect for safe and efficient operation of battery electric vehicles (BEV) is the thermal management of their battery systems. As temperature uniformity and level highly ... performance and the lifetime, ...

Ch. Huber; A. Jossen; R. Kuhn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Thermal shock resistance of solids associated with hyperbolic heat conduction theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...damage. Examples are as varied as energy conversion systems, electronic devices and...that was coupled with the local energy balance-[21,22]. Since then...frequency of the molecules within the energy carrier. The thermal relaxation time...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes during wood pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Thermal decomposition of 25.4 mm diameter dry wood spheres is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Wood spheres were pyrolyzed in a vertical tube furnace at temperatures ranging from 638 K to 879 K. Mass loss and temperatures of the sample were measured during pyrolysis. Center temperature measurements showed two distinct thermal events consisting of sequential endothermic and exothermic reactions. A numerical investigation of these endo/exothermic reactions using various pyrolysis kinetics models was conducted to determine the pyrolysis mechanism and the heats of the pyrolysis reactions. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results showed that (i) Contrary to the suggestions in the literature, the contributions of the secondary tar decomposition and lignin decomposition to the center temperature exothermic peak are small. (ii) Exothermic decomposition of the intermediate solid is responsible for the center temperature peak. (iii) The center temperature plateau is caused by the endothermic decomposition of cellulose. (iv) Internal pressure generation was found to be quite important because it controls the pyrolyzate mass transfer and thus affects both the heat transfer and the residence time of the pyrolysis gases for secondary decomposition. Based on the experimental and numerical results, a new wood pyrolysis model is proposed. The model consists of three endothermic parallel reactions producing tar, gas and intermediate solid and subsequent exothermic decomposition of the intermediate solid to char and exothermic decomposition of tar to char and gas. The proposed pyrolysis model shows good agreement with the experiments. Pressure calculations based on the new pyrolysis model revealed that high pressure is generated inside the biomass particle during pyrolysis and sample splitting was observed during the experiments. The splitting is due to both weakening of the structure and internal pressure generation during pyrolysis. At low heating rates, structural weakness is the primary factor, whereas at high heating rates, internal pressure is the determining factor. It is expected that moisture, while not considered in this work will have a similar effect, but at lower temperatures. (author)

Park, Won Chan; Atreya, Arvind [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2158 GGBL 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Baum, Howard R. [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, University of Maryland, 3106-D J.M. Patterson Building, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Plasma processing of spent nuclear fuel by two-frequency ion cyclotron resonance heating  

SciTech Connect

A previously developed method for analyzing the plasma processing of spent nuclear fuel is generalized to a plasma containing multicharged fuel ions. In such a plasma, ion cyclotron resonance heating of nuclear ash ions should be carried out in two monochromatic RF fields of different frequencies, provided that the fraction of {xi} multicharged ions is small, {xi} {<=} 0.1, a condition that substantially restricts the productivity of systems for processing spent nuclear fuel. Ways of overcoming this difficulty are discussed.

Timofeev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Process efficiency in polymer extrusion: Correlation between the energy demand and melt thermal stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal stability is of major importance in polymer extrusion, where product quality is dependent upon the level of melt homogeneity achieved by the extruder screw. Extrusion is an energy intensive process and optimisation of process energy usage while maintaining melt stability is necessary in order to produce good quality product at low unit cost. Optimisation of process energy usage is timely as world energy prices have increased rapidly over the last few years. In the first part of this study, a general discussion was made on the efficiency of an extruder. Then, an attempt was made to explore correlations between melt thermal stability and energy demand in polymer extrusion under different process settings and screw geometries. A commodity grade of polystyrene was extruded using a highly instrumented single screw extruder, equipped with energy consumption and melt temperature field measurement. Moreover, the melt viscosity of the experimental material was observed by using an off-line rheometer. Results showed that specific energy demand of the extruder (i.e. energy for processing of unit mass of polymer) decreased with increasing throughput whilst fluctuation in energy demand also reduced. However, the relationship between melt temperature and extruder throughput was found to be complex, with temperature varying with radial position across the melt flow. Moreover, the melt thermal stability deteriorated as throughput was increased, meaning that a greater efficiency was achieved at the detriment of melt consistency. Extruder screw design also had a significant effect on the relationship between energy consumption and melt consistency. Overall, the relationship between the process energy demand and thermal stability seemed to be negatively correlated and also it was shown to be highly complex in nature. Moreover, the level of process understanding achieved here can help to inform selection of equipment and setting of operating conditions to optimise both energy and thermal efficiencies in parallel.

Chamil Abeykoon; Adrian L. Kelly; Javier Vera-Sorroche; Elaine C. Brown; Phil D. Coates; Jing Deng; Kang Li; Eileen Harkin-Jones; Mark Price

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

In-Situ Thermal Conductivity Testing Using a Portable Heat Flow Meter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method has been developed for measuring heat losses from insulated systems in the field. While the measurements are not as precise as those made under laboratory conditions, they are more indicative of actual in service conditions. Extensive field...

Harr, K. S.; Hutto, F. B., Jr.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Thermal regimes in a primary fluid heated by solar energy in a linear collector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The steady-state heat transfer equation has been solved for the determination of temperature profiles in a diathermic oil flowing through a linear boiler placed on the focal line of cylindrical parabolic solar...

O. Barra; M. Conti; L. Correra; R. Visentin; E. Pugliese Caratelli

390

Journal of Thermal Biology 33 (2008) 711 Physiological and behavioral control of heating and cooling rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Cooling rate; Heating rate; Physiological thermoregulation; Rubber boa; Temperature 1. Introduction Body temperature greatly impacts the ecology, behavior, and physiology of reptiles (Huey, 1982; Peterson, 1987; Peterson et al., 1993). Consequently, many species of reptiles thermoregulate to maintain body temperatures

Dorcas, Michael E.

391

Computational and experimental investigations into cavity receiver heat loss for solar thermal concentrators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the total, though the losses depend on solar elevation angle; at higher angles, and in low-wind conditions in inclination, temperature and cavity geometry on convective and radiative heat loss. Secondly, a water

392

Test results of heat-exchanger cleaning in support of ocean thermal energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

These tests evaluated flow-driven brushes, recirculating sponge rubber balls, chlorination, and mechanical system/chlorination combinations for in-situ cleaning of two potential heat exchanger materials: titanium and aluminum alloy 5052. Tests were successful when fouling resistance was <3.0 x 10/sup -4/ ft/sup 2/ hr-/sup 0/F/Btu. Results indicated systems and cleaning techniques using brushes, soft sponge balls, and various concentrations of chlorine had some potential for maintaining heat transfer efficiency.

Lott, D F

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Space Heat Incentives Space Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 278 Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 278) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption (Corporate) (Massachusetts) Industry Recruitment/Support Massachusetts Commercial Biomass Fuel Cells Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Municipal Solid Waste Passive Solar Space Heat Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Wind energy Yes Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption (Personal) (Massachusetts) Industry Recruitment/Support Massachusetts General Public/Consumer Biomass

394

List of Solar Water Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Water Heat Incentives Solar Water Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 920 Solar Water Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-920) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No APS - GEOSmart Financing Program (Arizona) Utility Loan Program Arizona Residential Solar Water Heat Photovoltaics No APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas

395

Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of a Thermally Coupled Distillation Column Implemented on a Process with Recycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays, the installation and operation of systems with minimum energy and material consumption is a main objective in the industrial ambit; this goal can be achieved through the implementation of recycle streams to recover raw materials and the use of energy integration techniques to minimize utilities requirements. However, when a process is highly integrated, e.g. processes with recycle streams and energy integration or thermal couplings, systems can present control problems. Several studies for Reactor-Separation-Recycle (RSR) systems using separation systems with conventional distillation columns have been reported, but few works have focused on energy-integrated columns or thermally coupled distillation sequences. This work presents a comparison between the dynamic behavior of a thermally coupled distillation column with side rectifier implemented within a RSR system and that obtained with a conventional distillation sequence.

D. Mascote-Pérez; A. Sánchez-Hijar; N. Ramírez-Corona; A. Jiménez-Gutierrez

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

THERMAL ANALYSIS FOR IN-TANK ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is stored in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. A small column ion-exchange (SCIX) process is being designed to treat dissolved saltcake waste before feeding it to the saltstone facility to be made into grout. The waste is caustic with high concentrations of various sodium salts and lower concentrations of radionuclides. Two cation exchange media being considered are a granular form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and a spherical form of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin. CST is an inorganic material highly selective for cesium that is not elutable. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is absorbed into ion exchange media (either CST or RF) which is packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. If engineering designs cannot handle this thermal load, hot spots may develop locally which could degrade the performance of the ion-exchange media. Performance degradation with regard to cesium removal has been observed between 50 and 80 C for CST [1] and at 65 C for RF resin [2]. In addition, the waste supernate solution will boil around 130 C. If the columns boiled dry, the sorbent material could plug the column and lead to replacement of the entire column module. Alternatively, for organic resins such as RF there is risk of fire at elevated temperatures. The objective of the work is to compute temperature distributions across CST- and RF-packed columns immersed in waste supernate under accident scenarios involving loss of salt solution flow through the beds and, in some cases, loss of coolant system flow. For some cases, temperature distributions are determined as a function of time after the initiation of a given accident scenario and in other cases only the final steady-state temperature distributions are calculated. In general, calculations are conducted to ensure conservative and bounding results for the maximum temperatures achievable using the current baseline column design. This information will assist in SCIX design and facility maintenance.

Lee, S; Frank02 Smith, F

2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

397

SUPERGLASS. Engineering field tests - Phase 3. Production, market planning, and product evaluation for a high-thermal-performance insulating glass design utilizing HEAT MIRROR transparent insulation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

HEAT MIRROR transparent window insulation consists of a clear polyester film two mils (.002'') thick with a thin, clear low-emissivity (.15) coating deposited on one side by state-of-the-art vacuum deposition processes. This neutral-colored invisible coating reflects long-wave infrared energy (heat). When mounted by being stretched with a 1/2'' air-gap on each side of the film, the resulting unit reduces heat loss by 60% compared to dual insulating glass. Southwall Corporation produces HEAT MIRROR transparent insulation and markets it to manufacturers of sealed insulating glass (I.G.) units and window and building manufacturers who make their own I.G. These companies build and sell the SUPERGLASS sealed glazing units. Units made and installed in buildings by six customers were visited. These units were located in many geographic regions, including the Pacific Northwest, Rocky Mountains, New England, Southeast, and West Coast. As much as could be obtained of their history was recorded, as was their current condition and performance. These units had been in place from two weeks to over a year. All of the units were performing thermally very well, as measured by taking temperature profiles through them and through adjacent conventional I.G. units. Some units had minor visual defects (attributed to I.G. assembly techniques) which are discussed in detail. Overall occupant acceptance was enthusiastically positive. In addition to saving energy, without compromise of optical quality or appearance, the product makes rooms with large glazing areas comfortable to be in in cold weather. All defects observed were present when built; there appears to be no in-field degradation of quality at this time.

Tilford, C L

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process localiser la chambre à vapeur. INTRODUCTION [1] Huge quantities of heavy oils (heavy oil, extra heavy oil. Larribau 64018 Pau Cedex, France Oil and Gas Science and Technology 2012, 67 (6), 1029-1039, doi:10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

Active charge/passive discharge solar heating systems: thermal analysis and performance comparisons  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the performance of active charge/passive discharge solar space heating systems. This type of system combines liquid-cooled solar collector panels with a massive integral storage component that passively heats the building interior by radiation and free convection. The TRNSYS simulation program is used to evaluate system performance and to provide input for the development of a simplified analysis method. This method, which provides monthly calculations of delivered solar energy, is based on Klein's Phi-bar procedure and data from hourly TRNSYS simulations. The method can be applied to systems using a floor slab, a structural wall, or a water tank as the storage component. Important design parameters include collector area and orientation, building heat loss, collector and heat-exchanger efficiencies, storage capacity, and storage-to-room coupling. Performance simulation results are used for comparisons with active and passive solar designs. Economic comparisons are based on these data and additional system features, such as cooling augmentation and integration of heating components with structural members.

Swisher, J.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Heating and Non-thermal Particle Acceleration in Relativistic, Transverse Magnetosonic Shock Waves in Proton-Electron-Positron Plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the results of 1D particle-in-cell simulations of ultrarelativistic shock waves in proton-electron-positron plasmas. We consider magnetized shock waves, in which the upstream medium carries a large scale magnetic field, directed transverse to the flow. Relativistic cyclotron instability of each species as the incoming particles encounter the increasing magnetic field within the shock front provides the basic plasma heating mechanism. The most significant new results come from simulations with mass ratio $m_p/m_\\pm = 100$. We show that if the protons provide a sufficiently large fraction of the upstream flow energy density (including particle kinetic energy and Poynting flux), a substantial fraction of the shock heating goes into the formation of suprathermal power-law spectra of pairs. Cyclotron absorption by the pairs of the high harmonic ion cyclotron waves, emitted by the protons, provides the non-thermal acceleration mechanism. As the proton fraction increases, the non-thermal efficiency increases and the pairs' power-law spectra harden. We suggest that the varying power law spectra observed in synchrotron sources powered by magnetized winds and jets might reflect the correlation of the proton to pair content enforced by the underlying electrodynamics of these sources' outflows, and that the observed correlation between the X-ray spectra of rotation powered pulsars with the X-ray spectra of their nebulae might reflect the same correlation.

Elena Amato; Jonathan Arons

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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401

Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses  

SciTech Connect

Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi, E-mail: roudkenar@ibto.ir [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halabian, Raheleh [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourani, Mohammad Reza [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masroori, Nasser [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Majid [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Thermal Processing Techniques to Improve Metal Sulfide Mixed Alcohol Catalyst Performance  

SciTech Connect

Research over several decades by several institutions has shown that alkali-promoted metal sulfide catalysts are capable of producing mixed alcohols from syngas with high selectivity and yield. Unfortunately, process models suggest that syngas to mixed alcohol processes, and especially thermochemical biomass to mixed alcohol processes, require improvements to sulfide catalyst activity and/or selectivity for acceptable economics. These improvements, if incremental, cannot result in increased process complexity, capital expenditure, or catalyst costs. It is well accepted among catalyst researchers that thermal processing techniques like calcining and reduction can have profound effects on the properties and performance of finished catalysts, and that small variations in thermal processing do not usually affect the overall cost of the catalyst. Metal sulfide catalysts are no exception but surprisingly, little attention has been given to the effects of thermal treatment on bulk metal sulfide mixed alcohol catalysts. This presentation will discuss how parameters like temperature, dwell time, metal ratios, and purge gas affect the performance and physical properties of K-Co/Mo catalysts.

Hensley, J.; Menart, M.; Costelow, K.; Thibodeaux, J.; Yung, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS. PROGRESS REPORT BY 1998  

SciTech Connect

Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98.

ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Determination of thermal conductivity and formation temperature from cooling history of friction-heated probes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......dissipation at the rising cost of ship operational time...penetrations for measurements of geothermal gradients at closely...paves the way at no extra cost for the determination...imposing heat flow as an energy constraint in transient...typical measurement of geothermal gradient in the ocean......

Tien-Chang Lee; A. D. Duchkov; S. G. Morozov

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes. First amendment and extension to Annex IV  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the result of efforts under the several tasks of the First Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal processes. The report is presented in six sections (for each of the six tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each one of the tasks. Each section has been abstracted and processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 8-13. The first report on Annex IV, Venezuela-MEM/USE-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15), contains the results from the first seven tasks. That report is dated April 1983, entitled, EOR Thermal Processes.

Peterson, G.; Schwartz, E.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the thermodynamic and morphological properties of coal associated with rapid heating decomposition pathways is essential to progress in coal utilization technology. Specifically, knowledge of the heat of devolatilization, surface area and density of coal as a function of rank characteristics, temperature and extent of devolatilization in the context of rapid heating conditions is essential to the fundamental determination of kinetic parameters of coal devolatilization. These same properties are also needed to refine existing devolatilization sub-models utilized in large-scale modeling of coal combustion systems. The objective of this research is to obtain data on the thermodynamic properties and morphology of coal under conditions of rapid heating. Specifically, the total heat of devolatilization, external surface area, BET surface area and true density will be measured for representative coal samples. The coal ranks to be investigated will include a high volatile A bituminous (PSOC 1451 D) and a low volatile bituminous (PSOC 1516D). An anthracite (PSOC 1468) will be used as a non-volatile coal reference. In addition, for one coal, the contribution of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization will be measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars.

Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for reducing heat load applied to a frozen barrier by a heated formation is described. The system includes heat interceptor wells positioned between the heated formation and the frozen barrier. Fluid is positioned in the heat interceptor wells. Heat transfers from the formation to the fluid to reduce the heat load applied to the frozen barrier.

McKinzie, II, Billy John (Houston, TX)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

408

Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.  

SciTech Connect

Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation result is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.

Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Erickson, Kenneth L

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Numerical Investigation of Thermal Hydraulic Behavior of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Compact Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

desirable. Henceforth, various turbulence models were used to study their impact on the heat transfer solution for these problems. The present numerical work focuses on improving the CFD model and methodologies in order to capture... NOMENCLATURE Sc Supercritical Tcr Critical temperature Vcr Critical volume Tpc Pseudo-critical temperature Ppc Pseudo-critical pressure Pcr Critical pressure Pop Operating pressure Tw Wall temperature Tb Bulk temperature Tin Inlet...

Fatima, Roma

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

410

Melting processes of oligomeric ? and ? isotactic polypropylene crystals at ultrafast heating rates  

SciTech Connect

The melting behaviors of ? (stable) and ? (metastable) isotactic polypropylene (iPP) crystals at ultrafast heating rates are simulated with atomistic molecular dynamics method. Quantitative information about the melting processes of ?- and ?-iPP crystals at atomistic level is achieved. The result shows that the melting process starts from the interfaces of lamellar crystal through random dislocation of iPP chains along the perpendicular direction of lamellar crystal structure. In the melting process, the lamellar crystal gradually expands but the corresponding thickness decreases. The analysis shows that the system expansion lags behind the crystallinity decreasing and the lagging extents for ?- and ?-iPP are significantly different. The apparent melting points of ?- and ?-iPP crystals rise with the increase of the heating rate and lamellar crystal thickness. The apparent melting point of ?-iPP crystal is always higher than that of ?-iPP at differently heating rates. Applying the Gibbs-Thomson rule and the scaling property of the melting kinetics, the equilibrium melting points of perfect ?- and ?-iPP crystals are finally predicted and it shows a good agreement with experimental result.

Ji, Xiaojing [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); He, Xuehao, E-mail: xhhe@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: scjiang@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Jiang, Shichun, E-mail: xhhe@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: scjiang@tju.edu.cn [School of Material, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [School of Material, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

411

Numerical-simulation and experimental-validation of the largest Egyptian solar process-heat system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

El-Nasr pharmaceutical solar process heat project is considered as the largest industrial system installed and working in east Cairo Egypt 30°N. It was simply constructed from a one-axis tracking parabolic-trough collector that can produce about 1.3 ton/h saturated steam to feed the industrial processes in the company. Twenty-three bar compressed water is heated inside 1958.4 m2 collectors and later on it is flashed in a steam flash-drum to produce saturated steam at 8 bars and 175 °C that is fed to the process heat. A mathematical model was developed for the system components to simulate annual performance of the system. The simulation results were verified successfully by the measured data that are monitoring the system performance. First each component of the mathematical model was experimentally validated separately. Accordingly the whole mathematical model was validated under different weather conditions along the year. The validated numerical model was optimized. The optimal number of collectors connected in series was obtained as three collectors not 36 as installed. An economical study of the installed system was provided. The optimal design of the system was economically estimated. The optimal collector area is less than that installed it equals about 538 m2. Annual performance of the system is presented indicating the seasonal variation. It was found that the optimized system can produce about 2 ton/h in average. Moreover that value is more than that was proposed by the system design.

Adel M. Abdel-Dayem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Thermal single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests for determining fracture-matrix heat transfer area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rates of rocks- to-fluid heat transfer, and thereby thesurface for heat transfer to injected fluids circulating influids, and thereby increase the overall rate of heat transfer

Pruess, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

The component interaction network approach for modeling of complex thermal systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A practical approach for the thermal modeling of complex thermal systems, called the component interaction network (CIN) is presented. Its stages are explained: description of the thermal system as a set of non-overlapping components and their interactions ... Keywords: Component interaction network, Electric furnace, Experimental validation, Heat transfer, Rapid thermal processing, Thermal modeling

K. El Khoury; G. Mouawad; G. El Hitti; M. Nemer

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Pyrolysis Using Microwave Heating: A Sustainable Process for Recycling Used Car Engine Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pyrolysis Using Microwave Heating: A Sustainable Process for Recycling Used Car Engine Oil ... A reaction temperature of 600 °C provided the greatest yield of commercially valuable products: the recovered liquid oils were composed of light paraffins and aromatic hydrocarbons that could be used as industrial feedstock; the remaining incondensable gases comprised light hydrocarbons that could potentially be used as a fuel source to power the process. ... The pyrolysis products leave the reactor and pass through a system of three water-cooled Liebig condensers [5, 6, 7], which collect condensed hydrocarbons in main and secondary collection flasks [8, 9]. ...

Su Shiung Lam; Alan D. Russell; Howard A. Chase

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

415

Dependence of thermal diffusivity on organic content for Green River oil shales—Extension of the modified Cheng?Vachon model to the parallel heat?flow case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In an earlier paper [J. Appl. Phys. 50 2776 (1979)] the modified Cheng?Vachon model was found to give good agreement with experimental data on the variation of thermal diffusivity with organic content for Green River oil shales. Calculations using the model were carried out for the case where heat flows in directions perpendicular to the shale stratigraphic planes. In the present paper the above model is modified to account for experimental trends in the parallel heat?flow case. The modified model provides a self?consistent explanation for the lower degree of anisotropy (relative to theory) that has been experimentally observed for the thermal diffusivity of Green River oil shales.

Y. Wang; K. Rajeshwar; J. DuBow

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Determination of Thermal-Degradation Rates of Some Candidate Rankine-Cycle Organic Working Fluids for Conversion of Industrial Waste Heat Into Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DETERMINATION OF THERMAL-DEGRADATION RATES OF SOME CANDIDATE RANKINE-CYCLE ORGANIC WORKING FLUIDS FOR CONVERSION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEAT INTO POWER Mohan L. Jain, Jack Demirgian, John L. Krazinski, and H. Bushby Argonne National Laboratory..., Argonne, Illinois Howard Mattes and John Purcell U.S. Department of Energy ABSTRACT Serious concerns over the long-term thermal In a previous study [1] based on systems stability of organic working fluids and its effect analysis and covering...

Jain, M. L.; Demirgian, J.; Krazinski, J. L.; Bushby, H.; Mattes, H.; Purcell, J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Investigation of Thermal Decomposition as the Kinetic Process That Causes the Loss of Crystalline Structure in Sucrose Using a Chemical Analysis Approach (Part II)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Thermal Decomposition as the Kinetic Process That Causes the Loss of Crystalline Structure in Sucrose Using a Chemical Analysis Approach (Part II) ... In the fast heating method, initial decomposition components, glucose (0.365%) and 5-HMF (0.003%), were found in the sucrose sample coincident with the onset temperature of the first endothermic peak. ... Three sample pans of sucrose were loaded in the DSC cell; one pan was placed on the sample platform, and the others were placed on the bottom of the DSC cell. ...

Joo Won Lee; Leonard C. Thomas; John Jerrell; Hao Feng; Keith R. Cadwallader; Shelly J. Schmidt

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

419

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced heat process Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Transfer Performance... ) Heat Transfer Solid Mechanics Energy Systems Air-Conditioner Performance Evaluations Alternate... and Diagnostic Center...

420

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA); Toly, Norman F. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

Haney, S.J.; Stulen, R.H.; Toly, N.F.

1983-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

423

Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

Edward Levy

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

424

Heat transfer and fluid flow in microchannels and nanochannels at high Knudsen number using thermal lattice-Boltzmann method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper deals with the two-dimensional numerical simulation of gaseous flow and heat transfer in planar microchannel and nanochannel with different wall temperatures in transitional regime 0.1?Kn?1. An atomistic molecular simulation method is used known as thermal lattice-Boltzmann method. The results of simulation are presented in four cases corresponding to the Fourier flow, shear-driven flow (Couette flow), pressure-driven flow (Poiseuille flow), and mixed shear–pressure-driven flow in the developing and fully developed regions. The mixed shear–pressure-driven flow is divided into two subcases with shear stress and pressure gradient acting in the same and the opposite directions. Normalized temperature and velocity profiles across the channel, distribution of local wall Nusselt number, and friction coefficient are illustrated. Using this method, nonlinear pressure distribution in the streamwise direction, reduction in mass flow rate, Cf?Re, and Nu by increasing the Knudsen number are studied. It is seen that for Couette flow, Nu over the hotter plate is greater than the cooler plate, but for the pressure-driven flow with stationary wall temperature dependency of viscosity and thermal conductivity causes this trend to be reversed. The reversed flow appearance in the velocity profile is captured in the case of opposite shear–pressure-driven flow.

J. Ghazanfarian and A. Abbassi

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

425

A Second Order Thermal and Momentum Immersed Boundary Method for Conjugate Heat Transfer in a Cartesian Finite Volume Solver  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A conjugate heat transfer (CHT) immersed boundary (IB and CHTIB) method is developed for use with laminar and turbulent flows with low to moderate Reynolds numbers. The method is validated with the canonical flow of two co-annular rotating cylinders at $Re=50$ which shows second order accuracy of the $L_{2}$ and $L_{\\infty}$ error norms of the temperature field over a wide rage of solid to fluid thermal conductivities, $\\kappa_{s}/\\kappa_{f} = \\left(9-100\\right)$. To evaluate the CHTIBM with turbulent flow a fully developed, heated, turbulent channel $\\left(Re_{u_{\\tau}}=150\\text{ and } \\kappa_{s}/\\kappa_{f}=4 \\right)$ is used which shows near perfect correlation to previous direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. The CHTIB method is paired with a momentum IB method (IBM), both of which use a level set field to define the wetted boundaries of the fluid/solid interfaces and are applied to the flow solver implicitly with rescaling of the difference operators of the finite volume (FV) method (FVM).

Crocker, Ryan; Desjardins, Olivier

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Modeling of thermally driven hydrological processes in partially saturated fractured rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and deformation insimulations of fluid flow, heat transfer, and phaseeither included no fluid flow and modeled heat transfer by

Tsang, Yvonne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Chapter 17 - Nuclear heat energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter delves into the important heating processes within a nuclear power plant. Applying Fourier’s law of heat conduction permits determining temperature distributions within the nuclear fuel rods. In contrast, convective cooling occurs on the rod surface. The coolant, cladding and fuel temperature distributions through a reactor are determined. Besides heat transfer in the reactor core, some power plants employ heat exchangers to generate steam that is fed to a turbine-generator to produce electricity. As a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics, thermal power plants reject condenser heat to the environment through mechanisms such as cooling towers.

Raymond L. Murray; Keith E. Holbert

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Assessing the Power Generation Solution by Thermal-chemical Conversion of Meat Processing Industry Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper presents a waste to energy conversion solution using a pyro-air-gasification process applied to biodegradable residues from meat processing industry integrated with small scale thermodynamic cycle for power generation. The solution of air- gasification at atmospheric pressure is based on experimental research and engineering computation developed during the study. The input data, such as: waste chemical composition, low/high heating value and proximate analysis, correspond to real waste products, sampled directly from the industrial processing line. Separate drying as first stage pre-treatment and integrated partial drying inside the reactor was used. The syngas low heating value of about 4.3 MJ/Nm3 is insured by its combustible fraction (H2– 12.2%, CO – 19.2%, CH4 – 1.6%). According to syngas composition the thermodynamic cycle was chosen – Otto gas engine. For a given waste feed-in flow considered in our computation of about 110 kg/h the power output obtained is about 50 kWel. The global energy efficiency of the unit is about 15%. The results offer answers to energy recovery waste disposal for residues with characteristics that are not suitable for classic incineration or limit the energy efficiency of the process making it non-economical (the average humidity of the raw waste is about 42% in mass). The research focused on waste to energy conversion process energy efficiency, waste neutralization and power generation.

Cosmin Marculescu; Florin Alexe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet discusses how the thermal efficiency of a process heating system can be improved significantly by using heat contained in furnace flue gases to preheat the furnace load.

430

Heat Pump Application- An Industrial Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEAT PUMP APPLICATION- AN INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDY Deepak Shukla, Ph.D. Sr. Process Engineer TENSA services, Inc. Houston, Texas ABSTRACT The economics of heat pumping across a distillation column is usually dependent on the amount... of additional compressor work required to lift thermal energy from a low source temperature to a high sink temperature. A reduction of this work improves the heat pump economics. This paper presents the results of a heat pump study conducted by TENSA...

Shukla, D.; Umoh, R.

431

Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat into electrical energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Abstract We analyse a device aimed at the conversion of heat into electrical energy, based on a closed Conversion and Management August 19, 2013 #12;1. Introduction The free energy contained in solutionsTheoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat

Carati, Andrea

432

Energy Distribution of Heating Processes in the Quiet Solar Sam Krucker 1;2 and Arnold O. Benz 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating model. An obvious requirement is that the energy input observed in the emission measure by intergrating in energy the rate of flare energy release, f(E), observed at the energy E per unit area. ThusEnergy Distribution of Heating Processes in the Quiet Solar Corona S¨am Krucker 1;2 and Arnold O

433

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)] [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)] [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Effect of neutral collision and radiative heat-loss function on self-gravitational instability of viscous thermally conducting partially-ionized plasma  

SciTech Connect

The problem of thermal instability and gravitational instability is investigated for a partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations. We use normal mode analysis method in this problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using linearized perturbation equations of the problem. Effects of collisions with neutrals, radiative heat-loss function, viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field strength, on the instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the effect of various physical parameters on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. The temperature-dependent heat-loss function, thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field and neutral collision have stabilizing effect, while density-dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing effect on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. With the help of Routh-Hurwitz's criterion, the stability of the system is discussed.

Kaothekar, Sachin [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, Madhya Pradesh (India); Department of Physics, Mahakal Institute of Technology, Ujjain-456664, Madhya Pradesh (India); Soni, Ghanshyam D. [Government Girls Degree College, Dewas, Madhya Pradesh (India); Chhajlani, Rajendra K. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, Madhya Pradesh (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

On numerical simulation of flow, heat transfer and combustion processes in tangentially-fired furnace  

SciTech Connect

In this work, an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach has been employed to investigate numerically flow characteristics, heat transfer and combustion processes inside corner-fired power plant boiler furnace. To avoid pseudo-diffusion that is significant in modeling tangentially-fired furnaces, some attempts have been made at improving the finite-difference scheme. Comparisons have been made between standard {kappa}-{epsilon} model and RNG {kappa}-{epsilon} model. Some new developments on turbulent diffusion of particles are taken into account in an attempt to improve computational accuracy. Finally, temperature deviation is studied numerically so as to gain deeper insight into tangentially fired furnace.

Sun, P.; Fan, J.; Cen, K.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Analysis of energy saving for ammonium sulfate solution processing with self-heat recuperation principle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As an important production process, the evaporative concentration of the inorganic salt solution is extensively applied in the industry, and it is significant to investigate the energy saving potential of such evaporation systems. In the paper, taking the ammonium sulfate solution for example, the self-heat recuperation technology (SHRT) is utilized to design two mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) systems, and the relevant energy saving performance is analyzed. It is found that the designed systems, which are satisfied with SHTR, enable the recovery of the sensible and latent heat of the emission solution without any additional heat, and compared to the conventional three-effect evaporation system, the energy saving performance are more prominent. However, in view of the existence of the boiling point elevation (BPE) for the inorganic salt solution, a maximum reduction amplitude of 40% of the energy saving performance for the double-stage MVR system is obtained compared with the single-stage MVR system. As a result, it is concluded that the only satisfaction to the SHRT is not enough, and the pattern of the MVR system should also be considered to ensure a prominent energy saving performance.

Dong Han; Weifeng He; Chen Yue; Wenhao Pu; Lin Liang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Simulation of processes in natural-circulation circuits of heat-recovery boilers of combined cycle power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mathematical fundamentals of development of models of natural-circulation circuits of heat-recovery boilers are considered. Processes in the high-pressure circuit of a P-96 boiler are described.

E. K. Arakelyan; A. S. Rubashkin; A. S. Obuvaev; V. A. Rubashkin

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Compact design improves efficiency and CAPEX -- combining plate heat exchangers and gas-liquid separators for gas processing savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the unique combination of two well proven technologies: a compact large scale welded plate heat exchanger with a gas-liquid separator within the same pressure vessel. Explained are the benefits for raw gas processing on production sites where cost, weight and efficiency are of particular importance. Application of this Combined Heat Exchanger-Separator is presented for various gas processing schemes: Turbo Expander, Mechanical Refrigeration and Joule-Thompson.

Waintraub, L.; Sourp, T. [Proser (France)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Novel integration options of concentrating solar thermal technology with fossil-fuelled and CO2 capture processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concentrating solar thermal (CST) technology has been commercially proven in utility-scale power plants that have been in operation since the 1980’s. CST uses reflecting surfaces to focus solar energy onto collectors, generating extreme heat than can be used for a variety of purposes. The current focus of CST is large-scale electrical power generation. However, new applications, such as solar fuels, are quickly gaining momentum. One key shortcoming of CST technology is its sensitivity to disruptions in sunlight availability over time. CST systems require either thermal energy storage or backup systems to operate during heavy cloud periods or at night. On the other hand, fossil-based energy systems have high availability and reliability, but they generate substantial CO2 emissions compared to equivalent CST processes. A novel solution would combine the benefits of CST technology and of fossil-fueled energy systems. Such a solar-fossil hybrid system would guarantee energy availability in the absence of sunlight or stored solar energy. The addition of carbon capture to these systems could reduce their carbon intensity to almost zero. This paper introduces three important solar-fossil hybrid energy systems: (1) Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC), (2) Solar-assisted post-combustion capture (SAPCAP), and (3) Solar gasification with CO2 capture. These novel concepts have great potential to overcome the inherent limitations of their component technologies and to achieve superior greenhouse gas mitigation techno-economic performance in large-scale applications. The paper describes the features of the three solar-fossil hybrid systems described earlier, discusses its advantages and disadvantages, and provides examples of applications. The goal of this manuscript is to introduce experts in the CCS and CST fields to the opportunities of integration between these technologies and their potential benefits.

Guillermo Ordorica-Garcia; and Alfonso Vidal Delgado; Aranzazu Fernandez Garcia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contributein Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power Chris Marnay,Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power 1 Chris Marnay a) ,

Marnay, Chris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal process heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen walls. Air Products tasked our team to design an insert to place in the tubes of the WHB to increase flow velocity, thereby reducing fouling of the WHB. Objectives Air Products wishes that our team

Demirel, Melik C.

442

Process integration techniques for optimizing seawater cooling sytems and biocide discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximize seawater temperature span while avoiding thermal pollution Calculate revised biocide amount Does biocide discharge in effluent seawater meet regulations? Screen candidates and add biocide- removal unit(s) to meet regulations Regulations met Yes... by process cold streams Residual heat Most negative Residual heat Fig. 4.4 General Cascade Diagram 33 Interval 1Heat added by process hot streams Heat removed by process cold streams Revised residual heat Interval 2Heat added by process...

BinMahfouz, Abdullah S.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

443

Nitric acid cycle process for extracting thermal energy from low-level heat sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... ENORMOUS amounts of solar energy are stored in the tropical oceans. The first attempt to recover this ' ... energy are stored in the tropical oceans. The first attempt to recover this 'solar sea energy' from the tropical oceans, using the temperature difference between the warm surface ...

N. Wakao; K. Nojo

1978-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

444

Thermal plasmonic interconnects in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As one emerging plasmonic material, graphene can support surface plasmons at infrared and terahertz frequencies with unprecedented properties due to the strong interactions between graphene and low-frequency photons. Since graphene surface plasmons exist in the infrared and terahertz regime, they can be thermally pumped (excited) by the infrared evanescent waves emitted from an object. Here we show that thermal graphene plasmons can be efficiently excited and have monochromatic and tunable spectra, thus paving a way to harness thermal energy for graphene plasmonic devices. We further demonstrate that “thermal information communication” via graphene surface plasmons can be potentially realized by effectively harnessing thermal energy from various heat sources, e.g., the waste heat dissipated from nanoelectronic devices. These findings open up an avenue of thermal plasmonics based on graphene for different applications ranging from infrared emission control, to information processing and communication, to energy harvesting.

Baoan Liu; Yongmin Liu; Sheng Shen

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

445

Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma: Screening for gentle process conditions and antibacterial efficiency on perishable fresh produce  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fresh fruits and vegetables, destined to be eaten raw or minimally processed only, harbor the risk of conveying pathogenic microorganisms. Factors such as weather conditions, which favor survival or growth of microorganisms, and improper handling during cultivation or in the postharvest chain, can contribute to outbreaks of food-borne illness. Application of chemical sanitizers or physical treatments often shows a limited efficiency or does not meet consumer acceptance. Availability of gentle and effective techniques for disinfection of fresh produce, therefore, is highly desirable. Non-thermal gas plasma (NTP) treatment is a promising novel technique to reduce the microbial load on fresh fruits and vegetables. However, knowledge on practical applicability of NTP for fresh fruits and vegetables is very limited. In this study, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) was used to elucidate suitable process parameters for application of an atmospheric pressure plasma-jet (kINPen 09, INP Greifswald, Germany) on corn salad, a perishable leafy green. Keeping a distance of 17 mm to the plasma-jet, corn salad leaves could be treated for up to 60 s at a fixed power (8 W) and 5 L min? 1 of argon mixed with 0.1% oxygen. Surface temperature on leaves did never exceed 35.2 °C. Antibacterial tests were performed on corn salad, cucumber, apple, and tomato and achieved an inactivation of artificially inoculated Escherichia coli DSM 1116 of 4.1 ± 1.2, 4.7 ± 0.4, 4.7 ± 0, and 3.3 ± 0.9 log units, respectively, after 60 s treatment time. Additional tests with a dielectric barrier discharge plasma and indirect plasma treatment within a remote exposure reactor, fed by a microwave induced plasma torch, did not result in equivalent levels of quality retention as observed using the plasma-jet. Industrial relevance Development of gentle non-thermal disinfection methods aims to provide the industry with new tools to actively improve the microbial status of fresh produce beyond the preventive benefits of good hygiene practices and the limited efficacy of post-harvest washing. The presented study shows how cold plasma can be applied to heat-sensitive lettuce leaves without detrimental effects to product quality. The additional microbiological tests offer insights into the antibacterial capacity of cold plasma on different produce surfaces. The results contribute to prompt the development of appropriate large-scale plasma sources to establish a new plasma-based sanitation technique for fresh fruits and vegetables, which should also be implementable into running process lines.

Matthias Baier; Mandy Görgen; Jörg Ehlbeck; Dietrich Knorr; Werner B. Herppich; Oliver Schlüter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications  

SciTech Connect

PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

Not Available

1992-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

447

Influence of embedded-carbon nanotubes on the thermal properties of copper matrix nanocomposites processed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-level mix- ing, exhibits CNTs homogeneously dispersed in the Cu matrix. Measured thermal conductivity: Metal matrix composites; Nanocomposite; Carbon and graphite; Thermal conductivity Carbon nanotubes (CNTs management applications, due to their extraordinarily low coefficient of thermal expan- sion (CTE) [1

Hong, Soon Hyung

448

Combined Heat and Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Combined Heat and Power Combined Heat and Power Jump to: navigation, search All power plants release a certain amount of heat during electricity generation. This heat can be used to serve thermal loads, such as building heating and hot water requirements. The simultaneous production of electrical (or mechanical) and useful thermal power from a single source is referred to as a combined heat and power (CHP) process, or cogeneration. Contents 1 Combined Heat and Power Basics 2 Fuel Types 2.1 Rural Resources 2.2 Urban Resources 3 CHP Technologies 3.1 Steam Turbine 3.2 Gas Turbine 3.3 Microturbine 3.4 Reciprocating Engine 4 Example CHP Systems[7] 4.1 University of Missouri (MU) 4.2 Princeton University 4.3 University of Iowa 4.4 Cornell University 5 Glossary 6 References Combined Heat and Power Basics

449

Low resistive p-type GaN using two-step rapid thermal annealing processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two-step thermal annealing processes were investigated for electrical activation of magnesium- doped galliumnitride layers. The samples were studied by room-temperature Hall measurements and photoluminescence spectroscopy at 16 K. After an annealing process consisting of a short-term step at 960?°C followed by a 600?°C dwell step for 5 min a resistivity as low as 0.84 ??cm is achieved for the activated sample which improves the results achieved by standard annealing (800?°C for 10 min) by 25% in resistivity and 100% in free hole concentration.Photoluminescence shows a peak centered at 3.0 eV which is typical for Mg-doped samples with high free hole concentrations.

M. Scherer; V. Schwegler; M. Seyboth; C. Kirchner; M. Kamp; A. Pelzmann; M. Drechsler

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Study of combustion processes in firing of a heat-insulator produced from technogenic raw materials from nonferrous metallurgy and power industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combustion of heat-insulators produced from technogenic raw materials without use of conventional natural materials were studied. It is shown that most part of volatiles are removed in thermal treatment of hea...

E. S. Abdrakhimova; V. Z. Abdrakhimov

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

List of Solar Pool Heating Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating Incentives Heating Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 118 Solar Pool Heating Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 118) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas Other Distributed Generation Technologies Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Solar Pool Heating Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Wind energy Yes Alternative Energy Personal Property Tax Exemption (Michigan) Property Tax Incentive Michigan Commercial Industrial Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Fuel Cells Microturbines Photovoltaics

452

MASSIVELY PARALLEL FULLY COUPLED IMPLICIT MODELING OF COUPLED THERMAL-HYDROLOGICAL-MECHANICAL PROCESSES FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing) to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. In order to increase our understanding of how reservoirs behave under these conditions, we have developed a physics-based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by coupling a discrete element model (DEM) for fracturing with a continuum multiphase flow and heat transport model. In DEM simulations, solid rock is represented by a network of discrete elements (often referred as particles) connected by various types of mechanical bonds such as springs, elastic beams or bonds that have more complex properties (such as stress-dependent elastic constants). Fracturing is represented explicitly as broken bonds (microcracks), which form and coalesce into macroscopic fractures when external load is applied. DEM models have been applied to a very wide range of fracturing processes from the molecular scale (where thermal fluctuations play an important role) to scales on the order of 1 km or greater. In this approach, the continuum flow and heat transport equations are solved on an underlying fixed finite element grid with evolving porosity and permeability for each grid cell that depends on the local structure of the discrete element network (such as DEM particle density). The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which therefore deforms and fractures. Such deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability, which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, coupling the two phenomena. The intimate coupling between fracturing and fluid flow makes the meso-scale DEM simulations necessary, as these methods have substantial advantages over conventional continuum mechanical models of elastic rock deformation. The challenges that must be overcome to simulate EGS reservoir stimulation, preliminary results, progress to date and near future research directions and opportunities will be discussed.

Robert Podgorney; Hai Huang; Derek Gaston

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Heat Hyperbolic Diffusion in Planck Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate the diffusion of the thermal pulse in Planck Gas. We show that the Fourier diffusion equation gives the speed of diffusion, v > c and breaks the causality of the thermal processes in Planck gas .For hyperbolic heat transport v

Miroslaw Kozlowski; Janina Marciak-Kozlowska

2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

455

Development of a new flat stationary evacuated CPC-collector for process heat applications  

SciTech Connect

For the economical supply of solar process heat at temperatures between 120 and 150 C a new non-tracking, flat, low-concentrating collector has been developed. The new collector is an edge ray collector with a concentration of 1.8 and inert gas filling, existing of parallel mounted absorber-reflector units, aligned in east-west direction. The basic concept is the integration of an absorber tube and reflectors inside a low pressure enclosure. Asymmetrical reflectors below the headers with a concentration of 0.6X provide extra radiation and prevent longitudinal radiation losses. To suppress heat losses due to gas-convection inside, air or inert gas like krypton at a pressure below 10 mbar is used. A prototype, with an aperture area of 2.0 m{sup 2}, was tested in Munich and showed efficiencies of about 50% for krypton at 0.01 bar at a temperature of 150 C with a radiation of 1000 W/m{sup 2} (900 W/m{sup 2} direct, ambient temperature 20 C). (author)

Buttinger, Frank; Beikircher, Thomas; Proell, Markus; Schoelkopf, Wolfgang [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Technology for Energy Systems and Renewable Energies, Walther-Meissner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

List of Ocean Thermal Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Incentives Thermal Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 96 Ocean Thermal Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 96) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Business Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Agricultural Commercial Industrial Utility Anaerobic Digestion Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Ocean Thermal Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Small Wind Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Tidal Energy Wave Energy Wind energy Yes CCEF - Project 150 Initiative (Connecticut) State Grant Program Connecticut Commercial Solar Thermal Electric

457

Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

459

"Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

460

Heat and Mass Transfer in a Wetted Thermal Insulation of hot Water Pipes Operating Under Flooding Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the results of numerical simulation of the thermal regimes of hot water pipes under flooding conditions with account for evaporation and diffusion ... modeling thermal regimes of hot water pipes under

V. Yu. Polovnikov; E. V. Gubina

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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