Sample records for thermal infrared sensors

  1. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in response to heating cause by infrared light. In order to70 Heating and cooling of infrared source as measured withto detect the heating and cooling of the infrared source,

  2. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the testing and evaluation of sensors by both optical and4: Results and Evaluation The results of sensor fabrication,of testing and evaluation. A double beam sensor which

  3. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and performance. Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of,Sensor. Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of, 2005.Nanostructures. Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of,

  4. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent Developments in Polymer MEMS. Advanced Materials,using thin silicon/polymer bimorph membranes. Sensors andof cantilever arrays reveal polymer film expansion and

  5. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to us, like reflective ("nearreflective ("near--" infrared (0.7" infrared (0.7 -- 3.03.0 µµm)m) andand near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrared refers to region o EM spectrum from ~3 - 14 µm.landscape. IMPORTANT: NEARIMPORTANT: NEAR--INFRARED is short enough wavelength toINFRARED is short enough wavelength

  6. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing #12;0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4 and x-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic.77 700 red limit 30k0.041 2.48 green500 near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrare refers

  7. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watts, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaw, Michael J. (Tijeras, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM); Lentine, Anthony L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  8. CHAPTER 8CHAPTER 8CHAPTER 8:CHAPTER 8: Thermal InfraredThermal Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    measurable temperature variations of 1/10,000 °C.p · In World War I, S. O. Hoffman could detect men at 120 m remote sensor data were collected by the U. S. Television IR Operational Satellite (TIROS) launched a Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) that included a thermal infrared sensor for monitoring sea

  9. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  10. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  11. Fabrication of thermal microphotonic sensors and sensor arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaw, Michael J. (Tijeras, NM); Watts, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is fabricated on a silicon substrate by etching an opening and a trench into the substrate, and then filling in the opening and trench with silicon oxide which can be deposited or formed by thermally oxidizing a portion of the silicon substrate surrounding the opening and trench. The silicon oxide forms a support post for an optical resonator which is subsequently formed from a layer of silicon nitride, and also forms a base for an optical waveguide formed from the silicon nitride layer. Part of the silicon substrate can be selectively etched away to elevate the waveguide and resonator. The thermal microphotonic sensor, which is useful to detect infrared radiation via a change in the evanescent coupling of light between the waveguide and resonator, can be formed as a single device or as an array.

  12. Using Infrared Sensors to Follow an Infrared Beam Scott Sobieski, Thomas Richards, David Peacock,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    Using Infrared Sensors to Follow an Infrared Beam Scott Sobieski, Thomas Richards, David Peacock, Computer Science Department The second robot follows the infrared beam from the first robot. These sensors infrared sensors produce a value between 0 and 255 depending on their distance from the emitting beam

  13. Laser cooling of infrared sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselbeck, M. P. (Michael P.); Sheik-Bahae, M (Mansoor); Thiede, J. (Jared); Distel, J. R. (James R.); Greenfield, S. R. (Scott R.); Patterson, Wendy M.; Bigotta, S.; Imangholi, B.; Seletskiy, D. (Denis); Bender, D.; Vankipuram, V.; Vadiee, N.; Epstein, Richard I.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of laser cooling of solids. In this all-solid-state approach to refrigeration, heat is removed radiatively when an engineered material is exposed to high power laser light. We report a record amount of net cooling (88 K below ambient) that has been achieved with a sample made from doped fluoride glass. Issues involved in the design of a practical laser cooler are presented. The possibility of laser cooling of semiconductor sensors is discussed.

  14. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  15. Thermo Tracer Infrared Thermal Imager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    such as production lines, electric power facilities, petrochemical plants and public institutions, etc. by thermal-range area G Environment monitoring Volcano, ecology, vegetation, global warming, pollution G R&D Evaluation Production line monitoring Quality anomalies in production processes G Facility monitoring Anomalies

  16. Compensated infrared absorption sensor for carbon dioxide and other infrared absorbing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor, whose chamber uses filters and choppers in either a semicircular geometry or annular geometry, and incorporates separate infrared radiation filters and optical choppers. This configuration facilitates the use of a single infrared radiation source and a single detector for infrared measurements at two wavelengths, such that measurement errors may be compensated.

  17. Thermal sensor with an improved coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaDelfe, Peter C. (Los Alamos, NM); Stotlar, Suzanne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for detecting radiation having wavelengths from about 0.4 .mu.m to about 5.6 .mu.m. An optical coating is applied to a thermal sensor that is normally transparent to radiation with such wavelengths. The optical coating is thin and light and includes a modifier and an absorber. The thermal sensor can be a pyroelectric detector such as strontium barium niobate.

  18. Miniaturized Mid-Infrared Sensor Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S; Young, C; Mizaikoff, B

    2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental vibrational and rotational modes associated with most inorganic and organic molecules are spectroscopically accessible within the mid-infrared (MIR; 3-20 {micro}m) regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The interaction between MIR photons and organic molecules provides particularly sharp transitions, which - despite the wide variety of organic molecules - provide unique MIR absorption spectra reflecting the molecularly characteristic arrangement of chemical bonds within the probed molecules via the frequency position of the associated vibrational and rotational transitions. Given the inherent molecular selectivity and achievable sensitivity, MIR spectroscopy provides an ideal platform for optical sensing applications. Despite this potential, early MIR sensing applications were limited to localized applications due to the size of the involved instrumentation, and limited availability of appropriately compact MIR optical components including light sources, detectors, waveguides, and spectrometers. During the last decades, engineering advances in photonics and optical engineering have facilitated the translation of benchtop-style MIR spectroscopy into miniaturized optical sensing schemes providing a footprint compatible with portable instrumentation requirements for field deployable analytical tools. In this trend article, we will discuss recent advances and future strategies for miniaturizing MIR sensor technology. The Beer-Lambert law implies that achievable limit of detection (LOD) for any optical sensor system improves by increasing the interaction length between photons and target analyte species such as e.g., folding the optical path multiple times as in multi-pass gas phase sensing; however, this governing paradigm naturally leads to an increase in system dimensions. Hence, miniaturization of optical sensing system requires scaling down of each optical component, yet improving the performance of each optical element within a smaller form factor for overall at least maintaining, or ideally improving the achievable sensitivity.

  19. INFRARED THERMAL IMAGING OF AUTOMOBILES: Identification of Cold Start Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    INFRARED THERMAL IMAGING OF AUTOMOBILES: Identification of Cold Start Vehicles Angela M. Monateri emitters, even thought they have no repairable fault. This study investigates the use of thermal infrared be differentiated from hot vehicles by infrared imaging, which can distinguish between: ·Hot and cold exhaust system

  20. Airborne Infrared Target Tracking with the Nintendo Wii Remote Sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckett, Andrew 1984-

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    entirely. This research presents a solution to the target tracking problem which reliably provides automatic target detection and tracking with low expense and computational overhead by making use of the infrared sensor from a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller....

  1. OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Wotao

    OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION Yingying Li , Wei Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University ABSTRACT Early detection of oil spill events is the key in detecting the early onset of a small-scale oil spill event. Based on an infrared oil-water contrast model

  2. Multi-modal Video Surveillance Aided by Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    camera and a Pyroelectric InfraRed (PIR) sensor exploited to reduce remarkably the power consumption analytics which deploys synergically a PIR sensor and a smart camera. The aim of our method or removed objects in the scene. This class of events is often of critical importance for security reasons

  3. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Thermal And-Or Near Infrared Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Melanie J. Hellman,...

  4. Uncooled infrared photon detector and multicolor infrared detection using microoptomechanical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panagiotis G. (Knoxville, TN); Rajic, Solobodan (Knoxville, TN); Datskou, Irene C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for infrared detection are described. An optomechanical photon detector includes a semiconductor material and is based on measurement of a photoinduced lattice strain. A multicolor infrared sensor includes a stack of frequency specific optomechanical detectors. The stack can include one, or more, of the optomechanical photon detectors that function based on the measurement of photoinduced lattice strain. The systems and methods provide advantages in that rapid, sensitive multicolor infrared imaging can be performed without the need for a cooling subsystem.

  5. Infrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin, Yoed

    , not the instantaneous effect of heating within a single loading cycle. KEY WORDS--Infrared, temperature measurement, meInfrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis by Y. Rabin and D. Rittel ABSTRACT--Infrared temperature-sensing techniques have the major advantages of virtually

  6. affecting thermal infrared: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting thermal infrared First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Thermal Infrared Remote...

  7. On the performance of infrared sensors in earth observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Luther Franklin

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON THE PERFORMANCE OF INFRARED SENSORS IN EARTH OBSERVATIONS A Thesis by LUTHER FRANKLIN JOHNSON III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A(M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... Augus t 19 72 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ON THE PERFORMANCE O'F INFRARED SENSORS IN EARTH OBSERVATIONS A Thesis by LUTHER FRANKLIN JOHNSON III Approved as to style and content by: r rman o ommr t Hea o Depart ent Mem er em er, em er...

  8. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.

  9. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  10. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

  11. A Power-Driven Thermal Sensor Placement Algorithm for Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 USA Abstract--On-chip physical thermalA Power-Driven Thermal Sensor Placement Algorithm for Dynamic Thermal Management Hai Wang, Sheldon sensors play a vital role for accurately estimating the full-chip thermal profile. How to place physical

  12. Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and pipeline leak detection. Applications such as landfill emissions monitoring require measurements of gasRoom-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection Thomas To¨ pfer, Konstantin P of a compact, portable, room-temperature mid-infrared gas sensor is reported. The sensor is based on continuous

  13. Microscopic thermal diffusivity mapping using an infrared camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard flash thermal diffusivity measurements utilize a single-point infrared detector to measure the average temperature rise of the sample surface after a heat pulse. The averaging of infrared radiation over the sample surface could smear out the microscopic thermal diffusivity variations in some specimens, especially in fiber-reinforced composite materials. A high-speed, high-sensitivity infrared camera was employed in this study of composite materials. With a special microscope attachment, the spatial resolution of the camera can reach 5.4 {micro}m. The images can then be processed to generate microscopic thermal diffusivity maps of the material. SRM 1462 stainless steel was tested to evaluate the accuracy of the system. Thermal diffusivity micrographs of carbon-carbon composites and SCS-6/borosilicate glass were generated. Thermal diffusivity values of the carbon fiber bundles parallel to the heat flow were found to be higher than the matrix material. A thermal coupling effect between SCS-6 fiber and matrix was observed. The thermal coupling and measured thermal diffusivity value of the fiber were also dependent upon the thickness of the specimen.

  14. Airborne Infrared Target Tracking with the Nintendo Wii Remote Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckett, Andrew 1984-

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    AIRBORNE INFRARED TARGET TRACKING WITH THE NINTENDO WII REMOTE SENSOR A Thesis by ANDREW WILSON BECKETT Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... of UAS in use today and provide invaluable capabilities to both the military and civil services. UAS are well-suited to the ISR role: large UAS can remain airborne for far longer than the limits of human endurance without needing to be large enough...

  15. airborne thermal infrared: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermal infrared First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Accepted Remote Sensing of...

  16. A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection , U Willer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection C Bauer1 , U Willer1 , R Lewicki2 applications in laser spectroscopy of trace gas species in the mid-infrared spectral region. We report for the detection of the explosive TATP which is a mid infrared broad band absorber. The detection limit of our

  17. Space-Based Thermal Infrared Studies of Asteroids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mainzer, A; Trilling, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-area surveys operating at mid-infrared wavelengths have proven to be a valuable means of discovering and characterizing minor planets. Through the use of radiometric models, it is possible to derive physical properties such as diameters, albedos, and thermal inertia for large numbers of objects. Modern detector array technology has resulted in a significant improvement in spatial resolution and sensitivity compared with previous generations of space-based infrared telescopes, giving rise to a commensurate increase in the number of objects that have been observed at these wavelengths. Space-based infrared surveys of asteroids therefore offer an effective means of rapidly gathering information about small body populations' orbital and physical properties. The AKARI, WISE/NEOWISE, Spitzer, and Herschel missions have significantly increased the number of minor planets with well-determined diameters and albedos.

  18. Use of airs and modis thermal infrared channels to retrieve ice cloud properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yost, Christopher Rogers

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we use thermal infrared channels to retrieve the optical thickness and effective particle radius of ice clouds. A physical model is used in conjunction with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) temperature and water vapor profiles...

  19. Use of airs and modis thermal infrared channels to retrieve ice cloud properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yost, Christopher Rogers

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we use thermal infrared channels to retrieve the optical thickness and effective particle radius of ice clouds. A physical model is used in conjunction with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) temperature and water vapor profiles...

  20. Re-evaluation of SO2 release of the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption using ultraviolet and infrared satellite sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    Re-evaluation of SO2 release of the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption using ultraviolet and infrared Infrared Radiation Sounder/2) sensor, whose data sets have a higher temporal resolution, are also analyzed ultraviolet and infrared satellite sensors, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q04001, doi:10.1029/ 2003GC000654

  1. Path-dependent human identification using a pyroelectric infrared sensor and Fresnel lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitsianis, Nikos P.

    Path-dependent human identification using a pyroelectric infrared sensor and Fresnel lens arrays) sensor whose visibility is modulated by a Fresnel lens array. The optimal element number of the lens," Proc. of IEEE. Signals, Systems and Computers 1, 843-838 (2001). 11. Fresnel Technologies Inc., http

  2. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details...

  3. A Helicopter-Borne Video Thermal Infrared Survey Of The Rotorua...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Helicopter-Borne Video Thermal Infrared Survey Of The Rotorua Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A...

  4. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  5. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleThermalAnd-OrNearInfraredAtFishLakeValleyArea(Deymonaz,EtAl.,2008)&oldid386621...

  6. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

    1993-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

  7. A Novel Thermal Position Sensor Integrated On A Plastic Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Petropoulos; G. Kaltsas; D. Goustouridis; A. G. Nassiopoulou

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal position sensor was fabricated and evaluated. The device consists of an array of temperature sensing elements, fabricated entirely on a plastic substrate. A novel fabrication technology was implemented which allows direct integration with read out electronics and communication to the macro-world without the use of wire bonding. The fabricated sensing elements are temperature sensitive Pt resistors with an average TCR of 0.0024/C. The device realizes the detection of the position and the motion of a heating source by monitoring the resistance variation of the thermistor array. The application field of such a cost-effective position sensor is considered quite extensive.

  8. On the performance of infrared sensors in earth observations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Luther Franklin

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems is depen- dent upon the radiative properties of targets in addition to constraints imposed by system components . The unclas- sified state-of-the-art of infrared system performance figures is reviewed to indicate the relevance to system... of unclassified infrared literature reveals in- frared systems applications in industry, medicine, and science. Indeed, any detection application is possible if a measurable variation in radiation is caused by the tar- get property of interest. Hudson [10] has...

  9. We propose a wearable PIR thermal sensor system that can help users to perceive the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zhigang

    We propose a wearable PIR thermal sensor system that can help users to perceive the surrounding environment from a thermal perspective. Wireless PIR sensor network technology has been developed to track and recognize multiple moving human subjects, as well as understand their activities. However, the PIR sensor

  10. Mid-Infrared Laser based Gas Sensor Technologies for Environmental Monitoring,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , quantification and monitoring of trace gas species and their applications in environmental and industrial process performing sensitive trace gas measurements in gas samples of a few mm3 in volume. QEPAS employs readilyChapter XX Mid-Infrared Laser based Gas Sensor Technologies for Environmental Monitoring, Medical

  11. Infrared-Based Screening System Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared-Based Screening System (IBSS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC underperforming or overworking components are identified. These thermal-based systems integrate infrared (IR) sensors or cameras, video images, and vehicle position sensors, and are generically known as infrared

  12. Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea geothermal field straddles the southeast margin of the Salton Sea in California, USA. This field includes approximately 20km2 of mud volcanoes and mud pots and centered on...

  13. Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: Energy Resources JumpAnaconda,Anza Electric Coop IncStateExploration

  14. Radiation interchange modeling for active infrared proximity sensor design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piper, James Clarice

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to tyle and content by: Sohi Rastegar (Co-Chair of Committee) Rai er J. Fink (Co-Chair of Committee) Hsin-i Wu (Member) ay Kuo (Head of Department) May 1999 Major Subject: Biomedical... necessitating the use of multiple source elements, sensor elements, or both. DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my parents and my sisters, who have always supported me in all my endeavors, however foreign to their hearts. VI ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like...

  15. Mid-Infrared Fiber-Coupled QCl-QEPAS Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative spectroscopic system based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) coupled with a mid-infrared (mid-IR) fiber and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is described. SF6 has been selected as a target gas in demonstration of the system for trace gas sensing. Single mode laser delivery through the prongs of the quartz tuning fork has been obtained employing a hollow waveguide fiber with inner silver–silver iodine (Ag–AgI) coatings and internal core diameter of 300 lm. A detailed design and realization of the QCL fiber coupling and output collimator system allowed almost practically all (99.4 %) of the laser beam to be transmitted through the spectrophone module. The achieved sensitivity of the system is 50 parts per trillion in 1 s, corresponding to a record for QEPAS normalized noise-equivalent absorption 2.7 9 10-10 W cm-1 Hz-1/2.

  16. Evaluation of Miniaturized Infrared Sensors for Process Control of the Palladium Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascola, R. J.; Howard, D. W.

    2005-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have tested the suitability of a miniaturized infrared sensor for measurements of CO and H{sub 2}O in the inlet stream to the Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR). We demonstrated that both analytes can be measured with absolute accuracies of 2-4% at the process inlet conditions of 120-140 C and approximately 1 atm of each gas. This accuracy must be improved to 1-1.5% for effective PMR process control. The use of a reference detector and independent temperature and pressure measurements to correct the raw signals will improve the accuracy to a level that will approach, if not meet, this goal. With appropriate bandpass filters, the infrared sensors may be used for other gas analysis applications.

  17. An Analytic Model Of Thermal Drift In Piezoresistive Microcantilever Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loui, A; Elhadj, S; Sirbuly, D J; McCall, S K; Hart, B R; Ratto, T V

    2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A closed form semi-empirical model has been developed to understand the physical origins of thermal drift in piezoresistive microcantilever sensors. The two-component model describes both the effects of temperature-related bending and heat dissipation on the piezoresistance. The temperature-related bending component is based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory of elastic deformation applied to a multilayer cantilever. The heat dissipation component is based on energy conservation per unit time for a piezoresistive cantilever in a Wheatstone bridge circuit, representing a balance between electrical power input and heat dissipation into the environment. Conduction and convection are found to be the primary mechanisms of heat transfer, and the dependence of these effects on the thermal conductivity, temperature, and flow rate of the gaseous environment is described. The thermal boundary layer value which defines the length scale of the heat dissipation phenomenon is treated as an empirical fitting parameter. Using the model, it is found that the cantilever heat dissipation is unaffected by the presence of a thin polymer coating, therefore the residual thermal drift in the differential response of a coated and uncoated cantilever is the result of non-identical temperature-related bending. Differential response data shows that residual drift is eliminated under isothermal laboratory conditions but not the unregulated and variable conditions that exist in the outdoor environment (i.e., the field). The two-component model is then validated by simulating the thermal drifts of an uncoated and a coated piezoresistive cantilever under field conditions over a 24 hour period using only meteorological data as input.

  18. An investigation of sea surface temperature patterns in the Gulf of Mexico as determined by an airborne infrared sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drennan, Kirby Lee

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN INVESTIGATION OF SEA SURFACE TF"PERATURE PATTERNS IN THE GULF OF IKXICO AS DETERMINED BY AN AIRBORNE INFRARED SENSOR A Thesis by KIRBY IEE DRENNAN Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas API University in partial tulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of 14IASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Physical Oceanography AN INVESTIGATION OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE PATIERNS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AS DETERMINED BY AN AIRBORNE INFRARED SENSOR A Thesis by KIRBY LEE DRENNAN Approved...

  19. Aerial Thermal Infrared Mapping Of The Waimangu-Waiotapu Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Published Journal International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science & Geomechanics Abstracts, 1995 DOI 10.10160148-9062(95)99556-D Citation . 1995. Aerial Thermal...

  20. Performance and evaluation of the infrared AO sensor CALICO Leander H. Mehrgan*, Siegfried Eschbaumer, Gert Finger, Manfred Meyer, and Joerg Stegmeier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liske, Jochen

    Performance and evaluation of the infrared AO sensor CALICO , Leander H. Mehrgan*, Siegfried and to investigate the best unit cell circuit for future infrared wavefront sensors, ESO has teamed up with CALTECH-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany ABSTRACT The CALICO sensor is a pathfinder for the development

  1. One-sided infrared thermal imaging for flaw characterization of ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deemer, C.; Sun, J. G.; Ellingson, W. A.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    One-sided infrared thermal imaging is being used to characterize voids and delamination in SiC/SiC composites. Flaw depth is estimated by examining the decay of surface temperature after application of a thermal pulse. Digital analysis of the surface temperature/time relationship allows characterization of the sizes and positions of defects. Results show that defects of various sizes and depths can be characterized in SiC/SiC composites with the technique.

  2. Mineralogy of Martian atmospheric dust inferred from thermal infrared spectra of aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Victoria E.

    Mineralogy of Martian atmospheric dust inferred from thermal infrared spectra of aerosols Victoria deconvolution algorithm to the spectra to model the dust mineralogy. Models of the M9 IRIS transmission data generally are of poor quality, and the mineralogical results of these fits are unlikely to be valid. Fits

  3. On the information content of the thermal infrared cooling rate profile from satellite instrument measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    On the information content of the thermal infrared cooling rate profile from satellite instrument 2008; accepted 25 February 2008; published 13 June 2008. [1] This work investigates how remote sensing of the quantities required to calculate clear-sky cooling rate profiles propagates into cooling rate profile

  4. Infrared near-field imaging and spectroscopy based on thermal or synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peragut, Florian; De Wilde, Yannick, E-mail: yannick.dewilde@espci.fr [ESPCI ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut Langevin, 1 rue Jussieu, F-75005, Paris (France); Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale [Société Civile Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, St-Aubin BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the coupling of a scattering near-field scanning optical microscope combined with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The set-up operates using either the near-field thermal emission from the sample itself, which is proportional to the electromagnetic local density of states, or with an external infrared synchrotron source, which is broadband and highly brilliant. We perform imaging and spectroscopy measurements with sub-wavelength spatial resolution in the mid-infrared range on surfaces made of silicon carbide and gold and demonstrate the capabilities of the two configurations for super-resolved near-field mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging and that the simple use of a properly chosen bandpass filter on the detector allows one to image the spatial distribution of materials with sub-wavelength resolution by studying the contrast in the near-field images.

  5. Optical Temperature Sensor Using Infrared-to-Visible-Frequency Upconversion in Er This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Optical Temperature Sensor Using Infrared-to-Visible-Frequency Upconversion in Er 3+ /Yb 3. 8 (2011) 087804 Optical Temperature Sensor Using Infrared-to-Visible-Frequency Upconversion in Er3 State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA (Received 24 May 2011) An optical temperature

  6. A novel compact design of calibration equipment for gas and thermal sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, P. X.; Zhang, H. X.; Peng, X. Y.; Sajjad, M.; Chu, J. [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials and Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, 00936-8377 (Puerto Rico)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel design of calibration equipment has been developed for static and dynamic calibrations of gas and thermal sensors. This system is cheap, compact, and easily adjustable, which is also combined with a plasma surface modification source for tailoring the surface of sensors to ensure the sensitivity and selectivity. The main advantage of this equipment is that the operating temperature, bias voltage, types of plasma source (for surface modification), types of feeding gases, and gas flow rate (for calibrations), etc., can be independently controlled. This novel system provides a highly reliable, reproducible, and economical method of calibrations for various gas and thermal sensors.

  7. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM); Costin, Laurence S. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mercier, Jeffrey A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  8. CENTAURS AND SCATTERED DISK OBJECTS IN THE THERMAL INFRARED: ANALYSIS OF WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, James M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-401, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grav, Tommy [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); Blauvelt, Erin [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-401, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Collaboration: WISE Team; PTF Team; and others

    2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) observed 52 Centaurs and scattered disk objects (SDOs) in the thermal infrared, including 15 new discoveries. We present analyses of these observations to estimate sizes and mean optical albedos. We find mean albedos of 0.08 {+-} 0.04 for the entire data set. Thermal fits yield average beaming parameters of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 that are similar for both SDO and Centaur sub-classes. Biased cumulative size distributions yield size-frequency distribution power law indices of {approx}-1.7 {+-} 0.3. The data also reveal a relation between albedo and color at the 3{sigma} level. No significant relation between diameter and albedos is found.

  9. Infrared Spectroscope for Electron Bunch-length Measurement: Heat Sensor Parameters Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domgmo-Momo, Gilles; /Towson U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is used for many experiments. Taking advantage of the free electron laser (FEL) process, scientists of various fields perform experiments of all kind. Some for example study protein folding; other experiments are more interested in the way electrons interact with the molecules before they are destroyed. These experiments among many others have very little information about the electrons x-ray produced by the FEL, except that the FEL is using bunches less than 10 femtoseconds long. To be able to interpret the data collected from those experiments, more accurate information is needed about the electron's bunch-length. Existing bunch length measurement techniques are not suitable for the measurement of such small time scales. Hence the need to design a device that will provide more precise information about the electron bunch length. This paper investigates the use of a pyreoelectric heat sensor that has a sensitivity of about 1.34 micro amps per watt for the single cell detector. Such sensitivity, added to the fact that the detector is an array sensor, makes the detector studied the primary candidate to be integrated to an infrared spectrometer designed to better measure the LCLS electron bunch length.

  10. Near-infrared single-photon spectroscopy of a whispering gallery mode resonator using energy-resolving transition edge sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Förtsch; Thomas Gerrits; Martin J. Stevens; Dmitry Strekalov; Gerhard Schunk; Josef U. Fürst; Ulrich Vogl; Florian Sedlmeir; Harald G. L. Schwefel; Gerd Leuchs; Sae Woo Nam; Christoph Marquardt

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method to perform spectroscopy of near-infrared single photons without the need of dispersive elements. This method is based on a photon energy resolving transition edge sensor and is applied for the characterization of widely wavelength tunable narrow-band single photons emitted from a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. We measure the emission wavelength of the generated signal and idler photons with an uncertainty of up to 2 nm.

  11. Probabilistic Velocity Estimation for Autonomous Miniature Airships using Thermal Air Flow Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teschner, Matthias

    Probabilistic Velocity Estimation for Autonomous Miniature Airships using Thermal Air Flow Sensors J¨org M¨uller Oliver Paul Wolfram Burgard Abstract-- Recently, autonomous miniature airships have be- come a growing research field. Whereas airships are attractive as they can move freely in the three

  12. Infrared-based NDE methods for determining thermal properties and defects in ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahuja, S.; Ellingson, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Steckenrider, J.S. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Koch, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous-fiber ceramic matrix composites are currently being developed for various high temperature applications, including use in advanced heat engines. In the material classes of interest for such applications, i.e., silicon carbide (SiC)-fiber-reinforced SiC (SiC{sub (f)}/SiC), SiC-fiber-reinforced silicon nitride (SiC{sub (f)}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3 (f)}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc., the condition of the interface between the fibers and matrix is critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of each component. A nondestructive evaluation method developed at Argonne National Laboratory uses infrared thermal imaging to provide ``single-shot`` full-field measurement of the distribution of thermal diffusivity in large components. By applying digital filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques for noise reduction, the authors have achieved acquisition and analysis times of minutes or less with submillimeter spatial resolution. The system has been used to examine the effects of thermal shock, oxidation treatment, density, and variations in fiber coatings in a full array of test specimens.

  13. Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth-space optical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth- space optical communication Paul W. Nugent,1 Joseph A ground-station sites. A technique is described that uses a ground-based thermal infrared imager sensing and sensors; (010.1615) clouds; (110.3080) infrared imaging; (060.4510) optical communications

  14. Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy on Operating Surface Acoustic Wave Chemical Sensors During Exposure to Gas-Phase Analytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hierlemann, A.; Hill, M.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.; Thomas, R.C.

    1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed instrumentation to enable the combination of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor measurements with direct, in-situ molecular spectroscopic measurements to understand the response of the SAW sensors with respect to the interfacial chemistry of surface-confined sensing films interacting with gas-phase analytes. Specifically, the instrumentation and software was developed to perform in-situ Fourier-transform infrared external-reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS) on operating SAW devices during dosing of their chemically modified surfaces with analytes. By probing the surface with IR spectroscopy during gas exposure, it is possible to understand in unprecedented detail the interaction processes between the sorptive SAW coatings and the gaseous analyte molecules. In this report, we provide details of this measurement system, and also demonstrate the utility of these combined measurements by characterizing the SAW and FTIR-ERS responses of organic thin-film sensor coatings interacting with gas-phase analytes.

  15. Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

  16. RealTime SpatioTemporal Query Processing in Mobile AdHoc Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that has multiple sensors (e.g., mo­ tion sensors, acoustic sensors, infrared light emitting diodes,

  17. Uncooled thin film infrared imaging device with aerogel thermal isolation: Deposition and planarization techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sriram, C.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Bullington, J.A. [AMMPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have successfully integrated a thermally insulating silica aerogel thin film into a new uncooled monolithic thin film infrared (IR) imaging device. Compared to other technologies (bulk ceramic and microbridge), use of an aerogel layer provides superior thermal isolation of the pyroelectric imaging element from the relatively massive heat sinking integrated circuit. This results in significantly higher thermal and temporal resolutions. They have calculated noise equivalent temperature differences of 0.04--0.10 C from a variety of Pb{sub x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PZT) and Pb{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PLZT) pyroelectric imaging elements in monolithic structures. In addition, use of aerogels results in an easier, less expensive fabrication process and a more robust device. Fabrication of these monolithic devices entails sol-gel deposition of the aerogel, sputter deposition of the electrodes, and solution chemistry deposition of the pyroelectric imaging elements. Uniform pyroelectric response is achieved across the device by use of appropriate planarization techniques. These deposition and planarization techniques are described. Characterization of the individual layers and monolithic structure using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Byer-Roundy techniques also is discussed.

  18. Determining thermal diffusivity and defect attributes in ceramic matrix composites by infrared imaging.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahuja, S.; Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Stuckey, J.

    1997-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic matrix composites are being developed for numerous high temperature applications, including rotors and combustors for advanced turbine engines, heat exchanger and hot-gas filters for coal gasification plants. Among the materials of interest are silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-carbide (SiC{sub (f)}/SiC), silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-nitride (SiC{sub (f)}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), aluminum-oxide-reinforced-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3(f)}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), etc. In the manufacturing of these ceramic composites, the conditions of the fiber/matrix interface are critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of the component. Defects such as delaminations and non-uniform porosity can directly effect the performance. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method, developed at Argonne National Laboratory has proved beneficial in analyzing as-processed conditions and defect detection created during manufacturing. This NDE method uses infrared thermal imaging for fill-field quantitative measurement of the distribution of thermal diffusivity in large components. Intensity transform algorithms have been used for contrast enhancement of the output image. Nonuniformity correction and automatic gain control are used to dynamically optimize video contrast and brightness, providing additional resolution in the acquired images. Digital filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques have been incorporated for noise reduction and data acquisition. The Argonne NDE system has been utilized to determine thermal shock damage, density variations, and variations in fiber coating in a full array of test specimens.

  19. Dense, low-power sensor network for three-dimensional thermal characterization of large-scale atria spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Nan-Wei

    We describe the design and implementation of a dense, low-power wireless sensor network for fine-grained three-dimensional thermal characterization of a large open indoor space. To better understand the airflow dynamics ...

  20. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2005 1023 Micromachined Thermal Shear-Stress Sensor for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Qiao

    detection of unmanned aerial vehicles [4]­[6]. The wall shear stress can be determined directly using Shear-Stress Sensor for Underwater Applications Yong Xu, Member, IEEE, Qiao Lin, Member, IEEE, Guoyu Lin Abstract--This paper reports the development of microma- chined thermal shear-stress sensors for underwater

  1. Study of Water Speed Sensitivity in a Multifunctional Thick-film Sensor by Analytical Thermal Simulations and Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Stefani; P. E. Bagnoli; S. Luschi

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper deals with an application of the analytical thermal simulator DJOSER. It consist of the characterization of a water speed sensor realized in hybrid technology. The capability of the thermal solver to manage the convection heat exchange and the effects of the passivating layers make the simulation work easy and fast.

  2. Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor Testing in a Thermal Barrier Coated Combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chorpening, B.T.; Dukes, M.G.; Robey, E.H.; Thornton, J.D.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS) continues to be developed as an in-situ combustion sensor, with immediate application to natural gas fired turbines. In-situ combustion monitoring is also expected to benefit advanced power plants of the future, fueled by coal-derived syngas, liquified natural gas (LNG), hydrogen, or hydrogen blend fuels. The in-situ monitoring that CCADS provides can enable the optimal operation of advanced, fuel-flexible turbines for minimal pollutant emissions and maximum efficiency over the full operating range of an advanced turbine. Previous work has demonstrated CCADS as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff, in experimental combustors without thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Since typical TBC materials are electrical insulators at room temperature, and CCADS operation requires conduction of electrical current to the walls of the combustor, a TBC on the combustion liner was identified as a potential barrier to CCADS operation in commercial application. This paper reports on CCADS experiments in a turbulent lean premixed combustor with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on the combustor wall. The tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa (1 atm), with a 15V excitation voltage on the CCADS electrodes. The results confirm that for a typical thermal barrier coating, CCADS operates properly, and the total measured average resistance is close to that of an uncoated combustor. This result is consistent with previous materials studies that found the electrical resistance of typical TBC materials considerably decreases at combustor operating temperatures.

  3. Near infrared emission from molecule-like silver clusters confined in zeolite A assisted by thermal activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hui, E-mail: linh8112@163.com; Imakita, Kenji; Rong Gui, Sa Chu; Fujii, Minoru, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong and broad near infrared (NIR) emission peaked at ?855?nm upon optimal excitation at 342?nm has been observed from molecule-like silver clusters (MLSCs) confined in zeolite A assisted by thermal activation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of NIR emission peaked at longer than 800?nm from MLSCs confined in solid matrices. The decay time of the NIR emission is over 10 ?s, which indicates that it is a spin-forbidden transition. The ?855?nm NIR emission shows strong dependence on the silver loading concentration and the thermal activation temperature.

  4. Thermophysical modeling of asteroids from WISE thermal infrared data - Significance of the shape model and the pole orientation uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanuš, Josef; ?urech, Josef; Alí-Lagoa, Victor

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the analysis of thermal infrared data of asteroids by means of thermophysical models (TPMs) it is a common practice to neglect the uncertainty of the shape model and the rotational state, which are taken as an input for the model. Here, we present a novel method of investigating the importance of the shape model and the pole orientation uncertainties in the thermophysical modeling - the varied shape TPM (VS-TPM). Our method uses optical photometric data to generate various shape models that map the uncertainty in the shape and the rotational state. The TPM procedure is then run for all these shape models. We apply the implementation of the classical TPM as well as our VS-TPM to the convex shape models of several asteroids together with their thermal infrared data acquired by the NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and compare the results. These show that the uncertainties of the shape model and the pole orientation can be very important (e.g., for the determination of the thermal inertia) and...

  5. Signal generation mechanisms, intracavity-gas thermal-diffusivity temperature dependence, and absolute infrared emissivity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    , Canada Received 22 September 1997; accepted for publication 8 October 1997 The operating thermal power dominance of thermal-wave radiation power transfer in the phase channel of the thermal-wave signal at large produces an ac electrical signal proportional to the energy of the standing thermal-wave pattern

  6. Estimation of Biomass Heat Storage Using Thermal Infrared Imagery: Application to a Walnut Orchard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garai, Anirban; Kleissl, Jan; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    remote areas and the holes drilled for the in situ tempera- ture sensors may affect the measurement through local changes in heat

  7. Calibration of a thin metal foil for infrared imaging video bolometer to estimate the spatial variation of thermal diffusivity using a photo-thermal technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Sano, Ryuichi [The Graduate University of Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [The Graduate University of Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Takashi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Drapiko, Evgeny A. [Fusion Centre, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)] [Fusion Centre, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Alekseyev, Andrey G. [Kurchatov Institute, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)] [Kurchatov Institute, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Itomi, Muneji [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin metal foil is used as a broad band radiation absorber for the InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB), which is a vital diagnostic for studying three-dimensional radiation structures from high temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. The two-dimensional (2D) heat diffusion equation of the foil needs to be solved numerically to estimate the radiation falling on the foil through a pinhole geometry. The thermal, physical, and optical properties of the metal foil are among the inputs to the code besides the spatiotemporal variation of temperature, for reliable estimation of the exhaust power from the plasma illuminating the foil. The foil being very thin and of considerable size, non-uniformities in these properties need to be determined by suitable calibration procedures. The graphite spray used for increasing the surface emissivity also contributes to a change in the thermal properties. This paper discusses the application of the thermographic technique for determining the spatial variation of the effective in-plane thermal diffusivity of the thin metal foil and graphite composite. The paper also discusses the advantages of this technique in the light of limitations and drawbacks presented by other calibration techniques being practiced currently. The technique is initially applied to a material of known thickness and thermal properties for validation and finally to thin foils of gold and platinum both with two different thicknesses. It is observed that the effect of the graphite layer on the estimation of the thermal diffusivity becomes more pronounced for thinner foils and the measured values are approximately 2.5–3 times lower than the literature values. It is also observed that the percentage reduction in thermal diffusivity due to the coating is lower for high thermal diffusivity materials such as gold. This fact may also explain, albeit partially, the higher sensitivity of the platinum foil as compared to gold.

  8. This work is partly supported by NSF CNS #1059212. A WEARABLE PIR SENSOR SYSTEM FOR THERMAL SITUATION PERCEPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zhigang

    ___________________________ This work is partly supported by NSF CNS #1059212. A WEARABLE PIR impaired people to adapt themselves well to the situation. In this paper, we propose a wearable PIR thermal. Today, PIR sensors have been widely installed in many buildings for human motion detection

  9. Development of Fiber Bragg Grating Strain, Thermal, and Magnetic Sensors for Smart Structure Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grating Sensors,” Structural Health Monitoring, vol. 2, no.sensor arrays for structural health monitoring of filamentin the field of structural health monitoring by measuring

  10. Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Query Processing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that has multiple sensors (e.g., mo- tion sensors, acoustic sensors, infrared light emitting diodes, and pa

  11. A Thermal Infrared Video Benchmark for Visual Analysis The Mathworks Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zheng

    in the last decade has mostly been associated with visible-light sen- sors. Non-visible spectrum sensors have' attention in both academia and industry. With our work, we intend to answer the community's need was originally developed for industrial and military use, for example, surveillance and night vision tasks

  12. Whole House Thermal Performance of Asphalt Shingles Exploiting Special Infrared Reflective Pigments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, L.; Miller, W.; Desjarlais, A.; Jacobs, J.; Youngquist, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are formulated with certain cool color pigments that are highly reflective in the near-infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. Brady and Wake (1992) found that 10-µm particles of TiO 2, when combined with colorants such as red and yellow iron oxides...-04 using cycle 4 as described in Table X2.1, Common Exposure Conditions, of the G 154 standard (ASTM 2002b). A UVB-340 lamp was used for simulating direct solar UV radiation; this lamp has no UV output below 300 nm, which is the cutoff wavelength...

  13. Eye localization from thermal infrared images Shangfei Wang a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    February 2013 Accepted 4 March 2013 Available online 21 March 2013 Keywords: Eye localization Eyeglass thermal images both with eyeglasses and without eyeglasses. First, with the help of support vector machine classifier, three gray-projection features are defined to determine whether a subject is with eyeglasses

  14. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Raft River Geothermal Area (1997) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC JumpWoodlands,Energy Information Thermal

  15. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 13, NO. 8, AUGUST 2013 2863 Thermal-Piezoresistive Resonators and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Yun-Bo

    or toxic gases. Such sensors can be divided into two categories based on their sensing mechanism: chemical Object Identifier 10.1109/JSEN.2013.2258667 Chemical sensors are based on the chemical reaction between for leakage detection of explosive gases such as hydrogen and methane, and for real-time sensing of pathogenic

  16. Research options for the development of sensors to measure the thermal state of solid steel bodies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaspar, T.A.; Lownie, H.W. Jr.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study reported here is to assist Battelle's Pcacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in planning a research and development program to develop temperature sensors for metal and ceramic industries. This study focuses on sensors to measure internal temperatures within bodies of hot steel. A series of literature surveys, interviews, field visits, and meetings with steel-industry organizations was conducted in seeking answers to questions posed by PNL. These questions, with responses, are summarized.

  17. Investigating Gait Recognition in the Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) Spectrum: Dataset and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Arun Abraham

    Investigating Gait Recognition in the Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) Spectrum: Dataset and Challenges that can confound recognition accuracy. In the context of automated human gait recognition, evaluation has literature has explored recognition in the passive thermal band. The advent of sophisticated sensors has

  18. Evaluation of IGBT thermo-sensitive electrical parameters under different dissipation conditions -Comparison with infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature evaluation. Keywords IGBT, thermo-sensitive parameter, infrared measurements, thermal is the temperature sensor. Several TSEPs can be used for the chip temperature evaluation under operating conditionsEvaluation of IGBT thermo-sensitive electrical parameters under different dissipation conditions

  19. Infrared retina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay (Albuquerque, NM); Hayat, Majeed M. (Albuquerque, NM); Tyo, J. Scott (Tucson, AZ); Jang, Woo-Yong (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  20. Design and Development of a Mid-Infrared Carbon Monoxide Sensor for a High-Pressure Combustor Rig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camou, Alejandro

    2014-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    -strengths compared to the overtone bands near 2.3 ?m and 1.55 ?m. The mid-IR sensor was applied to a high-pressure combustor to determine the time-history of carbon monoxide and compare it to other measured combustor parameters to fully characterize the combustor’s...

  1. The Response of Embedded Strain Sensors in Concrete Beams Subjected to Thermal Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Yu; Elshafie, Mohammed Z. E. B.; Dirar, Samir; Middleton, Campbell R.

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    calibration test was also carried out by placing a test cable (five FBG sensors manufactured on a single cable) into a water tank as shown in Figure 12. The water temperature was controlled by a heater and measured by three different thermocouples... an overview of the overall experimental setup while Figure 4b shows the different parts used to control the temperature imposed on the beam surfaces. Two 120 watt heaters were used to control the CH-40 CH-36 CH-39 CH-38 CH-37 Insulation Panel Fans...

  2. Infrared Studies of Molecular Shocks in the Supernova Remnant HB21: I. Thermal Admixture of Shocked H_2 Gas in the North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Burton, Michael G; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present near- and mid-infrared observations on the shock-cloud interaction region in the northern part of the supernova remnant HB21, performed with the InfraRed Camera (IRC) aboard AKARI satellite and the Wide InfraRed Camera (WIRC) at the Palomar 5 m telescope. The IRC 7 um (S7), 11 um (S11), and 15 um (L15) band images and the WIRC H2 v = 1 -> 0 S(1) 2.12 um image show similar shock-cloud interaction features. We chose three representative regions, and analyzed their IRC emissions through comparison with H2 line emissions of several shock models. The IRC colors are well explained by the thermal admixture model of H2 gas--whose infinitesimal H2 column density has a power-law relation with the temperature T, dN ~ T^-b dT--with n(H2) ~ 10^3 cm^-3, b ~ 3, and N(H2 ;T > 100K) ~ 3x10^20 cm^-2. The derived b value may be understood by a bow shock picture, whose shape is cycloidal (cuspy) rather than paraboloidal. However, this picture raises another issue that the bow shocks must reside within ~0.01 pc size-sc...

  3. Infrared Studies of Molecular Shocks in the Supernova Remnant HB 21: II. Thermal Admixture of Shocked H$_2$ Gas in the South

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Burton, Michael G; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present near- and mid-infrared observations on the shock-cloud interaction region in the southern part of the supernova remnant HB 21, performed with the InfraRed Camera (IRC) aboard AKARI satellite and the Wide InfraRed Camera (WIRC) at the Palomar 5 m telescope. The IRC 4 um (N4), 7 um (S7), and 11 um (S11) band images and the WIRC H2 v=1->0 S(1) 2.12 um image show similar diffuse features, around a shocked CO cloud. We analyzed the emission through comparison with the H2 line emission of several shock models. The IRC colors are well explained by the thermal admixture model of H2 gas--whose infinitesimal H2 column density has a power-law relation with the temperature $T$, $dN\\sim T^{-b}dT$--with n(H2) $\\sim3.9\\times10^4$ cm^{-2}, $b\\sim4.2$, and N(H2;T>100K) $\\sim2.8\\times10^{21}$ cm^{-2}. We interpreted these parameters with several different pictures of the shock-cloud interactions--multiple planar C-shocks, bow shocks, and shocked clumps--and discuss their weaknesses and strengths. The observed H2 v=1...

  4. Thermal Acoustic Sensor for High Pulse Energy X-ray FEL Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.J.; Frisch, J.C.; Kraft, E.M.; Loos, J.; /SLAC; Bentsen, G.S.; /Rochester U.

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The pulse energy density of X-ray FELs will saturate or destroy conventional X-ray diagnostics, and the use of large beam attenuation will result in a beam that is dominated by harmonics. We present preliminary results at the LCLS from a pulse energy detector based on the thermal acoustic effect. In this type of detector an X-ray resistant material (boron carbide in this system) intercepts the beam. The pulse heating of the target material produces an acoustic pulse that can be detected with high frequency microphones to produce a signal that is linear in the absorbed energy. The thermal acoustic detector is designed to provide first- and second-order calorimetric measurement of X-ray FEL pulse energy. The first-order calorimetry is a direct temperature measurement of a target designed to absorb all or most of the FEL pulse power with minimal heat leak. The second-order measurement detects the vibration caused by the rapid thermoelastic expansion of the target material each time it absorbs a photon pulse. Both the temperature change and the amplitude of the acoustic signal are directly related to the photon pulse energy.

  5. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilgrim, C. C. [Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK and Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Heyes, A. L. [Energy Technology and Innovation Initiative, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Feist, J. P. [Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  6. Active Control Strategies for Chemical Sensors and Sensor Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosangi, Rakesh

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical sensors are generally used as one-dimensional devices, where one measures the sensor’s response at a fixed setting, e.g., infrared absorption at a specific wavelength, or conductivity of a solid-state sensor at a specific operating...

  7. atmospheric remote sensing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Remote SensingThermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal infrared) and thermal infrared energy (3.0 - 14 m). However, thermal infrared sensors allow humans to...

  8. Effect of precursor mineralogy on the thermal infrared emission spectra of hematite: Application to Martian hematite mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    samples derived by (1) dehydroxylation of fine- grained goethite and (2) oxidation of magnetite derived by pseudomorphic and topotactic dehydroxylation of goethite at 300°C. Spectra of goethite spectrum. Thermal emission spectra of goethites heated at lower temperatures are characterized

  9. Hallway Monitoring: Distributed Data Processing with Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumgartner, Tobias

    infrared sensors (PIRs), con- nected to 30 wireless sensor nodes. There are also 29 LEDs and speakers, development, and evaluation of higher-level algorithms in real de- ployments in which sensor nodes can share, and 29 passive infrared sensors (PIRs) for motion detection. The construction of the load sensors has

  10. Infrared Studies of Molecular Shocks in the Supernova Remnant HB21: I. Thermal Admixture of Shocked H_2 Gas in the North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jong-Ho Shinn; Bon-Chul Koo; Michael G. Burton; Ho-Gyu Lee; Dae-Sik Moon

    2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present near- and mid-infrared observations on the shock-cloud interaction region in the northern part of the supernova remnant HB21, performed with the InfraRed Camera (IRC) aboard AKARI satellite and the Wide InfraRed Camera (WIRC) at the Palomar 5 m telescope. The IRC 7 um (S7), 11 um (S11), and 15 um (L15) band images and the WIRC H2 v = 1 -> 0 S(1) 2.12 um image show similar shock-cloud interaction features. We chose three representative regions, and analyzed their IRC emissions through comparison with H2 line emissions of several shock models. The IRC colors are well explained by the thermal admixture model of H2 gas--whose infinitesimal H2 column density has a power-law relation with the temperature T, dN ~ T^-b dT--with n(H2) ~ 10^3 cm^-3, b ~ 3, and N(H2 ;T > 100K) ~ 3x10^20 cm^-2. The derived b value may be understood by a bow shock picture, whose shape is cycloidal (cuspy) rather than paraboloidal. However, this picture raises another issue that the bow shocks must reside within ~0.01 pc size-scale, smaller than the theoretically expected. Instead, we conjectured a shocked clumpy interstellar medium picture, which may avoid the sizescale issue while explaining the similar model parameters. The observed H2 v = 1 -> 0 S(1) intensities are a factor of ~17 - 33 greater than the prediction from the power-law admixture model. This excess may be attributed to either an extra component of hot H2 gas or to the effects of collisions with hydrogen atoms, omitted in our power-law admixture model, both of which would increase the population in the v = 1 level of H2.

  11. availiable remote sensing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remote SensingThermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal infrared) and thermal infrared energy (3.0 - 14 m). However, thermal infrared sensors allow humans to sense 2 Thermal...

  12. aerospace remote sensing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remote SensingThermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal infrared) and thermal infrared energy (3.0 - 14 m). However, thermal infrared sensors allow humans to sense 2 Thermal...

  13. Automated Intruder Tracking using Particle Filtering and a Network of Binary Motion Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ken

    infrared (PIR) motion sensors that suggest that our estimator is effective and degrades gracefully with increasing sensor refractory periods. Index Terms - Security, Sensor Networks, Particle Filter, Tracking, Sensor Fusion. I. INTRODUCTION Many new technologies for automated security, wireless networks

  14. Infrared Emission from AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Sanders

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared observations of complete samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) have shown that a substantial fraction of their bolometric luminosity is emitted at wavelengths ~8-1000microns. In radio-loud and Blazar-like objects much of this emission appears to be direct non-thermal synchrotron radiation. However, in the much larger numbers of radio-quiet AGN it is now clear that thermal dust emission is responsible for the bulk of radiation from the near-infrared through submillimeter wavelengths. Luminous infrared-selected AGN are often surrounded by powerful nuclear starbursts, both of which appear to be fueled by enormous supplies of molecular gas and dust funneled into the nuclear region during the strong interaction/merger of gas rich disks. All-sky surveys in the infrared show that luminous infrared AGN are at least as numerous as optically-selected AGN of comparable bolometric luminosity, suggesting that AGN may spend a substantial fraction of their lifetime in a dust-enshrouded phase. The space density of luminous infrared AGN at high redshift may be sufficient to account for much of the X-Ray background, and for a substantial fraction of the far-infrared background as well. These objects plausibly represent a major epoch in the formation of spheroids and massive black holes (MBH).

  15. Comparison of Long-Wave Infrared Imaging and Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging of Vegetation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Comparison of Long-Wave Infrared Imaging and Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging of Vegetation using spectral imaging. This has been accom- plished with both visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) sunlight reflection and long-wave infrared (LWIR) thermal emission. During a 4-week period in summer 2011

  16. A combined sensor placement and convex optimization approach for thermal management in 3D-MPSoC with liquid cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    with traditional state of the art liquid cooling techniques. The proposed policy also keeps the thermal profile up cooling technology. Moreover, the problem with all aforementioned techniques is that they require online-MPSoC with liquid cooling Francesco Zanini a,n , David Atienza b , Giovanni De Micheli a a Integrated Systems Lab

  17. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lashley, Jason Charles (Sante Fe, NM); Opeil, Cyril P. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Smith, James Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  18. EVALUATION OF SENSORS FOR A SMART WHEELCHAIR Edmund F. LoPresti1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nourbakhsh, Illah

    and 9000 sonar sensors and Sharp GP2D02 and GP2D12 infrared sensors were evaluated for eight materials is being conducted to evaluate a variety of commercially available sonar and infrared sensorsEVALUATION OF SENSORS FOR A SMART WHEELCHAIR Edmund F. LoPresti1 , Richard C. Simpson1 , David

  19. Towards on-Chip, Integrated Chalcogenide Glass Based Biochemical Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Juejun

    This paper reviews ongoing progress in the development of novel on-chip planar molecular sensors in infrared-transparent chalcogenide glasses. We demonstrate on-chip cavity-enhanced refractometry and infrared absorption ...

  20. Variable waveband infrared imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  1. Analysis, testing, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Sonny; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Kasper, Brian P. [The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Aerospace Corporation has completed the development of the Mineral and Gas Identifier (MAGI) sensor - an airborne multi-spectral infrared instrument that is designed to discriminate surface composition and to detect gas emissions from the environment. Sensor performance was demonstrated in a series of flights aboard a Twin Otter aircraft in December 2011 as a stepping stone to a future satellite sensor design. To meet sensor performance requirements the thermal control system was designed to operate the HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) at 50 K with a 1.79 W heat rejection load to a 44.7 K sink and the optical assembly at 100 K with a 7.5 W heat load to a 82.3 K sink. Two commercial off-theshelf (COTS) Sunpower Stirling cryocoolers were used to meet the instrument’s cooling requirements. A thermal model constructed in Thermal Desktop was used to run parametric studies that guided the mechanical design and sized the two cryocoolers. This paper discusses the development, validation, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system. Detailed energy balances and temperature predictions are presented for various test cases to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the thermal model. Model inputs included measured values of heat lift as a function of input power and cold tip temperature for the two cryocoolers. These measurements were also used to make predictions of the cool-down behavior from ambient conditions. Advanced heater software was developed to meet unique requirements for both sensor cool-down rate and stability at the set point temperatures.

  2. Application of Infrared Thermography in Building Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Chen, H.; Xu, Q.; I, D.; Wang, Z.; Fang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on experience, the paper introduces the key issues during the use of infrared thermography in building energy efficiency. In order to get a more useful thermal infrared spectrum, we must correct the operating apparatus and measure more...

  3. Application of Infrared Thermography in Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Chen, H.; Xu, Q.; I, D.; Wang, Z.; Fang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on experience, the paper introduces the key issues during the use of infrared thermography in building energy efficiency. In order to get a more useful thermal infrared spectrum, we must correct the operating apparatus and measure more...

  4. Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safitri, Anisa

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancement in infrared imaging technology has allowed the thermal imaging to detect and visualize several gases, mostly hydrocarbon gases. In addition, infrared cameras could potentially be used as a non-contact temperature measurement for gas...

  5. Infrared light detection using a whispering-gallery-mode optical microcavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jiangang, E-mail: jzhu@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: ozdemir@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: yang@seas.wustl.edu; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya, E-mail: jzhu@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: ozdemir@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: yang@seas.wustl.edu; Yang, Lan, E-mail: jzhu@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: ozdemir@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: yang@seas.wustl.edu [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63117 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a thermal infrared (IR) detector based on an ultra-high-quality-factor (Q) whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microtoroidal silica resonator and investigate its performance to detect IR radiation at 10??m wavelength. The bandwidth and the sensitivity of the detector are dependent on the power of a probe laser and the detuning between the probe laser and the resonance frequency of the resonator. The microtoroid IR sensor achieved a noise-equivalent-power (NEP) of 7.46?nW, corresponding to an IR intensity of 0.095?mW/cm{sup 2}.

  6. accident research thermal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermal comfort in high to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes. Potential Impact 15 Applications of thermal infrared imaging...

  7. Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal Infrared Imagery Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative...

  8. Molecular basis of infrared detection by Elena O. Gracheva1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Eric A.

    , snakes detect infrared signals through a mechanism involving radiant heating of the pit organ, ratherARTICLES Molecular basis of infrared detection by snakes Elena O. Gracheva1 *, Nicholas T. Ingolia2 system for detecting infrared radiation, enabling them to generate a `thermal image' of predators or prey

  9. CMOS temperature sensor utilizing interface-trap charge pumping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berber, Feyza

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 35 (a) Expected value and (b) standard deviation (1sigma) of the sensor temperature readings with batch calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 36 Sensitivity of the temperature sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 1 CHAPTER I... which require built-in thermal sensors [1]. Semiconductor sensors are also preferred over traditional temperature sensors in some automotive and biomedical applications due to their low?area and low?cost. Semiconductor temperature sensors are generally...

  10. Probabilistic Detection of Mobile Targets in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poovendran, Radha

    , a surveillance system can be realized via fusion of data aggregated from various sensor modalities: infrared, CCD of detection can be quantified by evaluating the probability of detection by at least k sensors, where kProbabilistic Detection of Mobile Targets in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks Loukas Lazos Network

  11. Intensity-based Object Localization and Tracking with Wireless Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Torsten

    - ticular when using the motion sensor. Due to these insights we can use the passive infrared sensor (PIRIntensity-based Object Localization and Tracking with Wireless Sensors Markus Waelchli, Samuel {waelchli, bissig, braun}@iam.unibe.ch ABSTRACT In this paper we present a first evaluation

  12. Distributed Target Tracking with Directional Binary Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    a sector within the circular range around it. Examples of such sensors include cameras, infrared sensors on information gathered from all sensors to update the target's track. But particle filters are expensive to compute, and transmitting data from each node to a central one is very costly in terms of the energy

  13. FY 2006 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics and optical fiber processing methods for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions.

  14. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr; Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

  15. Directional Sensor Control for Maximizing Information Gain Shankarachary Ragia, Hans D. Mittelmannb, and Edwin K. P. Chonga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittelmann, Hans D.

    , infrared sensors, and ultrasound sensors. These sensors are becoming increasingly important due to a wide locations are evaluated. Our goal is to assign each sensor to a particular direction such that the overallDirectional Sensor Control for Maximizing Information Gain Shankarachary Ragia, Hans D. Mittelmannb

  16. Infrared floodlight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Robert E. (S. Hamilton, MA); English, George J. (Reading, MA)

    1986-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared floodlight assembly designed particularly for security purposes and including a heat-conducting housing, a lens secured to the housing to provide a closure therefor, and a floodlight located within (and surrounded by) the housing. The floodlight combines the use of a tungsten halogen light source and dichroic hot and cold mirrors for directing substantially only infrared radiation toward the assembly's forward lens. Visible radiation is absorbed by the housing's interior wall(s) and, optionally, by a filter located between the floodlight and lens. An optional means may be used within the floodlight to reflect all forward radiation back toward the paraboloidal hot mirror or, alternatively, to reflect only visible radiation in this direction. The dichroic hot and cold mirrors preferably each comprise a glass substrate having multiple layers of titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide thereon.

  17. TiAgx thin films for lower limb prosthesis pressure sensors: effect of composition and structural changes in the electrical and thermal response of the films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 TiAgx thin films for lower limb prosthesis pressure sensors: effect of composition and structural of the prosthesis are poor static and dynamic weight support, gait deviations and non-efficient gait. In extreme situations the amputee stops using the device. The production of the prosthesis, and its fit

  18. A THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING STUDY OF VERY LOW MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS STARS: CONSTRAINING CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip M.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hoffmann, William F.; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)] [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Hill, John M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kim, Jihun [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland)] [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Murray-Clay, Ruth; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nelson, Matthew J., E-mail: vbailey@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a 3-5 {mu}m LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (M{sub BD} <25 M{sub Jup}; M{sub BD}/M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 {mu}m excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 {mu}m excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 {mu}m excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 {mu}m colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 {+-} 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (<5 M{sub Jup} beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering.

  19. Quantitative analysis of infrared contrast enhancement algorithms Seth Weith-Glushko1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    , and quantitatively evaluate infrared contrast enhancement algorithms for use in a real-time long-wave infrared imageQuantitative analysis of infrared contrast enhancement algorithms Seth Weith-Glushko1 and Carl range imagery output from current sensors are compressed in a pleasing way for display on lower dynamic

  20. Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry: Components, Calibration, and Application #12;CIP-DATA KONINKLIJKE BIBLIOTHEEK, DEN HAAG Boer, Johannes Henricus Wilhelmus Gerardus den Spectroscopic Infrared in Dutch. ISBN 90 386 0017 8 Subject headings: spectroscopy ellipsometry infrared. #12;Spectroscopic

  1. Compact Modeling and Analysis for Electronic and Thermal Effects of Nanometer Integrated and Packaged Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WANG, HAI

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparison of the new thermal sensor placement algorithm with the uniform and the k-meanscomparison of the new thermal sensor placement algorithm with the uniform and the k-means

  2. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  3. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and waveguide couplers. Optical metrology tools were also developed to characterize optical waveguide structures and LWIR optical components.

  4. Fusion of Visual and Thermal Face Recognition Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    of individuals wearing eyeglasses may result in poor performance since eyeglasses block the infrared emissions ............................................................. 27 3.3 Eyeglass Detection and Removal from Thermal Images................................. 31 4

  5. Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    library Report: Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal Infrared Data Abstract Remote sensing is a cost-effective tool that can be used to cover large...

  6. Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziouche, K., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Bougrioua, Z., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Lejeune, P.; Lasri, T.; Leclercq, D. [IEMN, Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, CNRS and Lille 1 University, F-59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Savelli, G.; Hauser, D.; Michon, P.-M. [CEA, LITEN, Thermoelectricity Laboratory, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an original integration of polycrystalline SiGe-based quantum dots superlattices (QDSL) into Thermoelectric (TE) planar infrared microsensors (?SIR) fabricated using a CMOS technology. The nanostructuration in QDSL results into a considerably reduced thermal conductivity by a factor up to 10 compared to the one of standard polysilicon layers that are usually used for IR sensor applications. A presentation of several TE layers, QDSL and polysilicon, is given before to describe the fabrication of the thermopile-based sensors. The theoretical values of the sensitivity to irradiance of ?SIR can be predicted thanks to an analytical model. These findings are used to interpret the experimental measurements versus the nature of the TE layer exploited in the devices. The use of nanostructured QDSL as the main material in ?SIR thermopile has brought a sensitivity improvement of about 28% consistent with theoretical predictions. The impact of QDSL low thermal conductivity is damped by the contribution of the thermal conductivity of all the other sub-layers that build up the device.

  7. Infrared Quantum Dots** By Edward H. Sargent*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and treat disease, harness new forms of energy, and visualize threats to our safety and environment depend of the telecommunications wave- length band spans 1200±1700 nm.[1] It is of interest to unite, in a single monolithic±10 cm; solar and thermal photovoltaics for energy conversion; and infrared sensing and imaging based

  8. Micromechanical calorimetric sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A calorimeter sensor apparatus is developed utilizing microcantilevered spring elements for detecting thermal changes within a sample containing biomolecules which undergo chemical and biochemical reactions. The spring element includes a bimaterial layer of chemicals on a coated region on at least one surface of the microcantilever. The chemicals generate a differential thermal stress across the surface upon reaction of the chemicals with an analyte or biomolecules within the sample due to the heat of chemical reactions in the sample placed on the coated region. The thermal stress across the spring element surface creates mechanical bending of the microcantilever. The spring element has a low thermal mass to allow detection and measuring of heat transfers associated with chemical and biochemical reactions within a sample placed on or near the coated region. A second surface may have a different material, or the second surface and body of microcantilever may be of an inert composition. The differential thermal stress between the surfaces of the microcantilever create bending of the cantilever. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers. The microcantilever is extremely sensitive to thermal changes in samples as small as 30 microliters.

  9. Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group Sco McWilliams U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consor;um (PVMC) Infrared Thermography Infrared Thermography (IRT) has been demonstrated...

  10. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS TBD Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Report NESDIS TBD Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) User. NESDIS 114 Satellite Rainfall Estimation Over South America: Evaluation of Two Major Events. Daniel A

  11. Virtual Lock: A Smartphone Application for Personal Surveillance Using Camera Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A major application of camera sensor networks is surveil- lance and security. Tim Ellis [9] implemented infrared (PIR) sensors to supple- ment algorithms of detecting and tracking humans which can sometimes cause false alarms. By combining PIR sensors with those algorithms, they could avoid false alarms

  12. Target Tracking with Limited Sensing Range in Autonomous Mobile Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , security surveillance [1], [2]. Target tracking is a critical problem in the field of sensor networks, passive infrared (PIR) sensors can detect the 1The work is partially supported by NSFC under Grants, in this paper, we consider the mobile sensors equipped with both PIR module and ultrasonic sensing module

  13. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SIMULTANEOUS 3D LOCALIZATION OF SENSOR NODES AND TRACKING MOVING TARGETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SIMULTANEOUS 3D LOCALIZATION OF SENSOR NODES AND TRACKING MOVING TARGETS sensor/target localization) which rely on infrared (IR), radio frequency/received signal strength (RF of a simultaneous localization and track- ing (SLAT) algorithm for sensor networks, whose aim is to determine

  14. QueueTrak: Automated Line Length Detection using a Wireless Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    , it uses a series of custom active infrared sensors to detect the length of a line in a store or restaurant the design, implementation, and evaluation of QueueTrak, a sensor network that measures the length of linesQueueTrak: Automated Line Length Detection using a Wireless Sensor Network Jared Alexander, Matthew

  15. Infrared Surveys for AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding E. Smith

    2002-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    From the earliest extragalactic infrared studies AGN have shown themselves to be strong infrared sources and IR surveys have revealed new populations of AGN. I briefly review current motivations for AGN surveys in the infrared and results from previous IR surveys. The Luminous Infrared Galaxies, which in some cases house dust-enshrouded AGN, submillimeter surveys, and recent studies of the cosmic x-ray and infrared backgrounds suggest that there is a population of highly-obscured AGN at high redshift. ISO Surveys have begun to resolve the infrared background and may have detected this obscured AGN population. New infrared surveys, particularly the SIRTF Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (SWIRE), will detect this population and provide a platform for understanding the evolution of AGN, Starbursts and passively evolving galaxies in the context of large-scale structure and environment.

  16. Infrared Inspection Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

  17. Infrared Inspection Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

  18. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakouzi, S.; Pancrace, J.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Berthet, F. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, Mines Albi, ISAE, ICA - Institut Clement Ader, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Ecole des Mines Albi, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi (France)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  19. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Key goals were to assess the nature of these relationships as they varied between sensors

  20. A Scaled, Performance Driven Evaluation of the Layered Sensing Framework Utilizing Polarimetric Infrared Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krim, Hamid

    sensing, distributed sensing, polarimetric, infrared, tracking, feature-aided, fusion, multi- sensor 1A Scaled, Performance Driven Evaluation of the Layered Sensing Framework Utilizing Polarimetric Infrared Imagery Hamilton Scott Clousea and Hamid Krima and Olga Mendoza-Schrockb aNorth Carolina State

  1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR EMJSSWITY EFFECTS USING RAY-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    . These routines require a sequence of images to evaluate tracking algorithms. The evaluation of sensor performanceTHREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR Memorial Drive Rochester, New York 14623-0887 ABSTRAO A technique for longwave infrared (LWIR) synthetic

  2. Laser infrared photothermal radiometric depth profilometry of steels and its potential in rail track evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    -scattering or in the transmission mode using a variety of sensor probes. In this work we used the infrared (IR) photothermal radioLaser infrared photothermal radiometric depth profilometry of steels and its potential in rail track evaluation A. Mandelis*, M. Munidasa, L. Nicolaides Photothermal and Optoelectronic Diagnostics

  3. Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors:Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design,Design,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors:Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design,Design, Implementation, and EvaluationImplementation, and Evaluation Jie Teng, Tim Bolbrock, Guohong Cao, and Tom La of Freiburg #12;OverviewOverview · Sensor networks · mobile sensor · mobile robot · Mote · sensor relocation

  4. Intelligent Sensor Placement for Hot Server Detection in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Guoliang

    thermal monitoring with accurate location information, the cooling systems often use unnecessarily low--Data centers, servers, sensor placement, thermal monitoring, computational fluid dynamics, power management Ç 1. In addition to improving cooling energy efficiency, accurate thermal monitoring is more critical

  5. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liess, Martin [Rhein Main University of Applied Sciences, Rüsselsheim, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  6. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  7. Application of Multizone HVAC Control Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Actuating Vent Registers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, W.; Koplow, M.; Redfern, A.; Wright, P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on an embedded server, and temperature sensors that were distributed throughout the house. The residence is divided into four Control Zones. Zone 1 contains the downstairs living, dining, and kitchen area. Zone 2 contains the bathrooms and laundry... radiation. The temperature and humidity sensors are manufactured by Sensirion, models SH11 and SH15. The light sensors consist of a thermally sensitive radiation sensor (TSR) and a photosynthetic active radiation sensor, manufactured by Hamamatsu...

  8. Sensor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  9. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  10. Hukseflux Thermal Sensors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to:Pennsylvania:County,Ohio:Hughson, California: EnergyHukseflux

  11. Corrosion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Clarke, Jr., Willis L. (San Ramon, CA); Ciarlo, Dino R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  12. Corrosion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  13. Sensor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  14. Development of Sensors for Automotive PEM-based Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FC Series 200 - 50 kW PEM #12;2 Development of Sensors for Automotive PEM-based Fuel Cells ­ Program Thermal Management System Cabin safety / H2 sensor Fuel Cell Stack / CO, H2 , RH, O2 , pressure sensors streams: before, in, and after reformer, before and in fuel cell stack: CO, H2, O2, H2S, NH3. ­Safety [H2

  15. Process Compensated CMOS Temperature Sensor for Microprocessor Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    Process Compensated CMOS Temperature Sensor for Microprocessor Application Yaesuk Jeong and Farrokh consumption is 478uW. I. INTRODUCTION With microprocessors scaling to higher performance and faster speed in the microprocessor to monitor its thermal distribution. Many CMOS based temperature sensors have been reported

  16. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  17. Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O'Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

  18. Femtosecond Near-Infrared Laser Desorption of Multilayer Benzene on Pt{111}: A Molecular Newton's Cradle?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levis, Robert J.

    Femtosecond Near-Infrared Laser Desorption of Multilayer Benzene on Pt{111}: A Molecular Newton Recently, the intense near-infrared laser desorption of intact benzene molecules has been reported.1 Three to alter the pure thermal distribution to one having a stream velocity.4 The high heating rates achievable

  19. Pulsed infrared laser annealing of gold nanoparticles embedded in a silica A. Halabica,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Pulsed infrared laser annealing of gold nanoparticles embedded in a silica matrix A. Halabica,1,a J; published online 28 April 2008 Pulsed infrared laser irradiation was used to modify the optical and physical in a fused-silica matrix. The experiments demonstrate the unique effects of fast thermal heating

  20. Instrument effects in polarized infrared images Joseph A. Shaw, MEMBER SPIE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Instrument effects in polarized infrared images Joseph A. Shaw, MEMBER SPIE NOAA Environmental and fric- tional heating of the polarizer mount. Our model shows that the two surfaces of a wire uncertainties less than 1%. Subject terms: infrared polarization; thermal imaging; remote sensing. Optica

  1. Laser infrared photothermal radiometry of electronic solids: Principles and applications to industrial semiconductor Si wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Laser infrared photothermal radiometry of electronic solids: Principles and applications and application case studies of the novel diagnostic technique of laser infrared photothermal radiometry PTR and heating of the lattice thermal wave . Multiparameter fits to frequency-domain amplitude and phase data

  2. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  3. Hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  4. Simulation of Combustion and Thermal Flow in an Industrial Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saripalli, R.; Wang, T.; Day, B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    insight into the detailed thermal-flow and combustion in the boiler and showing possible reasons for superheater tube rupture. The exhaust gas temperature is consistent with the actual results from the infrared thermograph inspection....

  5. Copyright 2007 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). This paper was published at the SPIE conference Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 2007 in Orlando, USA and is made available as an electronic reprint with permission of S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jantsch, Axel

    . The calculational model is used to evaluate possible infrared sensor and system design tradeoffs that allow at the SPIE conference Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 2007 in Orlando, USA and is made available 08 58 Uncooled Infrared Bolometer Arrays Operating in a Low to Medium Vacuum Atmosphere: Performance

  6. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, Israel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Remelius, Dennis K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tiee, Joe J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buck, Steven E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whittemore, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shirey, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  7. Final LDRD report : infrared detection and power generation using self-assembled quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Ellis, Robert; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative solutions are desired for mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared radiation detection and imaging arrays. We have investigated quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) as a possible solution for long-wavelength infrared (8 to 12 {mu}m) radiation sensing. This document provides a summary for work done under the LDRD 'Infrared Detection and Power Generation Using Self-Assembled Quantum Dots'. Under this LDRD, we have developed QDIP sensors and made efforts to improve these devices. While the sensors fabricated show good responsivity at 80 K, their detectivity is limited by high noise current. Following efforts concentrated on how to reduce or eliminate this problem, but with no clear path was identified to the desired performance improvements.

  8. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  9. Remote Sensing of Mountain Environments Andreas Kb, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kääb, Andreas

    ;2 · Visible light and near infrared (VNIR): sensors collect the reflected sunlight (passive sensor); data and near infrared light, short-wave infrared, thermal infrared, and microwaves) (Figure 1). Together, LIDAR; active sensor) apply often near infrared. · Short-wave infrared (SWIR): some surfaces show

  10. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  11. Submitted to Sensors. Pages 1 -19. OPEN ACCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban3 mobility, as an alternative.mdpi.com/journal/sensors Article Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas Joshué.cls Abstract: Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas because of their1 ability to reduce

  12. Human detection with a multi-sensors stereovision system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Human detection with a multi-sensors stereovision system Y. Benezeth1 , P.M. Jodoin2 , B. Emile3 Far-Infrared (FIR) and daylight cameras mounted on a stereovision setup. Although daylight or FIR together. In order to gauge performances, a quantitative evaluation based on an annotated dataset

  13. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Michael C. (Westmont, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  14. Evaluation of infrasound sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kromer, R.P.; McDonald, T.S.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia is evaluating the performance of various infrasound sensors that could be used as part of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS). Specifications for infrasound stations are outlined in CTBT/PC/II/1/Add.2. This document specifies minimum requirements for sensor, digitizer and system. The infrasound sensors evaluation task has the following objectives: provide an overview of the sensors presently in use; evaluate these sensors with respect to the requirements of the IMS.

  15. Decentralized TDOA Sensor Pairing in Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Wei; Lihua, Xie; Wendong, Xiao

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    localization in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Signallocalization in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Trans.techniques for wireless sensor networks: A survey,” IEEE

  16. Statistical Pattern Recognition Techniques for Target Differentiation using Infrared Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barshan, Billur

    systems [1, 2, 3]. Dif- ferentiation is also important in industrial applications where different detector. These devices are inexpensive, practical, and widely available. The emitted light is reflected classifiers) for target differentiation. We provide a comparison of these approaches based on real data

  17. Field scale evaluation of the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor and assessment of river-aquifer interaction at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site / by Andrew Scott Alden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alden, Andrew Scott

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors (ISPFS), recently developed by Dr. Sanford Ballard at Sandia National Laboratories, were field tested at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site near College Station, Texas. The Flow Sensors use a thermal...

  18. Field scale evaluation of the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor and assessment of river-aquifer interaction at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site / by Andrew Scott Alden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alden, Andrew Scott

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors (ISPFS), recently developed by Dr. Sanford Ballard at Sandia National Laboratories, were field tested at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site near College Station, Texas. The Flow Sensors use a thermal...

  19. Infrared Thermometer (IRT) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VR Morris

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Infrared Thermometer (IRT) is a ground-based radiation pyrometer that provides measurements of the equivalent blackbody brightness temperature of the scene in its field of view. The downwelling version has a narrow field of view for measuring sky temperature and for detecting clouds. The upwelling version has a wide field of view for measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface.

  20. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    FTIR - 1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL IN VODKA AND MOUTHWASH INTRODUCTION As a part has contained MTBE (methyl tert­butyl ether) as its primary oxygenate. However, there has been

  1. Automated Spot Weld Inspection using Infrared Thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL] [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated non-contact and non-destructive resistance spot weld inspection system based on infrared (IR) thermography was developed for post-weld applications. During inspection, a weld coupon was heated up by an auxiliary induction heating device from one side of the weld, while the resulting thermal waves on the other side were observed by an IR camera. The IR images were analyzed to extract a thermal signature based on normalized heating time, which was then quantitatively correlated to the spot weld nugget size. The use of normalized instead of absolute IR intensity was found to be useful in minimizing the sensitivity to the unknown surface conditions and environment interference. Application of the IR-based inspection system to different advanced high strength steels, thickness gauges and coatings were discussed.

  2. Accurate Temperature Estimation for Efficient Thermal Management Shervin Sharifi , ChunChen Liu, Tajana Simunic Rosing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Accurate Temperature Estimation for Efficient Thermal Management Shervin Sharifi , ChunChen Liu of temperature at various locations on a chip considering the inaccuracies in thermal sensor readings due estimation of temperature at different locations on the chip with only a limited number of sensors

  3. Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Ankur Mukesh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Channel-Specific Wireless Sensor Network Path Data”. In:Average Power in Wireless Sensor Networks through Data Ratedesign space of wireless sensor networks”. In: IEEE Wireless

  4. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gale et al. (2006) and evaluation of sensor performance byConclusions from evaluation of representative sensor systemsConclusions from evaluation of representative sensor systems

  5. Infrared Excess and Molecular Clouds: A comparison of new suerveys of far-infrared and H I 21-cm emission at high galactic latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William T. Reach; William F. Wall; Nils Odegard

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have created a map of the large-scale infrared surface brightness in excess of that associated with the atomic interstellar medium, using region-by-region correlations between the far-infrared and 21-cm line surface brightness. Our study updates and extends a previous attempt with IRAS and Berkeley/Parkes H I surveys. The far-infrared observations used here are from DIRBE, which extends far-infrared wavelength coverage to 240 um, so that we are reliably sampling the emission of large, thermal-equilibrium grains that dominate the dust mass. The H I data are from the combined Leiden-Dwingeloo and Parkes 21-cm line surveys. Using the maps of excess infrared emission at 100, 140, and 240 um, we created an atlas and identified the coherent structures. These infrared excess clouds can be caused both by dust that is warmer than average, or by dust associated with gas other than the atomic interstellar medium. We find very few warm clouds, such as the H II region around Spica. The majority of the infrared excess clouds are colder than the average atomic interstellar medium. These clouds are peaks of column density, and their excess infrared emission is due to dust associated with molecular gas. We identify essentially all known high-latitude molecular clouds in the infrared excess maps, and further identify a sample of new clouds with similar infrared properties. The infrared excess was correlated with CO line brightness, allowing us to measure the ratio of N(H2)/W(CO) for high-latitude clouds. The atlas of infrared excess may be a useful guide to regions of relatively high column density, which might cause high extinction toward extragalactic objects at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths and confusion for cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds.

  6. Pulse thermal processing of functional materials using directed plasma arc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Ronald D. (Knoxville, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Harper, David C. (Kingston, TN)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of thermally processing a material includes exposing the material to at least one pulse of infrared light emitted from a directed plasma arc to thermally process the material, the pulse having a duration of no more than 10 s.

  7. MEMS-Based Pyroelectric Thermal Energy Scavenger

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of microelectromechanical system (MEMS ) high efficiency heat energy converter, or scavenger, was invented by ORNL researchers. This device is based on temperature cycled cantilevered pyroelectric capacitors. The scavenger converts thermal waste heat to electricity that can be used to monitor sensor systems, or recycled to provide electrical power while simultaneously reducing thermal cooling requirements. Given the current state of global industry, which discharges over 100...

  8. Infrared Maximally Abelian Gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tereza Mendes; Attilio Cucchieri; Antonio Mihara

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The confinement scenario in Maximally Abelian gauge (MAG) is based on the concepts of Abelian dominance and of dual superconductivity. Recently, several groups pointed out the possible existence in MAG of ghost and gluon condensates with mass dimension 2, which in turn should influence the infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators. We present preliminary results for the first lattice numerical study of the ghost propagator and of ghost condensation for pure SU(2) theory in the MAG.

  9. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  10. The impact of explicit cloud boundary information on ice cloud microphysical property retrievals from infrared radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    from infrared radiances Steven J. Cooper, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, and Graeme L. Stephens Department inclusion of explicit cloud boundary information from complementary sensors as well as providing a suite of diagnostic tools for evaluating the dominant sources of uncertainty in all retrieved quantities. Errors

  11. Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors J. W. Cleary1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors J. W. Cleary1 , R. E. Peale1,2 , D, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816, U.S.A. 3 AFRL/RYHC, Sensors on silicon were evaluated as conducting hosts for surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in proposed long-wave IR

  12. Thermal imaging measurement of lateral thermal diffusivity in continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J. G.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

    2000-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared thermal imaging has become a common technique for nondestructive evaluation and measurement of thermal properties in ceramic specimens. Flash thermal imaging can be used to determine two-dimensional through-thickness thermal diffusivity in a planar specimen. In this study, the authors extended the method to determine lateral, or transverse, thermal diffusivity in the specimen. During the flash thermal imaging test, pulsed heat energy is applied to a specimen's back surface, which is partially shielded, and the change of temperature distribution on the front surface is monitored by an infrared thermal imaging system. The temperature distribution represents the effect of both the normal heat transfer through the specimen's thickness and the lateral heat transfer through the interface between the shielded and unshielded back-surface regions. Those temperature distributions are then fitted with a theoretical solution of the heat transfer process to determine the lateral thermal diffusivity at the interface. This technique has been applied to measure lateral thermal diffusivity in a steel plate and a continuous fiber ceramic composite specimen.

  13. Millimeter-wave sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seoktae

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    New millimeter wave interferometric, multifunctional sensors have been studied for industrial sensing applications: displacement measurement, liquid-level gauging and velocimetry. Two types of configuration were investigated to implement the sensor...

  14. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  15. Giant magnetoresistive sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA); Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetoresistive sensor element with a three-dimensional micro-architecture is capable of significantly improved sensitivity and highly localized measurement of magnetic fields. The sensor is formed of a multilayer film of alternately magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. The sensor is optimally operated in a current perpendicular to plane mode. The sensor is useful in magnetic read/write heads, for high density magnetic information storage and retrieval.

  16. Polyimide Capacitive Humidity Sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lofgren, H.; Mills, F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for a full-range, low cast humidity sensor has led Honeywell to develop a capacitive relative humidity (RH) sensor with resistance to environmental contaminants. The sensor is used in a bridge circuit to give either a voltage or a current...

  17. Sensor Networks and Consensus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    3 Dic 2009 1/32 Sensor Networks and Consensus An application: Localization and Tracking Distributed Sensors Calibration Randomized Kalman Filter Distributed Kalman Smoother Simone Del Favero PhD Thesis: Localization and Tracking Distributed Sensors Calibration Randomized Kalman Filter Distributed Kalman Smoother

  18. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  19. Polyimide Capacitive Humidity Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lofgren, H.; Mills, F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for a full-range, low cast humidity sensor has led Honeywell to develop a capacitive relative humidity (RH) sensor with resistance to environmental contaminants. The sensor is used in a bridge circuit to give either a voltage or a current...

  20. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  1. Photodetectors with passive thermal radiation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Dodson, Brian W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of photodetectors which include means for passive shielding against undesired thermal radiation is disclosed. Such devices can substitute in applications currently requiring cooled optical sensors, such as IR detection and imaging. This description is included for purposes of searching, and is not intended to limit or otherwise influence the interpretation of the present invention.

  2. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markham, James R. (Middlefield, CT)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  3. Nanoscale spatially resolved infrared spectra from single microdroplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Thomas; Kulik, Andrzej J; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Mason, Thomas O; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Dietler, Giovanni

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet microfluidics has emerged as a powerful platform allowing a large number of individual reactions to be carried out in spatially distinct microcompartments. Due to their small size, however, the spectroscopic characterisation of species encapsulated in such systems remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate the acquisition of infrared spectra from single microdroplets containing aggregation-prone proteins. To this effect, droplets are generated in a microfluidic flow-focussing device and subsequently deposited in a square array onto a ZnSe prism using a micro stamp. After drying, the solutes present in the droplets are illuminated locally by an infrared laser through the prism, and their thermal expansion upon absorption of infrared radiation is measured with an atomic force microscopy tip, granting nanoscale resolution. Using this approach, we resolve structural differences in the amide bands of the spectra of monomeric and aggregated lysozyme from single microdroplets with picolitre volume.

  4. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. Abstract: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy...

  5. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  6. Thermophotovoltaic conversion using selective infrared line emitters and large band gap photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandhorst, Jr., Henry W. (Auburn, AL); Chen, Zheng (Auburn, AL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient thermophotovoltaic conversion can be performed using photovoltaic devices with a band gap in the 0.75-1.4 electron volt range, and selective infrared emitters chosen from among the rare earth oxides which are thermally stimulated to emit infrared radiation whose energy very largely corresponds to the aforementioned band gap. It is possible to use thermovoltaic devices operating at relatively high temperatures, up to about 300.degree. C., without seriously impairing the efficiency of energy conversion.

  7. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) sensor using vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyung-Woo

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research represents the first effort to apply vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to the monitoring of interferometric fiber optic sensors. Modulation of the drive current causes thermal tuning of the laser light frequency...

  8. MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION AND THERMAL UNIMOLECULAR REACTIONS INDUCED BY INFRARED LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, H-L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R) was purified by fractional distillation. Its purity waswere purified by fractional distillation. The purity of

  9. Graphene for radio frequency electronics and infrared thermal imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Allen Long

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this thesis is two-fold: The first is to develop a reliable processing technology for CVD graphene devices for applications in graphene circuits, i.e. mixers, frequency multipliers and phase key shifters. The ...

  10. Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal Infrared

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library WebWesternLondon,Valley, Nv |Data |

  11. Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal Infrared

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°,Park,2005)Energy Information )Et Al.,Energy||Imagery | Open

  12. Application Of Airborne Thermal Infrared Imagery To Geothermal Exploration

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcatAntrim County, Michigan:Applewood, Colorado:Of Travale, Tuscany

  13. Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging F Jamme1, 2 coupled to an infrared microscope allows imaging at the so-called diffraction limit. Thus, numerous infrared beamlines around the world have been developed for infrared chemical imaging. Infrared microscopes

  14. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  15. Sensor Grid: Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Yong-Meng

    Sensor Grid: Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Grid Hock Beng Lim1 , Yong Meng Teo1 Microsystems, Inc. E-mail: [limhb, teoym]@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract Wireless sensor networks have emerged to the sharing of sensor resources in wireless sensor networks. There are several issues and challenges

  16. Inverted cones grating for flexible metafilter at optical and infrared frequencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brückner, Jean-Baptiste; Le Rouzo, Judikaël; Escoubas, Ludovic [Aix-Marseille Université, IM2NP, CNRS-UMR 7334, Domaine Universitaire de Saint-Jérôme, Service 231, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Brissonneau, Vincent; Dubarry, Christophe [CEA-LITEN DTNM, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Ferchichi, Abdelkerim; Gourgon, Cécile [LTM CNRS, Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Berginc, Gérard [Thales Optronique S.A., 2 Avenue Gay Lussac, 78990 Elancourt (France)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    By combining the antireflective properties from gradual changes in the effective refractive index and cavity coupling from cone gratings and the efficient optical behavior of a tungsten film, a flexible filter showing very broad antireflective properties from the visible to short wavelength infrared region and, simultaneously, a mirror-like behavior in the mid-infrared wavelength region and long-infrared wavelength region has been conceived. Nanoimprint technology has permitted the replication of inverted cone patterns on a large scale on a flexible polymer, afterwards coated with a thin tungsten film. This optical metafilter is of great interest in the stealth domain where optical signature reduction from the optical to short wavelength infrared region is an important matter. As it also acts as selective thermal emitter offering a good solar-absorption/infrared-emissivity ratio, interests are found as well for solar heating applications.

  17. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Székely, V; Kollar, E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  18. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Szekely; S. Torok; E. Kollar

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF A THERMAL SWITCH WITH A DIELECTRIC LIQUID (GLYCERIN) MICRO DROPLET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    the experimental test stand 3. Calibration of laser sensor detector 4. Using the load cell and the step motorResistance(ohm) Heater Voltage (V) Thermal resistance vs. heater voltage "on state" 400 micron 300 micron 50 micron 0 micron 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 0 5 10 15 20 ThermalResistance(ohm) Heater Voltage (V) Thermal resistance

  20. A Novel Spectroscopic Ellipsometer in the Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    A Novel Spectroscopic Ellipsometer in the Infrared Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van-Charles A novel spectroscopic ellipsometer in the infrared / by Jean-Charles Cigal. ­ Eindhoven : Technische / infraroodspectroscopie / siliciumoxide / botweefsel Subject headings: ellipsometers / infrared spectroscopy / silicon

  1. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  2. Transition-edge sensor with enhanced electrothermal feedback for cryogenic particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nam, Sae Woo (Palo Alto, CA); Cabrera, Blas (Stanford, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting transition-edge sensor with an electrothermal-feedback circuit, a heat sink thermally coupled thereto, a bias-feedback circuit electrically coupled with the electrothermal feedback circuit, and a current sensor electrically coupled with the bias-feedback circuit and inductively coupled with the electrothermal-feedback circuit.

  3. Downhole geothermal well sensors comprising a hydrogen-resistant optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of optical fiber based thermal sensors has been invented. The new sensors comprise hydrogen-resistant optical fibers which are able to withstand a hot, hydrogen-containing environment as is often found in the downhole well environment.

  4. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  5. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  6. Can infrared gravitons screen $?$?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaume Garriga; Takahiro Tanaka

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that infrared gravitons in de Sitter space may lead to a secular screening of the effective cosmological constant. This seems to clash with the naive expectation that the curvature scalar should stay constant due to the Heisenberg equation of motion. Here, we show that the tadpole correction to the local expansion rate, which has been used in earlier analyses as an indicator of a decaying effective $\\Lambda$, is not gauge invariant. On the other hand, we construct a gauge invariant operator which measures the renormalized curvature scalar smeared over an arbitrary window function, and we find that there is no secular screening of this quantity (to any given order in perturbation theory).

  7. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  8. Asymptotics of the Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Crompton

    2005-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We follow recent formulations of dimensionally reduced loop operators for quantum field theories and exact representations of probabilistic lattice dynamics to identify a new scheme for the evaluation of partition function zeroes, allowing for the explicit analysis of quantum critical phenomena. This new approach gives partition function zeroes from a factored quantum loop operator basis and, as we show, constitutes an effective mapping of the renormalization group $\\beta$-function onto the noncommuting local operator basis of a countably finite Hilbert space. The Vafa-Witten theorem for CP-violation and related complex action problems of Euclidean Field theories are discussed, following recent treatments, and are shown to be natural consequences of the analyticity of the limiting distribution of these zeroes, and properties of vacuum regimes governed by a dominant quantum fluctuation in the vicinity of a renormalization group equation fixed point in the infrared.

  9. Wireless Sensor Technology to Optimize the Occupant's Dynamic Demand Pattern Within the Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Maaijen, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is to look how the individual building occupants? movements, their staying on different locations within their building. Distributed information can be obtained by low-cost wireless sensor networks (Arens et al. 2005, Tse and Chan 2008), low-cost infrared..., could only be achieved if users could be located within the building. Low-budget wireless sensor networks with portable nodes show high potential for real-time localization and monitoring of building occupants ( Feldmeier and Paradiso 2010). Therefore...

  10. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  11. Working Group Report: Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  12. Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 A cold sulfur...

  13. A synergetic use of satellite imagery from SAR and optical sensors to improve coastal flood mapping in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Central Florida, University of

    A synergetic use of satellite imagery from SAR and optical sensors to improve coastal flood mapping for inundation mapping and have a great potential for evaluating wetting/drying algorithms of inland and coastal and near infrared domains. Images acquired in these wavelengths (i.e. visible and near infrared

  14. Contact stress sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  15. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Joseph (Las Cruces, NM); Olsen, Khris (Richland, WA); Larson, David (Las Cruces, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

  16. Research and Development of Non-Spectroscopic MEMS-Based Sensor Arrays for Targeted Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loui, A; McCall, S K

    2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to monitor the integrity of gas volumes is of interest to the stockpile surveillance community. Specifically, the leak detection of noble gases, at relevant concentration ranges and distinguished from other chemical species that may be simultaneously present, is particularly challenging. Aside from the laboratory-based method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where samples may be collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) or cryofocusing, the other major approaches for gas-phase detection employ lasers typically operating in the mid-infrared wavelength region. While mass spectrometry can readily detect noble gases - the helium leak detector is an obvious example - laser-based methods such as infrared (IR) or Raman spectroscopy are completely insensitive to them as their monatomic nature precludes a non-zero dipole moment or changes in polarizability upon excitation. Therefore, noble gases can only be detected by one of two methods: (1) atomic emission spectroscopies which require the generation of plasmas through laser-induced breakdown, electrical arcing, or similar means; (2) non-spectroscopic methods which measure one or more physical properties (e.g., mass, thermal conductivity, density). In this report, we present our progress during Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) in the research and development of a non-spectroscopic method for noble gas detection. During Fiscal Year 2010 (FY10), we demonstrated via proof-of-concept experiments that the combination of thermal conductivity detection (TCD) and coating-free damped resonance detection (CFDRD) using micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) could provide selective sensing of these inert species. Since the MEMS-based TCD technology was directly adapted from a brassboard prototype commissioned by a previous chemical sensing project, FY11 efforts focused on advancing the state of the newer CFDRD method. This work, guided by observations previously reported in the open literature, has not only resulted in a substantially measureable increase in selectivity but has also revealed a potential method for mitigating or eliminating thermal drift that does not require a secondary reference sensor. The design of an apparatus to test this drift compensation scheme will be described. We will conclude this report with a discussion of planned efforts in Fiscal Year 2012 (FY12).

  17. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  18. Experimental Studies: sensor strip attachment and electroplating embedding The wireless system was tested in the presence of an electromagnetic field at a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    system was tested in the presence of an electromagnetic field at a commercial steel company and was shown casting, this sensor will monitor the thermal condition of the mold. The sensors inside the fiber function system causes the wavelength of light emitted along the fiber to depend on thermal strain, which varies

  19. Thermal measurements of active semiconductor micro-structures acquired through the substrate using near IR thermoreflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , which precludes the use of typical surface thermal characterization techniques. A near infrared microscopy (SThM), or optical techniques such as infrared (IR) microscopy, or thermoreflectance to be able to measure the heating of devices in flip chip bonded integrated circuit's (IC) and other

  20. Effect of thermal history on the molecular orientation in polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    ether) (PS/PVME) has been studied using polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism (PM to an increased orientation if the heating time at 51 8C is kept short. Moreover, PS and PVME develop a larger) blends; Thermal history; Polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism 1. Introduction The influence

  1. Effects of electrostatic discharge on three cryogenic temperature sensor models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courts, S. Scott; Mott, Thomas B. [Lake Shore Cryotronics, 575 McCorkle Blvd., Westerville, OH 43082 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic temperature sensors are not usually thought of as electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitive devices. However, the most common cryogenic thermometers in use today are thermally sensitive diodes or resistors - both electronic devices in their base form. As such, they are sensitive to ESD at some level above which either catastrophic or latent damage can occur. Instituting an ESD program for safe handling and installation of the sensor is costly and it is desirable to balance the risk of ESD damage against this cost. However, this risk cannot be evaluated without specific knowledge of the ESD vulnerability of the devices in question. This work examines three types of cryogenic temperature sensors for ESD sensitivity - silicon diodes, Cernox(trade mark, serif) resistors, and wire wound platinum resistors, all manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Testing was performed per TIA/EIA FOTP129 (Human Body Model). Damage was found to occur in the silicon diode sensors at discharge levels of 1,500 V. For Cernox(trade mark, serif) temperature sensors, damage was observed at 3,500 V. The platinum temperature sensors were not damaged by ESD exposure levels of 9,900 V. At the lower damage limit, both the silicon diode and the Cernox(trade mark, serif) temperature sensors showed relatively small calibration shifts of 1 to 3 K at room temperature. The diode sensors were stable with time and thermal cycling, but the long term stability of the Cernox(trade mark, serif) sensors was degraded. Catastrophic failure occurred at higher levels of ESD exposure.

  2. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  3. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  4. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

  5. Sensors & Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensors and Materials Argonne uses its materials and engineering expertise to develop, test, and deploy sensors and materials to detect nuclear and radiological materials, chemical...

  6. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: thermal hydraulics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    -fluid modeling of nuclear reactor systems. Thermal-hydraulic analysis codes such as RELAP5-3D ~Ref. 1! and FLICA regions of the system. In fact, the CFD code FLUENT has previously been coupled to RELAP5-3D ~Refs. 3

  7. Gyro Enhanced Orientation Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

    ­ container handling, hydraulic lift systems, machine tools www.microstrain.com #12;Copyright © 2006 Micro3DM-GX1® Gyro Enhanced Orientation Sensor Technical Product Overview Micro Sensors.Big Ideas protocol. Embedded microcontrollers relieve the host system from the burden of orientation calculations

  8. Sensors for Environmental Observatories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Michael P.

    Sensors for Environmental Observatories Report of the NSF-Sponsored Workshop December 2004 #12 States of America. 2005. #12;Sensors for Environmental Observatories Report of the NSF Sponsored Workshop Evaluation Center (WTEC), Inc. 4800 Roland Avenue Baltimore, Maryland 21210 #12;In recent years

  9. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (PTE) is presented. The multi-channel PTE can emit polarized thermal radiation without using a polarizer at normal emergence. The multi-channel PTE consists of two layers of metallic gratings on a monolithic and homogeneous metallic plate. It can be fabricated by a low-cost soft lithography technique called two-polymer microtransfer molding. The spectral positions of the mid-infrared (MIR) radiation peaks can be tuned by changing the periodicity of the gratings and the spectral separation between peaks are tuned by changing the mutual angle between the orientations of the two gratings.

  10. Industrial Use of Infrared Inspections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duch, A. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operating load. - Pinpointing of the exact location of the problems. - The inspections will locate problems which will, in most cases, go unnoticed using conventional techniques. An infrared inspection will locate problem areas in the plant electrica1...

  11. The SNAP near infrared detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    it will detect Type Ia supernovæ between z = 1 and 1.7 andphotometry for all supernovæ. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-Keywords: Cosmology, Supernovae, Dark Energy, Near Infrared,

  12. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes Saves Energy Energy Efficiency Research Office PIER This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device, producing less wastewater and preserving product quality. Infrared drypeeling is expected to reduce

  13. High-power parametric conversion from near-infrared to short-wave infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    High-power parametric conversion from near-infrared to short-wave infrared Adrien Billat,1,* Steevy.billat@epfl.ch Abstract: We report the design of an all-fiber continuous wave Short-Wave Infrared source capable to output.4370) Nonlinear optics, fibers; (140.3070) Infrared and far-infrared lasers. References and links 1. M. N

  14. YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamura, Issei

    1 YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA I the near- and mid-infrared low resolu- tion spectral catalogues of point sources, and image maps in #12;ve wavelength bands in the far-infrared. The point source catalogues contains over 14 000 (near-infrared

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    infrared emission. This initially provoked heated debate between a ``starburst'' camp and an ``activeHIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1 J. Bernard, 10Y37 m spectra of 53 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), taken using the Infrared Spectrograph

  16. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has · STOP (Structural, Thermal, and Optical Performance) analyses of optical systems Thermal engineers lead evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  17. Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation Jie Teng, Tim on implementation and evaluation due to the difficulty of building mobile sensors. In the litera- ture, some--Mobile sensors are useful in many environments because they can move to increase the sensing coverage

  18. Mobile RobotsSensor Networks Autonomous Sensor/Actuator Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    mobile networks with dynamic topology Optimized task allocation and communication based on application and energy constraints Secure communication and data management in mobile sensor networks Solution SpaceMobile RobotsSensor Networks Autonomous Sensor/Actuator Networks ROSES RObot assisted SEnsor

  19. Infrared nullification of the effective electromagnetic field at finite temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirill A. Kazakov; Vladimir V. Nikitin

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field at finite temperature (T) is revisited. A model of single spatially localized electron interacting with thermal photons is considered in the limit T to 0 using two different regularization schemes. The first is based on the shift i 0 to i varepsilon of the electron propagator pole in the complex energy plane, and is used to explicitly calculate the effective field in the one-loop approximation. We show that the matrix-valued imaginary part of the electron self-energy can be consistently related to the pole shift, and that the presence of the heat bath leads to appearance of an effective varepsilon sim T, thus providing a natural infrared regulator of the theory. We find that the one-loop effective Coulomb field calculated using this varepsilon vanishes. The other scheme combines an infrared momentum cutoff with smearing of the delta-functions in the interaction vertices. We prove that this regularization admits factorization of the infrared contributions in multi-loop diagrams, and sum the corresponding infinite series. The effective electromagnetic field is found to vanish in this case too. An essentially perturbative nature of this result is emphasized and discussed in connection with the long-range expansion of the effective field.

  20. Infrared imaging results of an excited planar jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.B.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planar jets are used for many applications including heating, cooling, and ventilation. Generally such a jet is designed to provide good mixing within an enclosure. In building applications, the jet provides both thermal comfort and adequate indoor air quality. Increased mixing rates may lead to lower short-circuiting of conditioned air, elimination of dead zones within the occupied zone, reduced energy costs, increased occupant comfort, and higher indoor air quality. This paper discusses using an infrared imaging system to show the effect of excitation of a jet on the spread angle and on the jet mixing efficiency. Infrared imaging captures a large number of data points in real time (over 50,000 data points per image) providing significant advantages over single-point measurements. We used a screen mesh with a time constant of approximately 0.3 seconds as a target for the infrared camera to detect temperature variations in the jet. The infrared images show increased jet spread due to excitation of the jet. Digital data reduction and analysis show change in jet isotherms and quantify the increased mixing caused by excitation. 17 refs., 20 figs.

  1. LIGHTWEIGHT PEOPLE COUNTING AND LOCALIZING IN INDOOR SPACES USING CAMERA SENSOR NODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teixeira, Thiago

    a sen- sor network deployed inside a house are processed together with building map information to recognize the activities of the house inhabitants. The locations of people in time and space during more precise information than Passive Infrared Sensors (PIR) but more lightweight and privacy

  2. Optical fiber sensors for harsh environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Juncheng; Wang, Anbo

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A diaphragm optic sensor comprises a ferrule including a bore having an optical fiber disposed therein and a diaphragm attached to the ferrule, the diaphragm being spaced apart from the ferrule to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. The cavity is formed by creating a pit in the ferrule or in the diaphragm. The components of the sensor are preferably welded together, preferably by laser welding. In some embodiments, the entire ferrule is bonded to the fiber along the entire length of the fiber within the ferrule; in other embodiments, only a portion of the ferrule is welded to the fiber. A partial vacuum is preferably formed in the pit. A small piece of optical fiber with a coefficient of thermal expansion chosen to compensate for mismatches between the main fiber and ferrule may be spliced to the end of the fiber.

  3. Dusty Infrared Galaxies: Sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guilaine Lagache; Jean-Loup Puget; Herve Dole

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in 1996, together with recent cosmological surveys from the mid-infrared to the millimeter have revolutionized our view of star formation at high redshifts. It has become clear, in the last decade, that a population of galaxies that radiate most of their power in the far-infrared (the so-called ``infrared galaxies'') contributes an important part of the whole galaxy build-up in the Universe. Since 1996, detailed (and often painful) investigations of the high-redshift infrared galaxies have resulted in the spectacular progress covered in this review. We outline the nature of the sources of the CIB including their star-formation rate, stellar and total mass, morphology, metallicity and clustering properties. We discuss their contribution to the stellar content of the Universe and their origin in the framework of the hierarchical growth of structures. We finally discuss open questions for a scenario of their evolution up to the present-day galaxies.

  4. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  5. Aircraft as a meteorological sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Meteorological Institute 2 | The aircraft as a meteorological sensor Photo cover: A KLM Airbus A330-200 landsAircraft as a meteorological sensor Using Mode-S Enhanced Surveillance data to derive upper air Meteorological Institute 3 | The aircraft as a meteorological sensor Aircraft as a meteorological sensor Using

  6. Electrochemical micro sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

    1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-amperometric electrochemical sensor for detecting the presence of a pre-determined species in a fluid material is disclosed. The sensor includes a smooth substrate having a thin coating of solid electrolytic material deposited thereon. The working and counter electrodes are deposited on the surface of the solid electrolytic material and adhere thereto. Electrical leads connect the working and counter electrodes to a potential source and an apparatus for measuring the change in an electrical signal caused by the electrochemical oxidation or reduction of the species. Alternatively, the sensor may be fabricated in a sandwich structure and also may be cylindrical, spherical or other shapes.

  7. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  8. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoemaker, Erika L. (Westmont, IL); Vogt, Michael C. (Westmont, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2 gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer.

  9. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoemaker, E.L.; Vogt, M.C.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor is described for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer. 16 figs.

  10. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  11. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  12. DIAGNOSIS OF INSULATED BUILDING WALLS USING PASSIVE INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY AND NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DIAGNOSIS OF INSULATED BUILDING WALLS USING PASSIVE INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY AND NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS This work presents the thermal monitoring of a multi-layered wall of a restored building (PANISSE platform parameters. Then they are compared with thermocouple measurements and numerical simulations. KEYWORDS

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Time series analysis of infrared satellite data for detecting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Robert

    successfully detected ther- mal anomalies in TIR data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR algorithm that analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy. These instruments provide data over potentially dangerous, high-temperature phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions

  14. Geographically distributed environmental sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    French, Patrick; Veatch, Brad; O'Connor, Mike

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a sensor network that includes a number of sensor units and a base unit. The base station operates in a network discovery mode (in which network topology information is collected) in a data polling mode (in which sensed information is collected from selected sensory units). Each of the sensor units can include a number of features, including an anemometer, a rain gauge, a compass, a GPS receiver, a barometric pressure sensor, an air temperature sensor, a humidity sensor, a level, and a radiant temperature sensor.

  15. Sensitivity enhancement of grating interferometer based two-dimensional sensor arrays using two-wavelength readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffraction gratings integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors offer displacement measurements with subnanometer sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of the interferometric readout may drop significantly based on the gap between the grating and the reference surface. A two-wavelength (2-{lambda}) readout method was previously tested using a single MEMS sensor for illustrating increased displacement measurement capability. This work demonstrates sensitivity enhancement on a sensor array with large scale parallelization ({approx}20,000 sensors). The statistical representation, which is developed to model sensitivity enhancement within a grating based sensor array, is supported by experimental results using a thermal sensor array. In the experiments, two lasers at different wavelengths (633 and 650 nm) illuminate the thermal sensor array from the backside, time-sequentially. The diffracted first order light from the array is imaged onto a single CCD camera. The target scene is reconstructed by observing the change in the first diffracted order diffraction intensity for both wavelengths. Merging of the data from two measurements with two lasers was performed by taking the larger of the two CCD measurements with respect to the reference image for each sensor. {approx}30% increase in the average sensitivity was demonstrated for a 160x120 pixel IR sensor array. Proposed architecture is also applicable to a variety of sensing applications, such as parallel biosensing and atomic force microscopy, for improved displacement measurements and enhanced sensitivity.

  16. Thermal properties of organic and inorganic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Material Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 (United States))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels are open-cell foams that have already been shown to be among the best thermal insulating solid materials known. This paper examines the three major contributions to thermal transport through porous materials; solid, gaseous, and radiative, to identify how to reduce the thermal conductivity of air-filled aerogels. We find that significant improvements in the thermal insulation property of aerogels are possible by; (i) employing materials with a low intrinsic solid conductivity, (ii) reducing the average pore size within aerogels, and (iii) affecting an increase of the infrared extinction in aerogels. Theoretically, polystyrene is the best of the organic materials and zirconia is the best inorganic material to use for the lowest achievable conductivity. Significant reduction of the thermal conductivity for all aerogel varieties is predicted with only a modest decrease of the average pore size. This might be achieved by modifying the sol-gel chemistry leading to aerogels. For example, a thermal resistance value of [ital R]=20 per inch would be possible for an air-filled resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel at a density of 156 kg/m[sup 3], if the average pore size was less than 35 nm. An equation is included which facilitates the calculation of the optimum density for the minimum total thermal conductivity, for all varieties of aerogels.

  17. Near infrared detectors for SNAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

  18. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  19. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

    2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  20. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, A.D.; Smartt, H.B.; Taylor, P.L.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control is described. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties. 6 figures.

  1. Modular sensor network node

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring (Berkeley, CA); Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul (Tracy, CA); Kershaw, Christopher Patrick (Hayward, CA); Kyker, Ronald Dean (Livermore, CA)

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  2. Remote Sensor Placement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed to place the sensor nodes in the field. Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 663-5330 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Professional Staff...

  3. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Taylor, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties.

  4. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  5. Magnetic infrasound sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM); Grube, Holger (Los Alamos, NM); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM); Mace, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic infrasound sensor is produced by constraining a permanent magnet inside a magnetic potential well above the surface of superconducting material. The magnetic infrasound sensor measures the position or movement of the permanent magnet within the magnetic potential well, and interprets the measurements. Infrasound sources can be located and characterized by combining the measurements from one or more infrasound sensors. The magnetic infrasound sensor can be tuned to match infrasound source types, resulting in better signal-to-noise ratio. The present invention can operate in frequency modulation mode to improve sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. In an alternate construction, the superconductor can be levitated over a magnet or magnets. The system can also be driven, so that time resolved perturbations are sensed, resulting in a frequency modulation version with improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Advanced technologies for perimeter intrusion detection sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of integrated circuit fabrication techniques and the resulting devices have contributed more to the advancement of exterior intrusion detectors and alarm assessment devices than any other technology. The availability of this technology has led to the improvements in and further development of smaller more powerful computers, microprocessors, solid state memories, solid state cameras, thermal imagers, low-power lasers, and shorter pulse width and higher frequency electronic circuitry. This paper presents information on planning a perimeter intrusion detection system, identifies the site characteristics that affect its performance, and describes improvements to perimeter intrusion detection sensors and assessment devices that have been achieved by using integrated circuit technology.

  7. Infrared extrapolations for atomic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Furnstahl; G. Hagen; T. Papenbrock; K. A. Wendt

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmonic oscillator model-space truncations introduce systematic errors to the calculation of binding energies and other observables. We identify the relevant infrared scaling variable and give values for this nucleus-dependent quantity. We consider isotopes of oxygen computed with the coupled-cluster method from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order and show that the infrared component of the error is sufficiently understood to permit controlled extrapolations. By employing oscillator spaces with relatively large frequencies, well above the energy minimum, the ultraviolet corrections can be suppressed while infrared extrapolations over tens of MeVs are accurate for ground-state energies. However, robust uncertainty quantification for extrapolated quantities that fully accounts for systematic errors is not yet developed.

  8. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that it does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.

  9. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore »does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  10. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Abstract: The high resolution infrared spectrum of...

  11. Determining the modal mineralogy of mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks using thermal emission spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Victoria E.

    Determining the modal mineralogy of mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks using thermal emission, Tempe Abstract. The modal mineralogies of 20 mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks were determined from mineralogical information from thermal infrared emission spectra of bulk rock samples. Furthermore, convolution

  12. State-of-the-Art Thermal Analysis Methods and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellegrino, Sergio

    to less room for heaters and less room for solar panels to power those heaters or any other resource step in thermal analysis is to identify the sources of heat incident upon the spacecraft. Solar heating performed on these spacecraft focused on solar heating, infrared radiation from Earth, Earth albedo (solar

  13. Wireless Sensor Networks for Home Health Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wireless Sensor Networks for Home Health Care Chris R.Cooperation between wireless sensor networks and existingapplications of wireless sensor networks. In this paper we

  14. Special Issue on “Wireless Sensor Networks”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Kung; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Qing

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Special Issue on “Wireless Sensor Networks” Kung Yao & Qianand tracking, etc. Wireless sensor networks utilize theaspects of wireless sensor networks. The first paper, “

  15. Data Transport Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hongwei; Naik, Vinayak S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks. ACM SenSys SandeepJohn Anderson (2002). Wireless Sensor Networks for HabitatWorkshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications Miklos

  16. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  17. The far-infrared polarization of the Orion nebula

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonatas, D.P.; Engargiola, G.A.; Hildebrand, R.H.; Platt, S.R.; Wu, X.D.; Davidson, J.A. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polarization of the 100 micron thermal emission from 10 points in the Orion nebula has been measured. At one of the positions the degree, 5.7 percent, is the largest far-infrared polarization yet discovered. Except at a position in the barlike structure to the south, the position angles of the polarization vectors are well-ordered, suggesting that a uniform magnetic field threads the cloud. The magnetic field strength is estimated to be between 0.7 and 4 mG. The relationship of the degrees of polarization to the physical conditions in the cloud is discussed. 34 refs.

  18. INFRARED IMAGING OF CARBON AND CERAMIC COMPOSITES: DATA REPRODUCIBILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, B.; Howard, D. R.; Ringermacher, H. I. [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Hudson, L. D. [NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA (United States)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared NDE techniques have proven to be superior for imaging of flaws in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and carbon silicon carbide composites (C/SiC). Not only can one obtain accurate depth gauging of flaws such as delaminations and layered porosity in complex-shaped components such as airfoils and other aeronautical components, but also excellent reproducibility of image data is obtainable using the STTOF (Synthetic Thermal Time-of-Flight) methodology. The imaging of large complex shapes is fast and reliable. This methodology as applied to large C/SiC flight components at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will be described.

  19. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  20. Antenna-based "Smart Skin" Sensors for Sustainable, Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Antenna-based "Smart Skin" Sensors for Sustainable, Wireless Sensor Networks Hoseon Leet, George-less, or sustainable, wireless sensor networks with "smart skin" sensor nodes. These sensors are highly applicable a wireless sensor network with smart sensors requires a lot of power due to the mass number of sensor nodes

  1. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  2. Quantitative nondestructive testing using Infrared Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Arun

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steady, and selective heating scenarios. Infrared Physics &heating thermography and lock-in ther- mography to quantitative nondestructive evaluations. Infraredheating is very difficult to achieve in a practical scenario. The Infrared

  3. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Dawson, L. Ralph (Albuquerque, NM); Howard, Arnold J. (Albuquerque, NM); Baucom, Kevin C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared emitting device and method. The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns.

  4. Infrared Catastrophe for Nelson's Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masao Hirokawa

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We mathematically study the infrared catastrophe for the Hamiltonian of Nelson's model when it has the external potential in a general class. For the model, we prove the pull-through formula on ground states in operator theory first. Based on this formula, we show both non-existence of any ground state and divergence of the total number of soft bosons.

  5. Microbend fiber-optic temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature sensor is made of optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. In particular, the present invention includes a graded-index optical fiber directing steady light through a section of the optical fiber containing a plurality of permanent microbends. The microbend section of the optical fiber is contained in a thermally expansive sheath, attached to a thermally expansive structure, or attached to a bimetallic element undergoing temperature changes and being monitored. The microbend section is secured to the thermally expansive sheath which allows the amplitude of the microbends to decrease with temperature. The resultant increase in the optical fiber`s transmission thus allows temperature to be measured. The plural microbend section of the optical fiber is secured to the thermally expansive structure only at its ends and the microbends themselves are completely unconstrained laterally by any bonding agent to obtain maximum longitudinal temperature sensitivity. Although the permanent microbends reduce the transmission capabilities of fiber optics, the present invention utilizes this phenomenon as a transduction mechanism which is optimized to measure temperature. 5 figs.

  6. Microbend fiber-optic temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature sensor is made of optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. In particular, the present invention includes a graded-index optical fiber directing steady light through a section of the optical fiber containing a plurality of permanent microbends. The microbend section of the optical fiber is contained in a thermally expansive sheath, attached to a thermally expansive structure, or attached to a bimetallic element undergoing temperature changes and being monitored. The microbend section is secured to the thermally expansive sheath which allows the amplitude of the microbends to decrease with temperature. The resultant increase in the optical fiber's transmission thus allows temperature to be measured. The plural microbend section of the optical fiber is secured to the thermally expansive structure only at its ends and the microbends themselves are completely unconstrained laterally by any bonding agent to obtain maximum longitudinal temperature sensitivity. Although the permanent microbends reduce the transmission capabilities of fiber optics, the present invention utilizes this phenomenon as a transduction mechanism which is optimized to measure temperature.

  7. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Klunder, Gregory L. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  8. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  9. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  10. YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamura, Issei

    1 YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA I from 1.4 to 700 µm. Presently the archive includes the near- and mid-infrared low resolu- tion spectral catalogues of point sources, and image maps in five wavelength bands in the far-infrared. The point source

  11. Status of thermal imaging technology as applied to conservation-update 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, F.J.; Wood, J.T.; Barthle, R.C.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document updates the 1978 report on the status of thermal imaging technology as applied to energy conservation in buildings. Thermal imaging technology is discussed in terms of airborne surveys, ground survey programs, and application needs such as standards development and lower cost equipment. Information on the various thermal imaging devices was obtained from manufacturer's standard product literature. Listings are provided of infrared projects of the DOE building diagnostics program, of aerial thermographic firms, and of aerial survey programs. (LCL)

  12. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  13. Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopgood, Adrian

    166 Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual Medical Images G. Schaefer Aston written permission of IGI Global is prohibited. AbstrAct Medical infrared imaging captures the temperature a useful diagnostic visualisation for the clinician. #12;167 Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual

  14. Satellite Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Tec / Satellite Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft #12;U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft L. M. McMillin D. Q. Wark J. M. Siomkajlo P. G. Abel A. Werbowetzki. E. Bittner C. M. Hayden #12;UDC 551.507.362.2:551.508.2:551.501.7:535-1 Physics Infrared radiation

  15. Infrared Catastrophe for Nelson's Model Masao Hirokawa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Catastrophe for Nelson's Model Masao Hirokawa Department of Mathematics, Okayama University, 700­8530 Okayama, Japan Abstract We study the infrared catastrophe for Nelson's Hamiltonian general conditions. 1 Introduction The purpose of this study is to investigate the infrared catastrophe

  16. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  17. Wireless sensor networks for measuring traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varaiya, Pravin

    Wireless sensor networks for measuring traffic University of California, Berkeley Sing Yiu Cheung, Sinem Coleri, and Pravin Varaiya 2 Outline · Traffic measurement · Wireless Sensor Networks · Vehicle wireless sensor networks compete? 7 Outline · Traffic measurement · Wireless Sensor Networks · Vehicle

  18. Highlights: Optical/NIR Spectroscopy of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Veilleux

    1999-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the results from recent optical and near-infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraluminous infrared galaxies.

  19. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  20. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  1. Optical displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Dustin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

  2. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  3. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

  4. The impact of main belt asteroids on infrared--submillimetre photometry and source counts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cs. Kiss; A. Pal; Th. G. Mueller; P. Abraham

    2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    > Among the components of the infrared and submillimetre sky background, the closest layer is the thermal emission of dust particles and minor bodies in the Solar System. This contribution is especially important for current and future infrared and submillimetre space instruments --like those of Spitzer, Akari and Herschel -- and must be characterised by a reliable statistical model. > We describe the impact of the thermal emission of main belt asteroids on the 5...1000um photometry and source counts, for the current and future spaceborne and ground-based instruments, in general, as well as for specific dates and sky positions. > We used the statistical asteroid model (SAM) to calculate the positions of main belt asteroids down to a size of 1km, and calculated their infrared and submillimetre brightness using the standard thermal model. Fluctuation powers, confusion noise values and number counts were derived from the fluxes of individual asteroids. > We have constructed a large database of infrared and submillimetre fluxes for SAM asteroids with a temporal resolution of 5 days, covering the time span January 1, 2000 -- December 31, 2012. Asteroid fluctuation powers and number counts derived from this database can be obtained for a specific observation setup via our public web-interface. > Current space instruments working in the mid-infrared regime (Akari and Spitzer Space Telescopes) are affected by asteroid confusion noise in some specific areas of the sky, while the photometry of space infrared and submillimetre instruments in the near future (e.g. Herschel and Planck Space Observatories) will not be affected by asteroids. Faint main belt asteroids might also be responsible for most of the zodiacal emission fluctuations near the ecliptic.

  5. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  6. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  7. Tactile sensing using elastomeric sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Xiaodan (Xiaodan Stella)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GelSight, namely, elastomeric sensor, is a novel tactile sensor to get the 3D information of contacting surfaces. Using GelSight, some tactile properties, such as softness and roughness, could be gained through image ...

  8. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  9. Chemical sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Christopher B. (Pleasanton, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Modesto, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  10. Implantable medical sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Christopher B. (Pleasanton, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Modesto, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  11. Thermal imaging measurement and correlation of thermal diffusivity in continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J.G.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Easler, T.E.; Szweda, A. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); Craig, P.A. [DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) are currently being developed for a variety of high-temperature applications, including use in advanced heat engines. For such composites, knowledge of porosity distribution and presence of defects is important for optimizing mechanical and thermal behavior of the components. The assessment of porosity and its distribution is also necessary during composite processing to ensure component uniformity. To determine the thermal properties of CFCC materials, and particularly for detecting defects and nonuniformities, the authors have developed an infrared thermal imaging method to provide a single-shot full-field measurement of thermal diffusivity distributions in large components. This method requires that the back surface of a specimen receives a thermal pulse of short duration and that the temperature of the front surface is monitored as a function of time. The system has been used to measure thermal diffusivities of several CFCC materials with known porosity or density values, including SYLRAMIC{trademark} SiC/SiNC composite samples from Dow Corning and SiC/SiC and enhanced SiC/SiC samples from DuPont Lanxide Composites, to determine the relationship of thermal diffusivity to component porosity or density.

  12. Sensors & Measurement | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Electronics Systems Research Sustainable Electricity Systems Biology Transportation Clean Energy Home | Science & Discovery | Clean Energy | Research Areas | Sensors &...

  13. Open Standards for Sensor Information Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Lothian, Josh [ORNL

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document explores sensor standards, sensor data models, and computer sensor software in order to determine the specifications and data representation best suited for analyzing and monitoring computer system health using embedded sensor data. We review IEEE 1451, OGC Sensor Model Language and Transducer Model Language (TML), lm-sensors and Intelligent Platform Management Inititative (IPMI).

  14. Infrared behavior of the dispersion relations in high-temperature scalar QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Abada; K. Bouakaz

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the infrared properties of the next-to-leading-order dispersion relations in scalar quantum electrodynamics at high temperature in the context of hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory. Specifically, we determine the damping rate and the energy for scalars with ultrasoft momenta. We show by explicit calculations that an early external-momentum expansion, before the Matsubara sum is performed, gives exactly the same result as a late one. The damping rate is obtained up to fourth order included in the ultrasoft momentum and the energy up to second order. The damping rate is found sensitive in the infrared whereas the energy not.

  15. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  16. Future Directions for Magnetic Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Engineering Laboratory Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors are rapidly becoming the technology of choiceFuture Directions for Magnetic Sensors: HYBRIDMATERIALS Our goal is to develop the scientific expertise needed to allow modeling and simulation to become the driving force in improving magnetic sensors

  17. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  18. Sensor system for web inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sleefe, Gerard E. (1 Snowcap Ct., Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Rudnick, Thomas J. (626 E. Jackson Rd., St. Louis, MO 63119); Novak, James L. (11048 Malaguena La. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for electrically measuring variations over a flexible web has a capacitive sensor including spaced electrically conductive, transmit and receive electrodes mounted on a flexible substrate. The sensor is held against a flexible web with sufficient force to deflect the path of the web, which moves relative to the sensor.

  19. Selective chemical detection by energy modulation of sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetter, J.R.; Otagawa, T.

    1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable instrument for use in the field in detecting, identifying, and quantifying a component of a sampled fluid includes a sensor which chemically reacts with the component of interest or a derivative thereof, an electrical heating filament for heating the sample before it is applied to the sensor, and modulating means for continuously varying the temperature of the filament (and hence the reaction rate) between two values sufficient to produce the chemical reaction. In response to this thermal modulation, the sensor produces a modulated output signal, the modulation of which is a function of the activation energy of the chemical reaction, which activation energy is specific to the particular component of interest and its concentration. Microprocessor means compares the modulated output signal with standard responses for a plurality of components to identify and quantify the particular component of interest. 4 figs.

  20. Characterization of material degradation in ceramic matrix composites using infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, Adam T.; Flattum-Riemers, Richard Y. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, NonDestructive Evaluation Branch, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Scott, Benjamin J. [Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States)

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic matrix composite materials for thermal protection systems are required to maintain operational performance in extreme thermal and mechanical environments. In-service inspection of materials capable of assessing the degree and extent of damage and degradation will be required to ensure the safety and readiness of future air vehicles. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy is an established material characterization technique capable of extracting information regarding the chemical composition of substances. The viability of this technique as a potentially powerful nondestructive evaluation method capable of monitoring degradation in thermal protection system materials subjected to extreme mechanical and thermal environments is analyzed. Several oxide-based and non-oxide-based ceramic matrix composite materials were stressed to failure in a high temperature environment and subsequently measured using infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Spectral signatures at locations along the length of the samples were compared resulting in distinct and monotonic reflectance peak changes while approaching the fracture point. The chemical significance of the observed signatures and the feasibility of infrared reflectance nondestructive evaluation techniques are discussed.

  1. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality, model validation, and technology readiness.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Blecke, Jill; Baker, Michael Sean; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Mitchell, John Anthony; Brake, Matthew Robert; Epp, David S.; Wittwer, Jonathan W.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the functional, model validation, and technology readiness testing of the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor in FY08. Functional testing of a large number of revision 4 parts showed robust and consistent performance. Model validation testing helped tune the models to match data well and identified several areas for future investigation related to high frequency sensitivity and thermal effects. Finally, technology readiness testing demonstrated the integrated elements of the sensor under realistic environments.

  2. Multi-channel infrared thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulrickson, Michael A. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and a light pipe array positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The light pipe array includes one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

  3. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  4. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  5. Lean blowoff detection sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Jimmy (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, David (Morgantown, WV)

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

  6. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Dawson, L.R.; Howard, A.J.; Baucom, K.C.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns. 8 figs.

  7. Improved Torsion Pendulum for Ground Testing of LISA Displacement Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Carbone; A. Cavalleri; R. Dolesi; C. D. Hoyle; M. Hueller; S. Vitale; W. J. Weber

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a new torsion pendulum design for ground testing of prototype LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) displacement sensors. This new design is directly sensitive to net forces and therefore provides a more representative test of the noisy forces and parasitic stiffnesses acting on the test mass as compared to previous ground-based experiments. We also discuss a specific application to the measurement of thermal gradient effects.

  8. On Improving the Representation of a Region Achieved by a Sensor Network Xiaoyu Chu and Harish Sethu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethu, Harish

    and pollution studies [1]. Based on the expected behavior of individual nodes, these applica- tions of sensor relevant observations within a local sens- ing area using vision, sound, seismic-acoustic energy, infrared makes measurements of physical phenomena such as temperature, humidity and envi- ronmental pollution

  9. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  10. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallenbach, Gene A. (Bosque Farms, NM); Noda, Frank T. (Albuquerque, NM); Mitchell, Dean J. (Tijeras, NM); Etzkin, Joshua L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  11. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground.

  12. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground. 3 figs.

  13. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  14. New Sensors for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Heng Ban; Brandon Fox; Gordon Kohse

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the selection strategy of what instrumentation is needed, and the program generated for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF with data from irradiation tests using these sensors. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users advanced methods for detecting temperature, fuel thermal conductivity, and changes in sample geometry.

  15. Recent results and challenges in development of metallic Hall sensors for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?uran, Ivan; Mušálek, Radek; Kova?ík, Karel [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Sentkerestiová, Jana [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, B?ehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Kohout, Michal [Institute of Physics AS CR, Na Slovance 1999/2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Viererbl, Ladislav [Research Centre Rez, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec-?ež (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable and precise diagnostic of local magnetic field is crucial for successful operation of future thermonuclear fusion reactors based on magnetic confinement. Magnetic sensors at these devices will experience an extremely demanding operational environment with large radiation and thermal loads in combination with required long term, reliable, and service-free performance. Neither present day commercial nor laboratory measurement systems comply with these requirements. Metallic Hall sensors based on e.g. copper or bismuth could potentially satisfy these needs. We present the technology for manufacturing of such sensors and some initial results on characterization of their properties.

  16. Novel technologies and materials for thermal management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verlaat, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient thermal engineering solutions for the entire heat load path from source to sink (sensor to cooling plant) are crucial for the future silicon detectors, more than even before. The particularly demanding cooling requirements are coming from the extreme radiation environment, causing high leakage current in the silicon sensors, as well as from the high power dissipated in the front-end electronics, featuring enhanced functionality and high channel count. The need to carry out dedicated R&D has encouraged increased cooperation among the HEP experiments, to identify state-of-the-art materials and construction principles that can help fulfilling the requirements, and to develop more efficient active cooling systems like CO2 cooling, which is now widely accepted as an excellent detector cooling technology.

  17. PROCESS PARAMETERS for INFRARED PROCESSING of FePt NANOPARTICLE FILMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Kadolkar, Puja [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulse thermal processing (PTP) of FePt nanoparticle films was studied using a high density infrared (HDI) plasma arc lamp. FePt nanoparticle films on silicon substrates were processed using 0.25- second infrared (IR) pulses. The processing was aimed at reaching a peak target temperature for multiple pulses of 550 C. Numerical simulations of the heat transfer for the PTP were performed to determine the operating power levels for the plasma arc lamp. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the surface temperature of the FePt nanofilm. Parameters needed for the heat-transfer model were identified based on the experimental temperature results. Following the model validation, several numerical simulations were performed to estimate the power levels. It was shown that the FePt nanoparticle films were successfully processed using the power levels provided by the heat-transfer analysis.

  18. Dynamic Fiber Optic Sensors Under Intense Radioactive Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Earl, D.D.; Haines, J.R.; Tsai, C.C.

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid mercury target will be used as the neutron source for the proposed Spallation Neutron Source facility. This target is subjected to bombardment by short-pulse, high-energy proton beams. The intense thermal loads caused by interaction of the pulsed proton beam with the mercury create an enormous rate of temperature rise ({approximately}10{sup 7} K/s) during a very brief beam pulse ({approximately } 0.5 {micro}s). The resulting pressure waves in the mercury will interact with the walls of the mercury target and may lead to large stresses. To gain confidence in the mercury target design concept and to benchmark the computer design codes, we tested various electrical and optical sensors for measuring the transient strains on the walls of a mercury container and the pressures in the mercury. The sensors were attached on several sample mercury targets that were tested at various beam facilities: Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center-Weapons Neutron Research, and Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The effects of intense background radiation on measured signals for each sensor are described and discussed. Preliminary results of limited tests at these facilities indicate that the fiber optic sensors function well in this intense radiation environment, whereas conventional electrical sensors are dysfunctional.

  19. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Thomas J. (Alamo, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  20. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

  1. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  2. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  3. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx Sensor and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. N. Lawless; C. F. Clark, Jr.

    2008-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NOx sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NOx from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5 - $10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NOx. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650 - 700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NOx sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NOx sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NOx and oxygen sensors yields the NOx content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  4. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  5. NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Develop an inexpensive, rapid-response, high-sensitivity and selective electrochemical sensor for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) exhaust gas monitoring; (2) Explore and characterize novel, effective sensing methodologies based on impedance measurements; (3) Explore designs and manufacturing methods that could be compatible with mass fabrication; and (4) Collaborate with industry in order to (ultimately) transfer the technology to a supplier for commercialization.

  6. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  7. Infrared regularization with vector mesons and baryons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. C. Bruns; Ulf-G. Meißner

    2008-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the method of infrared regularization to spin-1 fields coupled to baryons. As an application, we discuss the axial form factor of the nucleon.

  8. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  9. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Haifeng, E-mail: hfliang2004@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Optical Measurement and Thin Film of Shaanxi Province, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710032 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 ?A was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  10. Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    conduction · Heat conduction in Bose condensates ­ electronic superconductors ­ superfluid helium ­ Bose condensate of magnons #12;Outline--toward perfect thermal insulators · Einstein and minimum thermal directions #12;Gas kinetic equation is a good place to start · Anharmonicity (high T limit) · Point defect

  11. Optimal Deployment of Large Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toumpis, Stavros

    1 Optimal Deployment of Large Wireless Sensor Networks S. Toumpis, Member, IEEE, and Leandros, Sensor networks. I. INTRODUCTION A. Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless sensor networks are comprised of sensors that are equipped with wireless transceivers and so are able to form a wireless network [3

  12. Optimal Deployment of Impromptu Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Anurag

    Optimal Deployment of Impromptu Wireless Sensor Networks Prasenjit Mondal, K. P. Naveen and Anurag to deploy sensors (such as motion sensors, or even imaging sensors) and a wireless interconnection network an impromptu deploy- ment of a wireless sensor network in a building. Fig. 2. Problem studied in this paper

  13. TRS-Fiber Optic Classifier Sensor Installation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    TRS-Fiber Optic Classifier Sensor Installation The sensor that the Traffic Recording System (TRS) uses is the Flexsense Portable Fiberoptic Sensor System by Optical Sensor Systems. This includes two is undetected by the TRS. The user must make sure that the sensors do not get bent or twisted or the fiber optic

  14. Intrusion detection sensor testing tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayward, D.R.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intrusion detection sensors must be frequently tested to verify that they are operational, and they must be periodically tested to verify that they are functioning at required performance levels. Concerns involving this testing can include: The significant amount of manpower required, inconsistent results due to variability in methods and personnel, exposure of personnel to hazardous environments, and difficulty in obtaining access to the areas containing some of the intrusion sensors. To address these concerns, the Department of Energy directed Sandia National Labs. to develop intrusion detection sensor testing tools. Over the past two years Sandia has developed several sensor testing tool prototypes. This paper describes the evolution of an exterior intrusion detection sensor tester and automatic data logger, and also describes various interior intrusion detection sensor test fixtures that can be remotely activated to simulate an intruder.

  15. Sensor Compendium - A Snowmass Whitepaper-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artuso, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Battaglia, M. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Bolla, G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bortoletto, D. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Caberera, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Carlstrom, J E [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, C. L. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cooper, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Da Via, C. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Demarteau, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fast, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frisch, H. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States), et al.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  16. Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    -thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer;Leuchtstoffröhre Plasma-Bildschirm Energiesparlampe #12;electrical engineering light sources textile industry

  17. Real time perfusion and oxygenation monitoring in an implantable optical sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Hariharan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    in operating rooms. In the late 1970s Scott Wilbur of the Biox corporation designed an ear sensor that used light emitting diode and solid state photodetectors to develop a clinically accepted pulse oximeter. The fiberoptic cables of previous ear oximeters.... Traditional oximeters use two light emitting diodes that emit light at 660nm (red) and 940nm (infrared) wavelengths. At these wavelengths both oxyhemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin have different absorption spectra (Fig. 1). The ratio of absorbances...

  18. Real time perfusion and oxygenation monitoring in an implantable optical sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Hariharan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    in operating rooms. In the late 1970s Scott Wilbur of the Biox corporation designed an ear sensor that used light emitting diode and solid state photodetectors to develop a clinically accepted pulse oximeter. The fiberoptic cables of previous ear oximeters.... Traditional oximeters use two light emitting diodes that emit light at 660nm (red) and 940nm (infrared) wavelengths. At these wavelengths both oxyhemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin have different absorption spectra (Fig. 1). The ratio of absorbances...

  19. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.; Martinez, D.R.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states. 16 figs.

  20. The Effect of Lunar-like Satellites on the Orbital Infrared Light Curves of Earth-analog Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas A. Moskovitz; Eric Gaidos; Darren Williams

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the influence of lunar-like satellites on the infrared orbital light curves of Earth-analog extra-solar planets. Such light curves will be obtained by NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA's Darwin missions as a consequence of repeat observations to confirm the companion status of a putative planet. We use an energy balance model to calculate disk-averaged infrared (bolometric) fluxes from planet-satellite systems over a full orbital period (one year). The satellites are assumed to lack an atmosphere, have a low thermal inertia like that of the Moon and span a range of plausible radii. The planets are assumed to have thermal and orbital properties that mimic those of the Earth while their obliquities and orbital longitudes of inferior conjunction remain free parameters. Even if the gross thermal properties of the planet can be independently constrained (e.g. via spectroscopy or visible-wavelength detection of specular glint from a surface ocean) only the largest (approximately Mars-size) lunar-like satellites can be detected by light curve data from a TPF-like instrument (i.e. one that achieves a photometric signal-to-noise of 10-20 at infrared wavelengths). Non-detection of a lunar-like satellite can obfuscate the interpretation of a given system's infrared light curve so that it may resemble a single planet with high obliquity, different orbital longitude of vernal equinox relative to inferior conjunction and in some cases drastically different thermal characteristics. If the thermal properties of the planet are not independently established then the presence of a lunar-like satellite cannot be inferred from infrared data, thus demonstrating that photometric light curves alone can only be used for preliminary study of extra-solar Earth-like planets.

  1. SensorGrid: Integrating Sensor Networks and Grid Computing Chen-Khong Tham1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    SensorGrid: Integrating Sensor Networks and Grid Computing Chen-Khong Tham1 and Rajkumar Buyya2 Keywords: Sensors, Sensor Networks, Grid computing, SensorML, SensorWeb. 1. Introduction Recent advances in electronic circuit miniaturization and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the creation

  2. Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks" A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Min

    aquatic environments. Marine surveillance, pollution detection and monitoring, and oceanographic data (salinity, conductivity, turbidity, pH, oxygen, temperature, depth, etc.) - Sediments and pollution sensor nodes - Acoustic sensors - Underwater sensor network architectures - Wired and wireless protocols

  3. Use of roof temperature modeling to predict necessary conditions for locating wet insulation with infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In low-sloped roofing systems using porous insulation, the presence of water can significantly degrade thermal performance. For this reason, it is desirable to develop a reliable method for detecting the presence of water in a roofing system. Because of the different thermal characteristics of wet and dry insulation, there is often a surface temperature differential between areas containing wet insulation and areas containing dry insulation. Under the right circumstances, the areas of wet insulation can be detected by means of infrared sensing techniques. These techniques have already gained widespread acceptance, but there is still some uncertainty as to what are appropriate environmental conditions for viewing. To better define the conditions under which infrared techniques can distinguish between areas of wet and dry insulation, a one-dimensional, transient heat transfer model of a roofing system was developed. The model considers conduction through the roof, insolation on the surface, radiant exchange between the roof and sky, convective heat transfer between the roof and air, and the influence of trapped moisture on the thermal properties of the insulation. A study was undertaken using this model to develop an easily-applied technique for prediction of necessary conditions for locating wet roof insulation using infrared thermography.

  4. Sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Dechang (Metuchen, NJ); Senesac, Lawrence R. (Knoxville, TN); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes includes a microscale body having a first end and a second end and a surface between the ends for adsorbing a chemical analyte. The surface includes at least one conductive heating track for heating the chemical analyte and also a conductive response track, which is electrically isolated from the heating track, for producing a thermal response signal from the chemical analyte. The heating track is electrically connected with a voltage source and the response track is electrically connected with a signal recorder. The microscale body is restrained at the first end and the second end and is substantially isolated from its surroundings therebetween, thus having a bridge configuration.

  5. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  6. Sensors & Measurement | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    elements. The nexus of sensors, signal processing and analysis, modeling, and advanced control algorithms and architectures underpin this important field of technology at ORNL....

  7. Sensor Switch's Bright Manufacturing Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The switch helps with cost effective energy savings by turning off the lights when an occupancy sensor says the room is empty.

  8. Bremsstrahlung Radiation as Coherent State in Thermal QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enke Wang; Jun Xiao; Hanzhong Zhang

    2001-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on fully finite temperature field theory we investigate the radiation probability in the bremsstrahlung process in thermal QED. It turns out that the infrared divergences resulting from the emission and absorption of the real photons are canceled by the virtual photon exchange processes at finite temperature. The full quantum calculation results for soft photons radiation coincide completely with that obtained in the semi-classical approximation. In the framework of Thermofield Dynamics it is shown that the bremsstrahlung radiation in thermal QED is a coherent state, the quasiclassical behavior of the coherent state leads to above coincidence.

  9. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, Judith A. (Albuquerque, NM); Bullington, Jeff A. (Albuquerque, NM); Clem, Paul G. (Albuquerque, NM); Warren, William L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Tuttle, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwartz, Robert W. (Seneca, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  10. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L., E-mail: timothy.ellsworthbowers@colorado.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular cloud clumps is generally applicable to other dust-continuum Galactic plane surveys.

  11. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  12. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  13. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  14. aerosol radiative effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    space-borne sensors use information from the ultraviolet (UV) to the visible and thermal infrared Christopher, Sundar A. 25 Black carbon radiative heating effects on cloud...

  15. Infrared fixed point in quantum Einstein gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Nagy; J. Krizsan; K. Sailer

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed the renormalization group analysis of the quantum Einstein gravity in the deep infrared regime for different types of extensions of the model. It is shown that an attractive infrared point exists in the broken symmetric phase of the model. It is also shown that due to the Gaussian fixed point the IR critical exponent $\

  16. A CATALOG OF GALACTIC INFRARED CARBON STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P. S. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, X. H., E-mail: iraspsc@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: yangxh@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We collected almost all of the Galactic infrared carbon stars (IRCSs) from literature published up to the present to organize a catalog of 974 Galactic IRCSs in this paper. Some of their photometric properties in the near-, mid-, and far-infrared are discussed.

  17. Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington Ceramic & Materials Engineering Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 1. Introduction Infrared (IR) optical fibers may be defined as fiber optics IR fiber optics may logically be divided into three broad categories: glass, crystalline, and hollow

  18. Use of sensors in monitoring civil structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daher, Bassam William, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis surveys the use of sensors and sensor networks in monitoring civil structures, with particular emphasis on the monitoring of bridges and highways using fiber optic sensors. Following a brief review of the most ...

  19. On the robustness of clustered sensor networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jung Jin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Smart devices with multiple on-board sensors, networked through wired or wireless links, are distributed in physical systems and environments. Broad applications of such sensor networks include manufacturing quality control and wireless sensor...

  20. FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS ZHIHUA HU, BAOCHUN LI Abstract. Understanding the fundamental performance limits of wireless sensor networks is critical towards. Key words. Wireless sensor networks, network capacity, network lifetime. 1. Introduction. When

  1. Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructure : Construction and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructure : Construction and Evaluation Kamal Beydoun, Violeta Felea main features for efficient energy management in wireless sensor networks. This paper aims to present a distributed and low-cost topology construction algorithm for wireless sensor networks, addressing

  2. Issues in autonomous mobile sensor networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharne, Avinash Gopal

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Autonomous mobile sensor networks consist of a number of autonomous mobile robots equipped with various sensors and tasked with a common mission. This thesis considers the topology control of such an ad hoc mobile sensor network. In particular, I...

  3. Nonanalyticity of the free energy in thermal field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. T. Brandt; J. Frenkel; J. B. Siqueira

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study, in a d-dimensional space-time, the nonanalyticity of the thermal free energy in the scalar phi^4 theory as well as in QED. We find that the infrared divergent contributions induce, when d is even, a nonanalyticity in the coupling alpha of the form (alpha)^[(d-1)/2] whereas when d is odd the nonanalyticity is only logarithmic.

  4. OPTICAL DIFFERENCE FREQUENCY GENERATION OF FAR INFRARED RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, J.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption on Far-Infrared Generation IV. V. Comparison withIII CHAPTER IV. PHASE MATCHED FAR-INFRARED GENERATION BY THE1970). CHAPTER IV. PHASE MATCHED FAR-INFRARED GENERATION BY

  5. The Use of Infrared Technology To Detect Heat Loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, K.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared refers to electro magnetic energy with a wave length longer than those of visible light. Researchers developed methods to quantify, focus and form real-time images to infrared energy. This spawned the development of infrared Thenrography...

  6. Zachar and Naik Principles of Infrared Thermography and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Zachar and Naik 1 Principles of Infrared Thermography and Application for Assessment details the principles of infrared thermography from the underlying theoretical considerations to the physical constraints involved with performing the test. Infrared (IR) thermography testing may be conducted

  7. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  8. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. SensEH: From Simulation to Deployment of Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Picco, Gian Pietro

    panels. I. INTRODUCTION The market value of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is growing steadily problem. Indeed, in many cases the energy density--whether solar, wind, vibrational or thermal in nature the influence of given environmental parameters, and finally to observe the WSN behavior over extended periods

  11. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Czaja, Alexander U.; Wang, Bo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L.

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  12. Radionuclide Sensors for Environmental Monitoring: From Flow...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: The development of in situ sensors for ultratrace detection applications in process control and environmental monitoring remains a significant challenge. Such sensors...

  13. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M; Czaja, Alexander U; Wang, Bo; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L; Furukawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  14. Wireless Magnetic Sensor Applications in Transportation Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Rene Omar

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and fourth vehicle downstream signature (five vehicleof Figures Upstream and downstream middle sensor raw signals2.2 Upstream and downstream middle sensor signature

  15. Flexible Pressure Sensors: Modeling and Experimental Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viana, J.C.

    Flexible capacitive pressure sensors fabricated with nanocomposites were experimentally characterized and results compared with simulations from analytical modeling. Unlike traditional diaphragm silicon pressure sensors, ...

  16. Infrared colour properties of nearby radio-luminous galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiao-hong; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By combining the data of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Akari satellite, we study the infrared colour properties of a sample of 2712 nearby radio-luminous galaxies (RLGs). These RLGs are divided into radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGNs), mainly occurring at redshifts of $0.05$ 3.0. We also analyse the MIR colours of RL AGNs divided into low- and high-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs and HERGs, respectively). The ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram clearly shows separate distributions of LERGs and HERGs and a region of overlap, which suggests that LERGs and HERGs have different MIR properties. LERGs are responsible for the double-core distribution of RL AGNs on the ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram. In addition, we also suggest 90$-$140$\\mu$m band spectral index $\\alpha(90,140)<-1.4$ as a criterion of selecting nearby active galaxies with non-thermal emissions at FIR wavelengths.

  17. Star-formation histories of local luminous infrared galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Colina, Luis; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Pérez-González, Pablo G; Arribas, Santiago; Bellocchi, Enrica; Cazzoli, Sara; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; López, Javier Piqueras

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analysis of the integrated spectral energy distribution (SED) from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared and H$\\alpha$ of a sample of 29 local systems and individual galaxies with infrared (IR) luminosities between 10^11 Lsun and 10^11.8 Lsun. We have combined new narrow-band H$\\alpha$+[NII] and broad-band g, r optical imaging taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), with archival GALEX, 2MASS, Spitzer, and Herschel data. The SEDs (photometry and integrated H$\\alpha$ flux) have been fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code using stellar population synthesis models for the UV-near-IR range and thermal emission models for the IR emission taking into account the energy balance between the absorbed and re-emitted radiation. From the SED fits we derive the star-formation histories (SFH) of these galaxies. For nearly half of them the star-formation rate appears to be approximately constant during the last few Gyrs. In the other half, the current star-formation rate seems to be enha...

  18. The infrared environments of masers associated with star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James De Buizer

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The near infrared (1-2um) and the thermal infrared (3-25um) trace many of the environments in which masers are thought to reside, including shocks, outflows, accretion disks, and the dense medium near protostars. After a number of recent surveys it has been found that there is a higher detection rate of mid-IR emission towards masers than cm radio continuum emission from UC HII regions, and that the mid-IR emission is actually more closely cospatial to the maser locations. A high percentage of water and methanol masers that are not coincident with the UC HII regions in massive star forming regions are likely to be tracing outflows and extremely young high mass stars before the onset of the UC HII region phase. After a decade of groundwork supporting the hypothesis that linarly distributed class II methanol masers may generally trace accretion disks around young massive stars, compelling evidence is mounting that these masers may generally be associated with outflows instead. Substantiation of this claim comes from recent outflow surveys and high angular resolution mid-IR imaging of the maser environments.

  19. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  20. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection. Abstract: A...

  1. Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum and Assignment of Vibrational Fundamentals of Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

  2. Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado...

  3. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy....

  4. Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

  5. atmospheric infrared sounder: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Li, Jun 4 Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder:...

  6. High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman Spectroscopy. High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman...

  7. Optical fiber sensor having a sol-gel fiber core and a method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Jindal, Rajeev; Winstead, Christopher; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, economic wet chemical procedure is described for making sol-gel fibers. The sol-gel fibers made from this process are transparent to ultraviolet, visible and near infrared light. Light can be guided in these fibers by using an organic polymer as a fiber cladding. Alternatively, air can be used as a low refractive index medium. The sol-gel fibers have a micro pore structure which allows molecules to diffuse into the fiber core from the surrounding environment. Chemical and biochemical reagents can be doped into the fiber core. The sol-gel fiber can be used as a transducer for constructing an optical fiber sensor. The optical fiber sensor having an active sol-gel fiber core is more sensitive than conventional evanescent wave absorption based optical fiber sensors.

  8. Building envelope thermal anomaly analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, B.S.; Mulroney, P.; Scott, T.; Childs, K.W.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed study has been made of building energy thermal anomalies (BETA's) in a large modern office building using computer simulation, on-site inspections, and infrared thermography. The goal was to better understand the heat and moisture flow through these ''bridges,'' develop the beginnings of a classification scheme, and establish techniques for assessing the potential for retrofit or initial design modifications. In terms of presently available analytical techniques, a one-dimensional equivalent of the bridge and its affected area can be created from a steady-state computer simulation. This equivalent, combined with a degree day model, yields good estimates of the bridge behavior in buildings employing heating only. With heating and cooling, the equivalent must be used with an hour-by-hour simulation. A classification scheme based on the one-dimensional equivalent is proposed which should make it possible to create a catalog of basic bridge types that can be used to estimate their effects without requiring a complete hour-by-hour simulation of each building. The classification relates both energy loss and moisture condensation potential to the bridge configuration and the building envelope. The potential for moisture condensation on interior surfaces near a BETA was found to be as significant as the energy loss and this factor needds to be considered in assessing the complete detrimental effects of a bridge. With such a catalog, building designers and analysts would be able to determine and estimate the advantages or disadvantages of modifying the building envelope to reduce the impact of a thermal bridge. 18 refs., 31 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frigo, Janette R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.; Rosten, Ed [CAMBRIDGE UNIV.; Wolinski, Christophe [IRISA; Wagner, Charles [IRISA; Charot, Francois [IRISA

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  10. A correlation of air-coupled ultrasonic and thermal diffusivity data for CFCC materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillai, T.A.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, LaCrosse, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Easler, T.E.; Szweda, A. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States). Advanced Ceramics Program] [and others

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-coupled (non contact) through-transmission ultrasonic investigation has been conducted on 2D multiple ply Nicalon{trademark} SiC fiber/SiNC CFCC panels as a function of number of processing cycles. Corresponding thermal diffusivity imaging was also conducted. The results of the air-coupled ultrasonic investigation correlated with thermal property variations determined via infrared methods. Areas of delaminations were detected and effects of processing cycles were also detected.

  11. The Infrared Luminosity of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Giard; Ludovic Montier; Etienne Pointecouteau; Ellen Simmat

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study is to quantify the infrared luminosity of clusters as a function of redshift and compare this with the X-ray luminosity. This can potentially constrain the origin of the infrared emission to be intracluster dust and/or dust heated by star formation in the cluster galaxies. We perform a statistical analysis of a large sample of galaxy clusters selected from existing databases and catalogues.We coadd the infrared IRAS and X-ray RASS images in the direction of the selected clusters within successive redshift intervals up to z = 1. We find that the total infrared luminosity is very high and on average 20 times higher than the X-ray luminosity. If all the infrared luminosity is to be attributed to emission from diffuse intracluster dust, then the IR to X-ray ratio implies a dust-to-gas mass abundance of 5e-4. However, the infrared luminosity shows a strong enhancement for 0.1 infrared luminosity that we measure is generated by the ongoing star formation in the member galaxies. From theoretical predictions calibrated on extinction measurements (dust mass abundance equal to 1e-5), we expect only a minor contribution, of a few percent, from intracluster dust.

  12. ISO and the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herve Dole

    2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ISO observed, for the first time to such a high sensitivity level, the mid- and far-infrared universe. A Number of deep surveys were performed to probe the cosmological evolution of galaxies. In this review, I discuss and summarize results of mid-infrared ISOCAM and far-infrared ISOPHOT surveys, and show how our vision of the extragalactic infrared universe has become more accurate. In particular, ISO allowed us to resolve into sources a significant fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in the mid-infrared, and to probe a fainter population in the far-infrared with the detection of the CIB fluctuations. Together with other wavelength data sets, the nature of ISO galaxies is now in the process of being understood. I also show that the high quality of the ISO data put strong constraints on the scenarios of galaxy evolution. This induced a burst in the development of models, yielding to a more coherent picture of galaxy evolution. I finally emphasize the potential of the ISO data archive in the field of observational cosmology, and describe the next steps, in particular the forthcoming cosmological surveys to be carried out by SIRTF.

  13. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  14. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  15. Micromechanical antibody sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Jacobson, K. Bruce (Oak Ridge, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Kennel, Stephen J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor apparatus is provided using a microcantilevered spring element having a coating of a detector molecule such as an antibody or antigen. A sample containing a target molecule or substrate is provided to the coating. The spring element bends in response to the stress induced by the binding which occurs between the detector and target molecules. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers.

  16. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  17. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.McCormack; H.W. Kugel; P. Goranson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed.

  18. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  19. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

  1. Radioactive Target Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tonglin

    Chapter 31 Radioactive Target Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Tonglin Zhang Abstract for wireless sensor network data to detect and locate a hidden nuclear target in a large study area. The method assumes multiple radiation detectors have been used as sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network

  2. Sensors for Safety & Performance Stationary Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles · Interfacial Stability of Thin Film H2 Sensors · Sensors for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems · Micro-Machined Thin Film H2 Gas Sensors · Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Fuel Cell Monitoring #12;Discussion Points Barriers ·Cost ·Application ·Lifetime ·Flexibility ·Public

  3. Molecular Hydrogen in Infrared Cirrus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristen Gillmon; J. Michael Shull

    2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine data from our recent FUSE survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen absorption toward 50 high-latitude AGN with COBE-corrected IRAS 100 micron emission maps to study the correlation of infrared cirrus with H2. A plot of the H2 column density vs. IR cirrus intensity shows the same transition in molecular fraction, f_H2, as seen with total hydrogen column density, N_H. This transition is usually attributed to H2 self-shielding, and it suggests that many diffuse cirrus clouds contain H2 in significant fractions, f_H2 = 1-30%. These clouds cover approximately 50% of the northern sky at latitudes b > 30 degrees, at temperature-corrected 100 micron intensities D_100 > 1.5 MJy/sr. The sheetlike cirrus clouds, with hydrogen densities n_H > 30 cm^-3, may be compressed by dynamical processes at the disk-halo interface, and they are conducive to H2 formation on grain surfaces. Exploiting the correlation between N(H2) and 100 micron intensity, we estimate that cirrus clouds at b > 30 contain approximately 3000 M_sun in H2. Extrapolated over the inner Milky Way, the cirrus may contain 10^7 M_sun of H2 and 10^8 M_sun in total gas mass. If elevated to 100 pc, their gravitational potential energy is ~10^53 erg.

  4. Active Control Strategies for Chemical Sensors and Sensor Arrays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosangi, Rakesh

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the problem of estimating concentrations of the constituents in a gas mixture using a tunable sensor. We formulate this multicomponent-analysis problem as that of probabilistic state estimation, where each state represents a different concentration profile. We...

  5. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  6. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov * energy.govsunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving...

  7. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Thermal Control Technologies Advanced Vehicle Systems Technology Transfer Jet Cooling Alternative Coolants TIM Low R Structure Phase Change Spray Cooling Air Cooling...

  8. SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Yunxia Chen in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Analyzing the lifetime per unit cost of a linear WSN, we find that deploying of sensors deployed in the network, can be used to measure the utilization efficiency of sensors

  9. Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Deployment and Topology Control Based on Irregular Sensor Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Yeh-Ching

    Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Deployment and Topology Control Based on Irregular Sensor Introduction Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a key element of the pervasive/ubiquitous computing sensor network (heterogeneous WSN) consists of sensor nodes with different ability, such as different

  10. Infrared Evolution Equations: Method and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. I. Ermolaev; M. Greco; S. I. Troyan

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a brief review on composing and solving Infrared Evolution Equations. They can be used in order to calculate amplitudes of high-energy reactions in different kinematic regions in the double-logarithmic approximation.

  11. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Herdegen

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  12. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  13. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  14. Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Scott Mitchell

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

  15. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  16. The near infrared 12 1 electronic transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, John Paul

    The near infrared 12 A00 2 X2 A0 1 electronic transition of B3 in a neon matrix Anton Batalov, Jan applying a double reflection technique. The light beam reflects from the metal surface of the substrate

  17. Applying near-infrared spectroscopy (nirs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wruck, Eric Michael

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    investigated. A recently developed optical imaging technique called near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) shows promise for being an acceptable alternative to invasive imaging techniques. NIRS measures correlates of neural activity by assessing hemoglobin...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of infrared quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Daniel Kelly

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the development of synthetic methods to create application ready quantum dots (QDs) in the infrared for biological imaging and optoelectronic devices. I concentrated primarily on controlling the size ...

  19. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  20. Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108 K/s C. R of aniline-d7 from a single-crystal surface 0001 of sapphire Al2O3 at a heating rate on the order of 108 K/s was studied using pulsed infrared laser radiation for desorption and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization

  1. LSPE Qualification and Flight Acceptance T /V Test Su.m..mary and Thermal Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    5. 2 5. 3 5.4 5.5 5. 6 5.7 Nodal Description Thermal Resistances Solar Heating Lunar Surface ------------ 8. 3 Lunar Surface Simulator 8. 4 Solar Simulation 8. 4. I 8. 3. 2 High Explosive Package Solar Simulation Geophone Infrared Heaters 8. 5 Experiment Location -------------- 8. 5. I 8. 5. 2 High Explosive

  2. Multiple frequency method for operating electrochemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Louis P. (San Ramon, CA)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple frequency method for the operation of a sensor to measure a parameter of interest using calibration information including the steps of exciting the sensor at a first frequency providing a first sensor response, exciting the sensor at a second frequency providing a second sensor response, using the second sensor response at the second frequency and the calibration information to produce a calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, using the first sensor response at the first frequency, the calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, and the calibration information to measure the parameter of interest.

  3. Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The focus of the Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate new techniques for thermal energy storage systems that are relevant to utility-scale concentrating solar power plants. The laboratory holds test systems that can provide heat transfer fluids for the evaluation of heat exchangers and thermal energy storage devices. The existing system provides molten salt at temperatures up to 800 C. This unit is charged with nitrate salt rated to 600 C, but is capable of handling other heat transfer fluid compositions. Three additional test bays are available for future deployment of alternative heat transfer fluids such as hot air, carbon dioxide, or steam systems. The Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory performs pilot-scale thermal energy storage system testing through multiple charge and discharge cycles to evaluate heat exchanger performance and storage efficiency. The laboratory equipment can also be utilized to test instrument and sensor compatibility with hot heat transfer fluids. Future applications in the laboratory may include the evaluation of thermal energy storage systems designed to operate with supercritical heat transfer fluids such as steam or carbon dioxide. These tests will require the installation of test systems capable of providing supercritical fluids at temperatures up to 700 C.

  4. Infrared Issues in Graviton Higgs Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srijit Bhattacharjee; Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the one-loop infrared behaviour of the effective potential in minimally coupled graviton Higgs theory in Minkowski background. The gravitational analogue of one loop Coleman Weinberg effective potential turns out to be complex, the imaginary part indicating an infrared instability. This instability is traced to a tachyonic pole in the graviton propagator for constant Higgs fields. Physical implications of this behaviour are studied. We also discuss physical differences between gauge theories coupled to Higgs fields and graviton Higgs theory.

  5. Infrared-laser spectroscopy, 1980-1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, R.S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The review article used as a text for the Short Course on Infrared Laser Spectroscopy was completed in January 1980 and included only a few references after that date. There has ensued three years of progress, during which spectroscopy using tunable infrared lasers has become an increasingly used tool both for basic research and for analytical and industrial applications. The present paper, which follows closely the outline of the earlier review, updates the latter to early 1983. 238 references.

  6. Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seeber, S. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    levels for objects seen in the CRT. (Radiance levels refer to the amount of infrared energy produced by an object.) The conversion of these radiance compari sons to temperatures and heat flows will be discussed below. Infrared images may be recorded... radiance level comparisons since colors may be associated with particular temperature ranges. Black and white images may be colorized during the inspection process. Alternatively, the black and white images may be stored on magnetic tape and color...

  7. Thermal conductivity profile determination in proton-irradiated ZrC by spatial and frequency scanning thermal wave methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, C. [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France) [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Antoniow, J. S.; Pron, H. [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France)] [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France); Ban, H. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States)

    2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using complementary thermal wave methods, the irradiation damaged region of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is characterized by quantifiably profiling the thermophysical property degradation. The ZrC sample was irradiated by a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 600 °C to a dose of 1.75 displacements per atom. Spatial scanning techniques including scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), lock-in infrared thermography (lock-in IRT), and photothermal radiometry (PTR) were used to directly map the in-depth profile of thermal conductivity on a cross section of the ZrC sample. The advantages and limitations of each system are discussed and compared, finding consistent results from all techniques. SThM provides the best resolution finding a very uniform thermal conductivity envelope in the damaged region measuring ?52 ± 2 ?m deep. Frequency-based scanning PTR provides quantification of the thermal parameters of the sample using the SThM measured profile to provide validation of a heating model. Measured irradiated and virgin thermal conductivities are found to be 11.9 ± 0.5 W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} and 26.7 ±1 W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}, respectively. A thermal resistance evidenced in the frequency spectra of the PTR results was calculated to be (1.58 ± 0.1) × 10{sup ?6} m{sup 2} K W{sup ?1}. The measured thermal conductivity values compare well with the thermal conductivity extracted from the SThM calibrated signal and the spatially scanned PTR. Combined spatial and frequency scanning techniques are shown to provide a valuable, complementary combination for thermal property characterization of proton-irradiated ZrC. Such methodology could be useful for other studies of ion-irradiated materials.

  8. HIGH-CONTRAST NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING POLARIMETRY OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND RY TAU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyosun; Chou, Mei-Yin [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica. P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hashimoto, Jun; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wisniewski, John [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Abe, Lyu, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, 28 Avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at the H band at a high resolution ({approx}0.''05) for the first time, using Subaru/HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  9. Infrared finite coupling in Sudakov resummation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georges Grunberg

    2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    New arguments are presented to emphasize the interest of the infrared finite coupling approach to power corrections in the context of Sudakov resummation. The more regular infrared behavior of some peculiar combinations of Sudakov anomalous dimensions, free of Landau singularities at large Nf, is pointed out. A general conflict between the infrared finite coupling and infrared renormalon approaches to power corrections is explained, and a possible resolution is proposed, which makes use of the arbitrariness of the choice of exponentiated constant terms. A simple ansatz for a 'universal' non-perturbative Sudakov effective coupling at large Nf follows naturally from these considerations. In this last version, a new result is presented: the striking emergence of an infrared finite perturbative effective coupling in the Drell-Yan process at large Nf (at odds with the infrared renormalon argument) within the framework of Sudakov resummation for eikonal cross sections of Laenen, Sterman and Vogelsang. Some suggestions for phenomenology at finite Nf, alternative to the shape function approach, are given.

  10. Infrared spectroscopic diagnostics for Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luigi Spinoglio

    2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectroscopy in the mid- and far-infrared provides powerful diagnostics for studying the emission regions in active galaxies. The large variety of ionic fine structure lines can probe gas conditions in a variety of physical conditions, from highly ionized gas excited by photons originated by black hole accretion to gas photoionized by young stellar systems. The critical density and the ionization potential of these transitions allow to fully cover the density-ionization parameter space. Some examples of line ratios diagrams using both mid-infrared and far-infrared ionic fine structure lines are presented. The upcoming space observatory Herschel will be able to observe the far-infrared spectra of large samples of local active galaxies. Based on the observed near-to-far infrared emission line spectrum of the template galaxy NGC1068, are presented the predictions for the line fluxes expected for galaxies at high redshift. To observe spectroscopically large samples of distant galaxies, we will have to wait fot the future space missions, like SPICA and, ultimately, FIRI.

  11. Compact orthogonal NMR field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

    2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.

  12. Sensor applications of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushfeldt, Scott I

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search of published research on sensing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes was performed to identify applications in which carbon nanotubes might improve on current sensor technologies, in either offering improved performance, ...

  13. Sensor networks for social networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farry, Michael P. (Michael Patrick)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis outlines the development of software that makes use of Bayesian belief networks and signal processing techniques to make meaningful inferences about real-world phenomena using data obtained from sensor networks. ...

  14. Buried fiber optic intrusion sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Eric William

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor capable of detecting intruders from the pressure of their weight on the earth's surface was investigated in the laboratory and in field tests. The presence of an intruder above or in proximity...

  15. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed. 21 figs.

  16. The ATLAS Silicon Pixel Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, M S; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Andreazza, A; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Musico, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Caccia, M; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Brandl, A; Gorfine, G; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, SC; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been developed. The design of the sensors is guided by the need to operate them in the severe LHC radiation environment at up to several hundred volts while maintaining a good signal-to-noise ratio, small cell size, and minimal multiple scattering. The ability to be operated under full bias for electrical characterization prior to the attachment of the readout integrated circuit electronics is also desired.

  17. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  18. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  19. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  20. A Summary Review of Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    Articles A Summary Review of Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring performance and health. KEYWORDS: wireless sensors, structural monitoring, dam- age detection, smartb). Called structural health monitoring (SHM), this new paradigm offers an auto- mated method