Sample records for thermal ion dispersion

  1. Thermal Ion Dispersion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy InformationOpen Energy2004) |Ion

  2. Electrostatic dispersion lenses and ion beam dispersion methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Appelhans, Anthony D. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An EDL includes a case surface and at least one electrode surface. The EDL is configured to receive through the EDL a plurality of ion beams, to generate an electrostatic field between the one electrode surface and either the case surface or another electrode surface, and to increase the separation between the beams using the field. Other than an optional mid-plane intended to contain trajectories of the beams, the electrode surface or surfaces do not exhibit a plane of symmetry through which any beam received through the EDL must pass. In addition or in the alternative, the one electrode surface and either the case surface or the other electrode surface have geometries configured to shape the field to exhibit a less abrupt entrance and/or exit field transition in comparison to another electrostatic field shaped by two nested, one-quarter section, right cylindrical electrode surfaces with a constant gap width.

  3. Thermal Stability of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    1999-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial SONY cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity in the open circuit cell condition. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC). Microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of heat generating side reactions also as a function of SOC. Components of cells were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the thermal reactivity of the individual electrodes to determine the temperature regimes and conditions of the major thermal reactions. Thermal decomposition of the SEI layer at the anodes was identified as the initiating source for thermal runaway. The cells with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes showed greater sensitivity to SOC and higher accelerating heating rates than seen for the cells with Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}cathodes. Lower temperature reactions starting as low as 40 C were also observed that were SOC dependent but not accelerating. These reactions were also measured in the microcalorimeter and observed to decay over time with a power-law dependence and are believed to result in irreversible capacity loss in the cells.

  4. Title of dissertation: Dispersion of ion gyrocenters in models of anisotropic plasma turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: Dispersion of ion gyrocenters in models of anisotropic plasma Department of Physics Turbulent dispersion of ion gyrocenters in a magnetized plasma is studied gradient, the focus is on transport parallel to the shear flow. The prescribed flow produces strongly

  5. Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

  6. Thermal boundary layer development in dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Lawrence M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersed flow film boiling consists of a dispersion of droplets which are carried over a very hot surface by their vapor. This process occurs in cryogenic equipment and wet steam turbines. It is also of interest in the ...

  7. Thermal non-equilibrium in dispersed flow film boiling in a vertical tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forslund, Robert Paul

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The departure from thermal equilibrium between a dispersed liquid phase and its vapor at high quality during film boiling is investigated, The departure from equilibruim is manifested by the high resistance to heat transfer ...

  8. Thermal conductivity studies of metal dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in water and ethylene glycol based nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Neetu; Ramaprabhu, S. [Department of Physics, Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL), Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High thermal conducting metal nanoparticles have been dispersed on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) outer surface. Structural and morphological characterizations of metal dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using x-ray diffraction analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nanofluids have been synthesized using metal-MWNTs in de-ionized water (DI water) and ethylene glycol (EG) base fluids. It has been observed that nanofluids maintain the same sequence of thermal conductivity as that of metal nanoparticles Ag-MWNTs>Au-MWNTs>Pd-MWNTs. A maximum enhancement of 37.3% and 11.3% in thermal conductivity has been obtained in Ag-MWNTs nanofluid with DI water and EG as base fluids, respectively, at a volume fraction of 0.03%. Temperature dependence study also shows enhancement of thermal conductivity with temperature.

  9. Dispersion relation approach to sub-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzin, V.L.M.; Hussein, M.S.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the conditions under which the dispersion relation technique, extensively employed in the context of elastic scattering, can be used in the analysis of heavy-ion fusion reactions. General unitarity defect arguments are used for this purpose. With the aid of an inverse dispersion relation, which gives the imaginary part of the fusion inclusive polarization potential in terms of the principal part integral involving the real part of the inclusive polarization potential, the sub-barrier fusion of heavy ions is discussed. The system /sup 16/O+/sup A/Sm is taken as an example.

  10. Dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol-based nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palabiyik, Ibrahim; Witharana, Sanjeeva; Ding, Yulong; 10.1007/s11051-011-0485-x

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol based nanofluids containing Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles were studied in the temperature range of 20 to 80 {\\deg}C. Nanofluids with different concentrations of nanoparticles were formulated by the two-step method without use of dispersants. In contrast to the common belief the average particle size of nanofluids was observed to decrease with increasing temperature. The nanofluids showed excellent stability over the temperature range of interest. Thermal conductivity enhancement for both of studied nanofluids was a non-linear function of concentration while was temperature independent. Theoretical analyses were performed using existing models and comparisons were made with experimental results. The model based on the aggregation theory appears to yield the best fit. Keywords: Nanofluids, Propylene glycol, Alumina nanoparticles, Titania nanoparticles, Thermal conductivity, Dispersion stability.

  11. Dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol-based nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim Palabiyik; Zenfira Musina; Sanjeeva Witharana; Yulong Ding

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol based nanofluids containing Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles were studied in the temperature range of 20 to 80 {\\deg}C. Nanofluids with different concentrations of nanoparticles were formulated by the two-step method without use of dispersants. In contrast to the common belief the average particle size of nanofluids was observed to decrease with increasing temperature. The nanofluids showed excellent stability over the temperature range of interest. Thermal conductivity enhancement for both of studied nanofluids was a non-linear function of concentration while was temperature independent. Theoretical analyses were performed using existing models and comparisons were made with experimental results. The model based on the aggregation theory appears to yield the best fit. Keywords: Nanofluids, Propylene glycol, Alumina nanoparticles, Titania nanoparticles, Thermal conductivity, Dispersion stability.

  12. Development of a thermal ionizer as ion catcher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Traykov; U. Dammalapati; S. De; O. C. Dermois; L. Huisman; K. Jungmann; W. Kruithof; A. J. Mol; C. J. G. Onderwater; A. Rogachevskiy; M. da Silva e Silva; M. Sohani; O. Versolato; L. Willmann; H. W. Wilschut

    2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An effective ion catcher is an important part of a radioactive beam facility that is based on in-flight production. The catcher stops fast radioactive products and emits them as singly charged slow ions. Current ion catchers are based on stopping in He and H$_2$ gas. However, with increasing intensity of the secondary beam the amount of ion-electron pairs created eventually prevents the electromagnetic extraction of the radioactive ions from the gas cell. In contrast, such limitations are not present in thermal ionizers used with the ISOL production technique. Therefore, at least for alkaline and alkaline earth elements, a thermal ionizer should then be preferred. An important use of the TRI$\\mu$P facility will be for precision measurements using atom traps. Atom trapping is particularly possible for alkaline and alkaline earth isotopes. The facility can produce up to 10$^9$ s$^{-1}$ of various Na isotopes with the in-flight method. Therefore, we have built and tested a thermal ionizer. An overview of the operation, design, construction, and commissioning of the thermal ionizer for TRI$\\mu$P will be presented along with first results for $^{20}$Na and $^{21}$Na.

  13. Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1999-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades.

  14. Supplementary information : Probing thermal expansion of graphene and modal dispersion at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    Supplementary information : Probing thermal expansion of graphene and modal dispersion at low-temperature using graphene NEMS resonators Vibhor Singh1 , Shamashis Sengupta1 , Hari S. Solanki1 , Rohan Dhall1 spectroscopy of the suspended graphene devices We performed Raman spectroscopy to confirm the number of layers

  15. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To analyze the lithium ion interaction with realistic graphene surfaces, we carried out dispersion corrected DFT-D3 studies on graphene with common point defects and chemisorbed oxygen containing functional groups along with defect free graphene surface. Our study reveals that, the interaction between lithium ion (Li+) and graphene is mainly through the delocalized ? electron of pure graphene layer. However, the oxygen containing functional groups pose high adsorption energy for lithium ion due to the Li-O ionic bond formation. Similarly, the point defect groups interact with lithium ion through possible carbon dangling bonds and/or cation-? type interactions. Overall these defect sites render a preferential site for lithium ions compared with pure graphene layer. Based on these findings, the role of graphene surface defects in lithium battery performance were discussed.

  16. Ion thermal double layers in a pair-ion warm magnetized plasma containing charged dust impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Shamy, E. F. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta El-Gedida 34517 (Egypt); El-Bedwehy, N. A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta El-Gedida 34517 (Egypt)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the formation and the dynamics of ion thermal double layers (ITDLs) in a magnetized plasma, composed of positive and negative ions as well as a fraction of stationary charged (positive or negative) dust impurities have been studied. Using plasma hydrodynamics and Poisson equations for the two ion species, a modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation has been derived. The effects of the external magnetic field, the concentration of charged dust impurities, and the negative to positive ion temperature ratio on the ITDLs structure are investigated.

  17. Thermal evolution of microstructure in ion-irradiated GaN. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    evolution of microstructure in ion-irradiated GaN. Thermal evolution of microstructure in ion-irradiated GaN. Abstract: The thermal evolution of the microstructure created by...

  18. Energy time dispersion of a new class of magnetospheric ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Energy time dispersion of a new class of magnetospheric ion events observed near the Earth's bow of several energetic (³35 keV) ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock by the CCE/AMPTE and IMP-7 responsible for the detection of this new type of near bow shock magnetospheric ion events. The new class

  19. Thermal characterization of Li-ion cells using calorimetric techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial Sony cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC), microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of thermal output, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal reactivity of the individual components. Thermal decomposition of the anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer occurred at low temperatures and contributes to the initiation of thermal runaway. Low temperature reactions from 40 C--70 C were observed during the ARC runs that were SOC dependent. These reactions measured in the microcalorimeter decayed over time with power-law dependence and were highly sensitive to SOC and temperature. ARC runs of aged and cycled cells showed complete absence of these low-temperature reactions but showed abrupt exothermic spikes between 105--135 C. These results suggest that during aging the anode SEI layer is decomposing from a metastable state to a stable composition that is breaking down at elevated temperatures.

  20. Confined Thermal Multicharged Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, David A.; Kravis, S. D.; Sellin, I. A.; Levin, J. C.; Short, R. T.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the accelerated schedule publication is not delayed for receipt of corrections unless requested by the author or noted by the editor Confined thermal multlcharged lons produced by synchrotron radiation D. A. Church and S. D. Kravis Physics Department, Texas... M. Meron, B. M. Johnson, and K. W. Jones Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (Received 2 April 1987) Synchrotron x rays have been used to produce a confined multicharged ion gas near room tem- perature. Comparison of charge-state-number...

  1. An analytical electro-thermal model for Lithium-ion Maryam Yazdanpour*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    An analytical electro-thermal model for Lithium-ion Batteries Maryam Yazdanpour* , Peyman Taheri with lithium-ion chemistry are the preferred candidate to power hybrid and electric vehicles (HEVs), due (around 5% per month), and long cycling life [1]. Nonetheless, thermal management of large-scale lithium-ion

  2. Spectral properties of quarks above Tc -- thermal mass, dispersion relation, and self-energy --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masakiyo Kitazawa

    2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral properties of quarks above the critical temperature for deconfinement are analyzed in quenched lattice QCD on lattices of size 128^3x16. We study quark spectral function in energy and momentum space, focusing on the values of the thermal mass and the dispersion relations of normal and plasmino modes at nonzero momentum, as well as their spatial volume dependence. Our numerical result suggests that the dispersion relation of the plasmino mode has a minimum at nonzero momentum even near the critical temperature. The quark self-energy is also analyzed by using the analyticy of the inverse propagator, which is found to be consistent with the spectral function estimated by the two-pole ansatz.

  3. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  4. Effect of CNTs dispersion on the thermal and mechanical properties of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhsan, Ali Samer, E-mail: alisameer2007@gmail.com, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: alisameer2007@gmail.com, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Puteri Sri Melor Megat Bt, E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) (Malaysia); Mohamed, Norani M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia); Raza, M. Rafi, E-mail: rafirazamalik@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Modified technique of metal injection molding (MIM) was used to fabricate multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced Cu nanocomposites. The effect of adding different amount of CNTs (0-10 vol.%) on the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the fabricated nanocomposites is presented. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed homogenous dispersion of CNTs in Cu matrices at different CNTs contents. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites showed extraordinary increase (76% higher than pure sintered Cu) with addition of 10 vol.% CNTs. As compared to the pure sintered Cu, increase in modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) of Cu/CNTs nanocomposites sintered at 1050°C for 2.5 h was measured to be 48%. However, in case of 7.5 vol.% CNTs, Young's modulus was increased significantly about 51% compared to that of pure sintered Cu.

  5. Thermal Abuse Modeling of Li-Ion Cells and Propagation in Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) continue to explore thermal abuse behaviors of Li-ion cells and modules that are affected by local conditions of heat and materials; (2) use the 3D Li-ion battery thermal abuse 'reaction' model developed for cells to explore the impact of the location of internal short, its heating rate, and thermal properties of the cell; (3) continue to understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-ion cells and modules; and (4) explore the use of the developed methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-ion battery systems.

  6. Dispersion retrieval from multi-level ultra-deep reactive-ion-etched microstructures for terahertz slow-wave circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baik, Chan-Wook, E-mail: cw.baik@samsung.com; Young Ahn, Ho; Kim, Yongsung; Lee, Jooho; Hong, Seogwoo; Hee Choi, Jun; Kim, Sunil; Hun Lee, Sang; Min Kim, Jong; Hwang, Sungwoo [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yeon Jun, So; Yu, SeGi [Department of Physics, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lawrence Ives, R. [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, California 94404-1010 (United States)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-level microstructure is proposed for terahertz slow-wave circuits, with dispersion relation retrieved by scattering parameter measurements. The measured return loss shows strong resonances above the cutoff with negligible phase shifts compared with finite element analysis. Splitting the circuit into multi levels enables a low aspect ratio configuration that alleviates the loading effect of deep-reactive-ion etching on silicon wafers. This makes it easier to achieve flat-etched bottom and smooth sidewall profiles. The dispersion retrieved from the measurement, therefore, corresponds well to the theoretical estimation. The result provides a straightforward way to the precise determination of dispersions in terahertz vacuum electronics.

  7. Shear flow effects on ion thermal transport in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Dong, J.Q. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Institute for Fusion Studies; Kishimoto, Y. [JAERI (Japan). Naka Fusion Research

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From various laboratory and numerical experiments, there is clear evidence that under certain conditions the presence of sheared flows in a tokamak plasma can significantly reduce the ion thermal transport. In the presence of plasma fluctuations driven by the ion temperature gradient, the flows of energy and momentum parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are coupled with each other. This coupling manifests itself as significant off-diagonal coupling coefficients that give rise to new terms for anomalous transport. The authors derive from the gyrokinetic equation a set of velocity moment equations that describe the interaction among plasma turbulent fluctuations, the temperature gradient, the toroidal velocity shear, and the poloidal flow in a tokamak plasma. Four coupled equations for the amplitudes of the state variables radially extended over the transport region by toroidicity induced coupling are derived. The equations show bifurcations from the low confinement mode without sheared flows to high confinement mode with substantially reduced transport due to strong shear flows. Also discussed is the reduced version with three state variables. In the presence of sheared flows, the radially extended coupled toroidal modes driven by the ion temperature gradient disintegrate into smaller, less elongated vortices. Such a transition to smaller spatial correlation lengths changes the transport from Bohm-like to gyrobohm-like. The properties of these equations are analyzed. The conditions for the improved confined regime are obtained as a function of the momentum-energy deposition rates and profiles. The appearance of a transport barrier is a consequence of the present theory.

  8. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas with non-thermal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most studies on dusty plasmas have assumed that electrons and ions follow Maxwellian distributions. However, in the presence of energetic ions, the distribution of ions tends to be non-Maxwellian. It is shown here that the existence of non-thermal ions would increase the phase velocity of a dust-acoustic wave. It is also found that the change in the phase velocity profoundly affects the characteristics of a dust-acoustic solitary wave.

  9. Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients following an interruption of flow to the column were calculated. The transient calculations were terminated after the maximum resin bed temperature reached the Technical Standard of 60 C, which was set to prevent significant resin degradation. The LANL column differs from the FWR column in that it has a significantly smaller radius, 3.73 cm nominal versus approximately 28 cm. It follows that natural convection removes heat much more effectively from the LANL column, so that the column may reach thermal equilibrium. Consequently, the calculations for a flow interruption were extended until an approach to thermal equilibrium was observed. The LANL ion exchange process also uses a different resin than was used in the FWR column. The LANL column uses Reillex HPQ{trademark} resin, which is more resistant to attack by nitric acid than the Ionac 641{trademark} resin used in the FWR column. Heat generation from the resin oxidation reaction with nitric acid is neglected in this analysis since LANL will be treating the resin to remove the LTE prior to loading the resin in the columns. Calculations were performed using a finite difference computer code, which incorporates models for absorption and elution of plutonium and for forced and natural convection within the resin bed. Calculations for normal column operation during loading were performed using an initial temperature and a feed temperature equal to the ambient air temperature. The model for the normal flow calculations did not include natural convection within the resin bed. The no flow calculations were started with the temperature and concentration profiles at the end of the loading stage, when there would be a maximum amount of plutonium either adsorbed on the resin or in the feed solution in the column.

  10. Analysis of Heat Dissipation in Li-Ion Cells & Modules for Modeling of Thermal Runaway (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study are: (1) To develop 3D Li-Ion battery thermal abuse ''reaction'' models for cell and module analysis; (2) To understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-Ion cells and modules; (3) To develop a tool and methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems for PHEVs/HEVs; and (4) To help battery developers accelerate delivery of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems in support of the FreedomCAR's Energy Storage Program.

  11. THERMAL MODELING OF ION EXCHANGE COLUMNS WITH SPHERICAL RF RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal performance of RF columns fully loaded with radioactive cesium. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated during Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process upset conditions with a focus on implementation at Hanford. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results will provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on RF. The current full-scale design for the SCIX system includes a central cooling tube, and one objective of these calculations was to examine its elimination to simplify the design. Results confirmed that a column design without a central cooling tube is feasible for RF, allowing for the possibility of significant design simplifications if it can be assumed that the columns are always filled with liquid. With active cooling through the four outer tubes, the maximum column diameter expected to maintain the temperature below the assumed media and safety limits is 26 inches, which is comparable to the current design diameter. Additional analysis was conducted to predict the maximum column temperatures for the previously unevaluated accident scenario involving inadvertent drainage of liquid from a cesium-saturated column, with retention of the ion exchange media and cesium in the column. As expected, much higher maximum temperatures are observed in this case due to the poor heat transfer properties of air versus liquid. For this hypothetical accident scenario involving inadvertent and complete drainage of liquid from a cesium-saturated column, the modeling results indicate that the maximum temperature within a 28 inch diameter RF column with external cooling is expected to exceed 250 C within 2 days, while the maximum temperature of a 12 inch column is maintained below 100 C. In addition, the calculation results demonstrate that the cooling tube system external to an air-filled column is not highly effective at reducing the maximum temperature, but the baseline design using a central cooling tube inside the column provides sufficient cooling to maintain the maximum temperature near the assumed safety limit.

  12. Effective versus ion thermal temperatures in the Weizmann Ne Z-pinch: Modeling and stagnation physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroupp, Eyal

    Effective versus ion thermal temperatures in the Weizmann Ne Z-pinch: Modeling and stagnation of Technology, Haifa, Israel 5 National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89144, USA (Received 23 thermal and effective temperatures is investigated through simulations of the Ne gas puff z-pinch reported

  13. Confined Thermal Multicharged Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, David A.; Kravis, S. D.; Sellin, I. A.; Levin, J. C.; Short, R. T.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy transfer. We have used the "white" radiation on the X- 26C beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory to generate multicharged argon ions in a Penning ion trap, using pro- posed methods designed... M. Meron, B. M. Johnson, and K. W. Jones Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (Received 2 April 1987) Synchrotron x rays have been used to produce a confined multicharged ion gas near room tem- perature. Comparison of charge...

  14. Thermally Fluctuating Second-Order Viscous Hydrodynamics and Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Young; J. I. Kapusta; C. Gale; S. Jeon; B. Schenke

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The fluctuation-dissipation theorem requires the presence of thermal noise in viscous fluids. The time and length scales of heavy ion collisions are small enough so that the thermal noise can have a measurable effect on observables. Thermal noise is included in numerical simulations of high energy lead-lead collisions, increasing average values of the momentum eccentricity and contributing to its event by event fluctuations.

  15. An Efficient ElectrochemicalThermal Model for a Lithium-Ion Cell by Using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    simulation studies have been conducted to character- ize the thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries of equations. Smith and Wang12 applied a lumped thermal model in their simula- tion of a lithium-ion battery was locally averaged. Starting from the first principles- based electrochemical model7,8 for a lithium-ion

  16. Effective versus ion thermal temperatures in the Weizmann Ne Z-pinch: Modeling and stagnation physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Dasgupta, A.; Velikovich, A. L.; Chong, Y. K.; Mehlhorn, T. A. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kroupp, E.; Osin, D.; Maron, Y.; Starobinets, A.; Fisher, V.; Zarnitsky, Yu.; Bernshtam, V. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)] [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Apruzese, J. P. [Consultant to NRL through Engility Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)] [Consultant to NRL through Engility Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States); Fisher, A. [Falculty of Physics, Technion-Israeli Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)] [Falculty of Physics, Technion-Israeli Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Deeney, C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89144 (United States)] [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89144 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The difference between the ion thermal and effective temperatures is investigated through simulations of the Ne gas puff z-pinch reported by Kroupp et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 105001 (2011)]. Calculations are performed using a 2D, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic code with Tabular Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium, namely Mach2-TCRE [Thornhill et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 3480 (2001)]. The extensive data set of imaging and K-shell spectroscopy from the experiments provides a challenging validation test for z-pinch simulations. Synthetic visible images of the implosion phase match the observed large scale structure if the breakdown occurs at the density corresponding to the Paschen minimum. At the beginning of stagnation (?4?ns), computed plasma conditions change rapidly showing a rising electron density and a peak in the ion thermal temperature of ?1.8?keV. This is larger than the ion thermal temperature (<400?eV) inferred from the experiment. By the time of peak K-shell power (0?ns), the calculated electron density is similar to the data and the electron and ion thermal temperatures are equilibrated, as is observed. Effective ion temperatures are obtained from calculated emission line widths accounting for thermal broadening and Doppler velocity shifts. The observed, large effective ion temperatures (?4?keV) early in the stagnation of this Ne pinch can be explained solely as a combination of compressional ion heating and steep radial velocity gradients near the axis. Approximations in the modeling are discussed in regard to the higher ion thermal temperature and lower electron density early in the stagnation compared to the experimental results.

  17. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P.; Bellei, C.; Wilks, S.; Delettrez, J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in D3He-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and 3He populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, as predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.

  18. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A,; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; et al

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in DHe3-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and He3 populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, asmore »predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.« less

  19. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rosenberg, M. J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Hoffman, N. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kagan, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sio, H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A, [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellei, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilks, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Delettrez, J. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Glebov, V. Yu. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in DHe3-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and He3 populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, as predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.

  20. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rosenberg, M. J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Hoffman, N. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kagan, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sio, H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A, [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellei, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilks, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Delettrez, J. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Glebov, V. Yu. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in DHe3-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and He3 populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, as predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.

  1. Sheath formation criterion in magnetized electronegative plasmas with thermal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatami, M. M. [Physics Department of K N Toosi University of Technology, 15418-49611 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Physics Department and Laser-Plasma Research Institute of Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Taking into account the effect of collisions and positive ion temperatures, the sheath formation criterion is investigated in a weakly magnetized electronegative plasma consisting of electrons, negative and positive ions by using the hydrodynamics equations. It is assumed that the electron and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with two different temperatures. Also, it is assumed that the velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge is not normal to the wall (oblique entrance). Our results show that a sheath region will be formed when the initial velocity of positive ions or the ion Mach number M lies in a specific interval with particular upper and lower limits. Also, it is shown that the presence of the magnetic field affects both of these limits. Moreover, as an practical application, the density distribution of charged particles in the sheath region is studied for an allowable value of M, and it is seen that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when M lies between two above mentioned limits.

  2. Bohm's criterion in a collisional magnetized plasma with thermal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatami, M. M. [Department of Physics, K N Toosi University of Technology, 15418-49611 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Department of Physics and Laser-Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the hydrodynamic model and considering a planar geometry, the modified Bohm's sheath criterion is investigated in a magnetized, collisional plasma consisting of electron and positive ions with finite temperature. It is assumed that the singly charged positive ions enter into the sheath region obliquely, i.e., their velocity at the sheath edge is not normal to the wall, and the electron densities obey Boltzmann relations. It is shown that there are both upper and lower limit for the Bohm entrance velocity of ions in this case and both of these limits depend on the magnitude and direction of the applied magnetic field. To determine the accuracy of our derived generalized Bohm's criterion, it reduced to some familiar physical condition. Also, using this generalized Bohm's criterion, the behavior of the electron and positive ion density distributions are studied in the sheath region.

  3. anomalous ion thermal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv) Summary: The heavy ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a...

  4. Dispersion engineering of high-Q silicon microresonators via thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Wei C. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Zhang, Jidong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Usechak, Nicholas G. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Lin, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.lin@rochester.edu [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and demonstrate a convenient and sensitive technique for precise engineering of group-velocity dispersion in high-Q silicon microresonators. By accurately controlling the surface-oxidation thickness of silicon microdisk resonators, we are able to precisely manage the zero-dispersion wavelength, while simultaneously further improving the high optical quality of our devices, with the optical Q close to a million. The demonstrated dispersion management allows us to achieve parametric generation with precisely engineerable emission wavelengths, which shows great potential for application in integrated silicon nonlinear and quantum photonics.

  5. Dispersion engineering of high-Q silicon microresonators via thermal oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Wei C; Usechak, Nicholas G; Lin, Qiang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and demonstrate a convenient and sensitive technique for precise engineering of group-velocity dispersion in high-Q silicon microresonators. By accurately controlling the surface-oxidation thickness of silicon microdisk resonators, we are able to precisely manage the zero-dispersion wavelength while simultaneously further improving the high optical quality of our devices, with the optical Q close to a million. The demonstrated dispersion management allows us to achieve parametric generation with precisely engineerable emission wavelengths, which shows great potential for application in integrated silicon nonlinear and quantum photonics.

  6. First Results of Scanning Thermal Diffusivity Microscope (STDM) Measurements on Irradiated Monolithic and Dispersion Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. K. Huber; M. K. Figg; J. R. Kennedy; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity of the fuel material in a reactor before and during irradiation is a sensitive and fundamental parameter for thermal hydraulic calculations that are useds to correctly determine fuel heat fluxes and meat temperatures and to simulate performance of the fuel elements during operation. Several techniques have been developed to measure the thermal properties of fresh fuel to support these calculations, but it is crucial to also investigate the change of thermal properties during irradiation.

  7. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Bandhauer, Todd (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Garimella, Srinivas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  8. The ion experiment onboard the Interball-Aurora satellite; initial results on velocity-dispersed structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The ion experiment onboard the Interball-Aurora satellite; initial results on velocity / Accepted: 10 March 1998 Abstract. The Toulouse ION experiment ¯own on the Russian Interball-Aurora mission perform measurements in the energy range $10 eV±20 000 eV. The Interball- Aurora spacecraft was launched

  9. Effect of implanted species on thermal evolution of ion-induced defects in ZnO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azarov, A. Yu.; Rauwel, P.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G. [Department of Physics, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Hallén, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-ICT, Electrum 229, SE-164 40, Kista, Stockholm (Sweden); Du, X. L. [Institute of Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Implanted atoms can affect the evolution of ion-induced defects in radiation hard materials exhibiting a high dynamic annealing and these processes are poorly understood. Here, we study the thermal evolution of structural defects in wurtzite ZnO samples implanted at room temperature with a wide range of ion species (from {sup 11}B to {sup 209}Bi) to ion doses up to 2?×?10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?2}. The structural disorder was characterized by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, while secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to monitor the behavior of both the implanted elements and residual impurities, such as Li. The results show that the damage formation and its thermal evolution strongly depend on the ion species. In particular, for F implanted samples, a strong out-diffusion of the implanted ions results in an efficient crystal recovery already at 600?°C, while co-implantation with B (via BF{sub 2}) ions suppresses both the F out-diffusion and the lattice recovery at such low temperatures. The damage produced by heavy ions (such as Cd, Au, and Bi) exhibits a two-stage annealing behavior where efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters occurs at temperatures ?500?°C, while the second stage is characterized by a gradual and partial annealing of extended defects. These defects can persist even after treatment at 900?°C. In contrast, the defects produced by light and medium mass ions (O, B, and Zn) exhibit a more gradual annealing with increasing temperature without distinct stages. In addition, effects of the implanted species may lead to a nontrivial defect evolution during the annealing, with N, Ag, and Er as prime examples. In general, the obtained results are interpreted in terms of formation of different dopant-defect complexes and their thermal stability.

  10. Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4- Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model of LiFePO4-graphite based Li-ion batteries is developed for battery management system (BMS) applications and comprehensive aging investigations. Based on a modified

  11. Cavitation and thermal photon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jitesh R. Bhatt; Hiranmaya Mishra; V. Sreekanth

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermal photon production-rates using one dimensional boost-invariant second order relativistic hydrodynamics to find proper time evolution of the energy density and the temperature. The effect of bulk-viscosity and non-ideal equation of state are taken into account in a manner consistent with recent lattice QCD estimates. It is shown that the \\textit{non-ideal} gas equation of state i.e $\\epsilon-3 P \

  12. Turbulent thermalization process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jürgen Berges; Björn Schenke; Sören Schlichting; Raju Venugopalan

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the onset of the thermalization process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions from a weak coupling perspective, using classical-statistical real-time lattice simulations as a first principles tool to study the pre-equilibrium dynamics. Most remarkably, we find that the thermalization process is governed by a universal attractor, where the space-time evolution of the plasma becomes independent of the initial conditions and exhibits the self-similar dynamics characteristic of wave turbulence. We discuss the consequences of our weak coupling results for the thermalization process in heavy-ion experiments and briefly comment on the use of weak coupling techniques at larger values of the coupling.

  13. A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries: Power of a commercial LiFePO4-graphite Li-ion battery. Compared to the isothermal reference, the mechanism of porosity;2 Due to their high power and energy densities, Li-ion technologies are the leading battery systems

  14. Stability of nanoclusters in 14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened steel under heavy ion-irradiation by atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianchao He; Farong Wan; Kumar Sridharan; Todd R. Allen; A. Certain; V. Shutthanandan; Y.Q. Wu

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was irradiated with of 5 MeV Ni2+ ions, at 300 C, 450 C, and 600 C to a damage level of 100 dpa. The stability of Ti–Y–O nanoclusters was investigated by applying atom probe tomography (APT) in voltage mode, of the samples before and after irradiations. The average size and number density of the nanoclusters was determined using the maximum separation method. These techniques allowed for the imaging of nanoclusters to sizes well below the resolution limit of conventional transmission electron microscopy techniques. The most significant changes were observed for samples irradiated at 300 C where the size (average Guinier radius) and number density of nanoclusters were observed to decrease from 1.1 nm to 0.8 nm and 12 1023 to 3.6 1023, respectively. In this study, the nanoclusters are more stable at higher temperature.

  15. Stability Of Nanoclusters In 14YWT Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Under Heavy Ion-irradiation By Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Jianchao; Wan, F.; Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd R.; Certain, Alicia G.; Shutthanandan, V.; Wu, Yaqiao

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was irradiated with of 5 MeV Ni2+ ions, at 300 °C, 450 °C, and 600 °C to a damage level of 100 dpa. The stability of Ti–Y–O nanoclusters was investigated by applying atom probe tomography (APT) in voltage mode, of the samples before and after irradiations. The average size and number density of the nanoclusters was determined using the maximum separation method. These techniques allowed for the imaging of nanoclusters to sizes well below the resolution limit of conventional transmission electron microscopy techniques. The most significant changes were observed for samples irradiated at 300 °C where the size (average Guinier radius) and number density of nanoclusters were observed to decrease from 1.1 nm to 0.8 nm and 12 × 1023 to 3.6 × 1023, respectively. In this study, the nanoclusters are more stable at higher temperature.

  16. Kaon dispersion relation and flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ba; Ko, Che Ming.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The average transverse momentum of kaons in the re- action plane for Au1Au reactions at Pbeam /A5 4 GeV/c ~upper window! and 12 GeV/c ~lower window! at impact parameters less than 4 fm. The open ~filled! circles are the results obtained with ~without... and azimuthal angle distributions. We find that th studying the kaon dispersion relation in dense medium PACS number~s!: 25.75.Ld, 13.75.Jz, 21.65.1f The properties of a kaon in the extremely hot and dense enviroment created in relativistic heavy...

  17. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Water with Surfactant Encapsulated and Individualized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    experimentally using a transient hot wire technique at room temperature. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs] Maruyama.S, Kojima.R, Miyauchi.Y, Chiashi.S, Kohno.M, Low temperature synthesis of high purity singleEnhanced Thermal Conductivity of Water with Surfactant Encapsulated and Individualized Single

  18. Thermal Ion Dispersion At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy InformationOpen Energy2004) |

  19. Dispersion coefficients for the interactions of the alkali and alkaline-earth ions and inert gas atoms with a graphene layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Sahoo, B K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Largely motivated by a number of applications, the van der Waals dispersion coefficients ($C_3$s) of the alkali ions (Li$^+$, Na$^+$, K$^+$ and Rb$^+$), the alkaline-earth ions (Ca$^+$, Sr$^+$, Ba$^+$ and Ra$^+$) and the inert gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar and Kr) with a graphene layer are determined precisely within the framework of Dirac model. For these calculations, we have evaluated the dynamic polarizabilities of the above atomic systems very accurately by evaluating the transition matrix elements employing relativistic many-body methods and using the experimental values of the excitation energies. The dispersion coefficients are, finally, given as functions of the separation distance of an atomic system from the graphene layer and the ambiance temperature during the interactions. For easy extraction of these coefficients, we give a logistic fit to the functional forms of the dispersion coefficients in terms of the separation distances at the room temperature.

  20. Experimental Study of the Thermal-Hydraulic Phenomena in the Reactor Cavity Cooling System and Analysis of the Effects of Graphite Dispersion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaghetto, Rodolfo

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental activity was performed to observe and study the effects of graphite dispersion and deposition on thermal hydraulic phenomena in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The small scale RCCS experimental facility (16.5cm x 16.5cm x 30...

  1. NON-THERMAL RESPONSE OF THE CORONA TO THE MAGNETIC FLUX DISPERSAL IN THE PHOTOSPHERE OF A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harra, L. K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Abramenko, V. I. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyzed Solar Dynamics Observatory line-of-sight magnetograms for a decaying NOAA active region (AR) 11451 along with co-temporal Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data from the Hinode spacecraft. The photosphere was studied via time variations of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity coefficient, {eta}(t), and the magnetic power spectrum index, {alpha}, through analysis of magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). These measure the intensity of the random motions of magnetic elements and the state of turbulence of the magnetic field, respectively. The time changes of the non-thermal energy release in the corona was explored via histogram analysis of the non-thermal velocity, v {sub nt}, in order to highlight the largest values at each time, which may indicate an increase in energy release in the corona. We used the 10% upper range of the histogram of v {sub nt} (which we called V {sup upp} {sub nt}) of the coronal spectral line of Fe XII 195 A. A 2 day time interval was analyzed from HMI data, along with the EIS data for the same field of view. Our main findings are the following. (1) The magnetic turbulent diffusion coefficient, {eta}(t), precedes the upper range of the v {sub nt} with the time lag of approximately 2 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.76. (2) The power-law index, {alpha}, of the magnetic power spectrum precedes V {sup upp} {sub nt} with a time lag of approximately 3 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.5. The data show that the magnetic flux dispersal in the photosphere is relevant to non-thermal energy release dynamics in the above corona. The results are consistent with the nanoflare mechanism of the coronal heating, due to the time lags being consistent with the process of heating and cooling the loops heated by nanoflares.

  2. Thermal stability of LiPF6EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries Gerardine G. Bottea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal stability of LiPF6±EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries Gerardine G. Bottea , Ralph study of the LiPF6±EC:EMC electrolyte. The effect of different variables on its thermal stability was evaluated: salt (LiPF6) concentration effect, solvents, EC:EMC ratios, and heating rates. Hermetically

  3. Pseudo-Critical Enhancement of Thermal Photons in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrik van Hees; Min He; Ralf Rapp

    2014-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the spectra and elliptic flow of thermal photons emitted in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (URHICs) at RHIC and LHC. The thermal emission rates are taken from complete leading-order rates for the QGP and hadronic many-body calculations including baryons and antibaryons, as well as meson-exchange reactions (including Bremsstrahlung). We first update previous thermal fireball calculations by implementing a lattice-QCD based equation of state and extend them to compare to recent LHC data. We then scrutinize the space-time evolution of Au-Au collisions at RHIC by employing an ideal hydrodynamic model constrained by bulk- and multistrange-hadron spectra and elliptic flow, including a non-vanishing initial flow. We systematically compare the evolutions of temperature, radial flow, azimuthal anisotropy and four-volume, and exhibit the temperature profile of thermal photon radiation. Based on these insights, we put forward a scenario with a "pseudo-critical enhancement" of thermal emission rates, and investigate its impact on RHIC and LHC direct photon data.

  4. Interplay of the emission from thermal and direct sources in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piotr Bozek

    2008-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of the source created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions into a thermalized dense core and an outer mantle consisting of independent nucleon-nucleon collisions is discussed. Evidence for such a two component picture is found in transverse mass spectra of kaon, protons and antiprotons produced in Au-Au collisions at 200GeV. Estimates of the sizes of the thermal and direct sources are compared to models separating the interaction zone into a core and a corona, according to the density of participants or to the number of collisions. Consequences for the modeling of the dynamics of the small size, thermalized core are described. New initial conditions corresponding to the dense core lead to a stronger azimuthal asymmetry of the hydrodynamically expanding fireball, pressure gradients also increase. 2+1-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are presented starting from all the matter in the interaction region or from the dense, thermal part of the source. We find faster transverse expansion and stronger elliptic flow for dense core initial conditions. For different impact parameters we find very similar spectra of the thermal part of the source and only adding particles emitted directly from nucleon-nucleon collisions in the corona the experimentally observed softening of the spectra with increasing impact parameter is reproduced. The elliptic flow is stronger for particles emitted from a source separated into a core and a corona.

  5. Gallium ion implantation greatly reduces thermal conductivity and enhances electronic one of ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Minggang, E-mail: xiamg@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Nanostructure and its Physics Properties, Department of Optical Information Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, and MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 China (China); Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Cheng, Zhaofang; Han, Jinyun; Zhang, Shengli [Laboratory of Nanostructure and its Physics Properties, Department of Optical Information Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, and MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 China (China); Zheng, Minrui [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Sow, Chorng-Haur [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); National University of Singapore Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Thong, John T. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Li, Baowen [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); National University of Singapore Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical and thermal conductivities are measured for individual zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with and without gallium ion (Ga{sup +}) implantation at room temperature. Our results show that Ga{sup +} implantation enhances electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude from 1.01 × 10{sup 3} ?{sup ?1}m{sup ?1} to 1.46 × 10{sup 4} ?{sup ?1}m{sup ?1} and reduces its thermal conductivity by one order of magnitude from 12.7 Wm{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} to 1.22 Wm{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} for ZnO nanowires of 100 nm in diameter. The measured thermal conductivities are in good agreement with those in theoretical simulation. The increase of electrical conductivity origins in electron donor doping by Ga{sup +} implantation and the decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons scattering by Ga{sup +} point scattering. For pristine ZnO nanowires, the thermal conductivity decreases only two times when its diameter reduces from 100 nm to 46 nm. Therefore, Ga{sup +}-implantation may be a more effective method than diameter reduction in improving thermoelectric performance.

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF ANISOTROPIC ION TEMPERATURES, NON-THERMAL VELOCITIES, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS IN A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, MC 5247, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)] [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, MC 5247, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new diagnostic allowing one to measure the anisotropy of ion temperatures and non-thermal velocities, as well as Doppler shifts with respect to the ambient magnetic field. This method provides new results, as well as an independent test for previous measurements obtained with other techniques. Our spectral data come from observations of a low-latitude, on-disk coronal hole. A potential field source surface model was used to calculate the angle between the magnetic field lines and the line of sight for each spatial bin of the observation. A fit was performed to determine the line widths and Doppler shifts parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For each line width component we derived ion temperatures T {sub i,} and T {sub i, Parallel-To} and non-thermal velocities v {sub nt,} and v {sub nt, Parallel-To }. T {sub i,} was cooler than off-limb polar coronal hole measurements, suggesting increasing collisional cooling with decreasing height. T {sub i, Parallel-To} is consistent with a uniform temperature of (1.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K for each ion. Since parallel ion heating is expected to be weak, this ion temperature should reflect the proton temperature. A comparison between our results and others implies a large proton temperature gradient around 1.02 R {sub Sun }. The non-thermal velocities are thought to be proportional to the amplitudes of various waves. Our results for v {sub nt,} agree with Alfven wave amplitudes inferred from off-limb polar coronal hole line width measurements. Our v {sub nt, Parallel-To} results are consistent with slow magnetosonic wave amplitudes inferred from Fourier analysis of time-varying intensity fluctuations. Doppler shift measurements yield outflows of Almost-Equal-To 5 km s{sup -1} for ions formed over a broad temperature range. This differs from other studies that found a strong Doppler shift dependence on formation temperature.

  7. Rapid thermal annealing of ion implanted 6H-SiC by microwave processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, J.A.; Rao, M.V.; Tian, Y.L. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Holland, O.W.; Roth, E.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chi, P.H. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ahmad, I. [FM Technologies, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid thermal processing utilizing microwave energy has been used to anneal N, P, and Al ion-implanted 6H-SiC. The microwaves raise the temperature of the sample at a rate of 200{degree}C/min vs 10{degree}C/min for conventional ceramic furnace annealing. Samples were annealed in the temperature range of 1400-1700{degree}C for 2-10 min. The implanted/annealed samples were characterized using van der Pauw Hall, Rutherford backscattering, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. For a given annealing temperature, the characteristics of the microwave-annealed material are similar to those of conventional furnace anneals despite the difference in cycle time. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

    2012-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

  9. Interplay of the emission from thermal and direct sources in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozek, Piotr [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PL-31342 Krakow (Poland); Institute of Physics, Rzeszow University, PL-35959 Rzeszow (Poland)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of the source created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions into a thermalized dense core and an outer mantle consisting of independent nucleon-nucleon collisions is discussed. Indications for such a two-component picture are found in the transverse mass spectra of kaons, protons, and antiprotons produced in Au-Au collisions at {radical}(s)=200 GeV. Estimates of the sizes of the thermal and direct sources are compared with models separating the interaction zone into a core and a corona. New initial conditions corresponding to the dense core lead to a stronger azimuthal asymmetry of the fireball, and pressure gradients also increase. We find faster transverse hydrodynamic expansion and stronger elliptic flow for the dense core initial conditions.

  10. Wettability and thermal stability of fluorocarbon films deposited by deep reactive ion etching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang Yanxin; Menon, Aric [MIC, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Building 345 east, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorocarbon films have low surface energy and can be used as antistiction coating for microelectromechanical systems. By using the passivation process in a deep reactive ion etcher, the fluorocarbon films can be deposited and integrated with other processes in the clean room. The properties such as wettability, surface energies, and thermal stability, have been investigated in detail. It has been found that the fluorocarbon films deposited have a static water contact angle of 109 deg. and a surface energy around 14.5 mJ/m{sup 2}, whereas as-received and as-deposited single silicon, poly silicon, and silicon nitride have a much lower water contact angle and a higher surface energy. The fluorocarbon films keep their good hydrophobicity up to 300 deg. C, and the degradation temperature depends on the thickness of the fluorocarbon films. Decomposition happens at lower temperatures (100-300 deg. C) even though the decomposition rate is quite slow without affecting the contact angle. The decomposition mechanism at low temperatures (less than 300 deg. C) might be different from that at high temperatures. It has been shown that the fluorocarbon film deposited by a deep reactive ion etcher tool provides very high hydrophobicity, low surface energy, good thermal stability, and antiadhesion behavior for use in nanoimprinting lithography.

  11. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–CNTs nanocomposites: Inorganic dispersant assisted hydrothermal synthesis and application in lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Qixun, E-mail: qxguo@xmu.edu.cn; Guo, Pengfei; Li, Juntao, E-mail: jtli@xmu.edu.cn; Yin, Hao; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Feilong; Shen, Daoxiang; Li, Ning

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–CNTs nanocomposites with a particle size of ?80 nm have been synthesized through an organic-free hydrothermal synthesis strategy by using Sn(OH){sub 6}{sup 2?} as an inorganic dispersant, and served as anode materials of lithium ion batteries. Nano-sized and micro-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} without CNTs have also been prepared for comparison. The cycle performances of the as-obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} are highly size-dependent. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–CNTs nanocomposites can deliver reversible discharge capacity of ?700 mA h/g at a current density of 50 mA/g after 50 cycles. The discharge capacity of the micro-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} decreased to 171 mA h/g after 50 cycles. Our work not only provides new insights into the inorganic dispersant assisted hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxides nanocrystals but also gives guidance for finding new nanocomposites as anode materials of lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–CNTs nanocomposites have been prepared through an inorganic dispersant assisted hydrothermal synthesis strategy, and served as anode materials of lithium ion batteries with enhanced performance. - Highlights: • Sn(OH){sub 6}{sup 2?} is a good inorganic dispersant for the hydrothermal synthesis of nano Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • The cycle performances of nano Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} anode are much better than that of micro Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} anode. • Compositing CNTs can enhance the cycle performances of nano Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} anode.

  12. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  13. Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 662673 Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 662­673 Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery pack for hybrid-electric vehicles Kandler Smith, Chao-Yang Wang Electrochemical Engine Center-electric vehicle (HEV) battery pack. Depleted/saturated active material Li surface concentrations in the negative

  14. Ageing of a granular pile induced by thermal cycling Thibaut Divoux, Ion Vassilief, Herv Gayvallet and Jean-Christophe Gminard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ageing of a granular pile induced by thermal cycling Thibaut Divoux, Ion Vassilief, Hervé Gayvallet of temperature, even of a few degrees in amplitude, induce the ageing of a granular pile. In particular, we of the pile with the number of cycles. The present contribution nicely supplements a recent article we

  15. Nuclear waste treatment - Studying the mixed ion type effects and concentration on the behaviour of oxide dispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omokanye, Qanitalillahi; Biggs, Simon [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to gain good control over a particulate dispersion it is necessary to accurately characterise the strength of inter-particle forces that may be operating. Such control is not routinely used, as yet, in the nuclear industry despite the possible benefits. We are investigating the impact of mixed electrolyte systems, for example NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, on the stability of oxide simulant particle dispersions. The electro-acoustic zeta potentials and shear yield stresses for concentrated dispersions have been measured across a range of pH conditions and electrolyte concentrations (0.001 M - 1.0 M). This paper summarizes initial data from these studies showing how the shear yield stress of concentrated aqueous oxide particle dispersions, can be adjusted through regulation of pH and the addition of background electrolytes (salt). The yield stress as a function of pH for these dispersions in mixed electrolytes showed a direct correlation with corresponding measurements of the zeta potential. Changes in the background electrolyte concentration or type were seen to cause a shift in the position of the isoelectric point (iep). Measurements of the shear yield stress showed a maximum at the iep corresponding to the position of maximum instability in the suspension. The consequences of these data for the efficient treatment of solid-liquid systems will be discussed. (authors)

  16. Thermorheological properties of nanostructured dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Jeremy B

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured dispersions, which consist of nanometer-sized particles, tubes, sheets, or droplets that are dispersed in liquids, have exhibited substantially higher thermal conductivities over those of the liquids alone. ...

  17. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. One salt processing scenario includes the transport of the loaded (and possibly ground) CST media to the treatment tank floor. Therefore, additional thermal modeling calculations were conducted using a three-dimensional approach to evaluate temperature distributions for the entire in-tank domain including distribution of the spent CST media either as a mound or a flat layer on the tank floor. These calculations included mixtures of CST with HLW sludge or loaded Monosodium Titanate (MST) media used for strontium/actinide sorption. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed (a primary heat transfer mechanism), inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The calculation results showed that for a wet CST column with active cooling through one central and four outer tubes and 35 C ambient external air, the peak temperature for the fully-loaded column is about 63 C under the loss of fluid flow accident, which is well below the supernate boiling point. The peak temperature for the naturally-cooled (no active, engineered cooling) wet column is 156 C under fully-loaded conditions, exceeding the 130 C boiling point. Under these conditions, supernate boiling would maintain the column temperature near 130 C until all supernate was vaporized. Without active engineered cooling and assuming a dry column suspended in unventilated air at 35 C, the fully-loaded column is expected to rise to a maximum of about 258 C due to the combined loss-of coolant and column drainage accidents. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. Results for the in-tank modeling calculations clearly indicate that when realistic heat transfer boundary conditions are imposed on the bottom surface of the tank wall, as much as 450 gallons of ground CST (a volume equivalent to two ion exchange processing cycles) in an ideal hemispherical shape (the most conservative geometry) can be placed in the tank without exceeding the 100 C wall temperature limit. Furthermore, in the case of an evenly-distributed flat layer, the tank wall reaches the temperature limit after the ground CST material reaches a height of approximately 8 inches.

  18. Effect of in-pile degradation of the meat thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the plate-type U-Mo dispersion fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel G. Medvedev

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of in-pile degradation of thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the plate-type research reactor fuels has been assessed using the steady-state heat conduction equation and assuming convection cooling. It was found that due to very low meat thickness, characteristic for this type of fuel, the effect of thermal conductivity degradation on the maximum fuel temperature is minor. For example, the fuel plate featuring 0.635 mm thick meat operating at heat flux of 600 W/cm2 would experience only a 20oC temperature rise if the meat thermal conductivity degrades from 0.8 W/cm-s to 0.3 W/cm-s. While degradation of meat thermal conductivity in dispersion-type U-Mo fuel can be very substantial due to formation of interaction layer between the particles and the matrix, and development of fission gas filled porosity, this simple analysis demonstrates that this phenomenon is unlikely to significantly affect the temperature-based safety margin of the fuel during normal operation.

  19. Investigation of thermal processes in one-and two-layer materials under irradiation with high-energy heavy ions within the thermal peak model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amirkhanov, I. V., E-mail: ibrohim@jinr.ru; Didyk, A. Yu.; Muzafarov, D. Z.; Puzynin, I. V.; Puzynina, T. P.; Sarker, N. R.; Sarhadov, I.; Sharipov, Z. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Laboratory of Information Technologies (Russian Federation)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of equations for the electron and lattice temperatures around and along the path of a 700-MeV heavy (uranium) ion in nickel (one-layer material) is solved numerically in the axially symmetric cylindrical coordinate system under the assumption of temperature-dependent specific heat and thermal conductivity. The obtained dependences of the lattice temperature on the radius (distance from the ion path) and depth suggest that the ionization energy loss of a 700-MeV uranium ion in nickel is sufficient to melt the material. A comparative analysis with the linear model is performed and the maximum radius and depth of the region where the target material can melt is estimated. Then, the initial system of equations is solved for the region around and along the path of a 710-MeV heavy (bismuth {sup 209}Bi) ion in the two-layer material Ni(2 {mu}m)-W with constant thermophysical parameters. The obtained dependences of the lattice temperature on the radius and depth show that the ionization energy loss of a 710-MeV bismuth ion in this two-layer material is sufficient for melting. The maximum radius and depth of the regions in the target material where phase transitions may occur are estimated.

  20. Suppression of the thermal hysteresis in magnetocaloric MnAs thin film by highly charged ion bombardment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trassinelli, Martino; Eddrief, M; Etgens, V H; Gafton, V; Hidki, S; Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Lamour, Emily; Prigent, Christophe; Rozet, Jean-Pierre; Steydli, S; Zheng, Y; Vernhet, Dominique

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the investigation on the modifications of structural and magnetic properties of MnAs thin film epitaxially grown on GaAs induced by slow highly charged ions bombardment under well-controlled conditions. The ion-induced defects facilitate the nucleation of one phase with respect to the other in the first-order magneto-structural MnAs transition with a consequent suppression of thermal hysteresis without any significant perturbation on the other structural and magnetic properties. In particular, the irradiated film keeps the giant magnetocaloric effect at room temperature opening new perspective on magnetic refrigeration technology for everyday use.

  1. Suppression of the thermal hysteresis in magnetocaloric MnAs thin film by highly charged ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trassinelli, M., E-mail: martino.trassinelli@insp.jussieu.fr; Marangolo, M.; Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V. H.; Gafton, V.; Hidki, S.; Lacaze, E.; Lamour, E.; Prigent, C.; Rozet, J.-P.; Steydli, S.; Zheng, Y.; Vernhet, D. [CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the investigation on the modifications of structural and magnetic properties of MnAs thin film epitaxially grown on GaAs induced by slow highly charged ions bombardment under well-controlled conditions. The ion-induced defects facilitate the nucleation of one phase with respect to the other in the first-order magneto-structural MnAs transition, with a consequent suppression of thermal hysteresis without any significant perturbation on the other structural and magnetic properties. In particular, the irradiated film keeps the giant magnetocaloric effect at room temperature opening new perspective on magnetic refrigeration technology for everyday use.

  2. Exact evaluation of the rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic decay of Langmuir waves into Langmuir and ion sound waves (L?L?+S) and scattering of Langmuir waves off thermal ions (L+i?L?+i?, also called “nonlinear Landau damping”) are important nonlinear weak-turbulence processes. The rates for these processes depend on the quadratic longitudinal response function ?{sup (2)} (or, equivalently, the quadratic longitudinal susceptibility ?{sup (2)}), which describes the second-order response of a plasma to electrostatic wave fields. Previous calculations of these rates for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma have relied upon an approximate form for ?{sup (2)} that is valid where two of the wave fields are fast (i.e., v{sub ?}=?/k?V{sub e} where ? is the angular frequency, k is the wavenumber, and V{sub e} is the electron thermal speed) and one is slow (v{sub ?}?V{sub e}). Recently, an exact expression was derived for ?{sup (2)} that is valid for any phase speeds of the three waves in an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma. Here, this exact ?{sup (2)} is applied to the calculation of the three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions, and the resulting exact rates are compared with the approximate rates. The calculations are performed using previously derived three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay given in terms of a general ?{sup (2)}, and newly derived three-dimensional rates for scattering off thermal ions; the scattering rate is derived assuming a Maxwellian ion distribution, and both rates are derived assuming arc distributions for the wave spectra. For most space plasma conditions, the approximate rate is found to be accurate to better than 20%; however, for sufficiently low Langmuir phase speeds (v{sub ?}/V{sub e}?3) appropriate to some spatial domains of the foreshock regions of planetary bow shocks and type II solar radio bursts, the use of the exact rate may be necessary for accurate calculations. The relative rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions are calculated for a range of parameters using the exact expressions for the rates; electrostatic decay is found to have the larger growth rate over the whole range of parameters, consistent with previous approximate calculations.

  3. Performance predictions for a laser intensified thermal beam for use in high resolution Focused Ion Beam instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wouters, S H W; Notermans, R P M J W; Debernardi, N; Mutsaers, P H A; Luiten, O J; Vredenbregt, E J D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photo-ionization of a laser-cooled and compressed atomic beam from a high-flux thermal source can be used to create a high-brightness ion beam for use in Focus Ion Beam (FIB) instruments. Here we show using calculations and Doppler cooling simulations that an atomic rubidium beam with a brightness of $2.1 \\times 10^7 A/(m^2\\,sr\\,eV)$ at a current of 1 nA can be created using a compact 5 cm long 2D magneto-optical compressor which is more than an order of magnitude better than the current state of the art Liquid Metal Ion Source.

  4. Thermal Stability of LiPF6 Salt and Li-ion Battery ElectrolytesContaining LiPF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of the neat LiPF6 salt and of 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line FTIR. Pure LiPF6 salt is thermally stable up to 380 K in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing LiF as solid and PF5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF6 and water vapor to form POF3 and HF. No new products were observed in 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in EC, DMC and EMC by on-line TGA-FTIR analysis. The storage of the same solutions in sealed containers at 358 K for 300 420 hrs. did not produce any significant quantity of new products as well. In particular, noalkylflurophosphates were found in the solutions after storage at elevated temperature. In the absence of either an impurity like alcohol or cathode active material that may (or may not) act as a catalyst, there is no evidence of thermally induced reaction between LiPF6 and the prototypical Li-ion battery solvents EC, PC, DMC or EMC.

  5. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  6. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  7. Stability Of Nanoclusters In 14YWT Oxide Dispersion Strengthened...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stability Of Nanoclusters In 14YWT Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Under Heavy Ion-irradiation By Atom Probe Tomography. Stability Of Nanoclusters In 14YWT Oxide Dispersion...

  8. Thermal analysis of the Ultralife SSS{trademark} lithium ion solid polymer battery with high energy anode for dual use applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollandsworth, R.P.; Isaacson, M. [Lockheed Martin Missile and Space, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Advanced Technology Center; Cuellar, E.A.; Read, J.A. [Ultralife Batteries, Inc., Newark, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal properties of the Ultralife SSS{trademark} Lithium Ion Battery are investigated, with cell laminate thermal stability and heat capacity reported, as well as thermal calorimetry performed upon a cell stack having an initial capacity of 12.476 Ah during charge and discharge cycling at temperatures of 3, 10, 20, and 40 C. Thermal energy represents 3.7 and 7.8% of total energy with discharge currents of 2 and 5 A, represents 3.6 and 7.3% of total energy respectively. The major contributor to thermal performance during charge/discharge cycling is the cell impedance.

  9. Mini-jet thermalization and diffusion of transverse momentum correlation in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long-gang Pang; Qun Wang; Xin-Nian Wang; Rong Xu

    2009-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Transverse momentum correlation in azimuthal angle of produced hadrons due to mini-jets are studied first within the HIJING Monte Carlo model in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Jet quenching in the early stage of thermalization is shown to lead to significant diffusion (broadening) of the correlation. Evolution of the transverse momentum density fluctuation that gives rise to such correlation in azimuthal angle in the later stage of heavy-ion collisions is further investigated within a linearized diffusion-like equation and is shown to be determined by the shear viscosity of the evolving dense matter. Such a diffusion equation for the transverse momentum fluctuation is solved with initial values given by HIJING and together with the hydrodynamic equation for the bulk medium. The final transverse momentum correlation in azimuthal angle is calculated along the freeze-out hyper-surface and is found further diffused for larger values of shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s \\sim 0.2-0.4$. Therefore the final transverse momentum correlation in azimuthal angle can be used to study the thermalization of mini-jets in the early stage of heavy-ion collisions and the viscous effect in the hydrodynamic evolution of the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma.

  10. Microstructure changes and thermal conductivity reduction in UO2 following 3.9 MeV He2+ ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janne Pakrinen; Marat Khafizov; Lingfeng He; Chris Wetland; Jian Gan; Andrew T. Nelson; David H Hurley; Anter El-Azab; Todd R Allen

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructural changes and associated effects on thermal conductivity were examined in UO2 after irradiation using 3.9 MeV He2+ ions. Lattice expansion of UO2 was observed in x-ray diffraction after ion irradiation up to 5×1016 He2+/cm2 at low-temperature (< 200 °C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed homogenous irradiation damage across an 8 µm thick plateau region, which consisted of small dislocation loops accompanied by dislocation segments. Dome-shaped blisters were observed at the peak damage region (depth around 8.5 µm) in the sample subjected to 5×1016 He2+/cm2, the highest fluence reached, while similar features were not detected at 9×1015 He2+/cm2. Laser-based thermo-reflectance measurements showed that the thermal conductivity for the irradiated layer decreased about 55 % for the high fluence sample and 35% for the low fluence sample as compared to an un-irradiated reference sample. Detailed analysis for the thermal conductivity indicated that the conductivity reduction was caused by the irradiation induced point defects.

  11. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Li-ion batteries suffer from strong self-heating, which limits their life-time and creates* Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, automotive and aerospace industries. Li-ion batteries are an essential part of the hybrid electric vehicles

  12. Debris dispersal in reactor material experiments on corium-water thermal interactions in ex-vessel geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.; Squarer, D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis has been performed of corium sweepout behavior in the ANL/EPRI CWTI-series reactor material experiments involving the gas pressure-driven injection of molten corium into the reactor cavity region of a 1:30 scale mockup of a PWR containment. A computer model was developed to calculate the sweepout versus retention of corium and water from the cavity. The model consists of hydrodynamics and freezing calculations describing the pressure-driven two-phase flow of corium, water, steam and gas out of the cavity, freezing of corium upon structural surfaces, and levitation of corium within the cavity by the vessel blowdown gas jet. The model has had good success predicting the disposition of corium for the available CWTI tests, indicating retention in the cavity of between 40 and 70% of the injected corium masses. For conditions representative of the TMLB' sequence in the reactor system, the model predicts essentially complete sweepout of corium from the full-scale cavity region before the dispersive forces arising from the blowdown of the primary system have decayed. However, this large sweepout does not imply that the swept out material would deliver its energy directly to the containment atmosphere.

  13. Survey of ion-acoustic-instability particle simulations and relevance to laser-fusion thermal-transport inhibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mead, W.C.

    1980-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion acoustic turbulence is examined as one mechanism which could contribute to the inhibition of electron thermal transport which has been inferred from many laser-plasma experiments. The behavior of the ion acoustic instability is discussed from the viewpoint of the literature of 2-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Simulation techniques, limitations, and reported saturation mechanisms and levels are discussed. A scaling law for the effective collision frequency ..nu..* can be fit to several workers' results to within an order-of-magnitude. The inferred ..nu..* is shown to be 1-2 orders-of-magnitude too small to account for the transport inhibition seen in Nd-laser-produced plasmas. Several differences between the simulation conditions and laser-produced plasma conditions are noted.

  14. Designing Safe Lithium-Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL and NASA developed a thermal-electrical model that resolves PTC and cell behavior under external shorting, now being used to evaluate safety margins of battery packs for spacesuit applications.

  15. Polyx multicrystalline silicon solar cells processed by PF+5 unanalysed ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    695 Polyx multicrystalline silicon solar cells processed by PF+5 unanalysed ion implantation of terrestrial solar cells as compared to classical furnace or pulsed laser annealing. Unfortunately, drawbacks for the fabrication of solar cells. It offers the possibility of achieving strong reduction of cell cost in spite

  16. Single-Particle Model for a Lithium-Ion Cell: Thermal Godfrey Sikha,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the literature; for example, Newman and Pals1,2 presented cell and battery stack thermal models incorporating inefficient for simu- lating conditions such as cycling behavior and series/parallel con- figuration of stacked cells in battery packs. To improve computational run time without compromising accuracy

  17. Analysis of Electrochemical and Thermal Behavior of Li-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on heat generation is collected during charge/discharge1-3 and/or by studying the self-heating heat generation. Simulations were used to estimate the thermal and electrical energy and the active applications, are expected to replace Ni-MH and lead-acid cells in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

  18. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  19. The Radial Loss of Ions Trapped in the Thermal Barrier Potential and the Design of Divertor Magnetic Field in GAMMA10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katanuma, I. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ito, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Saimaru, H. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Sasagawa, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Pastukhov, V.P. [I.V.Kuruchatov Atomic Energy Institute (Russian Federation); Ishii, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tatematsu, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Islam, Md.K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ion radial loss exists in the presence of a non-axisymmetric electrostatic potential in the end-mirror cells of GAMMA10, which leads to a formation of the thermal barrier potential. The non-axisymmetric electrostatic potential can also exist in the central cell. A design for divertor magnetic field of GAMMA10 is performed, the purpose of which is first to reduce an ion radial transport in the central cell by making electrostatic potential circular and second to assure the macroscopic plasma stability of GAMMA10 without help of non-axisymmetric anchor cells which enhances a neoclassical radial transport.

  20. Thermal expansion of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline silver matrix composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Manjula, E-mail: manjula.physics@gmail.com; Sharma, Vimal [Department of Physics, NIT Hamirpur - 177005, HP (India); Pal, Hemant [Department of Physics, NIT Hamirpur - 177005, HP, India and Department of Physics, Govt. College Chamba - 176310, HP (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced silver matrix composite was fabricated by novel molecular level mixing method, which involves nucleation of Ag ions inside carbon nanotube dispersion at the molecular level. As a result the carbon nanotubes get embedded within the powder rather than on the surfaces. Micro structural characterization by X- ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes are homogeneously dispersed and anchored within the matrix. The thermal expansion of the composite with the multiwall nanotube content (0, 1.5 vol%) were investigated and it is found that coefficient of thermal expansion decreases with the addition of multiwall nanotube content and reduce to about 63% to that of pure Ag.

  1. Stability Of Nanoclusters In 14YWT Oxide Dispersion Strengthened...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ion-irradiation By Atom Probe Tomography. Abstract: 14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was irradiated with of 5 MeV Ni2+ ions, at 300 °C, 450 °C, and...

  2. Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: non-thermal transport of helium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Smith; C. Jordan

    2002-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. Non-thermal motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that non-thermal motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of non-thermal transport. The effects of non-thermal motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.

  3. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective...

  4. Dispersion relations for the dust-acoustic wave under experimental conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suranga Ruhunusiri, W. D., E-mail: suranga-ruhunusiri@uiowa.edu; Goree, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dust acoustic wave dispersion relation is tested to quantify its sensitivity to many physical processes that are important in laboratory dusty plasmas. It is found that inverse Landau damping and ion-neutral collisions contribute about equally to the growth rate ?{sub i}, pointing to the advantage of using a kinetic model for the instability. The growth rate ?{sub i} increases the most with an increase of dust number density, followed by an increase in ion-drift speed. The quantities that cause ?{sub i} to decrease the most when they are increased are the dust-neutral collision rate followed by the ion-neutral collision rate, ion collection current onto dust particles, and the ion thermal speed. In general, ?{sub i} is affected more than ?{sub r} by the choice of processes that are included. Strong Coulomb-coupling effects can be included in a compressibility term. The susceptibilities derived here can be combined in various ways in a dispersion relation to account for different combinations of physical processes.

  5. Determination of thermal and cementation histories from [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar and ion microprobe stable isotope analyses: A San Joaquin Basin example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahon, K.I.; Harrison, T.M.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M. (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the temperature and cementation histories of sedimentary basins is key to appraisal of their liquid hydrocarbon potential. Understanding the thermal history permits assessment of whether source rocks have experienced conditions appropriate for petroleum formation. The mobility of hydrocarbons and their storage capacity in sandstone reservoirs are directly related to porosity changes during diagenesis. Recent advances in [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar dating (stripping of Cl-correlated Ar[sub xs] Multi-Diffusion Domain model) and development of ion micro-probe techniques for precise ([+-]0.6[per thousand]) [mu]m-scale oxygen isotopic analysis provide a basis to quantitatively determine thermal and cementation histories. Arkosic sandstones of the Stevens turbidities, San Joaquin basin, are cemented by carbonates with minor amounts of clay and quartz. Detrital K-spars from depths of 4.12 (A4) and 6.61 km (Al) in the Stevens zone at Elk Hills yield thermal histories via the MDD model. These results indicate a broadly linear temperature rise of 9[+-]3[degrees]C/Ma over the past 10 Ma and predict current peak temperatures that are within error ([+-]25[degrees]C) of the measured values of 200[degrees] (Al) and 150[degrees]C (A4). Previous bulk isotopic analyses of cements from Stevens sands at North Coles Levee indicate that diagenetic pore fluids were modified by the introduction of hydrocarbons and CO[sub 2] from maturing source horizons. In situ O isotopic analyses of 10 [mu]m spots in these cements confirms this heterogeneity. A model cementation history can then be calculated by linking the oxygen isotopic composition of the cements (and temperature-dependent fractionation factor) with the thermal history independently established from thermochronometry.

  6. Determination of thermal and cementation histories from {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and ion microprobe stable isotope analyses: A San Joaquin Basin example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahon, K.I.; Harrison, T.M.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the temperature and cementation histories of sedimentary basins is key to appraisal of their liquid hydrocarbon potential. Understanding the thermal history permits assessment of whether source rocks have experienced conditions appropriate for petroleum formation. The mobility of hydrocarbons and their storage capacity in sandstone reservoirs are directly related to porosity changes during diagenesis. Recent advances in {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating (stripping of Cl-correlated Ar{sub xs} Multi-Diffusion Domain model) and development of ion micro-probe techniques for precise ({+-}0.6{per_thousand}) {mu}m-scale oxygen isotopic analysis provide a basis to quantitatively determine thermal and cementation histories. Arkosic sandstones of the Stevens turbidities, San Joaquin basin, are cemented by carbonates with minor amounts of clay and quartz. Detrital K-spars from depths of 4.12 (A4) and 6.61 km (Al) in the Stevens zone at Elk Hills yield thermal histories via the MDD model. These results indicate a broadly linear temperature rise of 9{+-}3{degrees}C/Ma over the past 10 Ma and predict current peak temperatures that are within error ({+-}25{degrees}C) of the measured values of 200{degrees} (Al) and 150{degrees}C (A4). Previous bulk isotopic analyses of cements from Stevens sands at North Coles Levee indicate that diagenetic pore fluids were modified by the introduction of hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} from maturing source horizons. In situ O isotopic analyses of 10 {mu}m spots in these cements confirms this heterogeneity. A model cementation history can then be calculated by linking the oxygen isotopic composition of the cements (and temperature-dependent fractionation factor) with the thermal history independently established from thermochronometry.

  7. Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A.; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The entropy changes (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

  8. Failure analysis of pinch-torsion tests as a thermal runaway risk evaluation method of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Yuzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Dr. Tianlei [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Ren, Prof. Fei [Temple University; Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently a pinch-torsion test is developed for safety testing of Li-ion batteries (Ren et al., J. Power Source, 2013). It has been demonstrated that this test can generate small internal short-circuit spots in the separator in a controllable and repeatable manner. In the current research, the failure mechanism is examined by numerical simulations and comparisons to experimental observations. Finite element models are developed to evaluate the deformation of the separators under both pure pinch and pinch-torsion loading conditions. It is discovered that the addition of the torsion component significantly increased the maximum principal strain, which is believed to induce the internal short circuit. In addition, the applied load in the pinch-torsion test is significantly less than in the pure pinch test, thus dramatically improving the applicability of this method to ultra-thick batteries which otherwise require heavy load in excess of machine capability. It is further found that the separator failure is achieved in the early stage of torsion (within a few degree of rotation). Effect of coefficient of friction on the maximum principal strain is also examined.

  9. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  10. Modulational instability of ion acoustic wave with warm ions in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Siddiqui, Sadiya [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Jehan, Nusrat [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 1114, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion acoustic wave is studied in the presence of warm ions in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky (KBM) method is used to derive the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The dispersive and nonlinear coefficients are obtained which depends on the ion temperature and positron density in electron-positron-ion plasmas. The modulationally stable and unstable regions are studied numerically for a wide range of wave number. It is found that both ion temperature and positron density play a significant role in the formation of bright and dark envelope solitons in electron-positron-ion plasmas.

  11. Diploma Thesis Stochastic Investigation of the Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Diploma Thesis Stochastic Investigation of the Thermal Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries Submitted of this Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Lithium-Ion Batteries 5 2 Bibliography 55 Nomenclature 59 ii ii #12;List of Figures 1.1 Thermal runaway of a lithium-ion battery

  12. Powder dispersion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorenz, Heather M. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A powder dispersion method and apparatus comprising an air eductor and a powder dispensing syringe inserted into a suction connection of the air eductor.

  13. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  14. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  15. Non-Darcian forced convection in porous media with anisotropic dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adnani, P.; Catton, I.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convective heat transfer in a particle packed tube is modeled in this paper. Axial and radial dispersion are both included in the governing equations. Results are compared with experimental data, and with previously developed models that did not include axial dispersion. It is shown that heat transfer in the thermally developing region is affected by axial dispersion when Peclet number is smaller than 10. Graphic results are provided to show the importance of axial dispersion for various Peclet numbers. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in Propylene Carbonate and Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in Propylene Carbonate and Thermal Reduction of the Resulting Chemical Society ABSTRACT Graphite oxide was exfoliated and dispersed in propylene carbonate (PC) by bath

  17. Dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoder, Graydon L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersed flow consists of small liquid droplets entrained in a flowing vapor. This flow regime can occur in cryogenic equipment, in steam generators, and during nuclear reactor loss of coolant accidents. A theoretical ...

  18. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  19. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  20. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  1. THERMAL DEGRADATION OF A BLACK CHROME SOLAR SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATING: SHORT TERM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    black show appreciable degradation ically or mechanically upGA, May ety THERMAL DEGRADATION A BLACK CHROME SOLARis ion, Ext. 781 THERMAL DEGRADATION OF A BLACK CHROME SOLAR

  2. Ion firehose instability in plasmas with plasma particles described by product bi-kappa distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, M. S. dos; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Gaelzer, R., E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, RS, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dispersion relation for low frequency electromagnetic waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field, considering that the velocity distributions of ions and electrons can be either bi-Maxwellian of product bi-kappa distributions. The effect of the anisotropy and non-thermal features associated to the product-bi-kappa distributions on the firehose instability are numerically investigated. The general conclusion to be drawn from the results obtained is that the increase in non-thermal features which is consequence of the decrease of the ? indexes in the ion distribution contributes to increase the instability in magnitude and wave number range, in comparison with bi-Maxwellian distributions with similar temperature anisotropy, and that the increase of non-thermal features in the electron distribution contributes to the quenching of the instability, which is nevertheless driven by the anisotropy in the ion distribution. Significant differences between results obtained either considering product-bi-kappa distributions or bi-kappa distributions are also reported.

  3. Dispersive analysis of ?/? ? 3?, ??*

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Danilkin, Igor V.; Fernandez Ramirez, Cesar; Guo, Peng; Mathieu, Vincent; Schott, Diane M.; Shi, Meng; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decays ?/? ? 3? are considered in the dispersive framework that is based on the isobar decomposition and subenergy unitarity. The inelastic contributions are parametrized by the power series in a suitably chosen conformal variable that properly accounts for the analytic properties of the amplitude. The Dalitz plot distributions and integrated decay widths are presented. Our results indicate that the final- state interactions may be sizable. As a further application of the formalism we also compute the electromagnetic transition form factors of ?/? ? ???*.

  4. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  5. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  6. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  7. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  8. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  9. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  10. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  11. Electron thermal effect on linear and nonlinear coupled Shukla-Varma and convective cell modes in dust-contaminated magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masood, W. [TPPD, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan and National Center for Physics (NCP), Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear and nonlinear properties of coupled Shukla-Varma (SV) and convective cell modes in the presence of electron thermal effects are studied in a nonuniform magnetoplasma composed of electrons, ions, and extremely massive and negatively charged immobile dust grains. In the linear case, the modified dispersion relation is given and, in the nonlinear case, stationary solutions of the nonlinear equations that govern the dynamics of coupled SV and convective cell modes are obtained. It is found that electrostatic dipolar and vortex street type solutions can appear in such a plasma. The relevance of the present investigation with regard to the Earth's mesosphere as well as in ionospheric plasmas is also pointed out.

  12. Solution dewatering with concomitant ion removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Eric S.; Marshall, Douglas W.; Stone, Mark L.

    2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the biggest needs in the separations and waste handling and reduction area is a method for dewatering ion-containing solutions. Unexpectedly, it has been found that phosphazene polymers can discriminate between water and metal ions, allowing water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. This unexpected result, along with the inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers, yields a powerful tool for separating and dewatering metal-ion-containing solutions.

  13. Phonon dispersion in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Falkovsky

    2007-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Taking into account the constraints imposed by the lattice symmetry, the phonon dispersion is calculated for graphene with interactions between the first and second nearest neighbors in the framework of the Born-von Karman model. Analytical expressions are obtained for the out-of-plane (bending) modes determined only by two force constants as well as for the in-plane modes with four force constants. Values of the force constants are found in fitting to elastic constants and Raman frequencies observed in graphite.

  14. Dispersion Modeling Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy,Policy ActDetroit EdisonCity, Arizona, SiteDiscussionDispersion

  15. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  16. Ion distribution dynamics near the Earth's bow shock: rst measurements with the 2D ion energy spectrometer CORALL on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of supra- thermal ion populations upstream and downstream from the bow shock do not depend on the solarIon distribution dynamics near the Earth's bow shock: ®rst measurements with the 2D ion energy the Earth's bow shock is studied on the basis of quasi-3D measurements of ion energy spectra in the range

  17. A STUDY OF ION LINE BROADENING IN THE TORMAC DISCHARGE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Robert Stephen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the thermal Doppler effect. For Zaxwellian ions, the linedue to the thermal Doppler effect, indicates that the Tormacof the line by the Doppler effect. Due to the finite

  18. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment. 1978. Renewable ocean energy sources, Part I.on aquaculture and ocean energy systems for the county of310, the Ocean the Ocean Energy Thermal Energy Conversion

  19. Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncrieff, John B.

    Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

  20. Thermal and mechanical properties of EPDM/PP + thermal shock-resistant ceramic composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    the polymer matrix. The brittleness, B, decreases upon surface modification of the ceramic. The highest valueThermal and mechanical properties of EPDM/PP + thermal shock-resistant ceramic composites Witold-scale ceramic powder. To overcome the difficulty of particles dispersion and adhe- sion, the filler was modified

  1. Fermion dispersion in axion medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Mikheev; E. N. Narynskaya

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of a fermion with the dense axion medium is investigated for the purpose of finding an axion medium effect on the fermion dispersion. It is shown that axion medium influence on the fermion dispersion under astrophysical conditions is negligible small if the correct Lagrangian of the axion-fermion interaction is used.

  2. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  3. hal00267005, Modeling semiconductor thermal properties. The dispersion role.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , or in solar panels 3 , and are even used in medicine 4 . The increasing use of semiconductor micro in transistors 6 and semiconductor nano#12;lms in solar cells. At these low scale, Fourier's law may give , similar to photon intensity used in radiative transfer 24 . Thus, the energy ux per apparent surface unit

  4. Determination of dispersivities from a natural-gradient dispersion test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Caroline Marie

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of H drolo can be valuable predictive tool s (Wang and Anderson, 1982). Since the late 1800's, mathematical models have been used in problems of groundwater flow. Their appl ication now extends to problems of contaminant transport and migration...DETERMINATION OF DISPERSIVITIES FROM A NATURAL-GRADIENT DISPERSION TEST A Thesis by CAROLINE MARIE HOOVER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  5. Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich [University Observatory of the Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU) (Germany); Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) (Germany); Saglia, Roberto; Drory, Niv [Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) (Germany); Fisher, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (sigma*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.

  6. Effect of combined nanoparticle and polymeric dispersions on critical heat flux, nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient, and coating adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Bronwyn K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to determine thermal performance and adhesion effects of a combined nanoparticle and polymeric dispersion coating. The critical heat flux (CHF) values and nucleate boiling heat transfer ...

  7. A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, Jacopo

    This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or “nanofluids,” was ...

  8. Heterogeneous Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals: CO2 Reduction on Multifunctional Pd Catalysts. Heterogeneous Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals: CO2 Reduction...

  9. Asphaltene dispersants as demulsification aids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manek, M.B.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Destabilization of petroleum asphaltenes may cause a multitude of problems in crude oil recovery and production. One major problem is their agglomeration at the water-oil interface of crude oil emulsions. Once agglomeration occurs, destabilized asphaltenes can form a thick pad in the dehydration equipment, which significantly reduces the demulsification rate. Certain polymeric dispersants increase asphaltene solubilization in hydrocarbon media, and when used in conjunction with emulsion breakers, facilitate the demulsification process. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate how asphaltene dispersants can efficiently inhibit pad formation and help reduce demulsifier dosage. Criteria for dispersant application and selection are discussed, which include the application of a novel laboratory technique to assess asphaltene stabilization in the crude oil. The technique monitors asphaltene agglomeration while undergoing titration with an incompatible solvent (precipitant). The method was used to evaluate stabilization of asphaltenes in the crude oil and to screen asphaltene dispersants.

  10. Ion Bernstein waves in a plasma with a kappa velocity distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsengiyumva, F.; Mace, R. L.; Hellberg, M. A. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)] [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a Vlasov-Poisson model, a numerical investigation of the dispersion relation for ion Bernstein waves in a kappa-distributed plasma has been carried out. The dispersion relation is found to depend significantly on the spectral index of the ions, ?{sub i}, the parameter whose smallness is a measure of the departure from thermal equilibrium of the distribution function. Over all cyclotron harmonics, the typical Bernstein wave curves are shifted to higher wavenumbers (k) if ?{sub i} is reduced. For waves whose frequency lies above the lower hybrid frequency, ?{sub LH}, an increasing excess of superthermal particles (decreasing ?{sub i}) reduces the frequency, ?{sub peak}, of the characteristic peak at which the group velocity vanishes, while the associated k{sub peak} is increased. As the ratio of ion plasma to cyclotron frequency (?{sub pi}/?{sub ci}) is increased, the fall-off of ? at large k is smaller for lower ?{sub i} and curves are shifted towards larger wavenumbers. In the lower hybrid frequency band and harmonic bands above it, the frequency in a low-?{sub i} plasma spans only a part of the intraharmonic space, unlike the Maxwellian case, thus exhibiting considerably less coupling between adjacent bands for low ?{sub i}. It is suggested that the presence of the ensuing stopbands may be a useful diagnostic for the velocity distribution characteristics. The model is applied to the Earth's plasma sheet boundary layer in which waves propagating perpendicularly to the ambient magnetic field at frequencies between harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency are frequently observed.

  11. Neutrino dispersion in magnetized plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Mikheev; E. N. Narynskaya

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutrino dispersion in the charge symmetric magnetized plasma is investigated. We have studied the plasma contribution into the additional energy of neutrino and obtained the simple expression for it. We consider in detail the neutrino self-energy under physical conditions of weak field, moderate field and strong field limits. It is shown that our result for neutrino dispersion in moderate magnetic field differ substantially from the previous one in the literature.

  12. Ion colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the RHIC and LHC injector chains for the heaviest ion species used to date. The RHIC pulsed sputter source (PSC) and Tandem electrostatic accelerator are being replaced by an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and short linac [08Ale1]. With EBIS beams of any element can be prepared for RHIC including uranium and spin-polarized 3He. At CERN an ECR ion source is used, followed by an RFQ and Linac. The ions are then accumulated, electron cooled, and accelerated in LEIR. After transfer to and acceleration in the PS, ion beams are injected into the SPS.

  13. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  14. The rheology of oxide dispersions and the role of concentrated electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, Simon; Tindley, Amy [Leeds University/Nexis Solutions URA in Particle Science and Technology, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability control of particulate dispersions is critical to a wide range of industrial processes. In the UK nuclear industry, significant volumes of waste materials arising from the corrosion products of Magnox fuel rods currently require treatment and storage. The majority of this waste is present as aqueous dispersions of oxide particulates. Treatment of these dispersions will require a variety of unit operations including mobilisation, transport and solid- liquid separation. Typically these processes must operate across a narrow optimal range of pH and the dispersions are, almost without exception, found in complex electrolyte conditions of high overall concentration. Knowledge of the behaviour of oxides in various electrolyte conditions and over a large pH range is essential for the efficient design and control of any waste processing approach. The transport properties of particle dispersions are characterised by the rheological properties. It is well known that particle dispersion rheology is strongly influenced by particle-particle interaction forces, and that particle-particle interactions are strongly influenced by adsorbed ions on the particle surfaces. Here we correlate measurements of the shear yield stress and the particle zeta potentials to provide insight as to the role of ions in moderating particle interactions. The zeta potential of model TiO{sub 2} suspensions were determined (Colloidal Dynamics Zeta Probe) over a range of pH for a series of alkali metal halides and quaternary ammonium halides at a range of solution concentrations (0.001 M - 1 M). The results show some surprising co-ion effects at high electrolyte concentrations (>0.5 M) and indicate that even ions generally considered to be indifferent induce a shift in iso-electric point (i.e.p.) which is inferred as being due to specific adsorption of ions. The shear yield stress values of concentrated titania dispersions were measured using a Bohlin C-VOR stress controlled rheometer. The shear yield stress of a material is defined as the minimum applied shear stress required to induce flow. The yield stress vs. pH curves obtained reflected the shifts in i.e.p. seen in the zeta potential results. Interestingly, specific ion adsorption results in an unexplained increase in the value of the yield stress over that expected for simple systems with no such interfacial ion adsorption. Possible reasons for this effect such as ion-ion correlation effects are discussed. The importance of this increased attraction for the mobilisation of settled solids in an aqueous environment and especially the likely effects on the treatment of Magnox fuel waste materials is discussed. (authors)

  15. The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) hazards include LNG flammable vapor dispersion and LNG pool fire thermal radiation. A large LNG pool fire emits high thermal radiation thus preventing fire fighters from approaching and extinguishing the fire. One...

  16. SUBMITTED TO GRL 1 Thermal Anisotropies in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    SUBMITTED TO GRL 1 E Thermal Anisotropies in the Solar Wind: vidence of Heating by Interstellar cyclotron instabilit s generated by newly created pickup ions and heats the thermal solar wind protons TO GRL 2 T Introduction he thermal anisotropy of the solar wind is the ratio between the temperatures p

  17. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  18. Dispersion-compensated Fresnel lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4[times]10[sup [minus]5] inch and a profile width of at least 10[sup [minus]3] inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight. 10 figs.

  19. Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C. (1215 Brewster Dr., El Cerrito, CA 94530)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.

  20. Multiscale thermal transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  1. Ion acoustic shock waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Hafeez Ur-Rehman [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan and Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)] [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan and Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The monotonic and oscillatory ion acoustic shock waves are investigated in electron-positron-ion plasmas (e-p-i) with warm ions (adiabatically heated) and nonthermal kappa distributed electrons and positrons. The dissipation effects are included in the model due to kinematic viscosity of the ions. Using reductive perturbation technique, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation is derived containing dispersion, dissipation, and diffraction effects (due to perturbation in the transverse direction) in e-p-i plasmas. The analytical solution of KPB equation is obtained by employing tangent hyperbolic (Tanh) method. The analytical condition for the propagation of oscillatory and monotonic shock structures are also discussed in detail. The numerical results of two dimensional monotonic shock structures are obtained for graphical representation. The dependence of shock structures on positron equilibrium density, ion temperature, nonthermal spectral index kappa, and the kinematic viscosity of ions are also discussed.

  2. High Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (Richland, WA)

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing a device for transmitting ions from an ion source which allows the transmission of ions without significant delay to an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  3. Measurement and modeling of thermal properties of cakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Yah Hwa Eva

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    porosity. The predicted thermal conductivity is: I-28A kc-kd k = kc where A =? I+HA 2kc+kd (4) The thermal conductivities of the continuous and disperse phases are kc and kd respectively, while 8 is the void fraction of the disperse phase (or... porosity). The Naxwell-Eucken's equation may be applicable to cake. Russell (1935) examined porous insulating structures and derived the following equation to predict thermal conductivity of two-phase porous material. +(I-8 )kc/kd k=kc 8 -8+(1+8-g...

  4. Measurement of vehicle emissions and the associated dispersion near roadways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hlavinka, M. W

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air po)lution inodels by collec4ing data, for use in thc verification of these models. This objectives is accomplished through the following ma)or tasks: (l) Collect, ion of a large roadway air pollution data hase on magnetic t, ape so that... correla), iona to calcula4e the dispersion parame- ters. Several authors (Rao, et sl. and I'skridge& et sl. ' ) have suggested that, induced turbulence near roadways due 4o ), he tra)fic may play a larger role in pol)utant disper- sion I, han a4...

  5. Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

  6. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  7. Study of Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Gabrielle

    and Cell (MAC) method for the governing equations, transport of passive scalars like the pollutantStudy of Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Environments Razvan Corneliu Carbunescu Center head: Study of pollutant dispersion in urban environments #12;Abstract Computational simulations can

  8. Structure of graphene oxide dispersed with ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Rishikesh, E-mail: rishikesh.yadav62@gmail.com; Pandey, Devendra K., E-mail: devendrakphy@gmail.com [School of Nanotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidalaya, Bhopal, M.P. (India); Khare, P. S., E-mail: purnimaswarup@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidalaya, Bhopal M.P. (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has been proposed as a promising two-dimensional nanomaterial with outstanding electronic, optical, thermal and mechanical properties for many applications. In present work a process of dispersion of graphene oxide with ZnO nanoparticles in ethanol solution with different pH values, have been studied. Samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, PL, UV-visible spectroscopy and particles size measurement. The results analysis indicates overall improved emission spectrum. It has been observed that the average diameter of RGO (Reduced Graphene Oxide) decreases in presence of ZnO nanoparticles from 3.8?m to 0.41?m.

  9. Dispersion toughened ceramic composites and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinton, D.P.; Lackey, W.J.; Lauf, R.J.

    1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic composites exhibiting increased fracture toughness are produced by the simultaneous codeposition of silicon carbide and titanium disilicide by chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of hydrogen, methyltrichlorosilane and titanium tetrachloride is introduced into a furnace containing a substrate such as graphite or silicon carbide. The thermal decomposition of the methyltrichlorosilane provides a silicon carbide matrix phase and the decomposition of the titanium tetrachloride provides a uniformly dispersed second phase of the intermetallic titanium disilicide within the matrix phase. The fracture toughness of the ceramic composite is in the range of about 6.5 to 7.0 MPa..sqrt..m which represents a significant increase over that of silicon carbide.

  10. Dispersion toughened ceramic composites and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN); Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic composites exhibiting increased fracture toughness are produced by the simultaneous codeposition of silicon carbide and titanium disilicide by chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of hydrogen, methyltrichlorosilane and titanium tetrachloride is introduced into a furnace containing a substrate such as graphite or silicon carbide. The thermal decomposition of the methyltrichlorosilane provides a silicon carbide matrix phase and the decomposition of the titanium tetrachloride provides a uniformly dispersed second phase of the intermetallic titanium disilicide within the matrix phase. The fracture toughness of the ceramic composite is in the range of about 6.5 to 7.0 MPa.sqroot.m which represents a significant increase over that of silicon carbide.

  11. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  12. Gravitational dispersion in a torsional wave machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael de la Madrid; Alejandro Gonzalez; George Irwin

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that mechanical waves traveling in a torsional, mechanical wave machine exhibit dispersion due to gravity and the discreteness of the medium. We also show that although the dispersion due to discreteness is negligible, the dispersion due to gravity can be easily measured, and can be shown to disappear in a zero-gravity environment.

  13. Nonlinear theory of resonant slow waves in anisotropic and dispersive plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Clack; Istvan Ballai

    2008-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar corona is a typical example of a plasma with strongly anisotropic transport processes. The main dissipative mechanisms in the solar corona acting on slow magnetoacoustic waves are the anisotropic thermal conductivity and viscosity. Ballai et al. [Phys. Plasmas 5, 252 (1998)] developed the nonlinear theory of driven slow resonant waves in such a regime. In the present paper the nonlinear behaviour of driven magnetohydrodynamic waves in the slow dissipative layer in plasmas with strongly anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity is expanded by considering dispersive effects due to Hall currents. The nonlinear governing equation describing the dynamics of nonlinear resonant slow waves is supplemented by a term which describes nonlinear dispersion and is of the same order of magnitude as nonlinearity and dissipation. The connection formulae are found to be similar to their non-dispersive counterparts.

  14. Investigating Iron Ions | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Iron Ions Investigating Iron Ions Computer code provides detailed predictions of highly charged ions in water Using resources at EMSL, scientists obtained...

  15. Helium Ion Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helium Ion Microscope Helium Ion Microscope The Helium Ion Microscope promises to advance biological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and surfaceinterface studies using its combined...

  16. Helium Ion Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helium Ion Microscope Helium Ion Microscope Bruce Arey discusses the capabilities of EMSL's new helium ion microscope housed in EMSL's Quiet Wing....

  17. Ion reflection, gyration, and dissipation at supercritical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosling, J.T.; Robson, A.E.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief review emphasizes the following points: (1) Ion reflection is the dominant ion dissipation mechanism at nearly perpendicular, supercritical shocks. (2) An increasing fraction of the ions incident on a supercritical shock is reflected as the Mach number increases. The actual fraction reflected can be predicted using the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation relations. (3) The effective temperature associated with the dispersion in velocity space associated with ion reflection accounts for a large fraction of the temperature rise observed across supercritical, quasi-perpendicular shocks.

  18. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  19. Dispersion relation for pure dust Bernstein waves in a non-Maxwellian magnetized dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deeba, F. [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, P.O. Box 3329, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Zahoor [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, P.O. Box 3329, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure dust Bernstein waves are investigated using non-Maxwellian kappa and (r,q) distribution functions in a collisionless, uniform magnetized dusty plasma. Dispersion relations for both the distributions are derived by considering waves whose frequency is of the order of dust cyclotron frequency, and dispersion curves are plotted. It is observed that the propagation band for dust Bernstein waves is rather narrow as compared with that of the electron Bernstein waves. However, the band width increases for higher harmonics, for both kappa and (r,q) distributions. Effect of dust charge on dispersion curves is also studied, and one observes that with increasing dust charge, the dispersion curves shift toward the lower frequencies. Increasing the dust to ion density ratio ((n{sub d0}/n{sub i0})) causes the dispersion curve to shift toward the higher frequencies. It is also found that for large values of spectral index kappa ({kappa}), the dispersion curves approach to the Maxwellian curves. The (r,q) distribution approaches the kappa distribution for r = 0, whereas for r > 0, the dispersion curves show deviation from the Maxwellian curves as expected. Relevance of this work can be found in astrophysical plasmas, where non-Maxwellian velocity distributions as well as dust particles are commonly observed.

  20. ENSEMBLE SIMULATIONS OF PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND VIA TURBULENCE AND ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cranmer, Steven R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protons in the solar corona and heliosphere exhibit anisotropic velocity distributions, violation of magnetic moment conservation, and a general lack of thermal equilibrium with the other particle species. There is no agreement about the identity of the physical processes that energize non-Maxwellian protons in the solar wind, but a traditional favorite has been the dissipation of ion cyclotron resonant Alfvén waves. This paper presents kinetic models of how ion cyclotron waves heat protons on their journey from the corona to interplanetary space. It also derives a wide range of new solutions for the relevant dispersion relations, marginal stability boundaries, and nonresonant velocity-space diffusion rates. A phenomenological model containing both cyclotron damping and turbulent cascade is constructed to explain the suppression of proton heating at low alpha-proton differential flow speeds. These effects are implemented in a large-scale model of proton thermal evolution from the corona to 1 AU. A Monte Carlo ensemble of realistic wind speeds, densities, magnetic field strengths, and heating rates produces a filled region of parameter space (in a plane described by the parallel plasma beta and the proton temperature anisotropy ratio) similar to what is measured. The high-beta edges of this filled region are governed by plasma instabilities and strong heating rates. The low-beta edges correspond to weaker proton heating and a range of relative contributions from cyclotron resonance. On balance, the models are consistent with other studies that find only a small fraction of the turbulent power spectrum needs to consist of ion cyclotron waves.

  1. Ion acoustic solitons/double layers in two-ion plasma revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: gslakhina@gmail.com; Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Kakad, A. P., E-mail: amar@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai 410218 (India)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion acoustic solitons and double layers are studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of cold heavier ion species, a warm lighter ion species, and hot electrons having Boltzmann distributions by Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. In contrast to the previous results, no double layers and super-solitons are found when both the heavy and lighter ion species are treated as cold. Only the positive potential solitons are found in this case. When the thermal effects of the lighter ion species are included, in addition to the usual ion-acoustic solitons occurring at M?>?1 (where the Mach number, M, is defined as the ratio of the speed of the solitary wave and the ion-acoustic speed considering temperature of hot electrons and mass of the heavier ion species), slow ion-acoustic solitons/double layers are found to occur at low Mach number (M?ion-acoustic mode is actually a new ion-ion hybrid acoustic mode which disappears when the normalized number density of lighter ion species tends to 1 (i.e., no heavier species). An interesting property of the new slow ion-acoustic mode is that at low number density of the lighter ion species, only negative potential solitons/double layers are found whereas for increasing densities there is a transition first to positive solitons/double layers, and then only positive solitons. The model can be easily applicable to the dusty plasmas having positively charged dust grains by replacing the heavier ion species by the dust mass and doing a simple normalization to take account of the dust charge.

  2. Aquifer thermal energy storage: a survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, C.F.; Hopkins, D.; Hellstroem, G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disparity between energy production and demand in many power plants has led to increased research on the long-term, large-scale storage of thermal energy in aquifers. Field experiments have been conducted in Switzerland, France, the United States, Japan, and the People's Republic of China to study various technical aspects of aquifer storage of both hot and cold water. Furthermore, feasibility studies now in progress include technical, economic, and environmental analyses, regional exploration to locate favorable storage sites, and evaluation and design of pilot plants. Several theoretical and modeling studies are also under way. Among the topics being studied using numerical models are fluid and heat flow, dispersion, land subsidence or uplift, the efficiency of different injection/withdrawal schemes, buoyancy tilting, numerical dispersion, the use of compensation wells to counter regional flow, steam injection, and storage in narrow glacial deposits of high permeability. Experiments to date illustrate the need for further research and development to ensure successful implementation of an aquifer storage system. Some of the areas identified for further research include shape and location of the hydrodynamic and thermal fronts, choice of appropriate aquifers, thermal dispersion, possibility of land subsidence or uplift, thermal pollution, water chemistry, wellbore plugging and heat exchange efficiency, and control of corrosion.

  3. High-Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (Richland, WA)

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  4. Short wavelength ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Villard, L. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode in the high wavenumber regime (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}>1), referred to as short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode (SWITG) is studied using the nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic code GENE. It is shown that, although the SWITG mode may be linearly more unstable than the standard long wavelength (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}<1) ITG mode, nonlinearly its contribution to the total thermal ion heat transport is found to be low. We interpret this as resulting from an increased zonal flow shearing effect on the SWITG mode suppression.

  5. Mass dispersion in transfer reactions with a stochastic mean-field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouhei Washiyama; Sakir Ayik; Denis Lacroix

    2009-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nucleon transfer in symmetric heavy-ion reactions at energies below the Coulomb barrier is investigated in the framework of a microscopic stochastic mean-field theory. While mean-field alone is known to significantly underpredict the dispersion of the fragment mass distribution, a considerable enhancement of the dispersion is obtained in the stochastic mean-field theory. The variance of the fragment mass distribution deduced from the stochastic theory scales with the number of exchanged nucleon. Therefore, the new approach provides the first fully microscopic theory consistent with the phenomenological analysis of the experimental data.

  6. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  7. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  8. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

  9. Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with graphite nanoparticles and carbon nanotube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhiqiang (Lexington, KY); Lockwood, Frances E. (Georgetown, KY)

    2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid media such as oil or water, and a selected effective amount of carbon nanomaterials necessary to enhance the thermal conductivity of the fluid. One of the preferred carbon nanomaterials is a high thermal conductivity graphite, exceeding that of the neat fluid to be dispersed therein in thermal conductivity, and ground, milled, or naturally prepared with mean particle size less than 500 nm, and preferably less than 200 nm, and most preferably less than 100 nm. The graphite is dispersed in the fluid by one or more of various methods, including ultrasonication, milling, and chemical dispersion. Carbon nanotubes with graphitic structure is another preferred source of carbon nanomaterial, although other carbon nanomaterials are acceptable. To confer long term stability, the use of one or more chemical dispersants is preferred. The thermal conductivity enhancement, compared to the fluid without carbon nanomaterial, is proportional to the amount of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and/or graphite) added.

  10. Anomalously increased effective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing copper nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, J. A.; Choi, S. U. S.; Li, S.; Yu, W.; Thompson, L. J.

    2001-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a ''nanofluid'' consisting of copper nanometer-sized particles dispersed in ethylene glycol has a much higher effective thermal conductivity than either pure ethylene glycol or ethylene glycol containing the same volume fraction of dispersed oxide nanoparticles. The effective thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol is shown to be increased by up to 40% for a nanofluid consisting of ethylene glycol containing approximately 0.3 vol% Cu nanoparticles of mean diameter <10 nm. The results are anomalous based on previous theoretical calculations that had predicted a strong effect of particle shape on effective nanofluid thermal conductivity, but no effect of either particle size or particle thermal conductivity.

  11. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: thermal hydraulics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    -fluid modeling of nuclear reactor systems. Thermal-hydraulic analysis codes such as RELAP5-3D ~Ref. 1! and FLICA regions of the system. In fact, the CFD code FLUENT has previously been coupled to RELAP5-3D ~Refs. 3

  12. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  13. Polyfunctional dispersants for controlling viscosity of phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides phyllosilicates and polyfunctional dispersants which can be manipulated to selectively control the viscosity of phyllosilicate slurries. The polyfunctional dispersants used in the present invention, which include at least three functional groups, increase the dispersion and exfoliation of phyllosilicates in polymers and, when used in conjunction with phyllosilicate slurries, significantly reduce the viscosity of slurries having high concentrations of phyllosilicates. The functional groups of the polyfunctional dispersants are capable of associating with multivalent metal cations and low molecular weight organic polymers, which can be manipulated to substantially increase or decrease the viscosity of the slurry in a concentration dependent manner. The polyfunctional dispersants of the present invention can also impart desirable properties on the phyllosilicate dispersions including corrosion inhibition and enhanced exfoliation of the phyllosilicate platelets.

  14. The Classical Nature of Thermal Conduction in Nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob Eapen; Roberto Rusconi; Roberto Piazza; Sidney Yip

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several new mechanisms have been hypothesized in the recent years to characterize the thermal conduction behavior in nanofluids. In this paper, we show that a large set of nanofluid thermal conductivity data is enveloped by the well-known Hashin and Shtrikman (HS) mean-field bounds for inhomogeneous systems. The thermal conductivity in nanofluids, therefore, is largely dependent on whether the nanoparticles stays dispersed in the base fluid, form linear chain-like configurations, or assume an intermediate configuration. The experimental data, which is strikingly analogous to those in most solid composites and liquid mixtures, provides a strong evidence for the classical nature of thermal conduction in nanofluids.

  15. THERMAL LOADING OF A DIRECT DRIVE TARGET IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    optics. A background gas, such as Xe, could reduce the damage on the wall from ion and heat loading fusion micro explosion (~ 10 Hz), ions and heat loads threaten to damage the reactor wall and driver. · The thermal loading of a target (radiation from the chamber wall and convection from the protective gas) may

  16. Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An, Kai

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMO-MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERY ELECTRODES A Thesis by KAI AN Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... on the thermo-mechanical behavior of lithium ion battery electrodes. It presents a single particle model of random lattice spring elements coupled with solid phase Li-ion diffusion under active temperature effects. The thermal features are realized by solving...

  17. Large amplitude inertial compressional Alfvénic shock and solitary waves, and acceleration of ions in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panwar, Anuraj; Rizvi, H.; Ryu, C. M. [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, KyungBuk, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, KyungBuk, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large amplitude inertial compressional Alfvénic shock and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas are investigated. Dispersive effect caused by non-ideal electron inertia currents perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can balance the nonlinear steepening of waves leading to the formation of a soliton. A Sagdeev-potential formalism is employed to derive an energy-balance like equation. The range of allowed values of the soliton speed, M (Mach number), plasma ? (ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the pressure in the confining magnetic field), and electron inertia, wherein solitary waves may exist, are determined. Depth of the potential increases with increasing the Mach number and plasma ?, however decreases with the increasing electron inertia. The height of soliton increases with increasing in Mach number and decreases with plasma ?. And with increasing electron inertial length, the width of soliton increases. The electron-ion collisional dissipation results a dissipative inertial compressional Alfvén wave, which can produce a shock like structure and can efficiently accelerate ions to the order of the local Alfvén velocity. The shock height increases with the increasing collision frequency, but shock height decreases with increasing plasma ?.

  18. SELF-CONSISTENT ION CYCLOTRON ANISOTROPY-BETA RELATION FOR SOLAR WIND PROTONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isenberg, Philip A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Maruca, Bennett A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kasper, Justin C., E-mail: phil.isenberg@unh.edu, E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu, E-mail: jkasper@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a set of self-consistent marginally stable states for a system of ion-cyclotron waves propagating parallel to the large-scale magnetic field through a homogeneous proton-electron plasma. The proton distributions and the wave dispersions are related through the condition that no further ion-cyclotron resonant particle scattering or wave growth/damping may take place. The thermal anisotropy of the protons in these states therefore defines the threshold value for triggering the proton-cyclotron anisotropy instability. A number of recent papers have noted that the anisotropy of solar wind protons at 1 AU does not seem to be limited by the proton-cyclotron anisotropy threshold, even at low plasma beta. However, this puzzle seems to be due solely to the estimation of this anisotropy threshold under the assumption that the protons have a bi-Maxwellian distribution. We note that bi-Maxwellian distributions are never marginally stable to the resonant cyclotron interaction, so these estimates do not represent physically valid thresholds. The threshold anisotropies obtained from our marginally stable states are much larger, as a function of proton parallel beta, than the bi-Maxwellian estimates, and we show that the measured data remains below these more rigorous thresholds. Thus, the results of this paper resolve the apparent contradiction presented by the solar wind anisotropy observations at 1 AU: the bi-Maxwellian anisotropies are not rigorous thresholds, and so do not limit the proton distributions in the solar wind.

  19. Dispersion compensation for attosecond electron pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Peter; Baumgarten, Cory; Batelaan, Herman; Centurion, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a device to compensate for the dispersion of attosecond electron pulses. The device uses only static electric and magnetic fields and therefore does not require synchronization to the pulsed electron source. Analogous to the well-known optical dispersion compensator, an electron dispersion compensator separates paths by energy in space. Magnetic fields are used as the dispersing element, while a Wien filter is used for compensation of the electron arrival times. We analyze a device with a size of centimeters, which can be applied to ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy, and fundamental studies.

  20. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has · STOP (Structural, Thermal, and Optical Performance) analyses of optical systems Thermal engineers lead evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  1. Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal Management for Hybrid: Energy management strategy, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, Li-ion battery aging, thermal management, Pontryagin's Minimum Principle. 1. INTRODUCTION The interest for energy management strategy (EMS) of Hybrid

  2. Ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tullis, Andrew M. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber ype comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

  3. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem w

  4. High Current Ion Source Development for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Kwan, J W

    2003-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We are developing high-current-density high-brightness sources for Heavy Ion Fusion applications. Heavy ion driven inertial fusion requires beams of high brightness in order to achieve high power density at the target for high target gain. At present, there are no existing ion source types that can readily meet all the driver HIF requirements, though sources exist which are adequate for present experiments and which with further development may achieve driver requirements. Our two major efforts have been on alumino-silicate sources and RF plasma sources. Experiments being performed on a 10-cm alumino-silicate source are described. To obtain a compact system for a HIF driver we are studying RF plasma sources where low current beamlets are combined to produce a high current beam. A 80-kV 20-{micro}s source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet. The extraction current density was 100 mA/cm{sup 2}. We present measurements of the extracted current density as a function of RF power and gas pressure, current density uniformity, emittance, and energy dispersion (due to charge exchange).

  5. Full-dispersion Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport in micron-sized graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, S., E-mail: smei4@wisc.edu; Knezevic, I., E-mail: knezevic@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Maurer, L. N. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Aksamija, Z. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We simulate phonon transport in suspended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with real-space edges and experimentally relevant widths and lengths (from submicron to hundreds of microns). The full-dispersion phonon Monte Carlo simulation technique, which we describe in detail, involves a stochastic solution to the phonon Boltzmann transport equation with the relevant scattering mechanisms (edge, three-phonon, isotope, and grain boundary scattering) while accounting for the dispersion of all three acoustic phonon branches, calculated from the fourth-nearest-neighbor dynamical matrix. We accurately reproduce the results of several experimental measurements on pure and isotopically modified samples [S. Chen et al., ACS Nano 5, 321 (2011);S. Chen et al., Nature Mater. 11, 203 (2012); X. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 3689 (2014)]. We capture the ballistic-to-diffusive crossover in wide GNRs: room-temperature thermal conductivity increases with increasing length up to roughly 100??m, where it saturates at a value of 5800?W/m K. This finding indicates that most experiments are carried out in the quasiballistic rather than the diffusive regime, and we calculate the diffusive upper-limit thermal conductivities up to 600?K. Furthermore, we demonstrate that calculations with isotropic dispersions overestimate the GNR thermal conductivity. Zigzag GNRs have higher thermal conductivity than same-size armchair GNRs, in agreement with atomistic calculations.

  6. C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Secondary...

  7. Enhanced thermal conductivity through the development of nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, J.A.; Choi, U.S.; Li, S.; Thompson, L.J.; Lee, S.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in the development of energy-efficient heat transfer fluids required in many industrial applications. To overcome this limitation, a new class of heat transfer fluids is being developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids such as water or oil. The resulting nanofluids possess extremely high thermal conductivities compared to the liquids without dispersed nanocrystalline particles. For example, 5 volume % of nanocrystalline copper oxide particles suspended in water results in an improvement in thermal conductivity of almost 60% compared to water without nanoparticles. Excellent suspension properties are also observed, with no significant settling of nanocrystalline oxide particles occurring in stationary fluids over time periods longer than several days. Direct evaporation of Cu nanoparticles into pump oil results in similar improvements in thermal conductivity compared to oxide-in-water systems, but importantly, requires far smaller concentrations of dispersed nanocrystalline powder.

  8. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  9. Broadband dispersion extraction using simultaneous sparse penalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saligrama, Venkatesh

    the borehole and thus dispersion analysis is of considerable interest to the geophysical and oilfield services community. A brief survey of borehole acoustic waves and their use in mechanical characterization is a function of frequency. This function characterizes the mode and is referred to as a dispersion curve

  10. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  11. Axion-medium effect on fermion dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikheev, N. V., E-mail: mikheev@uniyar.ac.ru; Narynskaya, E. N., E-mail: elenan@uniyar.ac.r [Yaroslavl State University (Russian Federation)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of fermions with a dense axion medium is considered with the aim of studying the effect of the axionmediumon fermion dispersion. It is shown that, if use is made of a correct Lagrangian for axion-fermion interaction, the effect of a dense axion medium on fermion dispersion is negligible under real astrophysical conditions.

  12. A multifaceted approach to applying dispersants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crain, O.L.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive oil spill response plan has been developed partially to deal with accidental discharges of oil into the Arabian Gulf. The spill response capabilities of contractor companies in the area are fairly limited. The response plan relies on chemical agents and recovery as cleanup tools. The key to effective response is a rapid response and deployment of cleanup equipment. Initially, marine vessels equipped with portable dispersant spray booms patterned after the Warren Springs equipment were used. To improve existing oil spill response, an extensive modernization of dispersant deployment equipment has been developed. The areas of modernization include upgrading the marine vessel equipment, dedicating boats and vessels of opportunity for dispersant application, using helicopters for spill response, using large fixed-wing aircraft for spill response, and establishing dispersant and refueling stockpiles. This paper discusses the use of dispersants in response to an oil spill. It is intended not as a scientific paper but as a paper on a local response capability.

  13. Ion Monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  14. Dispersion relations in noncommutative theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariz, Tiago; Nascimento, J. R.; Rivelles, Victor O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed study of plane waves in noncommutative abelian gauge theories. The dispersion relation is deformed from its usual form whenever a constant background electromagnetic field is present and is similar to that of an anisotropic medium with no Faraday rotation nor birefringence. When the noncommutativity is induced by the Moyal product we find that for some values of the background magnetic field no plane waves are allowed when time is noncommutative. In the Seiberg-Witten context no restriction is found. We also derive the energy-momentum tensor in the Seiberg-Witten case. We show that the generalized Poynting vector obtained from the energy-momentum tensor, the group velocity and the wave vector all point in different directions. In the absence of a constant electromagnetic background we find that the superposition of plane waves is allowed in the Moyal case if the momenta are parallel or satisfy a sort of quantization condition. We also discuss the relation between the solutions found in the Seiberg-Witten and Moyal cases showing that they are not equivalent.

  15. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaladze, T. [Department of Physics, Government College University (GCU), Lahore 54000 (Pakistan) [Department of Physics, Government College University (GCU), Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); I.Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 0186 Georgia (United States); Mahmood, S., E-mail: shahzadm100@gmail.com [Theoretical Physics Division (TPD), PINSTECH P.O. Nilore Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic ion-acoustic periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons are investigated. Using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived with appropriate boundary conditions for periodic waves. The corresponding analytical and various numerical solutions are presented with Sagdeev potential approach. Differences between the results caused by the kappa and Maxwell distributions are emphasized. It is revealed that only hump (compressive) structures of the cnoidal waves and solitons are formed. It is shown that amplitudes of the cnoidal waves and solitons are reduced in an EPI plasma case in comparison with the ordinary electron-ion plasmas. The effects caused by the temperature variations of the warm ions are also discussed. It is obtained that the amplitude of the cnoidal waves and solitons decreases for a kappa distributed (nonthermal) electrons and positrons plasma case in comparison with the Maxwellian distributed (thermal) electrons and positrons EPI plasmas. The existence of kappa distributed particles leads to decreasing of ion-acoustic frequency up to thermal ions frequency.

  16. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  17. Heavy Ion Event Displays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulated collisions of lead ions in the LHC experiments. Additional photos, video and information are available at these links: Lead-ion collision images from the ALICE...

  18. Ion sources for sealed neutron tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, E.J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Neutron Tube Dept.; Bischoff, G.C. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast and thermal neutron activation analysis with sealed neutron generators has been used to detect oil (oil logging), hazardous waste, fissile material, explosives, and contraband (drugs). Sealed neutron generators, used in the above applications, must be small and portable, have good electrical efficiency and long life. The ion sources used in the sealed neutron tubes require high gas utilization efficiencies or low pressure operation with high ionization efficiencies. In this paper, the authors compare a number of gas ion sources that can be used in sealed neutron tubes. The characteristics of the most popular ion source, the axial Penning discharge will be discussed as part of the zetatron neutron generator. Other sources to be discussed include the SAMIS source and RF ion source.

  19. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  20. Thermal instability caused by plasma-wall interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marenkov, E. D. [National Research Nuclear University Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Krasheninnikov, S. I. [University of California (United States); Pisarev, A. A.; Tsvetkov, I. V. [National Research Nuclear University Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional model describing recycling of hydrogen isotopes in fusion reactors is proposed. The dispersion relation for thermal instability caused by plasma-wall interaction is derived, and conditions under which it develops are determined. It is shown analytically and numerically that this instability can develop under typical tokamak conditions.

  1. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  2. Cylindrically confined pair-ion-electron and pair-ion plasmas having axial sheared flow and radial gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batool, Nazia; Saleem, H. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan)] [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear and nonlinear dynamics of pair-ion (PI) and pair-ion-electron plasmas (PIE) have been investigated in a cylindrical geometry with a sheared plasma flow along the axial direction having radial dependence. The coupled linear dispersion relation of low frequency electrostatic waves has been presented taking into account the Guassian profile of density and linear gradient of sheared flow. It is pointed out that the quasi-neutral cold inhomogeneous pure pair ion plasma supports only the obliquely propagating convective cell mode. The linear dispersion relation of this mode has been solved using boundary conditions. The nonlinear structures in the form of vortices formed by different waves have been discussed in PI and PIE plasmas.

  3. Role of positively charged dust grains on dust acoustic wave propagation in presence of nonthermal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Susmita; Maity, Saumyen [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An expression for ion current flowing to the dust grains is proposed, when dust charge is positive and the ions are nonthermal. Secondary electron emission has been considered as the source of positive charging of the dust grains. Investigation shows that presence of positively charged dust grains along with thermal electrons and nonthermal ions generate purely growing dust acoustic waves for both the cases of ion nonthermal parameter greater than one and less than one. In the later case, the growth is conditional.

  4. Photon statistics dispersion in excitonic composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Ya. Slepyan; S. A. Maksimenko

    2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear media are predicted to exist whose relative permiability is an operator in the space of quantum states of light. Such media are characterized by a photon statistics--dependent refractive index. This indicates a new type of optical dispersion -- the photon statistics dispersion. Interaction of quantum light with such media modifies the photon number distribution and, in particular, the degree of coherence of light. An excitonic composite -- a collection of noninteracting quantum dots -- is considered as a realization of the medium with the photon statistics dispersion. Expressions are derived for generalized plane waves in an excitonic composite and input--output relations for a planar layer of the material. Transformation rules for different photon initial states are analyzed. Utilization of the photon statistics dispersion in potential quantum--optical devices is discussed.

  5. Tunable effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions during the distortion of spatial self-phase modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gaozhong; Zhang, Saifeng, E-mail: sfzhang@siom.ac.cn, E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn; Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ningning; Zhang, Long; Wang, Jun, E-mail: sfzhang@siom.ac.cn, E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High-Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Umran, Fadhil A. [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute of Laser for Post Graduate Studies, Baghdad University, Baghdad (Iraq); Coghlan, Darragh; Blau, Werner J. [Key Laboratory of Materials for High-Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Physics and the Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Cheng, Ya [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM) was observed directly when a focused He-Ne laser beam at 633?nm went through liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene dispersions. The diffraction pattern of SSPM was found to be distorted rapidly right after the incident beam horizontally passing through the dispersions, while no distortion for the vertically incident geometry. We show that the distortion is originated mainly from the non-axis-symmetrical thermal convections of the graphene nanosheets induced by laser heating, and the relative change of nonlinear refractive index can be determined by the ratio of the distortion angle to the half-cone angle. Therefore, the effective nonlinear refractive index of graphene dispersions can be tuned by changing the incident intensity and the temperature of the dispersions.

  6. Experimental simulation of internal short circuit in Li-ion and Li-ion-Polymer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Maleki, Hossein [Motorola Mobility; Howard, Jason [Motorola Mobility; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-parameter controlled pinch test was developed to study the occurrence of internal short circuits in Li-ion and Li-ion-polymer cells. By tuning the control parameters (i.e., cell voltage as well as pinching area, load, and speed), the pinch test can reproducibly create ~1 to 2 mm wide internal short between a cell jelly-roll s inner layer electrodes. This recreates conditions similar to those that may occur during service. Furthermore, the pinch test is used to determine thermal stability of two Li-ion-polymer cells of different designs built by the same manufacturer. The pinch test method can be used to help distinguish cells with design features or characteristics that lower risk of potential thermal events created by internal short circuits.

  7. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  8. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  9. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  10. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Biedermann, Grant (Albuquerque, NM); Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stick, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Serkland, Darwin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, III, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  11. Ion Coulomb Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard C. Thompson

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion Coulomb crystals (ICC), formed by atomic ions at low temperatures in radiofrequency and Penning ion traps, are structures that have remarkable properties and many applications. Images of Coulomb crystals are striking and reveal the crystal structure, which arises from a balance between the trapping forces acting on the ions and their mutual Coulomb repulsion. Applications of these structures range from frequency standards and quantum simulation through to measurement of the cross sections of chemical reactions of ions.

  12. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  13. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  14. Linear and nonlinear coupled drift and ion acoustic waves in collisional pair ion-electron magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mushtaq, A. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Nilore, Islamabad 45660 (Pakistan); School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Saeed, R.; Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Nilore, Islamabad 45660 (Pakistan)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear and nonlinear coupled electrostatic drift and ion acoustic waves are studied in inhomogeneous, collisional pair ion-electron plasma. The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation for a medium where both dispersion and dissipation are present is derived. An attempt is made to obtain exact solution of KdVB equation by using modified tanh-coth method for arbitrary velocity of nonlinear drift wave. Another exact solution for KdVB is obtained, which gives a structure of shock wave. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Burgers equations are derived in limiting cases with solitary and monotonic shock solutions, respectively. Effects of species density, magnetic field, obliqueness, and the acoustic to drift velocity ratio on the solitary and shock solutions are investigated. The results discussed are useful in understanding of low frequency electrostatic waves at laboratory pair ion plasmas.

  15. Theoretical description based on general and exact nonextensive dispersion relations of plasma oscillation data and verification of new acoustic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebrahimi, V.; Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, first we represent the differences between spatial and temporal dispersions and their dependence on the measurement techniques for electrostatic waves in unmagnetized collisionless plasma. Then, three different experimental data are compared to the solutions of exact nonextensive dispersion relations for electron-ion and pair plasma. The results confirm the existence of new acoustic plasma waves. Furthermore, these comparisons yield a Maxwellian and a nonextensive plasma with nonextensive parameter q larger than one, and a Maxwellian plasma with some abnormal dispersion properties.

  16. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  17. Ion Acceleration in Plasmas with Alfven Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O.Ya. Kolesnychenko; V.V. Lutsenko; R.B. White

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of elliptically polarized Alfven waves on thermal ions are investigated. Both regular oscillations and stochastic motion of the particles are observed. It is found that during regular oscillations the energy of the thermal ions can reach magnitudes well exceeding the plasma temperature, the effect being largest in low-beta plasmas (beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure). Conditions of a low stochasticity threshold are obtained. It is shown that stochasticity can arise even for waves propagating along the magnetic field provided that the frequency spectrum is non-monochromatic. The analysis carried out is based on equations derived by using a Lagrangian formalism. A code solving these equations is developed. Steady-state perturbations and perturbations with the amplitude slowly varying in time are considered.

  18. A Tracer Investigation oftheAtmosph^c Dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and a sea-breeze. INIS-descriptors: AIR POLLUTION; DILUTION; DISPERSION; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; GASES

  19. Ion-acoustic solitary waves in ultra-relativistic degenerate pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasheed, A.; Tsintsadze, N. L. [Department of Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The arbitrary and the small amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been studied. The former is studied by using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach in a plasma consisting of the degenerate ultrarelativistic electrons, positrons, and the non-relativistic classical ions. It is seen that only compressive solitary waves can propagate through such plasmas. The numerical calculations show that the region of existence of the ion-acoustic solitary waves depends upon the positron (ion) number density and the plasma thermal temperature. This study is appropriate for applications in inertial confinement fusion laboratory research as well as the study of astrophysical dense objects such as white dwarf and dense neutron stars.

  20. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

  1. Diffusive Acceleration of Ions at Interplanetary Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew G. Baring; Errol J. Summerlin

    2005-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Heliospheric shocks are excellent systems for testing theories of particle acceleration in their environs. These generally fall into two classes: (1) interplanetary shocks that are linear in their ion acceleration characteristics, with the non-thermal ions serving as test particles, and (2) non-linear systems such as the Earth's bow shock and the solar wind termination shock, where the accelerated ions strongly influence the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the shock. This paper explores the modelling of diffusive acceleration at a particular interplanetary shock, with an emphasis on explaining in situ measurements of ion distribution functions. The observational data for this event was acquired on day 292 of 1991 by the Ulysses mission. The modeling is performed using a well-known kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, which has yielded good agreement with observations at several heliospheric shocks, as have other theoretical techniques, namely hybrid plasma simulations, and numerical solution of the diffusion-convection equation. In this theory/data comparison, it is demonstrated that diffusive acceleration theory can, to first order, successfully account for both the proton distribution data near the shock, and the observation of energetic protons farther upstream of this interplanetary shock than lower energy pick-up protons, using a single turbulence parameter. The principal conclusion is that diffusive acceleration of inflowing upstream ions can model this pick-up ion-rich event without the invoking any seed pre-acceleration mechanism, though this investigation does not rule out the action of such pre-acceleration.

  2. Low-temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, R.O.; Brown, A.P.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical system is described including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the ocmplexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

  3. Low temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O. (Tucson, AZ); Brown, Alan P. (Bolingbrook, IL); Yao, Neng-Ping (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical system including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the complexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

  4. Hamiltonian dynamics of breathers with third-order dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mookherjea, Shayan; Yariv, Amnon

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a nonperturbative analysis of certain dynamical aspects of breathers (dispersion-managed solitons) including the effects of third-order dispersion. The analysis highlights the similarities to and differences from the well-known analogous procedures for second-order dispersion. We discuss in detail the phase-space evolution of breathers in dispersion-managed systems in the presence of third-order dispersion. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  5. Carbon Nanotubes: Measuring Dispersion and Length

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Barry J.; Hobbie, Erik K.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Chun, Jaehun; Obrzut, Jan; Bajpai, Vardhan; Phelan, Fred R.; Simien, Daneesh; Yeon Huh, Ji; Migler, Kalman B.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced technological uses of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rely on the production of single length and chirality populations that are currently only available through liquid phase post processing. The foundation of all of these processing steps is the attainment of individualized nanotube dispersion in solution; an understanding of the collodial properties of the dispersed SWCNTs can then be used to designed appropriate conditions for separations. In many instances nanotube size, particularly length, is especially active in determining the achievable properties from a given population, and thus there is a critical need for measurement technologies for both length distribution and effective separation techniques. In this Progress Report, we document the current state of the art for measuring dispersion and length populations, including separations, and use examples to demonstrate the desirability of addressing these parameters.

  6. Ceramics containing dispersants for improved fracture toughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nevitt, Michael V. (Wheaton, IL); Aldred, Anthony T. (Wheaton, IL); Chan, Sai-Kit (Darien, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a ceramic composition containing a new class of dispersant for hindering crack propagation by means of one or more energy-dissipative mechanisms. The composition is composed of a ceramic matrix with dispersed particles of a transformation-prone rare-earth niobate, tantalate or mixtures of these with each other and/or with a rare-earth vanadate. The dispersants, having a generic composition tRMO.sub.4, where R is a rare-earth element, B is Nb or Ta and O is oxygen, are mixed in powder form with a powder of the matrix ceramic and sintered to produce a ceramic form or body. The crack-hindering mechanisms operates to provide improved performance over a wide range of temperature and operating conditions.

  7. Collective Thomson Scattering Diagnostics of Confined Fast Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    > > fB Used at JT-60 with CO2 laser for small angle CTS Used at Alactor C, TCA, and UNITOR for thermal Gyrotron CTS ion signal proportional to ion charge squared #12;Alphas and Beams in ITER Reverse ShearMax. Pulse 200 kWMax. Power 110 GHzGyrotron ASDEX-Upgrade CTS - Commissioning 84° - 171°Scat. Angle 50

  8. Temperature-dependent ion beam mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehn, L.E.; Alexander, D.E.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work on enhanced interdiffusion rates during ion-beam mixing at elevated temperatures is reviewed. As discussed previously, expected increase in ion-beam mixing rates due to `radiation-enhanced diffusion` (RED), i.e. the free migration of isolated vacancy and interstitial defects, is well documented in single-crystal specimens in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 of absolute melting temperature. In contrast, the increase often observed at somewhat lower temperatures during ion-beam mixing of polycrystalline specimens is not well understood. However, sufficient evidence is available to show that this increase reflects intracascade enhancement of a thermally-activated process that also occurs without irradiation. Recent evidence is presented which suggests that this process is Diffusion-induced Grain-Boundary Migration (DIGM). An important complementary conclusion is that because ion-beam mixing in single-crystal specimens exhibits no significant temperature dependence below that of RED, models that invoke only irradiation-specific phenomena, e.g., cascade-overlap, thermal-spikes, or liquid-diffusion, and hence which predict no difference in mixing behavior between single- or poly-crystalline specimens, cannot account for the existing results.

  9. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  10. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single [superscript 88]Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the ...

  11. Role of Brownian Motion Hydrodynamics on Nanofluid Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W Evans, J Fish, P Keblinski

    2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a simple kinetic theory based analysis of heat flow in fluid suspensions of solid nanoparticles (nanofluids) to demonstrate that the hydrodynamics effects associated with Brownian motion have a minor effect on the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. Our conjecture is supported by the results of molecular dynamics simulations of heat flow in a model nanofluid with well-dispersed particles. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of the effective medium theory as well as with recent experimental results on well dispersed metal nanoparticle suspensions.

  12. Single Ion Implantation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thomas Schenkel

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    On the equipment needed to implant ions in silicon and other materials. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/f...

  13. Single Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Schenkel

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    On the equipment needed to implant ions in silicon and other materials. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/f...

  14. Material characterization of high-voltage lithium-ion battery models for crashworthiness analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Joseph D. (Joseph David)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-phased study of the material properties and post-impact behavior of prismatic pouch lithium-ion battery cells was conducted to refine computational finite element models and explore the mechanisms of thermal runaway ...

  15. Lithium Ion Production NDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations David Wood, Debasish Mohanty, Jianlin Li, and Claus Daniel 12/9/13 EERE Quality Control Workshop #12;2 Presentation name Lithium Ion Electrode to be meaningful and provide electrode and cell QC. #12;3 Presentation name New Directions in Lithium Ion Electrode

  16. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. RoyUSA Abstract A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion

  17. Non-thermal plasma-assisted NOx reduction over Na-Y zeolites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    investigated in the non-thermal plasma assisted NOx reduction reaction using a simulated diesel engine exhaust gas mixture. The acid sites were formed by NH4+ ion exchange and...

  18. Kinetic study of ion-acoustic plasma vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, S. A. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Aman-ur-Rehman, E-mail: amansadiq@gmail.com [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Téchnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic theory of electron plasma waves with finite orbital angular momentum has recently been introduced by Mendonca. This model shows possibility of new kind of plasma waves and instabilities. We have extended the theory to ion-acoustic plasma vortices carrying orbital angular momentum. The dispersion equation is derived under paraxial approximation which exhibits a kind of linear vortices and their Landau damping. The numerical solutions are obtained and compared with analytical results which are in good agreement. The physical interpretation of the ion-acoustic plasma vortices and their Landau resonance conditions are given for typical case of Maxwellian plasmas.

  19. Fall Rubber Colloquium CHARACTERIZATION OF DISPERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    9th Fall Rubber Colloquium CHARACTERIZATION OF DISPERSION MECHANISMS OF AGGLOMERATED FILLERS (styrene-butadiene rubber). The objective was to determine the role of the intrinsic parameters Carbon black and silica are widely used as reinforcing fillers for rubber compounds in the tire industry

  20. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  1. Controlling Non-Covalent Interactions to Modulate the Dispersion of Fullerenes in Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are materials based on a class of filled plastics that contain relatively small amounts of nanoparticles, which can impart improved structural, mechanical, and thermal properties relative to the neat polymer. However, the homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles into a polymer matrix is critical and an impeding factor for the controlled enhancement of PNC properties. In this work, we provide new insight into the importance of polymer chain connectivity and nanoparticle shape and curvature on the formation of noncovalent electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions between polymers and nanoparticles. This is accomplished by experimentally monitoring the dispersion of nanoparticles in copolymers containing varying amounts of functional moieties that can form noncovalent interactions with carbon nanoparticles with corroboration through density functional calculations. The results show that the presence of a minority of interacting functional groups within a polymer chain leads to an optimum interaction between the polymer and fullerene. Density functional theory calculations that identify the binding energy and geometry of the interaction between the functional monomers and fullerenes correspond very well with the experimental results. Moreover, comparison of these results to similar studies with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) indicate a distinct difference in the ability of EDA interactions to improve the dispersion of fullerenes relative to their impact on SWNT. Thus, the polymer chain connectivity, the polymer chain conformation, and size and shape of the nanoparticle modulate the formation of intermolecular interactions and directly impact the dispersion of the resultant nanocomposite.

  2. Controlling Non-Covalent Interactions to Modulate the Dispersion of Fullerenes in Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linton, Dias [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Teh, Say-Lee [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are materials based on a class of filled plastics that contain relatively small amounts of nanoparticles, which can impart improved structural, mechanical, and thermal properties relative to the neat polymer. However, the homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles into a polymer matrix is critical and an impeding factor for the controlled enhancement of PNC properties. In this work, we provide new insight into the importance of polymer chain connectivity and nanoparticle shape and curvature on the formation of noncovalent electron donoracceptor (EDA) interactions between polymers and nanoparticles. This is accomplished by experimentally monitoring the dispersion of nanoparticles in copolymers containing varying amounts of functional moieties that can form noncovalent interactions with carbon nanoparticles with corroboration through density functional calculations. The results show that the presence of a minority of interacting functional groups within a polymer chain leads to an optimum interaction between the polymer and fullerene. Density functional theory calculations that identify the binding energy and geometry of the interaction between the functional monomers and fullerenes correspond very well with the experimental results. Moreover, comparison of these results to similar studies with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) indicate a distinct difference in the ability of EDA interactions to improve the dispersion of fullerenes relative to their impact on SWNT. Thus, the polymer chain connectivity, the polymer chain conformation, and size and shape of the nanoparticle modulate the formation of intermolecular interactions and directly impact the dispersion of the resultant nanocomposite.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic spin waves in degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mushtaq, A. [TPPD, PINSTECH Nilore, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Maroof, R.; Ahmad, Zulfiaqr [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low frequency magnetosonic waves are studied in magnetized degenerate electron-positron-ion plasmas with spin effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, and spin magnetization energy, a generalized dispersion relation for oblique magnetosonic waves is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. For three different values of angle {theta}, the generalized dispersion relation is reduced to three different relations under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effect of quantum corrections in the presence of positron concentration significantly modifies the dispersive properties of these modes. The importance of the work relevant to compact astrophysical bodies is pointed out.

  4. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon X. Wang; Yufei Ge; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Eric Dauler; Karl Berggren; Isaac L. Chuang

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  5. Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    conduction · Heat conduction in Bose condensates ­ electronic superconductors ­ superfluid helium ­ Bose condensate of magnons #12;Outline--toward perfect thermal insulators · Einstein and minimum thermal directions #12;Gas kinetic equation is a good place to start · Anharmonicity (high T limit) · Point defect

  6. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  7. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weller, Robert R. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

  8. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  9. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  10. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  11. Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    -thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer;Leuchtstoffröhre Plasma-Bildschirm Energiesparlampe #12;electrical engineering light sources textile industry

  12. Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandara, R.; Khachan, J. [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)] [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.

  13. Three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabry, R. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Alkharj University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta-Branch, New Damietta, 34517 Damietta (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt); El-Shamy, E. F. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta-Branch, New Damietta, 34517 Damietta (Egypt); Shukla, P. K. [RUB International Chair, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional ion-acoustic envelope soliton excitations in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas are interpreted. This is accomplished through the derivation of three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation, where the nonlinearity is balancing with the dispersive terms. The latter contains both an external magnetic field besides the usual plasma parameter effects. Based on the balance between the nonlinearity and the dispersion terms, the regions for possible envelope solitons are investigated indicating that new regimes for modulational instability of envelope ion-acoustic waves could be obtained, which cannot exist in the unmagnetized case. This will allow us to establish additional new regimes, different from the usual unmagnetized plasma, for envelope ion-acoustic waves to propagate in multicomponent plasma that may be observed in space or astrophysics.

  14. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  15. ION-BY-ION COOLING EFFICIENCIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnat, Orly [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: orlyg@tapir.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ion-by-ion cooling efficiencies for low-density gas. We use Cloudy (version 10.00) to estimate the cooling efficiencies for each ion of the first 30 elements (H-Zn) individually. We present results for gas temperatures between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 8} K, assuming low densities and optically thin conditions. When nonequilibrium ionization plays a significant role the ionization states deviate from those that obtain in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), and the local cooling efficiency at any given temperature depends on specific nonequilibrium ion fractions. The results presented here allow for an efficient estimate of the total cooling efficiency for any ionic composition. We also list the elemental cooling efficiencies assuming CIE conditions. These can be used to construct CIE cooling efficiencies for non-solar abundance ratios or to estimate the cooling due to elements not included in any nonequilibrium computation. All the computational results are listed in convenient online tables.

  16. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  17. Accepted Manuscript Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    management in EV applications. Keywords: Lithium-ion battery; Path dependence; Thermal aging; Degradation emissions, advanced lithium-ion battery systems are currently being developed for electrical vehicles (EVs need to provide more realistic and accurate State of Health estimations for batteries in electric

  18. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  19. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  20. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  1. Do dispersive waves play a role in collisionless magnetic reconnection?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Daughton, W.; Li, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Karimabadi, H. [SciberQuest, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States) [SciberQuest, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Peter Gary, S. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)] [Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that the properly normalized reconnection rate is fast ?0.1 for guide fields up to 80× larger than the reconnecting field and is insensitive to both the system size and the ion to electron mass ratio. These results challenge conventional explanations of reconnection based on fast dispersive waves, which are completely absent for sufficiently strong guide fields. In this regime, the thickness of the diffusion layer is set predominantly by the electron inertial length with an inner sublayer that is controlled by finite gyro-radius effects. As the Alfvén velocity becomes relativistic for very strong guide fields, the displacement current becomes important and strong deviations from charge neutrality occur, resulting in the build-up of intense electric fields which absorb a portion of the magnetic energy release. Over longer time scales, secondary magnetic islands are generated near the active x-line while an electron inertial scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is driven within the outflow. These secondary instabilities give rise to time variations in the reconnection rate but do not alter the average value.

  2. On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

  3. Update 5 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant: Modeling Cycling Units 1, 2 plus One Baseload Unit Update 5 to: A Dispersion Modeling...

  4. Geographic dispersion in teams : its history, experience, measurement, and change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Michael Boyer, 1969-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis begins with the simple argument that geographic dispersion has gone surprisingly unexamined despite its role as the domain-defining construct for geographically dispersed teams (a.k.a. "virtual teams"). The ...

  5. Dryout droplet distribution and dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wayne S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersed flow film boiling is characterized by liquid-phase droplets entrained in a continuous vapor-phase flow. In a previous work at MIT, a model of dispersed flow heat transfer was developed, called the Local Conditions ...

  6. air pollution dispersal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  7. air pollutant dispersion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  8. Particle-in-cell simulations of ion-acoustic waves with application to Saturn's magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koen, Etienne J. [South African National Space Agency (SANSA), Space Science, Hermanus (South Africa); School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Collier, Andrew B.; Hellberg, Manfred A. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Maharaj, Shimul K. [South African National Space Agency (SANSA), Space Science, Hermanus (South Africa)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a particle-in-cell simulation, the dispersion and growth rate of the ion-acoustic mode are investigated for a plasma containing two ion and two electron components. The electron velocities are modelled by a combination of two kappa distributions, as found in Saturn's magnetosphere. The ion components consist of adiabatic ions and an ultra-low density ion beam to drive a very weak instability, thereby ensuring observable waves. The ion-acoustic mode is explored for a range of parameter values such as ?, temperature ratio, and density ratio of the two electron components. The phase speed, frequency range, and growth rate of the mode are investigated. Simulations of double-kappa two-temperature plasmas typical of the three regions of Saturn's magnetosphere are also presented and analysed.

  9. Dispersion-free radial transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Patterson, CA)

    2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

  10. Quantum ratchet transport with minimal dispersion rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Fei; Ponomarev, A V; Hänggi, P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the performance of quantum ratchets by considering the dynamics of an initially localized wave packet loaded into a flashing periodic potential. The directed center-of-mass motion can be initiated by the uniform modulation of the potential height, provided that the modulation protocol breaks all relevant time- and spatial reflection symmetries. A poor performance of quantum ratchet transport is characterized by a slow net motion and a fast diffusive spreading of the wave packet, while the desirable optimal performance is the contrary. By invoking a quantum analog of the classical P\\'eclet number, namely the quotient of the group velocity and the dispersion of the propagating wave packet, we calibrate the transport properties of flashing quantum ratchets and discuss the mechanisms that yield low-dispersive directed transport.

  11. Quantum ratchet transport with minimal dispersion rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei Zhan; S. Denisov; A. V. Ponomarev; P. Hänggi

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the performance of quantum ratchets by considering the dynamics of an initially localized wave packet loaded into a flashing periodic potential. The directed center-of-mass motion can be initiated by the uniform modulation of the potential height, provided that the modulation protocol breaks all relevant time- and spatial reflection symmetries. A poor performance of quantum ratchet transport is characterized by a slow net motion and a fast diffusive spreading of the wave packet, while the desirable optimal performance is the contrary. By invoking a quantum analog of the classical P\\'eclet number, namely the quotient of the group velocity and the dispersion of the propagating wave packet, we calibrate the transport properties of flashing quantum ratchets and discuss the mechanisms that yield low-dispersive directed transport.

  12. Some Thermodynamic Properties of Colloidal Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Thier, Pierre

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, some results are derived to describe the out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics of colloidal suspensions. These results are obtained assuming that the properties of the colloids essentially come from their surfaces which are unusually high in comparison to their volume. The dispersion, in the form of a variable, is introduced in such a way as to embody the various changes which could affect those systems. Explicit relations are deduced for the free enthalpy of dispersion which describe two separated phenomena: the peptization/coalescence and the suspension of a colloidal phase. An alternative to the Gibbs' adsorption equation allows to explain how a surface relaxes thanks to adsorptions. Finally, a link between conformational entropy changes and surface entropy production is discussed with the idea to be applied to the well known protein folding problem.

  13. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Precision Radial Velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erskine, D J; Muterspaugh, M W; Edelstein, J; Lloyd, J; Herter, T; Feuerstein, W M; Muirhead, P; Wishnow, E

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is the series combination of a fixed-delay field-widened Michelson interferometer with a dispersive spectrograph. This combination boosts the spectrograph performance for both Doppler velocimetry and high resolution spectroscopy. The interferometer creates a periodic spectral comb that multiplies against the input spectrum to create moire fringes, which are recorded in combination with the regular spectrum. The moire pattern shifts in phase in response to a Doppler shift. Moire patterns are broader than the underlying spectral features and more easily survive spectrograph blurring and common distortions. Thus, the EDI technique allows lower resolution spectrographs having relaxed optical tolerances (and therefore higher throughput) to return high precision velocity measurements, which otherwise would be imprecise for the spectrograph alone.

  14. Spatial Dispersion of Peering Clusters in the European Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Ignazio, Alessio; Giovannetti, Emanuele

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ), both showing some degree of dispersion. 6 We would like ti thank Dr Fingleton for helpful suggestions on this topic...

  15. Damage Profile and Ion Distribution of Slow Heavy Ions in Compounds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Profile and Ion Distribution of Slow Heavy Ions in Compounds. Damage Profile and Ion Distribution of Slow Heavy Ions in Compounds. Abstract: Slow heavy ions inevitably produce a...

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL STABILITY OF LI-ION BATTERIES BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Overall Technology Assessment · Appendices o Appendix A: Final Report (under separate cover) o Appendix B Funding: $75,000 Term: July 2002 ­ June 2003 PIER Subject Area: Renewable Energy Technologies #12;Page i · Renewable Energy Technologies · Environmentally-Preferred Advanced Generation · Energy-Related Environmental

  17. Electron-ion thermal equilibration after spherical shock collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rygg, J. R.

    A comprehensive set of dual nuclear product observations provides a snapshot of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules at the time of shock collapse, shortly before the final stages of compression. The collapse of ...

  18. Determination of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient and Net

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, David

    with a Large-Scale, High Resolution SF6 Tracer Release Experiment D A V I D T . H O , * , P E T E R S C H L O into rivers. In the following, we report results from a large-scale SF6 tracer release experiment conducted in the tidal Hudson River to examine longitudinal dispersion and net advection. SF6 was injected

  19. Dense gas dispersion modeling for aqueous releases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara, Armando

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DENSE GAS DISPERSION MODELING FOR AQUEOUS RELEASES A Thesis by ARMANDO LARA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University In partial fulfill ment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1999 Major... Modeling for Aqueous Releases. (May 1999) Armando Lara, B. S. , University of Houston Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Sam Mannan Production, transportation, and storage of hazardous chemicals represent potential risks to the environment, the public...

  20. Dispersal of Gaseous Circumstellar Discs around High-Mass Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue Shen; Yu-Qing Lou

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dispersal of a gaseous disc surrounding a central high-mass stellar core once this circumstellar disc becomes fully ionized. If the stellar and surrounding EUV and X-ray radiations are so strong as to rapidly heat up and ionize the entire circumstellar disc as further facilitated by disc magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, a shock can be driven to travel outward in the fully ionized disc, behind which the disc expands and thins. For an extremely massive and powerful stellar core, the ionized gas pressure overwhelms the centrifugal and gravitational forces in the disc. In this limit, we construct self-similar shock solutions for such an expansion and depletion phase. As a significant amount of circumstellar gas being removed, the relic disc becomes vulnerable to strong stellar winds and fragments into clumps. We speculate that disc disappearance happens rapidly, perhaps on a timescale of $\\sim 10^3-10^4\\hbox{yr}$ once the disc becomes entirely ionized sometime after the onset of thermal nuclear burning in a high-mass stellar core.

  1. Single Ion Implantation and Deterministic Doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of single atoms, e.g. dopant atoms, in sub-100 nm scale electronic devices can affect the device characteristics, such as the threshold voltage of transistors, or the sub-threshold currents. Fluctuations of the number of dopant atoms thus poses a complication for transistor scaling. In a complementary view, new opportunities emerge when novel functionality can be implemented in devices deterministically doped with single atoms. The grand price of the latter might be a large scale quantum computer, where quantum bits (qubits) are encoded e.g. in the spin states of electrons and nuclei of single dopant atoms in silicon, or in color centers in diamond. Both the possible detrimental effects of dopant fluctuations and single atom device ideas motivate the development of reliable single atom doping techniques which are the subject of this chapter. Single atom doping can be approached with top down and bottom up techniques. Top down refers to the placement of dopant atoms into a more or less structured matrix environment, like a transistor in silicon. Bottom up refers to approaches to introduce single dopant atoms during the growth of the host matrix e.g. by directed self-assembly and scanning probe assisted lithography. Bottom up approaches are discussed in Chapter XYZ. Since the late 1960's, ion implantation has been a widely used technique to introduce dopant atoms into silicon and other materials in order to modify their electronic properties. It works particularly well in silicon since the damage to the crystal lattice that is induced by ion implantation can be repaired by thermal annealing. In addition, the introduced dopant atoms can be incorporated with high efficiency into lattice position in the silicon host crystal which makes them electrically active. This is not the case for e.g. diamond, which makes ion implantation doping to engineer the electrical properties of diamond, especially for n-type doping much harder then for silicon. Ion implantation is usually a highly statistical process, where high fluences of energetic ions, ranging from {approx}10{sup 9} to >10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} are implanted. For single atom device development, control over the absolute number of ions is needed and ions have to be placed with high spatial resolution. In the following sections we will discuss a series of approaches to single ion implantation with regard to single ion impact sensing and control of single ion positioning.

  2. Infrared behavior of the dispersion relations in high-temperature scalar QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Abada; K. Bouakaz

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the infrared properties of the next-to-leading-order dispersion relations in scalar quantum electrodynamics at high temperature in the context of hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory. Specifically, we determine the damping rate and the energy for scalars with ultrasoft momenta. We show by explicit calculations that an early external-momentum expansion, before the Matsubara sum is performed, gives exactly the same result as a late one. The damping rate is obtained up to fourth order included in the ultrasoft momentum and the energy up to second order. The damping rate is found sensitive in the infrared whereas the energy not.

  3. Determining and modeling near site dispersion of gaseous releases to the environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Charles Rene

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mm Hg at 0. 9 C. There 21 are 7. 48 x 10 iodine atoms per milliter of ethyl iodide and the thermal neutron activation cross-section is 6. 1 barns for iodine-127 which is 100 percent atom abundance (HOLDEN and WALKER, 1972). 16 Following a neutron... extension of the technique to atmospheric dispersion studies. 2 Assuming 10 ml of ethyl iodide is released and sampled at 3 -5 I m /sec at the location of the 10 dilution factor with a 90% collection efficiency (ACKLEY, ADAMS, and BROWNING, 1967; CRAIG...

  4. Dispersants Forum: Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill & Ecosystem Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Dispersants Forum: Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill & Ecosystem Science Conference What have we & Restoration, Gulf of Mexico Disaster Response Center 2.3. Characterizing Dispersant and Dispersed Oil Effects The content for this workshop was developed in cooperation with the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (Go

  5. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, D.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Bolte, N. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Marsili, P. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Roche, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Wessel, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  6. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  7. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  8. Collection of ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus and method provide an improved technique for detecting ions as the area from which ions are attracted to a detector is increased, consequently increasing the number of ions detected. This is achieved by providing the outer electrodes of the detector connected to the electrical potential, together with alternate intermediate electrodes. The other intermediate electrodes and preferably the housing are grounded. The technique renders such detection techniques more sensitive and gives them a lower threshold at which they can function.

  9. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM)

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  10. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  11. Effects of ion abundances on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave growth rate in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, F. D., E-mail: farranalfonso@gmail.com; Mace, R. L., E-mail: macer@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in multi-ion species plasmas propagate in branches. Except for the branch corresponding to the heaviest ion species, which has only a resonance at its gyrofrequency, these branches are bounded below by a cutoff frequency and above by a resonant gyrofrequency. The condition for wave growth is determined by the thermal anisotropies of each ion species, j, which sets an upper bound, ?{sub j}{sup ?}, on the wave frequency below which that ion species contributes positively to the growth rate. It follows that the relative positions of the cutoffs and the critical frequencies ?{sub j}{sup ?} play a crucial role in determining whether a particular wave branch will be unstable. The effect of the magnetospheric ion abundances on the growth rate of each branch of the EMIC instability in a model where all the ion species have kappa velocity distributions is investigated by appealing to the above ideas. Using the variation of the cutoff frequencies predicted by cold plasma theory as a guide, optimal ion abundances that maximise the EMIC instability growth rate are sought. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of H{sup +} ions, all branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the proton branch having the maximum growth rate. When the O{sup +} ion abundance in the ring current is increased, a decrease in the growth rate of the proton branch and cyclotron damping of the helium branch are observed. The oxygen branch, on the other hand, experiences an increase in the maximum growth rate with an increase in the O{sup +} ion abundance. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of He{sup +} ions, only the helium and oxygen branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the helium branch having the maximum growth rate.

  12. Numerical integration of thermal noise in relativistic hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clint Young

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal fluctuations affect the dynamics of systems near critical points, the evolution of the early universe, and two-particle correlations in heavy-ion collisions. For the latter, numerical simulations of nearly-ideal, relativistic fluids are necessary. The correlation functions of noise in relativistic fluids are calculated, stochastic integration of the noise in 3+1-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics is implemented, and the effect of noise on observables in heavy-ion collisions is discussed. Thermal fluctuations will cause significant variance in the event-by-event distributions of integrated v2 while changing average values even when using the same initial conditions, suggesting that including thermal noise will lead to refitting of the hydrodynamical parameters with implications for understanding the physics of hot QCD.

  13. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology in microfabrications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the right chamber (ion chamber) are confined in their ownwatts and that on the ion chamber is 50 watts. A permanent-column and the ion source chamber. The simulation is

  14. Characterization and In-Situ Ion-Irradiation of MA957 ODS Steel Djamel Kaoumi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Characterization and In-Situ Ion-Irradiation of MA957 ODS Steel Djamel Kaoumi1 , Arthur Motta1 Laboratory, Argonne, IL 060493, USA INTRODUCTION Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ferritic. EXPERIMENT Material Characterization Prior to Irradiation MA957 ODS alloy (Fe­14Cr­1Ti­0.3Mo­0.25Y2O3

  15. Drift and ion acoustic wave driven vortices with superthermal electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali Shan, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre For Physics (NCP), Shahdra Valley Road, QAU Campus, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre For Physics (NCP), Shahdra Valley Road, QAU Campus, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear and nonlinear analysis of coupled drift and acoustic mode is presented in an inhomogeneous electron-ion plasma with {kappa}-distributed electrons. A linear dispersion relation is found which shows that the phase speed of both the drift wave and the ion acoustic wave decreases in the presence of superthermal electrons. Several limiting cases are also discussed. In the nonlinear regime, stationary solutions in the form of dipolar and monopolar vortices are obtained. It is shown that the condition for the boundedness of the solution implies that the speed of drift wave driven vortices reduces with increase in superthermality effect. Ignoring density inhomogeniety, it is investigated that the lower and upper limits on the speed of the ion acoustic driven vortices spread with the inclusion of high energy electrons. The importance of results with reference to space plasmas is also pointed out.

  16. Origin of ion-cyclotron turbulence in the downward Birkeland current region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, B.; Jasperse, J. R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731 (United States); Lund, E. J. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Grossbard, N. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear stability analysis of the electron velocity distributions, which are observed in the FAST satellite measurements in the downward Birkeland current region of the magnetosphere, is presented. The satellite-measured particle (electrons and protons) velocity distributions are fitted with analytic functions and the dispersion relation is derived in terms of the plasma dispersion functions associated with those distribution functions. Numerical solutions of the dispersion relation show that the bump-on-tail structure of the electron velocity distribution can excite electrostatic ion-cyclotron instabilities by the Landau resonance mechanism. Nonlinear evolution of these instabilities may explain the observed electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence in the Birkeland current region. Excitation of other types of instabilities by the fitted electron velocity distributions and their relevance are also discussed.

  17. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  18. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  19. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  20. Relativistic heavy ion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagamiya, Shoji.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: antiproton production; Bose-Einstein correlations; high-transverse momentum spectra; strangeness enhancement in heavy ion collisions; search for rare negative secondaries of antiprotons and antinuclei produced in heavy ion collisions; quark matter; and time-of-flight systems test at Brookhaven AGS. (LSP).

  1. Ion-beam technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  2. HEAVY-ION RADIOGRAPHY AND HEAVY-ION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RADIOGRAPHY AND HEAVY-ION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY 1,2 Jacob I .RADIOGRAPHY AND HEAVY-ION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY J I Fabrikant,

  3. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  4. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing #12;0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4 and x-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic.77 700 red limit 30k0.041 2.48 green500 near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrare refers

  5. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  6. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  7. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov * energy.govsunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving...

  8. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Thermal Control Technologies Advanced Vehicle Systems Technology Transfer Jet Cooling Alternative Coolants TIM Low R Structure Phase Change Spray Cooling Air Cooling...

  9. Economics of selected WECS dispersed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawiec, S.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An economic analysis for distributed Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) was conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Solar Commercial Readiness Assessment task at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The major objective of the study is to analyze: the cost of electricity generated by selected wind energy systems in residential and agricultural applications; the breakeven cost of wind systems able to compete economically with conventional power sources in dispersed applications; and the impact of major economic factors on the cost performance index.

  10. NYO-7593 LECTIJHES ON DISPERSION THEORY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruck PlatooningJefferson7593 LECTIJHES ON DISPERSION THEORY by

  11. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  12. Scaling of elliptic flow, recombination, and sequential freeze-out of hadrons in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Min; Fries, Rainer J.; Rapp, Ralf.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scaling properties of elliptic flow of hadrons produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are investigated at low transverse momenta, p(T) less than or similar to 2 GeV. Utilizing empirical parametrizations of a thermalized fireball...

  13. Interesting features of nonlinear shock equations in dissipative pair-ion-electron plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masood, W. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 54000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Rizvi, H. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 54000 (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two dimensional nonlinear electrostatic waves are studied in unmagnetized, dissipative pair-ion-electron plasmas in the presence of weak transverse perturbation. The dissipation in the system is taken into account by incorporating the kinematic viscosity of both positive and negative ions. In the linear case, a biquadratic dispersion relation is obtained, which yields the fast and slow modes in a pair-ion-electron plasma. It is shown that the limiting cases of electron-ion and pair-ion can be retrieved from the general biquadratic dispersion relation, and the differences in the characters of the waves propagating in both the cases are also highlighted. Using the small amplitude approximation method, the nonlinear Kadomtsev Petviashvili Burgers as well as Burgers-Kadomtsev Petviashvili equations are derived and their applicability for pair-ion-electron plasma is explained in detail. The present study may have relevance to understand the formation of two dimensional electrostatic shocks in laboratory produced pair-ion-electron plasmas.

  14. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bates, John K. (Plainfield, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  15. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

    1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  16. Thermalization of gluon matter including ggggg interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. El; C. Greiner; Z. Xu

    2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Within a pQCD inspired kinetic parton cascade we simulate the space time evolution of gluons which are produced initially in a heavy ion collision at RHIC energy. The inelastic gluonic interactions $gg \\leftrightarrow ggg$ do play an important role: For various initial conditions it is found that thermalization and the close to ideal fluid dynamical behaviour sets in at very early times. Special emphasis is put on color glass condensate initial conditions and the `bottom up thermalization' scenario. Off-equilibrium $3\\to 2$ processes make up the very beginning of the evolution leading to an initial decrease in gluon number and a temporary avalanche of the gluon momentum distribution to higher transversal momenta.

  17. High Yield Synthesis of Mesoscopic Conductive and Dispersible Carbon Nanostructures via Ultrasonication of Commercial Precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Vikram K [ORNL] [ORNL; Quinlan, Ronald [ORNL] [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL] [ORNL; Kisliuk, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhat, Gajanan [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to produce large quantities of graphenic materials displaying excellent conductivity, thermal resistance, and tunable properties for industrial applications has spurred interest in new techniques for exfoliating graphite. In this paper, sonication-assisted exfoliation of graphitic precursors in the presence of chloroform is shown to produce chemically and structurally unique exfoliated graphitic materials in high yields. These exfoliated graphites, referred to as mesographite and mesographene, respectively, exhibit unique properties which depend on the number of layers and exfoliation conditions. Structural characterization of mesographene reveals the presence of nanoscale two-dimensional graphene layers, and threedimensional carbon nanostructures sandwiched between layers, similar to those found in ball-milled and intercalated graphites. The conductivities of mesographite and mesographene are 2700 and 2000 S/m, respectively, indicating high conductivity despite flake damage. Optical absorption measurements of mesographite sonicated in various solvents showed significant changes in dispersion characteristics, and also indicated significant changes to mesoscopic colloidal behavior. A mechanism for functionalization and formation of capped carbon nanostructures is proposed by integrating the chemical and structural characterization in relation to the various carbon structures observed by electron microscopy. Composites based on common polymers were prepared by solution processing, and changes in thermal properties indicate improved dispersion of mesographite in polar polymers.

  18. Fate of commercial disperse dyes in sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yen, C.P.C.; Perenich, T.A.; Baughman, G.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. The commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely used. Reaction rates were found to be first order over at least two half-lives and were different for the three groups of dyes. Half-lives were on the order of hours, days and months for the nitroazobenzene, aminoanthraquinone, and quinoline dyes, respectively. Stability of the latter is consistent with detection of a quinoline dye in treatment plant sludge and in sediment from a water body receiving treated effluent. The azobenzene dyes are degraded by cleavage of the azo group to give anilines and ring-substituted phenylenediamines from the diazo component of the molecule. Products from the other portion (coupling component) of the molecule are unidentified, as yet, but are expected to be N,N-disubstituted phenylenediamines. Products of the anthraquinone dyes were unidentified, except for the case of a nitrated dye on which the nitro group was reduced.

  19. Evaluation of machining dispersions for turning process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnaud Lefebvre; Valery Wolff

    2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we propose to extend the model of simulation of dispersions in turning based on the geometrical specifications. Our study is articulated around two trends of development: the first trend relates to the geometrical model. The geometrical model suggested must allow a follow-up of the geometry of the part during the simulation of machining. It is thus a question of carrying out a systematic treatment of the whole dimensioning and tolerancing process while being based on the principles of the \\DeltaL method. We also planned to integrate this type of specification in the model of simulation of machining suggested. It is more generally a question of extending the traditional model for better taking into account the multi axis specification of coaxiality and perpendicularity on the turned workpieces. The second trend of our study relates to the widening of the field of application of the model. We propose to extend the field of application of the model by taking into account the modifications of several parameters of the manufacturing process plans, likely to involve variations of dispersions.

  20. Studies of the mechanism of the cluster formation in a thermally sampling atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Sascha, E-mail: s.albrecht@fz-juelich.de; Stroh, Fred, E-mail: f.stroh@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Stratosphere (IEK-7), 52428 Jülich (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Stratosphere (IEK-7), 52428 Jülich (Germany); Klopotowski, Sebastian, E-mail: s.klopotowski@uni-wuppertal.de; Derpmann, Valerie, E-mail: v.derpmann@uni-wuppertal.de; Klee, Sonja, E-mail: s.klee@uni-wuppertal.de; Brockmann, Klaus J., E-mail: brockma@uni-wuppertal.de; Benter, Thorsten, E-mail: tbenter@uni-wuppertal.de [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Institute for Pure and Applied Mass Spectrometry, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)] [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Institute for Pure and Applied Mass Spectrometry, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study a thermally sampling atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer is described and characterized. The ion transfer stage offers the capability to sample cluster ions at thermal equilibrium and during this transfer fundamental processes possibly affecting the cluster distribution are also readily identified. Additionally, the transfer stage combines optional collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis of the cluster composition with thermal equilibrium sampling of clusters. The performance of the setup is demonstrated with regard to the proton-bound water cluster system. The benefit of the studied processes is that they can help to improve future transfer stages and to understand cluster ion reactions in ion mobility tubes and high-pressure ion sources. In addition, the instrument allows for the identification of fragmentation and protonation reactions caused by CID.

  1. Theory of waves in pair-ion plasmas: Natural explanation of backward modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kono, M. [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan); Vranjes, J. [Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia)] [Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Batool, N. [National Center for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)] [National Center for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Backward waves observed in the experiments by Oohara and Hatakeyama (Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 205005 (2003)) are identified to be ion cyclotron harmonic waves inherent to the kinetic theory. The derived dispersion equation is based on exact solutions of the characteristic equations of the Vlasov equation in a bounded cylindrical coordinate system; it is different from its counterpart in unbounded plasmas, and it provides all the branches of the dispersion relations observed in the experiment. Positive and negative ions respond to a potential in the same time scale and cooperate to expose kinetic orbital behaviors to the macroscopic propagation characteristics. In addition, the experimental setting of the large Larmor radius makes higher harmonic ion cyclotron backward/forward waves observable. The large Larmor radius effects are naturally treated by a kinetic theory.

  2. Comment on "Mode Conversion of Waves In The Ion-Cyclotron Frequency Range in Magnetospheric Plasmas"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, Kazakov and Fulop [1] studied mode conversion (MC) at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance in planetary magnetospheric plasmas by simplifying the dispersion relation of the fast wave (FW) modes to describe a cutoff-resonance (CR) pair near the IIH resonance, which can be reduced to a Budden problem. They suggested that when the IIH resonance frequency (?S) approaches the crossover frequency (?cr), and the parallel wavenumber (k?) is close to the critical wavenumber k? ?(?S = ?cr), MC can be efficient for arbitrary heavy ion density ratios. In this Comment, we argue that (a) the FW dispersion relation cannot be simplified to the CR pair especially near ?cr because in many parameter regimes there is a cutoff-resonance-cutoff (CRC) triplet that completely changes the wave absorption; and (b) the maximum MC efficiency does not always occur near k? ?#25; k???.

  3. Mode conversion and absorption of fast waves at high ion cyclotron harmonics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Suwon, E-mail: swcho@kgu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Kyonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Kyonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jong-Gu [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation and absorption of high harmonic fast waves is of interest for non-inductive current drives in fusion experiments. The fast wave can be coupled with the ion Bernstein wave that propagates in the high magnetic field side of an ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layer. This coupling and the absorption are analyzed using the hot plasma dispersion relation and a wave equation that was converted from an approximate dispersion relation for the case where ?{sub i}=k{sub ?}{sup 2}?{sub i}{sup 2}/2?1 (where k{sub ?} is the perpendicular wave number and ?{sub i} is the ion Larmor radius). It is found that both reflection and conversion may occur near the harmonic resonance layer but that they decrease rapidly, giving rise to a sharp increase in the absorption as the parallel wave number increases.

  4. Kaon dispersion relation and flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ba; Ko, Che Ming.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the scatter- ings of kaons with other hadrons, and the real part of the self-energy is given by the mean-field potential. Although various approaches have been used to evaluate the kaon dis- persion relation in a dense medium ~e.g., @1,13?19#!, we shall... 52, 2037 ~1995!; 53, R22 ~1996!; Nucl. Phys. A601, 457 ~1996!. @10# Q. Li, J.Q. Wu, and C.M. Ko, Phys. Rev. C 39, 849 ~1989!. @11# S.J. Wang, B.A. Li, W. Bauer, and J. Randrup, Ann. Phys. ~N.Y.! 209, 251 ~1991!. @12# W. Bauer, Prog. Part. Nucl...

  5. hal-00267005,version1-27Mar2008 Modeling semiconductor thermal properties. The dispersion role.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in many domains such as nano- junctions1 , transistors2 , or in solar panels3 , and are even used in solar cells. At these low scale, Fourier's law may give an inaccurate description of heat transfer . Thus, the energy flux per apparent surface unit at point r in direction u reads: I,p(r, u) = n(r, u) Vg

  6. Origins of ion irradiation-induced Ga nanoparticle motion on GaAs surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, M.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, H. Y.; Thornton, K.; Goldman, R. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Sofferman, D. L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Department of Physics, Adelphi University, Garden City, New York 11530-0701 (United States); Beskin, I. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States)

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have examined the origins of ion irradiation-induced nanoparticle (NP) motion. Focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces induces random walks of Ga NPs, which are biased in the direction opposite to that of ion beam scanning. Although the instantaneous NP velocities are constant, the NP drift velocities are dependent on the off-normal irradiation angle, likely due to a difference in surface non-stoichiometry induced by the irradiation angle dependence of the sputtering yield. It is hypothesized that the random walks are initiated by ion irradiation-induced thermal fluctuations, with biasing driven by anisotropic mass transport.

  7. Relating to ion detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for improving detection of alpha and/or beta emitting sources on items or in locations using indirect means. The emission forms generate ions in a medium surrounding the item or location and the medium is then moved to a detecting location where the ions are discharged to give a measure of the emission levels. To increase the level of ions generated and render the system particularly applicable for narrow pipes and other forms of conduits, the medium pressure is increased above atmospheric pressure. STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

  8. Microstructure and thermal stability of copper -carbon nanotube composites consolidated by High Pressure Torsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    Microstructure and thermal stability of copper - carbon nanotube composites consolidated by High as the hardness of the pure and composite materials were determined. Due to the pinning effect of CNTs­matrix nanocomposites [3,4]. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising disperse phase in these composites because their high

  9. ThermalEngineeringLaboratory,VanderbiltUniversity Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    into spherical or linear chains of particles while models assume well dispersed solutions 1. 2. http in real systems · Benefits of nanofluids ­ reduced sedimentation and viscosity ­ reduced damage loading (%) calculated di-water Maxwell's model H-S bounds 8/10 #12;ThermalEngineeringLa

  10. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  11. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  12. Methane Oxidation to Methanol without CO2 Emission: Catalysis by Atomic Negative Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfamichael, Aron; Felfli, Zineb; Msezane, Alfred Z

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activities of the atomic Y-, Ru-, At-, In-, Pd-, Ag-, Pt-, and Os- ions have been investigated theoretically using the atomic Au- ion as the benchmark for the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. Dispersion-corrected density-functional theory has been used for the investigation. From the energy barrier calculations and the thermodynamics of the reactions, we conclude that the catalytic effect of the atomic Ag-, At-, Ru-, and Os- ions is higher than that of the atomic Au- ion catalysis of CH4 conversion to methanol. By controlling the temperature around 290K (Os-), 300K (Ag-), 310K (At-), 320K (Ru-) and 325K (Au-) methane can be completely oxidized to methanol without the emission of CO2. We conclude by recommending the investigation of the catalytic activities of combinations of the above negative ions for significant enhancement of the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  13. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr; Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

  14. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  15. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  16. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  17. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  18. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  19. Secondary ion collection and transport system for ion microprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, James W. (Canoga Park, CA); Schlanger, Herbert (Simi Valley, CA); McNulty, Jr., Hugh (Santa Monica, CA); Parker, Norman W. (Camarillo, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary ion collection and transport system, for use with an ion microprobe, which is very compact and occupies only a small working distance, thereby enabling the primary ion beam to have a short focal length and high resolution. Ions sputtered from the target surface by the primary beam's impact are collected between two arcuate members having radii of curvature and applied voltages that cause only ions within a specified energy band to be collected. The collected ions are accelerated and focused in a transport section consisting of a plurality of spaced conductive members which are coaxial with and distributed along the desired ion path. Relatively high voltages are applied to alternate transport sections to produce accelerating electric fields sufficient to transport the ions through the section to an ion mass analyzer, while lower voltages are applied to the other transport sections to focus the ions and bring their velocity to a level compatible with the analyzing apparatus.

  20. Development of the Long Pulse Negative Ion Source for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemsworth, R.S.; Svensson, L.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Krylov, A.; Massmann, P. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Boilson, D. [Association EURATOM-DCU, PRL/NCPST, Glasnevin, Dublin 13 (Ireland); Fanz, U. [Association EURATOM-IPP, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zaniol, B. [CONSORZIO RFX Association EURATOM-ENEA, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the KAMABOKO III ion source, is being tested on the MANTIS test stand at the DRFC Cadarache in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who designed and supplied the ion source. The ion source is attached to a 3 grid 30 keV accelerator (also supplied by JAERI) and the accelerated negative ion current is determined from the energy deposited on a calorimeter located 1.6 m from the source.During experiments on MANTIS three adverse effects of long pulse operation were found: The negative ion current to the calorimeter is {approx_equal}50% of that obtained from short pulse operation Increasing the plasma grid (PG) temperature results in {<=}40% enhancement in negative ion yield, substantially below that reported for short pulse operation, {>=}100%. The caesium 'consumption' is up to 1500 times that expected.Results presented here indicate that each of these is, at least partially, explained by thermal effects. Additionally presented are the results of a detailed characterisation of the source, which enable the most efficient mode of operation to be identified.

  1. Ion sensing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian

    2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

  2. Ion manipulation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  3. Focused ion beam system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  4. HEAVY ION INERTIAL FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keefe, D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerators as Drivers for Inertially Confined Fusion, W.B.LBL-9332/SLAC-22l (1979) Fusion Driven by Heavy Ion Beams,OF CALIFORNIA f Accelerator & Fusion Research Division

  5. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  6. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P. J. (Hayward, CA)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  7. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  8. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

    2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  9. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Award Number: DE-EE00025828 Report Date: March 15, 2013 PI: Stephen Obrey * Technical approach is focused on...

  10. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  11. Ion electric propulsion unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Light, Max E; Colestock, Patrick L

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.

  12. Free ion yields in liquids: Molecular structure and track effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holroyd, R.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The signal generated in a liquid-filled ionization chamber is proporational to the ions that escape, the free ion yield or, G{sub fi}. Recent results show how molecular structure, rate of energy loss (dE/dx) and pressure affect G{sub fi} and give further insight into the ionization process in liquids. As a consequence of the passage of high energy charged particles through a liquid, molecules are ionized and excited. The electrons have kinetic energy initially which allow them to travel some distance away from their geminate cations. The electrons may lose energy to vibrational modes but a significant fraction of the separation occurs while the electrons have subvibrational (near thermal) energy. When the electron finally thermalizes it is within the coulombic field of its parent cation and the two ions constitute a geminate pair. The free ion yield is determined by the fraction of geminate pairs which separate to form free ions as against those that recombine to form excited states.

  13. Free ion yields in liquids: Molecular structure and track effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holroyd, R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The signal generated in a liquid-filled ionization chamber is proporational to the ions that escape, the free ion yield or, G{sub fi}. Recent results show how molecular structure, rate of energy loss (dE/dx) and pressure affect G{sub fi} and give further insight into the ionization process in liquids. As a consequence of the passage of high energy charged particles through a liquid, molecules are ionized and excited. The electrons have kinetic energy initially which allow them to travel some distance away from their geminate cations. The electrons may lose energy to vibrational modes but a significant fraction of the separation occurs while the electrons have subvibrational (near thermal) energy. When the electron finally thermalizes it is within the coulombic field of its parent cation and the two ions constitute a geminate pair. The free ion yield is determined by the fraction of geminate pairs which separate to form free ions as against those that recombine to form excited states.

  14. Effect of the Ligand Shell Composition on the Dispersibility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dispersibility-vs-density plots are obtained by following the variation in the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) absorption spectra of the nanoparticles. To better understand the...

  15. Update 3 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Update 2 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant, Modeling Units 1 and 4 Together More Documents & Publications Update 1 to: A...

  16. Update 6 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Update 6 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant Modeling Baseload Units 3,4,5 More Documents & Publications Attachment A: Modeling...

  17. Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres: Modelling and dispersion engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres: Modelling and dispersion engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4 The split-step Fourier method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 #12;iv CONTENTS 2

  18. Update 4 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant, Modeling Unit 4 Emissions at Maximum and Minimum Loads Update 4 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash...

  19. Update 2 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant, Modeling Unit 1 Emissions at Maximum and Minimum Loads Update 2 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash...

  20. Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant, Modeling Unit 1 Emissions in a Cycling Mode Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from...

  1. atmospheric dispersion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 3 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  2. atmospheric dispersion calculations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 4 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  3. atmospheric dispersion experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 2 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  4. Three Dimensioanl Free Electron Laser Dispersion Relation Including Betatron Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Y.H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-Dimensional Free Electron Laser Dispersion RelationInternational Free Electron Laser Conference, Santa Fe, NM,International Free Electron Laser Conference, held in Santa

  5. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diener, M.D.; Alford, J. M.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for derivatizing the radiofullerenes for water-solubility and a method for removing exohedral radionuclides are reported. The methods and chemistry developed during this CRADA are the crucial first steps for the development of fullerenes as a method superior to existing technologies for in vivo transport of radionuclides.

  6. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA)

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  7. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  8. Dispersion compensation in chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A chirped pulse amplification system includes a laser source providing an input laser pulse along an optical path. The input laser pulse is characterized by a first temporal duration. The system also includes a multi-pass pulse stretcher disposed along the optical path. The multi-pass pulse stretcher includes a first set of mirrors operable to receive input light in a first plane and output light in a second plane parallel to the first plane and a first diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher also includes a second set of mirrors operable to receive light diffracted from the first diffraction grating and a second diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher further includes a reflective element operable to reflect light diffracted from the second diffraction grating. The system further includes an amplifier, a pulse compressor, and a passive dispersion compensator disposed along the optical path.

  9. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  10. Ion optics of RHIC EBIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

    2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    RHIC EBIS has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  11. QCD plasma instability and thermalisation at heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich Bodeker; Kari Rummukainen

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Under suitable non-equilibrium conditions QCD plasma can develop plasma instabilities, where some modes of the plasma grow exponentially. It has been argued that these instabilities can play a significant role in the thermalisation of the plasma in heavy-ion collision experiments. We study the instability in SU(2) plasmas using the hard thermal loop effective lattice theory, which is suitable for studying real-time evolution of long wavelength modes in the plasma. We observe that under suitable conditions the plasma can indeed develop an instability which can grow to a very large magnitude, necessary for the rapid thermalisation in heavy-ion collisions.

  12. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  13. Characterization of an RF-Driven Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westenskow, G A; Hall, R P; Halaxa, E; Kwan, J W

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We are testing a high-current-density high-brightness Argon-Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion applications. The 100-kV 20-{micro}s source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet. The extraction current density is 100 mA/cm2. We have measured the emittance of the beamlet, and the fraction of Ar{sup ++} ions under several operating conditions. We present measurements of the extracted current density as a function of RF power and gas pressure ({approx} 2 mT), current density uniformity, and energy dispersion (due to charge exchange). We are testing a 80-kV 61-hole multi-beamlet array that will produce a total current > 200 mA. In the current experiments the beamlets are not merged into a single beam. A 500-kV experiment where the beamlets will be merged to a produce 0.5-A beam is being planned.

  14. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  15. Ion transport through a graphene nanopore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guohui Hu; Mao Mao; Sandip Ghosal

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulation is utilized to investigate the ionic transport of NaCl in solution through a graphene nanopore under an applied electric field. Results show the formation of concentration polarization layers in the vicinity of the graphene sheet. The non-uniformity of the ion distribution gives rise to an electric pressure which drives vortical motions in the fluid if the electric field is sufficiently strong to overcome the influence of viscosity and thermal fluctuations. The relative importance of hydrodynamic transport and thermal fluctuations in determining the pore conductivity is investigated. A second important effect that is observed is the mass transport of water through the nanopore, with an average velocity proportional to the applied voltage and independent of the pore diameter. The flux arises as a consequence of the asymmetry in the ion distribution with respect to reflection about the plane of the graphene sheet. The accumulation of liquid molecules in the vicinity of the nanopore due to reorientation of the water dipoles by the local electric field is seen to result in a local increasein the liquid density. Results confirm that the electric conductance is proportional to the nanopore diameter for the parameter regimes that we simulated. The occurrence of fluid vortices is found to result in an increase in the effective electrical conductance.

  16. Holographic Thermalization in Quark Confining Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Ageev; I. Ya. Aref'eva

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study holographic thermalization of a strongly coupled theory inspired by two colliding shock waves in a vacuum confining background. Holographic thermalization means a black hole formation, in fact a trapped surface formation. As a vacuum confining background we considered a well know bottom-up AdS/QCD model that provides the Cornell potential as well as reproduces QCD beta-function. We perturb vacuum background by colliding domain shock waves, that are assumed to be holographically dual to heavy ions collisions. Our main physical assumption is that we can make a restriction on the time of a trapped surface production that makes a natural limitation on the size of the domain where the trapped surface is produced. This limits the intermediate domain where the main part of the entropy is produced. In this domain one can use an intermediate vacuum background as an approximation to the full confining background. In this intermediate background a dependence of the produced entropy on colliding energy is very similar to the experimental dependence of particles multiplicities on colliding ions energy obtained from RHIC and LHC. This permits us to conclude that the entropy produced in collisions of domain shock waves during a short time models rather well the experimental data.

  17. Electronuclear ion fusion in an ion cyclotron resonance reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for generating nuclear fusion by ion cyclotron resonance in an ion trap reactor. The reactor includes a cylindrical housing having an axial axis, an internal surface, and first and second ends. First and second end plates that are charged are respectively located at the first and second ends of the cylindrical housing. A gas layer is adsorbed on the internal surface of the cylindrical housing. Ions are desorbed from the gas layer, forming a plasma layer adjacent to the cylindrical housing that includes first ions that have a same charge sign as the first and second end plates. A uniform magnetic field is oriented along the axial axis of the cylindrical housing. Second ions, that are unlike the first ions, but have the same charge sign, are injected into the cylindrical housing along the axial axis of the cylindrical housing. A radio frequency field resonantly accelerates the injected second ions at the cyclotron resonance frequency of the second ions. The second ions circulate in increasing helical orbits and react with the first ions, at the optimum energy for nuclear fusion. The amplitude of the radio frequency field is adjusted to accelerate the second ions at a rate equal to the rate of tangential energy loss of the second ions by nuclear scattering in the first ions, causing the ions to continually interact until fusion occurs.

  18. Thermal Insulation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  19. Thermally driven circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelken, Haim

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several problems connected by the theme of thermal forcing are addressed herein. The main topic is the stratification and flow field resulting from imposing a specified heat flux on a fluid that is otherwise confined to a ...

  20. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  1. Thermalization in collisions of large nuclei at high energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksi Kurkela

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrodynamical analysis of experimental data of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions seems to indicate that the hot QCD matter created in the collisions thermalizes very quickly. Theoretically, we have no idea why this should be true. In this proceeding, I will describe how the thermalization takes place in the most theoretically clean limit -- that of large nuclei at asymptotically high energy per nucleon, where the system is described by weak-coupling QCD. In this limit, plasma instabilities dominate the dynamics from immediately after the collision until well after the plasma becomes nearly in equilibrium at time t \\alpha^(-5/2)Q^(-1).

  2. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  3. Parametric Dependence Of Fast-ion Transport Events On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, Erik; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podesta, M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Bortolon, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutral-beam heated tokamak plasmas commonly have more than one third of the plasma kinetic energy in the non-thermal energetic beam ion population. This population of fast ions heats the plasma, provides some of the current drive, and can affect the stability (positively or negatively) of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. This population of energetic ions is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, thus there is free-energy available to drive instabilities, which may lead to redistribution of the fast ion population. Understanding under what conditions beam-driven instabilities arise, and the extent of the resulting perturbation to the fast ion population, is important for predicting and eventually demonstrating non-inductive current ramp-up and sustainment in NSTX-U, as well as the performance of future fusion plasma experiments such as ITER. This paper presents an empirical approach towards characterizing the stability boundaries for some common energetic-ion-driven instabilities seen on NSTX.

  4. Power Transmission From The ITER Model Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boilson, D. [Association EURATOM-DCU, PRL/NCPST, Glasnevin, Dublin 13 (Ireland); Esch, H. P. L. de; Grand, C.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Krylov, A. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In Cadarache development on negative ion sources is being carried out on the KAMABOKO III ion source on the MANTIS test bed. This is a model of the ion source designed for the neutral beam injectors of ITER. This ion source has been developed in collaboration with JAERI, Japan, who also designed and supplied the ion source. Its target performance is to accelerate a D- beam, with a current density of 200 A/m2 and <1 electron extracted per accelerated D- ion, at a source filling pressure of 0.3 Pa. For ITER a continuous ion beam must be assured for pulse lengths of 1000 s, but beams of up to 3,600 s are also envisaged. The ion source is attached to a 3 grid 30 keV accelerator (also supplied by JAERI) and the accelerated negative ion current is determined from the energy deposited on a calorimeter. During long pulse operation ({<=}1000 s) it was found that the current density of both D- and H- beams, measured at the calorimeter was lower than expected and that a large discrepancy existed between the accelerated currents measured electrically and those transmitted to the calorimeter. The possibility that this discrepancy arose because the accelerated current included electrons (which would not be able to reach the calorimeter) was investigated and subsequently eliminated. Further studies have shown that the fraction of the electrical current reaching the calorimeter varies with the pulse length, which led to the suggestion that one or more of the accelerator grids were distorting due to the incident power during operation, leading to a progressive deterioration in the beam quality.. New extraction and acceleration grids have been designed and installed, which should have a better tolerance to thermal loads than those previously used. This paper describes the measurements of the power transmission and distribution using these grids.

  5. The DART dispersion analysis research tool: A mechanistic model for predicting fission-product-induced swelling of aluminum dispersion fuels. User`s guide for mainframe, workstation, and personal computer applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rest, J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the primary physical models that form the basis of the DART mechanistic computer model for calculating fission-product-induced swelling of aluminum dispersion fuels; the calculated results are compared with test data. In addition, DART calculates irradiation-induced changes in the thermal conductivity of the dispersion fuel, as well as fuel restructuring due to aluminum fuel reaction, amorphization, and recrystallization. Input instructions for execution on mainframe, workstation, and personal computers are provided, as is a description of DART output. The theory of fission gas behavior and its effect on fuel swelling is discussed. The behavior of these fission products in both crystalline and amorphous fuel and in the presence of irradiation-induced recrystallization and crystalline-to-amorphous-phase change phenomena is presented, as are models for these irradiation-induced processes.

  6. FINITE VOLUME SCHEMES FOR DISPERSIVE WAVE PROPAGATION AND RUNUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    FINITE VOLUME SCHEMES FOR DISPERSIVE WAVE PROPAGATION AND RUNUP DENYS DUTYKH , THEODOROS KATSAOUNIS to bidirectional nonlinear, dispersive wave propagation in one space dimension. Special emphasis is given require the computation of the wave generation [DD07, KDD07], propagation [TG97], interaction with solid

  7. Atmospheric dispersion index for prescribed burning. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavdas, L.G.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical index that estimates the atmosphere's capacity to disperse smoke from prescribed burning is described. The physical assumptions and mathematical development of the index are given in detail. A preliminary interpretation of dispersion index values is offered. A FORTRAN subroutine package for computing the index is included.

  8. Series evaluation of Tweedie exponential dispersion model densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Gordon K.

    of Mathematics and Computing University of Southern Queensland Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia Gordon K. Smyth 3052, Australia smyth@wehi.edu.au 23 February 2005 Abstract Exponential dispersion models, which for generalized linear models. The Tweedie families are those exponential dispersion models with power mean

  9. On a nonlocal dispersive equation modeling particle suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zumbrun, Kevin

    On a nonlocal dispersive equation modeling particle suspensions Kevin Zumbrun July, 1996 Abstract: We study a nonlocal, scalar conservation law, u t + ((K a \\Lambda u)u) x = 0, modeling sedimentation, and \\Lambda represents convolution. We show this to be a dispersive regularization of the Hopf equation, u

  10. Tuning Interfacial Thermal Conductance of Graphene Embedded in Soft Materials by Vacancy Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying [Clemson University; Hu, Chongze [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [Engineering Science and Mechanics Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposites based on graphene dispersed in matrices of soft materials are promising thermal management materials. Their effective thermal conductivity depends on both the thermal conductivity of graphene and the conductance of the thermal transport across graphene-matrix interfaces. Here we report on molecular dynamics simulations of the thermal transport across the interfaces between defected graphene and soft materials in two different modes: in the across mode, heat enters graphene from one side of its basal plane and leaves through the other side; in the non-across mode, heat enters or leaves a graphene simultaneously from both sides of its basal plane. We show that, as the density of vacancy defects in graphene increases from 0 to 8%, the conductance of the interfacial thermal transport in the across mode increases from 160.4 16 to 207.8 11 MW/m2K, while that in the non-across mode increases from 7.2 0.1 to 17.8 0.6 MW/m2K. The molecular mechanisms for these variations of thermal conductance are clarified by using the phonon density of states and structural characteristics of defected graphenes. On the basis of these results and effective medium theory, we show that it is possible to enhance the effective thermal conductivity of thermal nanocomposites by tuning the density of vacancy defects in graphene despite the fact that graphene s thermal conductivity always decreases as vacancy defects are introduced.

  11. A PARALLEL-PROPAGATING ALFVENIC ION-BEAM INSTABILITY IN THE HIGH-BETA SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Maruca, Bennett A., E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu, E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu, E-mail: benjamin.chandran@unh.edu, E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves are driven unstable by an isotropic (T{sub {alpha}} = T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}) population of alpha particles drifting parallel to the magnetic field at an average speed U{sub {alpha}} with respect to the protons. We derive an approximate analytic condition for the minimum value of U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability and refine this result using numerical solutions to the hot-plasma dispersion relation. When the alpha-particle number density is {approx_equal} 5% of the proton number density and the two species have similar thermal speeds, the instability requires that {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 1, where {beta}{sub p} is the ratio of the proton pressure to the magnetic pressure. For 1 {approx}< {beta}{sub p} {approx}< 12, the minimum U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability ranges from 0.7v{sub A} to 0.9v{sub A}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. This threshold is smaller than the threshold of {approx_equal} 1.2v{sub A} for the parallel magnetosonic instability, which was previously thought to have the lowest threshold of the alpha-particle beam instabilities at {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 0.5. We discuss the role of the parallel Alfvenic drift instability for the evolution of the alpha-particle drift speed in the solar wind. We also analyze measurements from the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups and show that the U{sub {alpha}} values measured in solar-wind streams with T{sub {alpha}} Almost-Equal-To T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} are approximately bounded from above by the threshold of the parallel Alfvenic instability.

  12. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    particles of low conductivity dispersed in a metal matrix of high conductivity. A computer code was developed in order to compute the conductivity of cermet fuels as predicted by existing models and an additional model derived in this work... gas release from the fuel particle and contact resistance at the fuel-matrix interface. A description of the methodology used to construct the model is given in Chapter 3. Comparisons between the analytic predictions and the experimental data...

  13. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  14. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  15. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  16. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  17. Thermal conductivity profile determination in proton-irradiated ZrC by spatial and frequency scanning thermal wave methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, C. [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France) [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Antoniow, J. S.; Pron, H. [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France)] [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France); Ban, H. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States)

    2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using complementary thermal wave methods, the irradiation damaged region of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is characterized by quantifiably profiling the thermophysical property degradation. The ZrC sample was irradiated by a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 600 °C to a dose of 1.75 displacements per atom. Spatial scanning techniques including scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), lock-in infrared thermography (lock-in IRT), and photothermal radiometry (PTR) were used to directly map the in-depth profile of thermal conductivity on a cross section of the ZrC sample. The advantages and limitations of each system are discussed and compared, finding consistent results from all techniques. SThM provides the best resolution finding a very uniform thermal conductivity envelope in the damaged region measuring ?52 ± 2 ?m deep. Frequency-based scanning PTR provides quantification of the thermal parameters of the sample using the SThM measured profile to provide validation of a heating model. Measured irradiated and virgin thermal conductivities are found to be 11.9 ± 0.5 W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} and 26.7 ±1 W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}, respectively. A thermal resistance evidenced in the frequency spectra of the PTR results was calculated to be (1.58 ± 0.1) × 10{sup ?6} m{sup 2} K W{sup ?1}. The measured thermal conductivity values compare well with the thermal conductivity extracted from the SThM calibrated signal and the spatially scanned PTR. Combined spatial and frequency scanning techniques are shown to provide a valuable, complementary combination for thermal property characterization of proton-irradiated ZrC. Such methodology could be useful for other studies of ion-irradiated materials.

  18. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Alexander, Michael L. (Richland, WA); Follansbee, James C. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  19. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  20. Dispersion aspects of silicon carbide gelcasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleier, A.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this research was to increase the solid loading of silicon carbide (SiC) powder, in an appropriate liquid medium, to a level that is useful for gelcasting technology. A number of factors that determine the maximum concentration of silicon carbide that can be incorporated into a pourable ceramic suspension have been identified. The pH of the system is the most critical processing parameter. Its proper adjustment (pH 11 to 13) allows SiC concentrations exceeding 50%, based on volume, to be routinely achieved without the use of additional dispersing agents. The particle size of SiC was also found to affect the maximum, attainable concentration. The surface area of the powder and the presence of free carbon in the powder, though not significantly influencing the suspension properties, determine the concentration of initiator required to induce polymerization and gelation. SiC specimens have been gelcast for powders in the size range of 0.8 to 8.5 {mu}m; the powders employed contain either {approximately} 0 or 19% carbon by weight. Finally, the generation of bubbles, typically encountered by the use of ammonia to adjust pH has been circumvented by the use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

  1. Two-point derivative dispersion relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erasmo Ferreira; Javier Sesma

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new derivation is given for the representation, under certain conditions, of the integral dispersion relations of scattering theory through local forms. The resulting expressions have been obtained through an independent procedure to construct the real part, and consist of new mathematical structures of double infinite summations of derivatives. In this new form the derivatives are calculated at the generic value of the energy $E$ and separately at the reference point $E=m$ that is the lower limit of the integration. This new form may be more interesting in certain circumstances and directly shows the origin of the difficulties in convergence that were present in the old truncated forms called standard-DDR. For all cases in which the reductions of the double to single sums were obtained in our previous work, leading to explicit demonstration of convergence, these new expressions are seen to be identical to the previous ones. We present, as a glossary, the most simplified explicit results for the DDR's in the cases of imaginary amplitudes of forms $(E/m)^\\lambda[\\ln (E/m)]^n$, that cover the cases of practical interest in particle physics phenomenology at high energies. We explicitly study the expressions for the cases with $\\lambda$ negative odd integers, that require identification of cancelation of singularities, and provide the corresponding final results.

  2. Nano-sized Lithium Manganese Oxide Dispersed on Carbon Nanotubes for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bak, S.B.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-sized lithium manganese oxide (LMO) dispersed on carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been synthesized successfully via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal reaction at 200 C for 30 min using MnO{sub 2}-coated CNT and an aqueous LiOH solution. The initial specific capacity is 99.4 mAh/g at a 1.6 C-rate, and is maintained at 99.1 mAh/g even at a 16 C-rate. The initial specific capacity is also maintained up to the 50th cycle to give 97% capacity retention. The LMO/CNT nanocomposite shows excellent power performance and good structural reversibility as an electrode material in energy storage systems, such as lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This synthetic strategy opens a new avenue for the effective and facile synthesis of lithium transition metal oxide/CNT nanocomposite.

  3. Novel Boron Based Multilayer Thermal Neutron Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. SCHIEBER; O. KHAKHAN

    2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The detector contains four or more layers of natural Boron absorbing thermal neutrons. Thickness of a layer is 0.4 - 1.2 mg/cm2. The layers are deposited on one or on both sides of a metal surface used as contacts. Between the absorbing layers there are gas-filled gaps 3 - 6 mm thick. Electric field of 100 - 200 V/cm is applied to the gas-filled gaps. Natural Boron contains almost 20% of 10B isotope. When atoms of 10B capture a thermal neutron, nuclear reaction occurs, as a result of which two heavy particles - alpha particle and ion 7Li - from the thin absorber layer are emitted in opposing sides. One of the two particles penetrates into gas-filled gap between Boron layers and ionizes the gas. An impulse of electric current is created in the gas-filled gap actuated by the applied electric field. The impulse is registered by an electronic circuit. We have made and tested detectors containing from two to sixteen layers of natural Boron with an efficiency of thermal neutron registration from 2.9% to 12.5% accordingly.

  4. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experimental data from plastic lithium ion cells. Journal ofelectrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec-A. Aging Mechanisms in Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of

  5. HEAVY-ION RADIOBIOLOGY: CELLULAR STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    foiled parallel-plate ion chambers filled with pure nitrogenare made with a pair of ion chambers using an interposedbeen used to verify ion chamber dosimetry; (1) comparisons

  6. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  7. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  8. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

  9. Ion Distribution And Electronic Stopping Power For Au ions In...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power for heavy ions in light targets is highly desired due to the large errors in prediction by the widely used Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code. In this study,...

  10. Electron thermal conductivity owing to collisions between degenerate electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Shternin; D. G. Yakovlev

    2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the thermal conductivity of electrons produced by electron-electron Coulomb scattering in a strongly degenerate electron gas taking into account the Landau damping of transverse plasmons. The Landau damping strongly reduces this conductivity in the domain of ultrarelativistic electrons at temperatures below the electron plasma temperature. In the inner crust of a neutron star at temperatures T scattering and becomes competitive with the the electron conductivity due to scattering of electrons by impurity ions.

  11. Modelling long-distance seed dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Tewlsbury, Joshua, J.; Bolker, Benjamin, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Long-distance seed dispersal is difficult to measure, yet key to understanding plant population dynamics and community composition. 2. We used a spatially explicit model to predict the distribution of seeds dispersed long distances by birds into habitat patches of different shapes. All patches were the same type of habitat and size, but varied in shape. They occurred in eight experimental landscapes, each with five patches of four different shapes, 150 m apart in a matrix of mature forest. The model was parameterized with smallscale movement data collected from field observations of birds. In a previous study we validated the model by testing its predictions against observed patterns of seed dispersal in real landscapes with the same types and spatial configuration of patches as in the model. 3. Here we apply the model more broadly, examining how patch shape influences the probability of seed deposition by birds into patches, how dispersal kernels (distributions of dispersal distances) vary with patch shape and starting location, and how movement of seeds between patches is affected by patch shape. 4. The model predicts that patches with corridors or other narrow extensions receive higher numbers of seeds than patches without corridors or extensions. This pattern is explained by edgefollowing behaviour of birds. Dispersal distances are generally shorter in heterogeneous landscapes (containing patchy habitat) than in homogeneous landscapes, suggesting that patches divert the movement of seed dispersers, ‘holding’ them long enough to increase the probability of seed defecation in the patches. Dispersal kernels for seeds in homogeneous landscapes were smooth, whereas those in heterogenous landscapes were irregular. In both cases, long-distance (> 150 m) dispersal was surprisingly common, usually comprising approximately 50% of all dispersal events. 5. Synthesis . Landscape heterogeneity has a large influence on patterns of long-distance seed dispersal. Our results suggest that long-distance dispersal events can be predicted using spatially explicit modelling to scale-up local movements, placing them in a landscape context. Similar techniques are commonly used by landscape ecologists to model other types of movement; they offer much promise to the study of seed dispersal.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ion batteries In current lithium ion battery technology,ion batteries The first commercialized lithium-ion batteryfirst lithium-ion battery. Compared to the other batteries,

  13. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  14. Holographic thermalization in noncommutative geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng; Xian-Ming Liu; Wen-Biao Liu

    2015-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational collapse of a shell of dust in noncommutative geometry is probed by the renormalized geodesic length, which is dual to probe the thermalization by the two-point correlation function in the dual conformal field theory. We find that larger the noncommutative parameter is, longer the thermalization time is, which implies that the large noncommutative parameter delays the thermalization process. We also investigate how the noncommutative parameter affects the thermalization velocity and thermalization acceleration.

  15. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  16. On linear stability and dispersion for crystals in the Schroedinger-Poisson model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Komech; Elena Kopylova

    2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the Schr\\"odinger-Poisson-Newton equations as a model of crystals. Our main results are the well posedness and dispersion decay for the linearized dynamics at the ground state. This linearization is a Hamilton system with nonselfadjoint (and even nonsymmetric) generator. We diagonalize this Hamilton generator using our theory of spectral resolution of the Hamilton operators with positive definite energy which is a special version of the M. Krein - H. Langer theory of selfadjoint operators in the Hilbert spaces with indefinite metric. Using this spectral resolution, we establish the well posedness and the dispersion decay of the linearized dynamics with positive energy. The key result of present paper is the energy positivity for the linearized dynamics with small elementary charge $e>0$ under a novel Wiener-type condition on the ions positions and their charge densitities. We give examples of the crystals satisfying this condition. The main difficulty in the proof ofr the positivity is due to the fact that for $e=0$ the minimal spectral point $E_0=0$ is an eigenvalue of infinite multiplicity for the energy operator. To prove the positivity we study the asymptotics of the ground state as $e\\to 0$ and show that the zero eigenvalue $E_0=0$ bifurcates into $E_e\\sim e^2$.

  17. Filamentation instability of current-driven dust ion-acoustic waves in a collisional dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghtalab, T.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, Birjand University, Birjand 97179-63384 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical investigation has been made of the dust ion-acoustic filamentation instability in an unmagnetized current-driven dusty plasma by using the Lorentz transformation formulas. The effect of collision between the charged particles with neutrals and their thermal motion on this instability is considered. Developing the filamentation instability of the current-driven dust ion-acoustic wave allows us to determine the period and the establishment time of the filamentation structure and threshold for instability development.

  18. Ion plasma wave and its instability in interpenetrating plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vranjes, J., E-mail: jvranjes@yahoo.com [Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Kono, M., E-mail: kono@fps.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Some essential features of the ion plasma wave in both kinetic and fluid descriptions are presented. The wave develops at wavelengths shorter than the electron Debye radius. Thermal motion of electrons at this scale is such that they overshoot the electrostatic potential perturbation caused by ion bunching, which consequently propagates as an unshielded wave, completely unaffected by electron dynamics. So in the simplest fluid description, the electrons can be taken as a fixed background. However, in the presence of magnetic field and for the electron gyro-radius shorter than the Debye radius, electrons can participate in the wave and can increase its damping rate. This is determined by the ratio of the electron gyro-radius and the Debye radius. In interpenetrating plasmas (when one plasma drifts through another), the ion plasma wave can easily become growing and this growth rate is quantitatively presented for the case of an argon plasma.

  19. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Appleton, B.R.; Ashley, P.R.; Buchal, C.J.

    1987-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 360 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000/degree/C produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguiding properties.

  20. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  1. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  2. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  3. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  4. Ion Runaway in Lightning Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landreman, Matt

    Runaway ions can be produced in plasmas with large electric fields, where the accelerating electric force is augmented by the low mean ionic charge due to the imbalance between the number of electrons and ions. Here we ...

  5. Interaction of ion-acoustic solitons with electron beam in warm plasmas with superthermal electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A R

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) is studied using the hydrodynamic equations coupled with the Poisson equation in a warm plasma consisting of adiabatic ions and superthermal (Kappa distributed) electrons in presence of an electron-beam component. In the linear limit, the dispersion relation for ion-acoustic (IA) waves is obtained by linearizing of basic equations. On the other hand, in the nonlinear analysis, an energy-balance like equation involving Sagdeev's pseudo-potential is derived in order to investigate arbitrary amplitude IA solitons. The Mach number range is determined in which, propagation and characteristics of IA solitons are analyzed both parametrically and numerically. The variation of amplitude and width of electrostatic (ES) excitations as a result of superthermality (via) and also the physical parameters (ion temperature, soliton speed, electron-beam density and electron-beam velocity) are examined. A typical interaction between IASWs and the electron-beam in plasma is conf...

  6. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  7. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  8. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  9. Confined zone dispersion project. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the performance of the confined zone dispersion (CZD) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system in removing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from flue gas in the coal-fired boiler. The CZD-FGD system, installed at Pennsylvania Electric Company`s (Penelec`s) Seward Power Station, was designed to remove 50% of the SO{sub 2} from one-half of Unit No. 5`s flue gas when the boiler is fired with 1.5% sulfur coal. Section 1 discusses the significance of CZD, the purpose of this report, the history of the project, and the role of DOE in the project, describes the project organization, and lists the six design areas involving proprietary information. Section 2 presents project location, objectives, and phases, and discusses the test program. Section 3 explains the process flow diagram, piping and instrumentation diagrams and operating controls, site plan, equipment layouts, and process equipment. Section 4 provides an integrated discussion of all the test results obtained during the test program, backed by tabulations and graphics. Section 5 describes the testing failures and corrective actions taken. Section 6, reliability/availability/maintainability analysis data of major equipment, covers the following systems: atomizing, sootblowing, lime, flue gas, and controls and instrumentation. Section 7 summarizes the capital cost requirements for the Seward CZD demonstration unit and discusses the capital and operating costs of installing the process at plants with various unit capacities. Section 8 discusses plans to continue the CZD demonstration to achieve longer term continuous operation at SO{sub 2} removals of 50%. Section 9 presents the principal findings of the CZD demonstration and recommends additional testing.

  10. Controlling dispersion forces between small particles with artificially created random light fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georges Bruegger; Luis Froufe-Perez; Frank Scheffold; Juan Jose Saenz

    2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Appropriate combinations of laser beams can be used to trap and manipulate small particles with "optical tweezers" as well as to induce significant "optical binding" forces between particles. These interaction forces are usually strongly anisotropic depending on the interference landscape of the external fields. This is in contrast with the familiar isotropic, translationally invariant, van der Waals and, in general, Casimir-Lifshitz interactions between neutral bodies arising from random electromagnetic waves generated by equilibrium quantum and thermal fluctuations. Here we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that dispersion forces between small colloidal particles can also be induced and controlled using artificially created fluctuating light fields. Using optical tweezers as gauge, we present experimental evidence for the predicted isotropic attractive interactions between dielectric microspheres induced by laser-generated, random light fields. These light induced interactions open a path towards the control of translationally invariant interactions with tuneable strength and range in colloidal systems.

  11. Strong coupling of an optomechanical system to an anomalously dispersive atomic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haibin Wu; Min Xiao

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate a hybrid optomechanical system in which a membrane oscillator is coupled to a collective spin of ground states of an intracavity $\\Lambda$-type three-level atomic medium. The cavity field response is greatly modified by atomic coherence and the anomalous dispersion generated by two Raman pumping beams near two-photon resonance. The optomechanical interaction, therefore radiation pressure force, is substantially enhanced due to superluminal propagation of photons in the cavity. Such improvement facilitates ground-state cooling of the mechanical oscillator with room temperature thermal environment. Moreover, it can greatly improve the sensitivity and bandwidth of displacement measurement. In such system, optically-controlled strong-coupling interaction between the mechanical oscillator and cavity field could be implemented on small intracavity photon number, even at the single quanta level, which is important for weak-light nonlinear photonics and the generation of nonclassical quantum states in the mechanical field.

  12. Characterization of Amorphous Solid Dispersions of AMG 517 in HPMC-AS and Crystallization using Isothermal Microcalorimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calahan, Julie L.

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    amorphous dispersion in microparticles of an ammonio methacrylate copolymer and ethylcellulose binary blend. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences2008;97(1):251-62. 23. Janssens S, De Zeure A, Paudel A, Van Humbeeck J, Rombaut P, Van den Mooter G. Influence...;384(1-2):93-9. 57. Sichina WJ. Measurement of Tg by DSC. Thermal Analysis, Perkin Elmer Instruments. [Application Note]. 2000;Application Note:1-5. 35 58. Rumondor ACF, Ivanisevic I, Bates S, Alonzo DE, Taylor LS. Evaluation of Drug- Polymer Miscibility...

  13. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

  14. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  15. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  16. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  17. Thermal field theory in a layer: Applications of thermal field theory methods to the propagation of photons in a two-dimensional electron sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, Jose F. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 23343, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, 00931-3343 (Puerto Rico)

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply the thermal field theory methods to study the propagation of photons in a plasma layer, that is a plasma in which the electrons are confined to a two-dimensional plane sheet. We calculate the photon self-energy and determine the appropriate expression for the photon propagator in such a medium, from which the properties of the propagating modes are obtained. The formulas for the photon dispersion relations and polarization vectors are derived explicitly in some detail for some simple cases of the thermal distributions of the charged particle gas, and appropriate formulas that are applicable in more general situations are also given.

  18. Phonon dispersion curves determination in (delta)-phase Pu-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, J; Clatterbuck, D; Occelli, F; Farber, D; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Boro, C; Krisch, M; Beraud, A; Chiang, T; Xu, R; Hong, H; Zschack, P; Tamura, N

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed and successfully employed a novel microbeam on large grain sample concept to conduct high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) experiments to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features may be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. We also conducted thermal diffuse scattering experiments to study the T(111) dispersion at low temperatures with an attempt to gain insight into bending of the T(111) branch in relationship to the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation.

  19. Characterization of an RF plasma ion source for ion implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopalidis, Peter M.; Wan Zhimin [Advanced Ion Beam Technology Inc., 47370 Fremont Blvd., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel inductively coupled RF plasma ion source has been developed for use in a beamline ion implanter. Ion density data have been taken with an array of four Langmuir probes spaced equally at the source extraction arc slit. These provide ion density uniformity information as a function of source pressure, RF power and gas mixture composition. In addition, total extracted ion beam current data are presented for the same conditions. The comparative advantages of the RF source in terms of higher beam current, reduced maintenance and overall productivity improvement compared to a hot cathode source are discussed.

  20. Photoabsorption by Ions and Atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manson, Steven T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of photoabsorption by atoms and ions is presented. Specifically, examples of near-chaotic behavior in photoionization of positive ions, low-energy manifestations of nondipole effects, high-energy breakdown of the single particle picture and new phenomenology uncovered in the inner-shell photoabsorption by negative ions are discussed.

  1. Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn in ICF Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn of ICF targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level to treat fusion products (suprathermal -particles) in a self-consistent manner with the thermal bulk enhancement of fusion products leads to a significant reduction of the fusion yield. I. MOTIVATION AND CONTEXT

  2. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY 1981, analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. A study to evaluate thermal storage concepts for a liquid metal receiver was initiated. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts are being studied, including ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

  3. Fiber optic integration in planar ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Elizabeth Marie

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic ion traps are are excellent tools in atomic physics for studying single ions. Accurate measurement of the ion's electronic state in these ion traps is required by both atomic clocks and quantum computation. Quantum ...

  4. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafari, S., E-mail: SJafari@guilan.ac.ir; Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A. [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht 41335-1914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehdian, H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  5. Landau damping effects on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty negative-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barman, Arnab; Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonlinear theory of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) with Landau damping is studied in an unmagnetized dusty negative-ion plasma in the extreme conditions when the free electrons are absent. The cold massive charged dusts are described by fluid equations, whereas the two-species of ions (positive and negative) are described by the kinetic Vlasov equations. A Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with Landau damping, governing the dynamics of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive DAWs, is derived following Ott and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 12, 2388 (1969)]. It is shown that for some typical laboratory and space plasmas, the Landau damping (and the nonlinear) effects are more pronounced than the finite Debye length (dispersive) effects for which the KdV soliton theory is not applicable to DAWs in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of the linear phase velocity, solitary wave amplitudes (in presence and absence of the Landau damping) as well as the Landau damping rate are studied with the effects of the positive ion to dust density ratio (?{sub pd}) as well as the ratios of positive to negative ion temperatures (?) and masses (m)

  6. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4416 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4416 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr. Mofateh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr. Mofateh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  7. Nonclassicality of Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars M. Johansen

    2004-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that thermal radiation of small occupation number is strongly nonclassical. This includes most forms of naturally occurring radiation. Nonclassicality can be observed as a negative weak value of a positive observable. It is related to negative values of the Margenau-Hill quasi-probability distribution.

  8. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  9. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  10. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  11. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to us, like reflective ("nearreflective ("near--" infrared (0.7" infrared (0.7 -- 3.03.0 µµm)m) andand near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrared refers to region o EM spectrum from ~3 - 14 µm.landscape. IMPORTANT: NEARIMPORTANT: NEAR--INFRARED is short enough wavelength toINFRARED is short enough wavelength

  12. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  13. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 Q1 High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  14. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal Resistance H Engineering, Newmark Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 4139 Engineering Gateway, University

  15. The integration of dispersed asylum seekers in Glasgow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Alexandra

    This thesis is an analysis of the integration of dispersed asylum seekers in Glasgow. It is a qualitative case study that uses data from participant observation with community groups, interviews with asylum seekers and those involved in service...

  16. amplified dispersive optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from a finite set. John Jeffers 2011-05-16 5 January 15, 2004 Vol. 29, No. 2 OPTICS LETTERS 201 Generation of 14.8-fs pulses in a spatially dispersed amplifier Materials...

  17. Agents of seed dispersal : animal--zoochary / Wind--anemonochory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lysakowski, Lukasz Kamil, 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agents of seed dispersal is a project designed to address the increase of environmental degradation, which occurs as a result of the perpetual spread of the asphalt and concrete of the contemporary urban situation. Agents ...

  18. RELIABILITY OF WIND POWER FROM DISPERSED SITES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PG&E 4:00 p.m. Summer Wind Generator Model Wind Array ELCCexpect from an array of wind generators spread over a largean array of dispersed wind generators will be. wind speed

  19. Testing Dispersal Hypotheses in Foraging Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeSalle, Rob

    , population size, geographic distance, natal homing, and ocean currents are hypothesized to affect dispersal, whereas microsatellites uncover similarities to some of the geographically closest populations. Ubatuba and Almofala are mixed stocks, drawn primarily from Ascension, with lesser contributions from Surinam

  20. Colloidal Manipulation of Nanostructures: Stable Dispersion and Self-assembly 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dazhi

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation work addresses two important aspects of nanotechnology - stable dispersion and self-assembly of colloidal nanostructures. Three distinctly different types of nano-scaled materials have been studied: 0-dimensional ZnO quantum dots...

  1. Dispersion interferometer using modulation amplitudes on LHD (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akiyama, T., E-mail: takiyama@lhd.nifs.ac.jp; Yasuhara, R.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki-shi, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Okajima, S.; Nakayama, K. [Chubu University, Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai-shi, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Since a dispersion interferometer is insensitive to mechanical vibrations, a vibration compensation system is not necessary. The CO{sub 2} laser dispersion interferometer with phase modulations on the Large Helical Device utilizes the new phase extraction method which uses modulation amplitudes and can improve a disadvantage of the original dispersion interferometer: measurement errors caused by variations of detected intensities. The phase variation within ±2 × 10{sup 17} m{sup ?3} is obtained without vibration compensation system. The measured line averaged electron density with the dispersion interferometer shows good agreement with that with the existing far infrared laser interferometer. Fringe jump errors in high density ranging up to 1.5 × 10{sup 20} m{sup ?3} can be overcome by a sufficient sampling rate of about 100 kHz.

  2. RELIABILITY OF WIND POWER FROM DISPERSED SITES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON METHODOLOGY: FROM WIND POWER FREQUENCY TO LOSS-OF-LOADJ.P. , "Some Aspects of Wind Power Statistics, " J. of Appl.S£CTION Reliability of Wind Power From Dispersed Sites: A Pr

  3. annular dispersed flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model for overland solute transport Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Using the kinematic-wave overland flow equation and a fractional dispersion-advection equation, a...

  4. advective dispersive formulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model for overland solute transport Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Using the kinematic-wave overland flow equation and a fractional dispersion-advection equation, a...

  5. accentuates transmural dispersion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model for overland solute transport Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Using the kinematic-wave overland flow equation and a fractional dispersion-advection equation, a...

  6. Forced-convection, dispersed-flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hynek, Scott Josef

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the latest results of an investigation of the characteristics of dispersed flow film boiling. Heat transfer data are presented for vertical upflow of nitrogen in an electrically heated tube, 0.4 in. ...

  7. Dispersion modeling for prediction of emission factors for cattle feedyards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parnell, Sarah Elizabeth

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of state air pollution regulatory agencies will require accurate EPA AP-42 emission factors. A protocol was developed so that accurate emission factors can be determined using both source sampling data and dispersion modeling. In this study, an emission...

  8. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  9. A dynamic model for the Lagrangian stochastic dispersion coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesmazoglou, I.; Navarro-Martinez, S., E-mail: s.navarro@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kempf, A. M. [Chair of Fluid Dynamics, Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics and Center for Computational Sciences and Simulation, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, 47048 (Germany)] [Chair of Fluid Dynamics, Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics and Center for Computational Sciences and Simulation, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, 47048 (Germany)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A stochastic sub-grid model is often used to accurately represent particle dispersion in turbulent flows using large eddy simulations. Models of this type have a free parameter, the dispersion coefficient, which is not universal and is strongly grid-dependent. In the present paper, a dynamic model for the evaluation of the coefficient is proposed and validated in decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The grid dependence of the static coefficient is investigated in a turbulent mixing layer and compared to the dynamic model. The dynamic model accurately predicts dispersion statistics and resolves the grid-dependence. Dispersion statistics of the dynamically calculated constant are more accurate than any static coefficient choice for a number of grid spacings. Furthermore, the dynamic model produces less numerical artefacts than a static model and exhibits smaller sensitivity in the results predicted for different particle relaxation times.

  10. Computation of seismic attenuation and dispersion due to ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    masson@localhost.localdomain (masson)

    2006-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 23, 2006 ... used to model the poroelastic response within such materials are those of Biot ... for the seismic attenuation and dispersion in the special case where the ..... lens embedded in shaly sediments or a fracture embedded in a ...

  11. altered dispersion relations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    our formalism to the parapositronium two-photon decay. G. Lopez Castro; J. Pestieau; C. Smith; S. Trine 2000-06-01 9 Dispersion relation for anisotropic media CERN Preprints...

  12. Performance Analysis of Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad, Muneer

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    probability of dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems is derived for two cases: where each channel realization experiences independent and dependent Nakagami-m fading, respectively. In addition, the derivation is extended to include the effects...

  13. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  14. Bayesian Network Analysis of Radiological Dispersal Device Acquisitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hundley, Grant Richard

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    inflict moderate human casualties and significant economic damage. The vast availability of radioactive sources and the nearly limitless methods of dispersing them demand an inclusive study of the acquisition pathways for an RDD. A complete network...

  15. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions: Ion network versus ion cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng, E-mail: mcho@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The critical aggregation phenomena are ubiquitous in many self-assembling systems. Ions in high salt solutions could also spontaneously form larger ion aggregates, but their effects on hydrogen-bond structures in water have long been controversial. Here, carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of high salt solutions and comparing the MD simulation results with infrared absorption and pump-probe spectroscopy of O–D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated salt solutions and {sup 13}C-NMR chemical shift of S{sup 13}CN{sup ?} in KSCN solutions, we find evidence on the onset of ion aggregate and large-scale ion-ion network formation that concomitantly breaks water hydrogen-bond structure in certain salt solutions. Despite that these experimental results cannot provide direct evidence on the three-dimensional morphological structures of ion aggregates, they serve as reference data for verifying MD simulation methods. The MD results suggest that disrupted water hydrogen-bond network is intricately intertwined with ion-ion network. This further shows morphological variation of ion aggregate structures from ion cluster to ion network in high salt solutions that are interrelated to the onset of macroscopic aggregate formation and the water hydrogen-bond structure making and breaking processes induced by Hofmeister ions.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  17. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Wan, B.; Hu, L.; Hu, C. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. 1126, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Hellermann, M. G. von [FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. BOX 1207, Nieuwegein 3430 BE (Netherlands); Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  18. Spatially Dispersive Inhomogeneous Electromagnetic Media with Periodic Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gratus, Jonathan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially dispersive (also known as non-local) electromagnetic media are considered where the parameters defining the permittivity relation vary periodically. Maxwell's equations give rise to a difference equation corresponding to the Floquet modes. A complete set of approximate solutions is calculated which are valid when the inhomogeneity is small. This is applied to inhomogeneous wire media. A new feature arises when considering spatially dispersive media, that is the existence of coupled modes.

  19. Assessment of gas dispersion in agitated tanks using hydrophones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutter, Terry Alan

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ASSESSMENT OF GAS DISPERSION IN AGITATED TANKS USING HYDROPHONES A Thesis by TERRY ALAN SUTTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTFR OF SCIENCE ofay I...!)sfi Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ASSESSMENT OF GAS DISPERSION IN AGITATED TANKS USING HYDROPHONES A Thesis by TERRY ALAN SUTTER Approved as to style and content by: Gary B. Tatterson (Chairinan of Committee) Gerald L. orrison (Xieniber) C...

  20. Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management Pu Liu, Zhenyu Qi, Hang Li, Lingling Jin, Wei Wu, Sheldon X.-D. Tan, Jun Yang Department of Electrical Engineering temperature by dynamic thermal managements becomes necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach