National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal hot water

  1. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  2. Stratification in hot water tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    Stratification in a domestic hot water tank, used to increase system performance by enabling the solar collectors to operate under marginal conditions, is discussed. Data taken in a 120 gallon tank indicate that stratification can be achieved without any special baffling in the tank. (MJF)

  3. Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel which provides an hourly simulation of a solar hot water heating system (including solar geometry, solar collector efficiency as a function of temperature, energy balance on storage tank and lifecycle cost analysis).

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP)...

  5. Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Residential Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since February 2011, the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) has provided rebates for the installation of residential solar hot water systems through the Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Prog...

  6. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  7. Solar Works in Seattle: Domestic Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seattle's residential solar hot water workshop. Content also covers general solar resource assessment, siting, and financial incentives.

  8. HOt Water SavEr (HOWSE) Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, W.R.

    1981-12-31

    The dishwasher effluent is pumped into the flue of the exchange tank by the normal dishwasher pump (or auxiliary pump). The effluent is stored in this tank until next operation of the dishwasher. Thus, thermal equilibrium can be reached between the tank and the effluent, promoting high efficiency. The output from the exchange tank feeds the household normal hot water tank, reducing its requirement for fuel as the input water temperature is higher. Counterflow exchangers may be used for other hot water users where the flow and drain is continuous. In this case the discharged hot (or warm) water flows counter to the flow of cold water into the hot water heater. The two flows are closely coupled thermally but not in direct contract so they cannot mix. Counter flow exchangers and storage type exchangers may be used in the same installation.

  9. dist_hot_water.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    District Hot Water Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Timely submission of this report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275, as amended. 2. This completed questionnaire is due by 3. Data reported on this questionnaire are for the entire building identified in the label to the right. 4. Data may be submitted directly on this questionnaire or in any other format, such as a computer-generated listing, which provides the same i nformation and is conve nient for

  10. Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Commercial Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in August 2011, the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) will provide grants* for feasibility studies of commercial solar hot water systems through the Commonwealth Solar Hot Wat...

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Exploration Activity...

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Held & Henderson, 2012)...

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  14. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Hugh; Wade, Jeremy

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  15. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  16. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At ...

  17. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics | Department of Energy Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics The report addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1)

  18. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  19. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados Barbados is addressing the challenge of offsetting high fossil fuel costs by using its abundant solar resources to power solar water heaters (SWHs) across the island. Barbados offers a valuable example of how to success- fully execute market implementation of a commercialized renewable energy technology. Challenge Before realizing the SWH success, Barbados had to over- come several other challenges according to the Climate and Development Knowledge

  20. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to ...

  1. THERMAL PROCESSES GOVERNING HOT-JUPITER RADII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-07-20

    There have been many proposed explanations for the larger-than-expected radii of some transiting hot Jupiters, including either stellar or orbital energy deposition deep in the atmosphere or deep in the interior. In this paper, we explore the important influences on hot-Jupiter radius evolution of (1) additional heat sources in the high atmosphere, the deep atmosphere, and deep in the convective interior; (2) consistent cooling of the deep interior through the planetary dayside, nightside, and poles; (3) the degree of heat redistribution to the nightside; and (4) the presence of an upper atmosphere absorber inferred to produce anomalously hot upper atmospheres and inversions in some close-in giant planets. In particular, we compare the radius expansion effects of atmospheric and deep-interior heating at the same power levels and derive the power required to achieve a given radius increase when night-side cooling is incorporated. We find that models that include consistent day/night cooling are more similar to isotropically irradiated models when there is more heat redistributed from the dayside to the nightside. In addition, we consider the efficacy of ohmic heating in the atmosphere and/or convective interior in inflating hot Jupiters. Among our conclusions are that (1) the most highly irradiated planets cannot stably have uB {approx}> 10 km s{sup -1} G over a large fraction of their daysides, where u is the zonal wind speed and B is the dipolar magnetic field strength in the atmosphere, and (2) that ohmic heating cannot in and of itself lead to a runaway in planet radius.

  2. Affordable Solar Hot Water and Power LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water and Power LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Affordable Solar Hot Water and Power LLC Place: Dothan, Alabama Zip: 36305 Sector: Solar Product: Solar and Energy Efficiency...

  3. Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Systems for High Performance Homes Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes This presentation is from the Building America research team BA-PIRC ...

  4. Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings One easy energy lifehack: fix leaky faucets to save money and energy. One easy energy lifehack: fix leaky faucets to save money and energy. You can lower your water heating costs by using and wasting less hot water in your home. To conserve hot water, you can fix leaks, install low-flow fixtures, and purchase an energy-efficient dishwasher and clothes washer. Fix Leaks You can significantly reduce

  5. Hot wire thermal conductivity measurements in high temperature refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dils, R.R.; Allen, J.D.; Richmond, J.C.; McNeil, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the hot wire thermal conductivity test, a wire embedded in the material to be tested is heated with constant power input, and the temperature is measured at short time intervals. The thermal conductivity is computed from the known power input to the wire and the measured rate of increase in the wire temperature after about 700 s of heating. A finite-difference computer simulation of the hot wire test was developed to evaluate the effects of several variables in the properties of the materials tested and in the test procedures on the measured thermal conductivity. Equations relating the radiant heat transfer in a material to its optical properties were developed and a radiant heat transfer component was developed for the finite-difference simulation. Equations were derived to compute the spectral optical properties of a test material from the measured spectral normal-hemispherical transmittance of a sample of the material of known thickness that is thin enough to have a measurable transmittance over the wavelength range of about 500 to 20,000 nm, and the spectral near-normal hemispherical reflectance of a sample of the material thick enough to be completely opaque, over the same wavelength range. The optical extinction coefficient, and the ratio of the scattering coefficient, to the absorption coefficient, of MinK 2000 and K3000 brick were evaluated from their measured spectral transmittances and reflectances, and used to compute the radiant heat transfer component in these materials. The hot wire test measures an average thermal conductivity for all directions away from the wire in a plane normal to the wire. Extensive tests were made of MinK 2000 and K3000, and the measured values are compared to the guarded hot plate thermal conductivity, which is unidirectional normal to the face of a brick. 67 references, 31 figures, 23 tables.

  6. Monitoring SERC Technologies - Solar Hot Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hot Water Monitoring SERC Technologies - Solar Hot Water On October 27, 2011, Eliza Hotchkiss, an analyst at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, presented a Webinar about Solar Hot Water systems and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation or read the transcript. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the presentation include: Database for State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency NREL Solar Technology Analysis Models and Tools SunShot

  7. Savings Project: Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Savings Project: Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Addthis Project Level Medium Energy Savings $8-$12 annually Time to Complete 3 hours for a small house Overall Cost $10-$15 Insulating water pipes can save you water, energy, and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/nsj-images Insulating water pipes can save you water, energy, and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/nsj-images Insulating your hot water pipes reduces heat

  8. Interpretation of Water Sample Analysis, Waunita Hot Spring Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Water Sample Analysis, Waunita Hot Spring Project, Gunnison County, Colorado Author R. H. Carpenter Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S....

  9. Ch. III, Interpretation of water sample analyses Waunita Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of water sample analyses Waunita Hot Springs area Gunnison County, Colorado Author R. H. Carpenter Editor T. G. Zacharakis Published Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation...

  10. Domestic Hot Water Event Schedule Generator - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Domestic Hot Water Event Schedule Generator National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This...

  11. Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  12. Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  13. Water Sampling At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Carpenter...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Carpenter, 1981) Exploration Activity...

  14. Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  15. Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  16. Water Sampling At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  17. Water Sampling At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Olson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Olson & Dellechaie, 1976)...

  18. Water Sampling At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Faulder...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Faulder, 1991) Exploration Activity...

  19. Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  20. Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  1. Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  2. Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  3. Predictive Control of Hot Water Heaters - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Predictive Control of Hot Water Heaters National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This...

  4. Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    domestic hot water becomes an increasingly important energy use in high-performance homes. This Top Innovation describes Building America research by Alliance for ...

  5. Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Jordan Dentz and Eric Ansanelli The Levy Partnership, Inc. New York, NY 2 Research Sponsors * The ARIES Collaborative is a ...

  6. Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of Arizona and the House of Refuge Sunnyslope are partnering to install solar hot water systems at five Phoenix-area housing sites for homeless men.

  7. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R.; Zacarias, A.

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  8. Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology April 18, 2013 - 1:15pm Addthis Learn how a cooperative R&D agreement with the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory helped contributed to the success of GE's GeoSpring Hybrid Water Heater -- one of the most efficient electric heat pump water heaters on the market today. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Got Energy Efficiency

  9. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters Preprint J. Burch National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Thornton Thermal Energy System Specialists, Inc. Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum Denver, Colorado May 13-17, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-54539 June 2012 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308.

  10. Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, B.; Burch, J.; Barker, G.

    2010-08-01

    The installed energy savings for advanced residential hot water systems can depend greatly on detailed occupant use patterns. Quantifying these patterns is essential for analyzing measures such as tankless water heaters, solar hot water systems with demand-side heat exchangers, distribution system improvements, and recirculation loops. This paper describes the development of an advanced spreadsheet tool that can generate a series of year-long hot water event schedules consistent with realistic probability distributions of start time, duration and flow rate variability, clustering, fixture assignment, vacation periods, and seasonality. This paper also presents the application of the hot water event schedules in the context of an integral-collector-storage solar water heating system in a moderate climate.

  11. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  12. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    II: How to Get it Right DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right Watch the video or view the presentation slides below Zero Energy Ready Homes ...

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the Challenge Home program and here to set this up for you. Today's session on hot water distribution is one of a continuing series of tech training webinars to support our...

  14. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution I...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I -- What's At Stake Webinar (Text Version) DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake Webinar (Text Version) Below is the text version of the...

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  16. DDT of hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 in heavy confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Gary R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Afee, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The research presented examines DDT of cylinders of PBX 9501 damaged above 180 C in heavy confinement for 0-3 hours and end-ignited or ramped until self-ignition (cookoff) occurred. Progression of luminous reaction was observed by streak photography through a glass-filled slit running the length of the cylinder. Post-mortem analysis of the steel DDT tubes was also done for correlation with the optical records. Results indicate that repeatable, Type I DDT was observed to occur in hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 with low levels of porosity. It was demonstrated that multiple parameters affect DDT behavior, most likely in a coupled fashion. These parameters are porosity, ignition temperature and thermal soak duration. Conditions leading up to cookoff were shown to sensitize the HE to DDT by increasing likelihood and decreasing run length. Over the range of porosities (0-37%) and ignition temperatures (180-235 C), run lengths and detonation velocities varied, respectively, from approximately 22-109 mm and 6.0-8.3 mm {micro}s{sup -1}. This work fills a valuable and realistic space in the understanding of high explosive violent reaction, including DDT, in abnormal thermal environments.

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  18. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  20. Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides and Text

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Version | Department of Energy Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides and Text Version Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides and Text Version Download presentation slides from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on direct use for building heat and hot water. PDF icon DOE-IE_Foundational_Building_Heat_Hot_Water_PresentationSlides.pdf PDF icon DOE-IE_Foundational_Building_Heat_Hot_Water_TextVersion.pdf More Documents & Publications

  1. Catalytic Behavior of Dense Hot Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C J; Fried, L E; Yang, L H; Goldman, N; Bastea, S

    2008-06-05

    Water is known to exhibit fascinating physical properties at high pressures and temperatures. Its remarkable structural and phase complexity suggest the possibility of exotic chemical reactivity under extreme conditions, though this remains largely unstudied. Detonations of high explosives containing oxygen and hydrogen produce water at thousands of K and tens of GPa, similar to conditions of giant planetary interiors. These systems thus provide a unique means to elucidate the chemistry of 'extreme water'. Here we show that water plays an unexpected role in catalyzing complex explosive reactions - contrary to the current view that it is simply a stable detonation product. Using first-principles atomistic simulations of the detonation of high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), we discovered that H{sub 2}O (source), H (reducer) and OH (oxidizer) act as a dynamic team that transports oxygen between reaction centers. Our finding suggests that water may catalyze reactions in other explosives and in planetary interiors.

  2. Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Lake...

  3. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados Rooftop SWHs are being successfully used in Barbados as a result of effective financial incentives and government support. <em>Photo from iStock 6923507</em> Rooftop SWHs are being successfully used in Barbados as a result of effective financial incentives and government support. Photo from iStock 6923507 Barbados is addressing the challenge of offsetting high fossil fuel costs by using its

  4. CPS Energy- Solar Hot Water Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of a larger program designed to reduce electricity demand within its service territory, CPS Energy now offers rebates for solar water heaters to its customers. In general, any CPS Energy...

  5. Waste heat from kitchen cuts hot water electricity 23%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1984-05-21

    Heat recovered from the Hamburger Hamlet's kitchen in Bethesada, Maryland and used to pre-heat the million gallons of hot water used annually reduced hot water costs 23% and paid off the investment in 1.5 years. Potomac Electric initiated the installation of an air-to-water heat pump in the restaurant kitchen above the dishwasher at a cost of about $5300, with the restaurant obliged to reimburse the utility if performance was satisfactory. Outside water recirculates through storage tanks and the ceiling heat pump until it reaches the required 140/sup 0/F. The amount of electricity needed to bring the preheated water to that temperature was $3770 lower after the installation. Cooled air exhausted from the heat pump circulates throughout the kitchen.

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    crust. The boreholes which exhibited the lowest average gradient were several kilometers from the hot springs and up-dip. None of them penetrated the Dakota Sandstone ....

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Hot Creek Canyon where challenges such as topography, a wilderness study area, and wetlands issues will make further exploration time consuming and costly. References Dick...

  8. Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James

    2005-02-26

    Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.

  9. Pressurized water nuclear reactor system with hot leg vortex mitigator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Louis K. S. (Monroeville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor system includes a vortex mitigator in the form of a cylindrical conduit between the hot leg conduit and a first section of residual heat removal conduit, which conduit leads to a pump and a second section of residual heat removal conduit leading back to the reactor pressure vessel. The cylindrical conduit is of such a size that where the hot leg has an inner diameter D.sub.1, the first section has an inner diameter D.sub.2, and the cylindrical conduit or step nozzle has a length L and an inner diameter of D.sub.3 ; D.sub.3 /D.sub.1 is at least 0.55, D.sub.2 is at least 1.9, and L/D.sub.3 is at least 1.44, whereby cavitation of the pump by a vortex formed in the hot leg is prevented.

  10. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    small diameter temperature gradient wells have been drilled ranging in depth from 152-607 m. These wells were drilled across the Neal Hot Springs area in order to gather more...

  12. Tapping Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico Tapping Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico November 3, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Stephen Graff Former Writer & ...

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist DOE Zero Energy Ready Home National Program encourages, but does not require, ...

  14. Getting into hot water: the law of geothermal resources in Colorado...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Getting into hot water: the law of geothermal resources in Colorado Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Periodical: Getting into hot water: the law...

  15. Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

    2013-10-01

    Apartment temperature data have been collected from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. The data have been analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating. This research attempts to answer the question, 'What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?' This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort. Apartment temperature data were analyzed for deviation from a 70 degrees F desired setpoint and for variation by heating system type, apartment floor level and ambient conditions. The data shows that overheating is significant in these multifamily buildings with both hot water and steam heating systems.

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution I-- What's At Stake Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake, presented in January 2014.

  17. Solar Hot Water Market Development in Knoxville, TN | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources » Solar Hot Water Market Development in Knoxville, TN Solar Hot Water Market Development in Knoxville, TN Assessment of local solar hot water markets, market variables, market barriers, and suggested strategies to increase solar hot water deployment in the city and county. Location Knoxville, Tennessee United States See map: Google Maps Date October 2010 Topic Financing, incentives & Market Analysis Subprogram Soft Cost Author CH2M Hill PDF icon

  18. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. This paper proposes a more realistic ratings draw that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum; Denver, Colorado; May 13-17, 2012.

  19. ARM - Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Expansion of Water Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water Objective The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the concept of thermal expansion of water when heated. Materials Each student or group of students will need the

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Ingebritsen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (1993) Heat Flow From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades, Oregon, Usa Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleThermalGr...

  1. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC36-08GO28308 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: National ... TRNSYS; multifamily; domestic hot water; solar water heater; recirculation Word ...

  2. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report Number(s): DOEGO--102015-4716 7226 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: ... TRNSYS; multifamily; domestic hot water; solar water heater; recirculation Word ...

  3. Thermal Waters of Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Report: Thermal Waters of Nevada Abstract Abstract unavailable. Authors Larry J. Garside and John H. Schilling Organization Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Published...

  4. Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

    2013-10-01

    In this project, the ARIES Building America team collected apartment temperature data from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. Data was analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating in an effort to answer the question, "What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?" This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort.

  5. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat

  6. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I: What's at Stake |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I: What's at Stake DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I: What's at Stake Watch the video or view the presentation below Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance. Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems - affecting energy use , water consumption, and resident convenience and comfort. In this initial session Gary Klein covers the basics of

  7. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  8. Thermal Characteristics of the Chena Hot Springs Alaska Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    zone isabout 2000 ft long and 300 ft wide. The system islocated at the edge of a granitic body where deepcirculating geothermal waters reach the surface byway of fractures along...

  9. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II-- How to Get it Right (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right, presented in January 2014. Watch the presentation.

  10. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I-- What's At Stake (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake, presented in January 2014. Watch the presentation.

  11. Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  12. SolOPT: PV and Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation Software Tool...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolOPT: PV and Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation Software Tool National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication...

  13. Finite-Element Simulation Of Hot-Water-Type Geothermal Reservoirs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    differential equations are based upon constant physical parameters (except fluid density) and formulated for hot-water-type geothermal reservoirs. A simultaneous solution...

  14. U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-23

    Case study overview of integrated solar hot water/photovoltaic systems at the U.S. Marine Corps Camp Pendleton training pools.

  15. Hot wire needle probe for thermal conductivity detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Rempe, Joy Lynn; Knudson, Darrell lee; Daw, Joshua Earl; Wilkins, Steven Curtis; Fox, Brandon S.; Heng, Ban

    2015-11-10

    An apparatus comprising a needle probe comprising a sheath, a heating element, a temperature sensor, and electrical insulation that allows thermal conductivity to be measured in extreme environments, such as in high-temperature irradiation testing. The heating element is contained within the sheath and is electrically conductive. In an embodiment, the heating element is a wire capable of being joule heated when an electrical current is applied. The temperature sensor is contained within the sheath, electrically insulated from the heating element and the sheath. The electrical insulation electrically insulates the sheath, heating element and temperature sensor. The electrical insulation fills the sheath having electrical resistance capable of preventing electrical conduction between the sheath, heating element, and temperature sensor. The control system is connected to the heating element and the temperature sensor.

  16. Development of Standardized Domestic Hot Water Event Schedules for Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.; Burch, J.

    2008-08-01

    The Building America Research Benchmark is a standard house definition created as a point of reference for tracking progress toward multi-year energy savings targets. As part of its development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has established a set of domestic hot water events to be used in conjunction with sub-hourly analysis of advanced hot water systems.

  17. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance. Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems – affecting energy use , water consumption...

  18. Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy 4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? What are realistic energy savings associated with the latest advanced and forthcoming water heating technologies and are they cost effective? PDF icon issue4_gasfired_waterheater.pdf PDF icon issue4_tankless_wh.pdf PDF icon issue4_waterhtg_solutions.pdf More Documents & Publications Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions Tankless

  19. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  20. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  1. Water geochemistry and hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer at Roosevelt Hot Springs, southern Utah: A hot dry rock prospect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vuataz, F.D.; Goff, F.

    1987-12-01

    On the western edge of the geothermal field, three deep holes have been drilled that are very hot but mostly dry. Two of them (Phillips 9-1 and Acord 1-26 wells) have been studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) resources evaluation program. A review of data and recommendations have been formulated to evaluate the HDR geothermal potential at Roosevelt. The present report is directed toward the study of the shallow aquifer of the Milford Valley to determine if the local groundwater would be suitable for use as make-up water in an HDR system. This investigation is the result of a cooperative agreement between Los Alamos and Phillips Petroleum Co., formerly the main operator of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Unit. The presence of these hot dry wells and the similar setting of the Roosevelt area to the prototype HDR site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, make Roosevelt a very good candidate site for creation of another HDR geothermal system. This investigation has two main objectives: to assess the water geochemistry of the valley aquifer, to determine possible problems in future make-up water use, such as scaling or corrosion in the wells and surface piping, and to assess the hydrogeology of the shallow groundwaters above the HDR zone, to characterize the physical properties of the aquifer. These two objectives are linked by the fact that the valley aquifer is naturally contaminated by geothermal fluids leaking out of the hydrothermal reservoir. In an arid region where good-quality fresh water is needed for public water supply and irrigation, nonpotable waters would be ideal for an industrial use such as injection into an HDR energy extraction system. 50 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Hydrology and geochemistry of thermal ground water in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from 12 wells and 9 springs indicate that nonthermal waters are a calcium bicarbonate type; thermal waters are a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Chemical geothermometers indicate probable maximum reservoir temperatures are near 100/sup 0/ Celsius. Concentration of tritium in the thermal water is near zero. Depletion of stable isotopes in the hot waters relative to present-day meteoric waters indicates recharge to the system probably occurred when the climate averaged 3/sup 0/ to 5/sup 0/ Celsius colder than at present. Temperatures about 3.5/sup 0/ Celsius colder than at present occurred during periods of recorded Holocene glacial advances and indicate a residence time of water in the system of at least several thousand years. Residence time calculated on the basis of reservoir volume and thermal-water discharge is 3400 to 6800 years for an effective reservoir porosity of 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. Preliminary analyses of carbon-14 determinations indicate an age of the hot waters of about 18,000 to 25,000 years. The proposed conceptual model for the area is one of an old system, where water has circulated for thousands, even tens of thousands, of years. Within constraints imposed by the model described, reservoir thermal energy for the geothermal system in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada is about 130 x 10/sup 18/ calories.

  3. LWRS Fuels Pathway: Engineering Design and Fuels Pathway Initial Testing of the Hot Water Corrosion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. John Garnier; Dr. Kevin McHugh

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development R&D pathway performs strategic research focused on cladding designs leading to improved reactor core economics and safety margins. The research performed is to demonstrate the nuclear fuel technology advancements while satisfying safety and regulatory limits. These goals are met through rigorous testing and analysis. The nuclear fuel technology developed will assist in moving existing nuclear fuel technology to an improved level that would not be practical by industry acting independently. Strategic mission goals are to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental nuclear fuel and cladding performance in nuclear power plants, and to apply this information in the development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels. These will result in improved safety, cladding, integrity, and nuclear fuel cycle economics. To achieve these goals various methods for non-irradiated characterization testing of advanced cladding systems are needed. One such new test system is the Hot Water Corrosion System (HWCS) designed to develop new data for cladding performance assessment and material behavior under simulated off-normal reactor conditions. The HWCS is capable of exposing prototype rodlets to heated, high velocity water at elevated pressure for long periods of time (days, weeks, months). Water chemistry (dissolved oxygen, conductivity and pH) is continuously monitored. In addition, internal rodlet heaters inserted into cladding tubes are used to evaluate repeated thermal stressing and heat transfer characteristics of the prototype rodlets. In summary, the HWCS provides rapid ex-reactor evaluation of cladding designs in normal (flowing hot water) and off-normal (induced cladding stress), enabling engineering and manufacturing improvements to cladding designs before initiation of the more expensive and time consuming in-reactor irradiation testing.

  4. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Thomas P.; He, Hongbo; Menicucci, David F.; Mammoli, Andrea A.; Burch, Jay

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  5. Pattern of shallow ground water flow at Mount Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mt. Princeton hot water production (4.3-4.9)103m3day at approximately 60-86C). A temperature map indicates that a third upwelling zone termed U4 may exist at the southern...

  6. Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mt. Princeton hot water production (4.3-4.9) 103 m3day at approximately 60-86C). A temperature map indicates that a third upwelling zone termed U4 may exist at the southern...

  7. Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  8. Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems I. Fluid...

  9. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research that is improving domestic hot water modeling capabilities to more effectively address one of the largest energy uses in residential buildings.

  10. Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America research that is improving domestic hot water modeling capabilities to more effectively address one of the largest energy uses in residential buildings.

  11. Geochemistry of Thermal Waters in Long Valley, Mono County, California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Valley, California, issue sodium bicarbonate-chloride waters containing 1000-1420 mgl of dissolved solids. Thermal waters of sodium bicarbonate-chloride composition are...

  12. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional ...

  13. Thermal-shock behavior of advanced ceramic/composite hot-gas filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.P.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W.

    1997-02-01

    The thermal shock/fatigue behavior of monolithic and composite hot-gas candle filters obtained from various manufacturers was evaluated. The composite filters were made of both oxide and nonoxide materials; the monolithic filters were made only of nonoxide materials. During single-cycle thermal shock tests, composite filters show little or no strength degradation when quenched from temperatures between 900 and 1000{degrees}C. At higher quenching temperatures, slow strength degradation was observed. Regular monolithic SiC filters showed no strength degradation when quenched from temperatures up to {approx}700-900{degrees}C, whereas at higher quenching temperatures, the strength decreased at a relatively sharper rate. On the other hand, recrystallized monolithic SiC filters showed higher initial strength and retained this strength to higher quenching temperatures when compared with regular SiC filters. This finding may be related to the difference in the strength of grain boundary phases in the two filters. For thermal cycles between room temperature and 800-1000{degrees}C, composite filters show little (18-24%) strength degradation up to three cycles, beyond which the strength remains unchanged. Similar behavior, with an initial strength drop of 15-28%, was observed for monolithic filter specimens that were thermally cycled between room temperature and 800{degrees}C.

  14. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  15. Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-flow fixtures and showerheads can achieve water savings of 25%60%. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoDaveBolton. Low-flow fixtures and showerheads can achieve water...

  16. Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation is from the Building America research team BA-PIRC webinar on September 30, 2011 providing informationprovide information about how to achieve energy savings from solar water heating, electric dedicated heat pump water heating, and gas tankless systems.

  17. Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    #EnergyFaceoff Round 4? | Department of Energy Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in #EnergyFaceoff Round 4? Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in #EnergyFaceoff Round 4? November 24, 2014 - 9:38am Q&A Which appliance do you think is more efficient? Tell Us Addthis Microwave or electric kettle, which appliance should win the honor of heating your water? | Graphic by Stacy Buchanan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Microwave or

  18. New Infographic and Projects to Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Infographic and Projects to Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water New Infographic and Projects to Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water April 19, 2013 - 3:21pm Addthis New Energy Saver 101 infographic lays out the different types of water heaters on the market and will help you figure out how to select the best model for your home. Download a high-resolution version of the <a href="/node/612506">infographic</a>. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity.

  19. Ocala Utility Services- Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Water Heater Rebate Program is offered to residential retail electric customers by the City of Ocala Utility Services. Interested customers must complete an application and receive...

  20. Sacramento Ordinance to Waive Fees for Solar Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An ordinance suspending for the calendar years 2007-2009 all fees related to installations of solar water heaters on existing residences.

  1. Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tell Us Addthis Microwave or electric kettle, which appliance should win the honor of heating your water? | Graphic by Stacy Buchanan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory ...

  2. FEMP Solar Hot Water Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Calculator AgencyCompany Organization: Federal Energy Management Program Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings Phase: Determine Baseline Topics: Baseline projection...

  3. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy PDF icon solar_thermal_transcript.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics

  4. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II-- How to Get it Right Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right, presented in January2014.

  5. Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain December 9, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis John Lippert Do you look at your retirement savings statements and feel like you're sending your money down the drain? Do you deposit more money each paycheck into your retirement account, but find the balance goes down, not up? Pssst, want to invest in a "sure thing?" No, this isn't a scam. It's a device that has no moving parts to break down, but

  6. Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    with shut-off valves that allow you to stop the flow of water without affecting the temperature. When replacing an aerator, bring the one you're replacing to the store with you to...

  7. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring more of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are ...

  8. Compliance testing of hot-water and steam boilers, Shaw Afb, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    At the request of HQ TAC/DEEV, personnel of the USAFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source testing of eighteen small hot water and steam boilers to determine stack-gas moisture content and velocity. The data obtained during the survey was necessary for boiler operating application.

  9. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  10. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  11. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  12. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  13. Demonstration of μCHP in Light Commercial Hot Water Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration of μCHP in Light Commercial Hot Water !pplications 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kris L. Jorgensen, kjorgensen@aosmith.com A. O. Smith Corporation Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2014 Planned end date: September 30, 2017 Key Milestones: 1. T2M Plan - draft: 02/28/15 2. Identification of Potential Sites: 03/31/15 3. EPA Certification: 09/30/15 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $45,241 Total future DOE $: $629,759 Target Market/Audience: Domestic Hot

  14. Low rank coal upgrading in a flow of hot water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masato Morimoto; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Kouichi Miura

    2009-09-15

    Simultaneous hydrothermal degradation and extraction at around 350{sup o}C using flowing solvent as a reaction/extraction medium were proposed for upgrading brown coal, more specifically, for converting brown coal into several fractions having different molecular weight and chemical structure under mild conditions. When an Australian brown coal, Loy Yang coal, was treated by water at 350{sup o}C under 18 MPa, the coal was separated into four fractions: gaseous product by 8% yield, water-soluble extract at room temperature (soluble) by 23% yield, extract precipitates as solid at room temperature (deposit) by 23% yield, and residual coal (upgraded coal) by 46% yield on daf basis. The separation was found to be realized by in situ extraction of low-molecular-weight substances released from coal macromolecular structure and/or those generated by hydrothermal decomposition reactions at 350{sup o}C. The solid products obtained, deposit and upgraded coal, were characterized in detail to examine the possibility of their effective utilization as solid fuel and chemical feed stock. The upgraded coal showed higher heating value and higher gasification reactivity than the parent coal, indicating that the upgraded coal can be a better solid fuel than the parent coal. The solid extract, deposit, was found to show thermoplasticity at less than 200{sup o}C, suggesting the possibility of utilizing the deposit as a raw material of high performance carbon materials. Several variables affecting the performance of the proposed method are also examined in detail in this paper. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    12 MGMT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; ABSORPTION HEAT; CARBON; COMBUSTORS; GAS FLOW; HEATERS; HEATING; HOT SPOTS; IMPLEMENTATION; MERCURY;...

  16. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  17. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  18. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist (Encouraged) DOE Zero Energy Ready Home National Program encourages, but does not require, consideration of this checklist. Although the checklist is always encouraged, the following three conditions could be considered when deciding on using the checklist. Where all three conditions of the following conditions are met DOE encourages use of this checklist: 1. Location, based on zip code has at least 5 kWh/m 2 /day average daily solar

  19. Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

  20. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  1. Colorado thermal spring water geothermometry (public dataset...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    chemical geothermometers for Colorado thermal springs. Data citations include Barrett, J. K. and Pearl, R. H. (1976), George, R. D., Curtis, H. A., Lester, O. C., Crook, J. K.,...

  2. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  3. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  4. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Temperature programmed desorption/decomposition (TPD) were performed on PBX-9502 after 3 hours of vacuum pump. TPD data were analyzed by the technique of isoconversional analysis to obtain outgassing kinetics and moisture content of PBX-9502 powder as well as to

  5. Housing standards: change to HUD 4930. 2 Intermediate Minimum Property Standard (IMPS) supplement for solar heating and domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-17

    This rule is made to provide an updating, clarification, and improvement of requirements contained in HUD Handbook 4930.2, Intermediate Minimum Property Standards (IMPS) Supplement concerning solar heating and domestic hot water systems. Changes pertain to fire protection, penetration, roof covering, conditions of use, thermal stability, rain resistance, ultraviolet stability, and compatibility with transfer medium. Additional changes cover applicable standards, labeling, flash point, chemical and physical commpatibility, flame spread classification, lightening protection, and parts of a solar energy system. Altogether, there are over 50 changes, some of which apply to tables and worksheets. Footnotes are included.

  6. U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Case study overview of integrated solar hot water/photovoltaic systems at the U.S. Marine Corps Camp Pendleton training pools.

  7. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 281 Solar Hot Water Application Assessment for U.S. Army IMCOM-Southeast Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Chvala, William D.

    2010-09-30

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires installations (EISA) to install solar systems of sufficient capacity to provide 30% of service hot water in new construction and renovations where cost-effective. However, installations are struggling with how to implement solar hot water, and while several installations are installing solar hot water on a limited basis, paybacks remain long. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to address this issue to help determine how best to implement solar hot water projects. This documents discusses the results of that project.

  8. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  9. Revisions included in HUD Intermediate Minimum Property Standards Supplement 4930. 2, 1977 edition: solar heating and domestic hot-water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This addendum to a 1977 HUD publication contains revisions and additions to the existing intermediate minimum property standards supplment for solar heating and cooling systems. Building design revisions cover fire protection, penetrations, and roof coverings. Changes to guidelines for materials, such as those for thermal and ultraviolet stability and moisture resistance, are detailed. Flash points of toxic and combustive fluids, chemical and physical compatibility, and flame spread and resistance of insulation materials are also explained. Construction standards were revised for hail loads; waterproofing insulated exterior storage containers, pipes, and ducts; and for passive systems. Standards also were revised for power-operated protection, dust and dirt prevention, and chimney and vent heights. Radiation temperature, draft control, and thermal energy storage and loss standards were deleted. Other standards for insulation values for thermal devices, lighting protection, and sealing and testing air distribution systems were added. Appended materials contain revisions to calculation procedures for determining the thermal performance of active, solar space heating, and domestic hot water systems. A revised materials list for properties of typical cover materials, absorptive coatings, thermal storage unit containers, and heat-transfer liquids is provided. Revisions to acceptable engineering practice standards are also included.

  10. Feasibility Study for Photovoltaics, Wind, solar Hot Water and Hybrid Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooks, Ronald; Montoya, Valerie

    2008-03-26

    Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) located in Albuquerque New Mexico is a community college that serves American Indians and Alaska Natives. SIPIs student body represents over 100 Native American Tribes. SIPI completed a renewable energy feasibility study program and established renewable energy hardware on the SIPI campus, which supplements and creates an educational resource to teach renewable energy courses. The SIPI campus is located, and has as student origins, areas, in which power is an issue in remote reservations. The following hardware was installed and integrated into the campus facilities: small wind turbine, large photovoltaic array that is grid-connected, two photovoltaic arrays, one thin film type, and one polycrystalline type, one dual-axis active tracker and one passive tracker, a hot air system for heating a small building, a portable hybrid photovoltaic system for remote power, and a hot water system to preheat water used in the SIPI Child Care facility. Educational curriculum has been developed for two renewable energy courses one being the study of energy production and use, and especially the roles renewable energy forms like solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass plays, and the second course being a more advanced in-depth study of renewable energy system design, maintenance, installation, and applications. Both courses rely heavily on experiential learning techniques so that installed renewable energy hardware is continuously utilized in hand-on laboratory activities and are part of the Electronics program of studies. Renewable energy technologies and science has also been included in other SIPI programs of study such as Environmental Science, Natural Resources, Agriculture, Engineering, Network Management, and Geospatial Technology.

  11. Assembly and comparison of available solar hot water system reliability databases and information.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2009-05-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed commercially for over 30 years, yet few quantitative details are known about their reliability. This report describes a comprehensive analysis of all of the known major previous research and data regarding the reliability of SHW systems and components. Some important conclusions emerged. First, based on a detailed inspection of ten-year-old systems in Florida, about half of active systems can be expected to fail within a ten-year period. Second, valves were identified as the probable cause of a majority of active SHW failures. Third, passive integral and thermosiphon SHW systems have much lower failure rates than active ones, probably due to their simple design that employs few mechanical parts. Fourth, it is probable that the existing data about reliability do not reveal the full extent of fielded system failures because most of the data were based on trouble calls. Often an SHW system owner is not aware of a failure because the backup system silently continues to produce hot water. Thus, a repair event may not be generated in a timely manner, if at all. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent details about this study, including the source of the data, the techniques to assure their quality before analysis, the organization of the data into perhaps the most comprehensive reliability database in existence, a detailed statistical analysis, and a list of recommendations for additional critical work. Important recommendations include the inclusion of an alarm on SHW systems to identify a failed system, the need for a scientifically designed study to collect high-quality reliability data that will lead to design improvements and lower costs, and accelerated testing of components that are identified as highly problematic.

  12. Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

  13. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  15. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  16. Thermal and Non-thermal Physiochemical Processes in Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. Scott; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2012-01-17

    Amorphous solid water (ASW) is a metastable form of water created by vapor deposition onto a cold substrate (typically less than 130 K). Since this unusual form of water only exists on earth in laboratories with highly specialized equipment, it is fair to ask why there is any interest in studying this esoteric material. Much of the scientific interest involves using ASW as a model system to explore the physical and reactive properties of liquid water and aqueous solutions. Other researchers are interested in ASW because it is believed to be the predominate form of water in the extreme cold temperatures found in many astrophysical and planetary environments. In addition, ASW is a convenient model system for studying the stability of metastable systems (glasses) and the properties of highly porous materials. A fundamental understanding of such properties has applications in a diverse range of disciplines including cryobiology, food science, pharmaceuticals, astrophysics and nuclear waste storage among others.There exist several excellent reviews on the properties of ASW and supercooled liquid water and a new comprehensive review is beyond the scope of this Account. Instead, we focus on our research over the past 15 years using molecular beams and surface science techniques to probe the thermal and non thermal properties of nanoscale films of ASW. We use molecular beams to precisely control the deposition conditions (flux, incident, energy, incident angle) to create compositionally-tailored, nanoscale films of ASW at low temperatures. To study the transport properties (viscosity, diffusivity), the amorphous films can be heated above their glass transition temperatures, Tg, at which time they transform into deeply supercooled liquids prior to crystallization. The advantage of this approach is that at temperatures near Tg the viscosity is approximately 15 orders of magnitude larger than a normal liquid, and therefore the crystallization kinetics are dramatically slowed, increasing the time available for experiments. For example, near Tg, on a typical laboratory time scale (e.g. {approx}1000 s), a water molecule moves less than a molecular distance. For this reason, nanoscale films help to probe the behavior and reactions of supercooled liquid at these low temperatures. ASW films can be used for investigating the non-thermal reactions relevant to radiolysis. In this account we will present a survey of our research on the thermal and non thermal properties of ASW using this approach.

  17. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  18. Thermal performance of a full-scale stratified chilled-water thermal storage tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahnfleth, W.P.; Musser, A.

    1998-12-31

    The thermal performance of a full-scale 1.47 million gallon (5300 m{sup 3}), 44.5 ft (13.6 m) water-depth, naturally stratified chilled-water thermal storage tank with radial diffusers is analyzed. Controlled, constant inlet flow rate tests covering the full range of the system have been performed for both charge and discharge processes. Thermal performance for these half-cycle tests is quantified using performance metrics similar to the figure of merit (FOM). Lost capacity, a new measure of performance with practical significance, is also presented. Uncertainty analysis shows that under some circumstances, particularly for tall tanks, lost capacity allows thermal performance to be quantified with less experimental uncertainty than FOM. Results of these tests indicate that discharge cycles performance is not as good as charge cycle performance at the same flow rate. However, the half-cycle figure of merit for all cycles tested was in excess of 90%, despite the fact that the inlet Reynolds number exceeded that recommended in the literature by up to a factor of five.

  19. Energy use and domestic hot water consumption - Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, F.S.

    1994-11-01

    New York State Energy Research & Development Authority has sponsored a project to develop comprehensive operating data on combined domestic hot water (DHW) and heating systems to be used in system design and specifications. The new, more precise DHW flow data (broken down on a per capita basis) result in a better foundation for sizing decisions. Thirty New York City multifamily buildings with combined steam heating and DHW plants were instrumented to monitor apartment, outdoor, boiler and DHW temperatures, and burner on-off times. In nine buildings, which had been upgraded, additional data collected were: stack temperature, DHW flow in 15-minute increments, oil and boiler make-up water flows, and DHW temperature before and after the mixing valve and on the return line. The data set collected for 14 months amounts to a data base of over 110 megabytes. This report presents DHW demand patterns, seasonal variations, weekday vs. weekend consumption, consumption vs. occupancy levels, coincidence of 15-, 60-, 120-, and 180- minute demand periods, and average vs. peak demand levels, as well as figures for energy to generate DHW. The format of guidelines presented in this report differs from those currently in use. The {open_quotes}Low - Medium - High{close_quotes} (LMH) users set of guidelines provide a range, rather than a specific, singular gallonage standard. By providing LMH tables and guidelines for their application the design engineer or contractor can then use these as a tool from which to select the appropriate level that matches the site being served. Values are presented for both New York sizing guidelines (developed from this study), as well as a set of {open_quote}National{close_quote} figures (derived from a compilation of studies conducted in other cities). The LMH approach and {open_quote}National{close_quote} guidelines were adopted for inclusion in the 1995 ASHRAE Handbook revision.

  20. INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2001-09-01

    As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to set. The system then returned to operation as before the test with no major change in the fieldwide injection. The injection and production rates for the field were monitored for approximately one year to give the production side of the system time to stabilize. The polymer treatment conducted on the injection wells in Hawk Point is believed to be the largest treatment of a hot, deep reservoir to date. These injection well treatments did produce some change in the injection profile of the injection wells. However, it is very disappointing that there was no significant improvement in the performance of the field. There was no noticeable reduction in the water production, the water-oil ratio (WOR), or an increase in oil production. The cosponsor has determined that the field is currently at its economic limit because of the high cost of this deep operation and the continual downhole problems. A restructuring of the injection-production pattern is presently being done to prolong the life of the field.

  1. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warneford, Emma S. Dellar, Paul J.

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune explains the transition from a prograde to a retrograde equatorial jet, while the broader jets are due to the deformation radius being a larger fraction of the planetary radius.

  2. Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

  3. Report on the analysis of field data relating to the reliability of solar hot water systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2011-07-01

    Utilities are overseeing the installations of thousand of solar hot water (SHW) systems. Utility planners have begun to ask for quantitative measures of the expected lifetimes of these systems so that they can properly forecast their loads. This report, which augments a 2009 reliability analysis effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), addresses this need. Additional reliability data have been collected, added to the existing database, and analyzed. The results are presented. Additionally, formal reliability theory is described, including the bathtub curve, which is the most common model to characterize the lifetime reliability character of systems, and for predicting failures in the field. Reliability theory is used to assess the SNL reliability database. This assessment shows that the database is heavily weighted with data that describe the reliability of SHW systems early in their lives, during the warranty period. But it contains few measured data to describe the ends of SHW systems lives. End-of-life data are the most critical ones to define sufficiently the reliability of SHW systems in order to answer the questions that the utilities pose. Several ideas are presented for collecting the required data, including photometric analysis of aerial photographs of installed collectors, statistical and neural network analysis of energy bills from solar homes, and the development of simple algorithms to allow conventional SHW controllers to announce system failures and record the details of the event, similar to how aircraft black box recorders perform. Some information is also presented about public expectations for the longevity of a SHW system, information that is useful in developing reliability goals.

  4. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  5. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  6. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  7. Production of desalinated water using ocean thermal energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) desalination plant that consists of a multistage flash evaporator (MSF), a closed-cycle OTEC power plant, and an appropriate seawater system depending if the desalination plant is land based or floating. OTEC desalination plants of this type are preferred because the production of desalinated water far exceeds that obtained from other OTEC plant types employing the same size seawater system. The focus of the paper is on the multistage flash evaporator. The similarities and differences between conventional MSF and OTEC multistage flash evaporators (OTEC-MSF) are first described. Then the details of the OTEC-MSF evaporator design are discussed and preliminary correlations are recommended for the three major elements: the flash chamber, the moisture removal device, and the condenser. Recent advances such as enhanced condenser tubes, condensers of the compact type, and corrugated-plate moisture separators are introduced into the design. Comparisons of the water production capability, evaporator shell volume, and material cost are then presented for state-of-the-art and the new design concepts. 20 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TECHNOLOGIES (Other) | SciTech Connect Other: POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES Commercial scale oil shale and oil sands development will require water, the amount of which will depend on the technologies adopted and the scale of development that occurs. Water in oil shale and oil sands country is already in

  9. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  10. Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System May 27, 2010 - 11:46am Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs A floating platform, simple turbine and tropical oceans could be the key to producing 30 percent or more of the total energy the world consumes today, according to Lockheed Martin. The technology in play: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Lockheed Martin

  11. CenterPoint Energy (Gas)- Residential Heating and Hot Water Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CenterPoint Energy offers gas heating and water heating equipment rebates to its residential customers. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, back-up furnace systems, hydronic heaters, storage...

  12. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza; Petrov, Andrei Y; Linkous, Randall Lee; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2007-01-01

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

  13. Building America Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home and the Challenge of Hot Water on Demand, Denver, Colorado (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Zero Energy Ready Home and the Challenge of Hot Water on Demand Denver, Colorado SAMPLE HOME STATISTICS Construction: New production-built home Type: Single-family, detached Location: Stapleton Community, Denver, CO Stories: 2 Bedrooms: 5 Bathrooms: 3 Size: 2,330 ft 2 Year Completed: 2014 Building America Partner: IBACOS Inc., ibacos.com SAMPLE HOT WATER DELIVERY SYSTEM Piping material: Cross-linked polyethylene Hot water fixtures: 13 Farthest fixture first draw facts: * Pipe length: 90 ft *

  14. Apparatus and method for pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in coal derived, water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Carl D.

    1983-03-29

    An apparatus for and method of pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in a coal derived, water immiscible liquid to higher pressure involves the use of a motive fluid which is miscible with the liquid of the slurry. The apparatus includes a pump 12, a remote check valve 14 and a chamber 16 between and in fluid communication with the pump 12 and check valve 14 through conduits 18,20. Pump 12 exerts pressure on the motive fluid and thereby on the slurry through a concentration gradient of coal solids within chamber 16 to alternately discharge slurry under pressure from the outlet port of check valve 14 and draw slurry in through the inlet port of check valve 14.

  15. Chemistry Of Thermal And Nonthermal Springs In The Vicinity Of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    depths. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley have neutral-pH, low-Cl concentrations and have estimated Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometer temperatures...

  16. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  17. Thermal Waters Along The Konocti Bay Fault Zone, Lake County...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the diluted spring waters suggest that the diluting water is old. Authors J. M. Thompson, R. H. Mariner, L. D. White, T. S. Presser and W. C. Evans Published Journal Journal...

  18. Instrument Qualification of Custom Fabricated Water Activity Meter for Hot Cell Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoskey, Jacob K.

    2014-01-22

    This report describes a custom fabricated water activity meter and the results of the qualification of this meter as described in the laboratory test plan LAB-PLN-11-00012, Testing and Validation of an Enhanced Acquisition and Control System. It was calibrated against several NaOH solutions of varying concentrations to quantify the accuracy and precision of the instrument at 20 C and 60 C. Also, a schematic and parts list of the equipment used to make the water activity meter will be presented in this report.

  19. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  20. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  1. Hot Springs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of hot water, heated by geothermal processes in the subsurface, and typically having a temperature greater than 37C. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal...

  2. HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Intermediate Minimum Property Standards Supplement 4930. 2 (1989 edition). Solar heating and domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1 were developed to provide a sound technical basis for housing under numerous programs of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). These Intermediate Minimum Property Standards for Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems are intended to provide a companion technical basis for the planning and design of solar heating and domestic hot water systems. These standards have been prepared as a supplement to the Minimum Property Standards (MPS) and deal only with aspects of planning and design that are different from conventional housing by reason of the solar systems under consideration. The document contains requirements and standards applicable to one- and two-family dwellings, multifamily housing, and nursing homes and intermediate care facilities references made in the text to the MPS refer to the same section in the Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1.

  3. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongbo; Vorobieff, Peter V.; Menicucci, David; Mammoli, Andrea A.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

  4. Experimental and computational results on exciton/free-carrier ratio, hot/thermalized carrier diffusion, and linear/nonlinear rate constants affecting scintillator proportionality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Richard; Grim, Joel; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Tupitsyn, Eugene; Rowe, Emmanuel; Buliga, Vladimir M.; Burger, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ?eh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This paper describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.

  5. GROUND-BASED DETECTIONS OF THERMAL EMISSION FROM THE DENSE HOT JUPITER WASP-43b IN THE H AND K{sub s} BANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Zhao, G.; Van Boekel, R.; Henning, Th.; Madhusudhan, N.; Chen, G.

    2013-06-10

    We report new detections of thermal emission from the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-43b in the H and K{sub s} bands as observed at secondary eclipses. The observations were made with the WIRCam instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We obtained a secondary eclipse depth of 0.103{sub -0.017}{sup +0.017}%$ and 0.194{sub -0.029}{sup +0.029} in the H and K{sub s} bands, respectively. The K{sub s}-band depth is consistent with the previous measurement in the narrow band centered at 2.09 {mu}m by Gillon et al. Our eclipse depths in both bands are consistent with a blackbody spectrum with a temperature of {approx}1850 K, slightly higher than the dayside equilibrium temperature without day-night energy redistribution. Based on theoretical models of the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b, our data constrain the day-night energy redistribution in the planet to be {approx}< 15%-25%, depending on the metal content in the atmosphere. Combined with energy balance arguments, our data suggest that a strong temperature inversion is unlikely in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. However, a weak inversion cannot be strictly ruled out at the current time. Future observations are required to place detailed constraints on the chemical composition of the atmosphere.

  6. Experience with thermal storage in tanks of stratified water for solar heating and load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildin, M.W.; Witkofsky, M.P.; Noble, J.M.; Hopper, R.E.; Stromberg, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results have been obtained for performance of stratified tanks of water used to store heating and cooling capacity in a 5574 m/sup 2/ university building. The major sources of energy used to charge the heated tanks were solar energy, obtained via collectors on the roof of the building, and excess heat recovered from the interior of the building via thermal storage and electric-driven heat pump/chillers. Through stratification of the water in the storage tanks and an appropriate system operating strategy, 40 percent of the building's total heating needs were supplied by solar energy during the first four months of 1981. Month-long thermal efficiencies of the storage array ranging from 70 percent during the heating season to nearly 90 percent during the cooling season, were measured. Work is underway to improve the performance of thermal storage.

  7. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  8. Geothermal-resource assessment of the Steamboat-Routt Hot Springs area, Colorado. Resources Series 22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of the Steamboat Springs region in northwest Colorado was initiated and carried out in 1980 and 1981. The goal of this program was to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of the thermal waters (temperatures in excess of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C)) in this area at Steamboat Springs and 8 miles (12.8 km) north at Routt Hot Springs. Thermal waters from Heart Spring, the only developed thermal water source in the study area, are used in the municipal swimming pool in Steamboat Springs. The assessment program was a fully integrated program consisting of: dipole-dipole, Audio-magnetotelluric, telluric, self potential and gravity geophysical surveys, soil mercury and soil helium geochemical surveys; shallow temperature measurements; and prepartion of geological maps. The investigation showed that all the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. Based on the chemical composition of the thermal waters it appears that Heart Spring in Steamboat Springs is hydrologically related to the Routt Hot Springs. This relationship was further confirmed when it was reported that thermal waters were encountered during the construction of the new high school in Strawberry Park on the north side of Steamboat Springs. In addition, residents stated that Strawberry Park appears to be warmer than the surrounding country side. Geological mapping has determined that a major fault extends from the Routt Hot Springs area into Strawberry Park.

  9. Development of a Solar-Thermal ZnO/Zn Water-Splitting Thermochemical Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development of a Solar-thermal ZnO/Zn Water-splitting Thermochemical Cycle Final Report (DE-PS36-03GO93007 - Subcontract RF-05-SHGR-006) Alan W. Weimer (PI), Christopher Perkins, Paul Lichty, Hans Funke, Jeremy Zartman, and David Hirsch Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0424 Carl Bingham and Allan Lewandowski National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, CO 80401-3393 Sophia Haussener and Aldo Steinfeld Department of

  10. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of primary energy saving than conventional systems fed by vapour compression chillers and coupled with PV cells. All SAC systems present good figures for primary energy consumption. The best performances are seen in systems with integrated heat pumps and small solar collector areas. The economics of these SAC systems at current equipment costs and energy prices are acceptable. They become more interesting in the case of public incentives of up to 30% of the investment cost (Simple Payback Time from 5 to 10 years) and doubled energy prices. (author)

  11. Influence of mobile ion concentrations on the chemical composition of geothermal waters in granitic areas; Example of hot springs form Piemonte Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michard, G.; Grimaud, D. ); D'Amore, F.; Fancelli, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The six hot springs from Vinadio and the springs from Valdieri (Piemonte, Italy) have similar emergence temperatures ({approximately}50{degrees} C), similar deep temperatures ({approximately}115{degrees} C) and their chloride content varies from 0.9 to 30 mmol/kg. Major elements and some trace elements concentrations (Li, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, Mn) correlate closely with Na concentrations. The correlations in a log-log diagram are linear with a slope close to the electric charge of the ion. This is explained, for major elements, by an equilibrium between a complete assemblage of minerals and a water containing varying amounts of chloride. It is suggested, from the Cl/Br ratio, that chloride originates by halite dissolution during the descent of the water.

  12. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate Windermere, Florida Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more read- ily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. A key feature of an HPWH unit is that it is a hybrid system. When conditions are favorable, the unit will operate in heat pump mode (using a vapor compression system that extracts heat from the surrounding air) to effciently provide domestic hot water (DHW). Homeowners need not

  13. Doug Hollett, Director Geothermal Technologies Office Hot Rocks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Maintain productivity with minimal thermal drawdown and water losses Hard... Maintain productivity with minimal thermal drawdown and water losses ...

  14. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  15. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-03-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  16. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Munne

    2006-07-19

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

  17. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  18. Geothermal resource assessment of Hot Sulphur Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 10 springs whose waters are used for recreation, steam baths and laundry purposes are located at Hot Sulphur Springs. Estimated heat-flow at Hot Sulphur Springs is approximately 100 mW/m2, which is about normal for western Colorado. Recent work tends to show that surface and reduced heat flow in the mountains of northern Colorado could be high. The thermal waters have an estimated discharge of 50 gpm, a temperature that ranges from 104/sup 0/F (40/sup 0/C) to a high of 111/sup 0/F (44/sup 0/C), and a total dissolved solid content of 1200 mg/l. The waters are a sodium bicarbonate type with a large concentration of sulphate. It is estimated that the most likely reservoir temperature of this system ranges from 167/sup 0/F (75/sup 0/F) to 302/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/C) and that the areal extent of the system could encompass 1.35 sq mi (3.50 sq km) and could contain 0.698 Q's (1015 B.T.U.'s) of heat energy. Soil mercury and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted. The geophysical survey delineated several areas of low resistivity associated with the north trending fault that passes just to the west of the spring area. It appears that this fault is saturated with thermal waters and may be the conduit along which the thermal waters are moving up from depth. The appendices to this report include tables showing water temperatures required for various industrial processes, as well as dissolved minerals, trace elements and radioactivity levels found in the thermal waters. Also presented are a complete description of the factors affecting the electrical resistivity measurements, a description of the electrical resistivity equipment used, and the resistivity field procedures. Electrical resistivity calculations are also included in the appendices.

  19. Performance of a drain-back solar heating and hot water system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaki, S.

    1984-03-01

    The principal objective of the project was to test and evaluate the BNL collectors in a space heating system. When the BNL collectors delaminated under stagnation conditions, they were replaced with the Chamberlain collectors which were previously used on solar house III, and tests were continued to evaluate performance of a drain-back system. Results leading to the following conclusions are discussed. (1) The Chamberlain collectors have deteriorated in performance compared to previous seasons. Where daily efficiency of 41% were attained in 1978 to 1979 and 1979 to 1980, efficiency was 37%. System efficiency of 29% compares to 30% in prior years. (2) Solar contribution to DHW heating is low, and is probably the result of the artificially imposed load profile and the low recovery rate of the double-wall heat exchanger. (3) System efficiency can be improved by reducing thermal losses from storage.

  20. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  1. Understanding the Role of Hot Isostatic Pressing Parameters on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    718 Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting In this project, Avure and ORNL evaluated the influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and thermal cycling as standalone post...

  2. Understanding the Role of Hot Isostatic Pressing Parameters on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. In this project, Avure and ORNL evaluated the influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and thermal cycling as standalone post...

  3. Analysis Of Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Airborne VisibleIR Image Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used to characterize hot spring deposits in the...

  4. Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-05

    The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture.

  5. Economic and environmental impacts of proposed changes to Clean Water Act thermal discharge requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper examines the economic and environmental impact to the power industry of limiting thermal mixing zones to 1000 feet and eliminating the Clean Water Act {section}316(a) variance. Power companies were asked what they would do if these two conditions were imposed. Most affected plants would retrofit cooling towers and some would retrofit diffusers. Assuming that all affected plants would proportionally follow the same options as the surveyed plants, the estimated capital cost of retrofitting cooling towers or diffusers at all affected plants exceeds $20 billion. Since both cooling towers and diffusers exert an energy penalty on a plant`s output, the power companies must generate additional power. The estimated cost of the additional power exceeds $10 billion over 20 years. Generation of the extra power would emit over 8 million tons per year of additional carbon dioxide. Operation of the new cooling towers would cause more than 1.5 million gallons per minute of additional evaporation.

  6. Consequences of proposed changes to Clean Water Act thermal discharge requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; Moses, D.O.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes three studies that examined the economic and environmental impact on the power industry of (1) limiting thermal mixing zones to 1,000 feet, and (2) eliminating the Clean Water Act (CWA) {section}316(1) variance. Both of these proposed changes were included in S. 1081, a 1991 Senate bill to reauthorize the CWA. The bill would not have provided for grandfathering plants already using the variance or mixing zones larger than 1000 feet. Each of the two changes to the existing thermal discharge requirements were independently evaluated. Power companies were asked what they would do if these two changes were imposed. Most plants affected by the proposed changes would retrofit cooling towers and some would retrofit diffusers. Assuming that all affected plants would proportionally follow the same options as the surveyed plants, the estimated capital cost of retrofitting cooling towers or diffusers at all affected plants ranges from $21.4 to 24.4 billion. Both cooling towers and diffusers exert a 1%-5.8% energy penalty on a plant`s output. Consequently, the power companies must generate additional power if they install those technologies. The estimated cost of the additional power ranges from $10 to 18.4 billion over 20 years. Generation of the extra power would emit over 8 million tons per year of additional carbon dioxide. Operation of the new cooling towers would cause more than 1.5 million gallons per minute of additional evaporation. Neither the restricted mixing zone size nor the elimination of the {section}316(1) variance was adopted into law. More recent proposed changes to the Clean Water Act have not included either of these provisions, but in the future, other Congresses might attempt to reintroduce these types of changes.

  7. Impact of zeolite aging in hot liquid water on activity for acid-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-08-19

    The catalytic performance of zeolite in aqueous medium depends on a multitude of factors, such as the concentration and distribution of active sites and framework integrity. Al Kedge extended Xray absorption fine structure and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopies in combination with DFT calculations are used to determine the distribution of tetrahedral Al sites both qualitatively and quantitatively for both parent and 48 h 160 C water treated HBEA catalysts. There is no evidence of Al coordination modification after aging in water. The distribution and concentration of Al Tsites, active centers for the dehydration of cyclohexanol, do not markedly impact the catalytic performance in water, because the Brnsted acidic protons are present in the form of hydrated hydronium ions and thus have very similar acid properties. The results suggest that all Brnsted acid sites are equally active in aqueous medium. The decrease of zeolite catalytic performance after water treatment is attributed to the reduced concentration of Brnsted acid sites. Increasing the stability of pore walls and decreasing the rate of SiOSi group hydrolysis may result in improved apparent zeolite catalytic performance in aqueous medium. Authors thank B. W. Arey (PNNL) for HIM measurements, T. Huthwelker for support during Al XAFS measurements at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland), J. Z. Hu and S. D. Burton (PNNL) for support during NMR experiments. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. MD acknowledges support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. HIM imaging and NMR experiments were performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract # DE-AC05-76RL0-1830

  8. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power. [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.; Genens, L.

    1990-01-01

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. This paper describes different OTEC plants that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor -- the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs were appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed -- 40-inch high-density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii. 30 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Near-field thermal radiative transfer and thermoacoustic effects from vapor plumes produced by pulsed CO{sub 2} laser ablation of bulk water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Lyon, Kevin; Allen, S. D.

    2006-12-15

    Submillimeter deep heating of bulk water by thermal radiation from ablative water plumes produced by a 10.6 {mu}m transversely excited atmospheric CO{sub 2} laser and the related acoustic generation has been studied using a contact time-resolved photoacoustic technique. Effective penetration depths of thermal radiation in water were measured as a function of incident laser fluence and the corresponding plume temperatures were estimated. The near-field thermal and thermoacoustic effects of thermal radiation in laser-ablated bulk water and their potential near-field implications are discussed.

  10. Method and apparatus for separation of heavy and tritiated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung W. (late of North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-thermal membrane process for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes from a fluid containing hydrogen isotopes, such as water and hydrogen gas. The process in accordance with the present invention provides counter-current cold and hot streams of the fluid separated with a thermally insulating and chemically transparent proton exchange membrane (PEM). The two streams exchange hydrogen isotopes through the membrane: the heavier isotopes migrate into the cold stream, while the lighter isotopes migrate into the hot stream. The heavy and light isotopes are continuously withdrawn from the cold and hot streams respectively.

  11. Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Jesse; McNutt, Peter; Lisell, Lars; Burch, Jay; Jones, Dennis; Heinicke, David

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

  12. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  13. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  14. Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Account Sectors, May 2003 | Department of Energy Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account Sectors, May 2003 Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account Sectors, May 2003 Potential distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States cover a broad spectrum of market segments, from nursing homes requiring a few hundred kilowatts (kW) of power and an economical hot water source

  15. High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the county is installing a solar thermal hot water system that will provide nearly 70 percent of the power required for heating 600,000 gallons of water for the jail annually.

  16. Solar Hot Water Contractor Licensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to obtain one of these specialty licenses, installers must meet the following criteria. The applicant for a Restricted Solar Mechanic license must provide the Arkansas Department of...

  17. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  18. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater measuring device mounted on the outside of a building wall. As improved thermal enclosures dramatically reduce heating and cooling loads, the water heating load continues to grow in importance. This Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing by IBACOS that shed light on

  19. Hot Plate Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hot Plate Station The hot plate station is comprised of four Prazitherm precision hot plates manufactured for resist processing. Each hot plate is sized 350mm x 350mm. They are flat and level, with temperature uniformity of +/- 0.5º. The maximum operating temperature is limited to 200ºC in order to maintain temperature inside the cleanroom. A hood located over the hot plate station ensures evaporated fumes are not released into the cleanroom environment. Each hot plate is controlled through

  20. Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Ten water samples were collected...

  1. Exploration Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Hot Creek Canyon where challenges such as topography, a wilderness study area, and wetlands issues will make further exploration time consuming and costly. Ten water samples...

  2. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Solar Hot Water. PDF ...

  3. Thermal neutron steady-state spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with various non-1/v absorbers of different concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Chandra, S.; Jha, R.C.; Tewari, S.P. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the thermal neutron scattering kernel that explicitly incorporates the presence of chemical binding energy and the collective oscillations in the dynamics of water, the steady-state thermal neutron spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with non-1/v absorbers, such as cadmium, samarium, erbium, and gadolinium, in various concentrations have been computed at 298 K. The calculated spectra are in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental spectra for realistic source terms.

  4. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even...

  5. Field-measured performance of four full-scale cylindrical stratified chilled-water thermal storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musser, A.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented for controlled flow rate tests in four full-scale cylindrical chilled-water storage tanks. The tanks range in volume from 1.15 to 5.18 million gallons (4.35 to 19.61 million liters) and have water depths of 40 to 65 ft (12.2 to 19.8 m). Water is introduced into and withdrawn from two of these tanks using radial parallel plate diffusers, while the remaining two tanks utilize octagonal slotted pipe diffuser designs. Thermal performance is quantified for full cycles in terms of Figure of Merit, for single charge and discharge processes as half-cycle Figure of Merit, and for incomplete charge and discharge processes as Lost Capacity. Results show that the thermal performance of all four tanks is excellent, with less than 4% of theoretical cooling capacity lost to inlet mixing and other degradation mechanisms for flow rates less than or equal to design. Based on these results, the appropriateness of current design guidance is discussed. Operational issues that affect implementation of controlled flow rate full-scale tests are also identified, and measurement issues are addressed.

  6. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austins thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  7. Quantification of ceramic preconverter hot vibration durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locker, R.J.; Sawyer, C.B.; Schad, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    The hot vibration durability of ceramic preconverters was examined in this study. Two preconverter designs were investigated. A Generation 1 design, utilizing 4,070 g/m{sup 2} intumescent mat, was examined at 900 C/75g. A Generation 2 design, possessing 6,200 g/m{sup 2} intumescent mat and insulated end cones, was evaluated at 1,050 C/75g. Three consecutive Generation 1 samples passed 900 C/75g exposures of 100 hours. Three Generation 2 preconverters tested at 1,050 C/75g similarly passed 100 hour exposures. The residual shear strength of each preconverter tested in hot vibration was measured to quantify durability. Hot push shear evaluations were performed to obtain the residual shear strength. Following 900 C/75g hot vibration exposures, the Generation 1 samples possessed an average residual shear strength of 450 kPa. Generation 2 samples, tested at 1,050 C/75g retained an average mat shear strength of 61 kPa. A minimum calculated shear strength of 15 kPa is required. An alternative thermal aging technique was applied to new sets of Generation 1 and 2 specimens. These samples did not experience mechanical vibration. Results of hot push shear measurements on these components indicated that the residual shear strengths were similar to those obtained for specimens exposed to hot vibration. These results indicated that the thermal conditions were the primary cause of Mat deterioration in hot vibration. The supplemental test methods investigated in this study represent an economical and quantitative alternative to hot vibration testing.

  8. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model was run for a 100 MW OTEC Plant consisting of four separate ducts, discharging a total combined flow rate of 420 m3/s of warm water and 320 m3/s of cold water in a mixed discharge at 70 meters deep. Each duct was assumed to have a discharge port diameter of 10.5m producing a downward discharge velocity of about 2.18 m/s. The natural system, as measured in the HOTS program, has an average concentration of 10-15 mgC/m3. To calibrate the biological model, we first ran the model with no OTEC plant and varied biological parameters until the simulated data was a good match to the HOTS observations. This modeling showed that phytoplankton concentration were patchy and highly dynamic. The patchiness was a good match with the data variability observed within the HOTS data sets. We then ran the model with simulated OTEC intake and discharge flows and associated nutrients. Directly under the OTEC plant, the near-field plume has an average terminal depth of 172 meters, with a volumetric dilution of 13:1. The average terminal plume temperature was 19.8oC. Nitrate concentrations are 1 to 2 umol/kg above ambient. The advecting plume then further dilutes to less than 1 umol/kg above ambient within a few kilometers downstream, while remaining at depth. Because this terminal near-field plume is well below the 1% light limited depths (~120m), no immediate biological utilization of the nutrients occurs. As the nitrate is advected and dispersed downstream, a fraction of the deep ocean nutrients (< 0.5 umol/kg perturbation) mix upward where they are utilized by the ambient phytoplankton population. This occurs approximately twenty-five kilometers downstream from the plant at 110 - 70 meters depth. For pico-phytoplankton, modeling results indicate that this nutrient perturbation causes a phytoplankton perturbation of approximately 1 mgC/m3 (~10% of average ambient concentrations) that covers an area 10x5 km in size at the 70 to 90m depth. Thus, the perturbations are well within the natural variability of the system, generally corresponding to a 10 to 15% increase above the average pico-phytoplankton biomass. This perturbation exhibits a meandering horizontal plume trajectory and spatial extent, but remains similar in magnitude (generally 1-2 mgC/m3). The diatom perturbations become more noticeable after three weeks of the simulation period, when the nearshore diatom population trends towards a greater concentration of 1 to 3 mgC/m3 . Relative to the background concentrations, this increased response is a fraction of the ambient, with perturbations remaining within fluctuations of the existing system. The perturbations were quantified by post-processing each time-step of model simulations without OTEC plants, with identical simulations that included OTEC plumes. Without this post processing, the 10-25% perturbations were obscured by the larger dynamic variations naturally caused by ocean circulation.

  9. First production of potable water by OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) and its potential applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, A.; Hillis, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment--the Heat and Mass Transfer Scoping Test Apparatus--was built to obtain design data for a larger test that will assess the technical feasibility of the open-cycle OTEC process. (The closed-cycle concept was successfully demonstrated in 1979.) The DOE-funded project is a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The apparatus was erected at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii and became operational in the summer of 1987. It is used by both ANL and SERI to conduct open-cycle OTEC experiments. After initial debugging, it produced 350 gallons per hour of potable water having a salinity of 86 ppM, one-fifth that of local tap water available at the test site. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Fractionation of soil gases by diffusion of water vapor, gravitational settling, and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.; Bender, M.L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States)] [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States); Keeling, R.F. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States)] [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States); Broecker, W.S. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Air sampled from the moist unsaturated zone in a sand dune exhibits depletion in the heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. We propose that the depletion is caused by a diffusive flux of water vapor out of the dune, which sweeps out the other gases, forcing them to diffuse back into the dune. The heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} diffuse back more slowly, resulting in a steady-state depletion of the heavy isotopesin the dune interior. We predict the effect`s magnitude with molecular diffusion theory and reproduce it in a laboratory simulation, finding good agreement between field, theory, and lab. The magnitude of the effect is governed by the ratio of the binary diffusivities against water vapor of a pair of gases, and increases {approximately} linearly with the difference between the water vapor mole fraction of the site and the advectively mixed reservoir with which it is in diffusive contact (in most cases the atmosphere). 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Todd M; Lichty, Paul R; Perkins, Christopher; Tucker, Melinda; Kreider, Peter B; Funke, Hans H; Lewandowski, A; Weimer, Alan W

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar-driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  12. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3? by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}?thermal QCD axions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons coupled to the standard model sector through the Higgs portal, and axions produced by modulus decay.

  13. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) CWP (Cold Water Pipe) Laboratory Test Program. Materials Project Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Fiberglass sandwich wall structures emerged as leading candidates for the OTEC cold water pipe because of their high strength to weight ratio, their flexibility in selecting directional properties, their resistance to electrochemical interaction, their ease of deployment and their relative low cost. A review of the literature established reasonable confidence that FRP laminates could meet the OTEC requirements; however, little information was available on the performance of core materials suitable for OTEC applications. Syntactic foam cores of various composition and density were developed and tested for mechanical properties and seawater absorption.

  14. Thermal unfolding of barstar and the properties of interfacial water around the unfolded forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Somedatta; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy, E-mail: sanjoy@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Molecular Modeling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur - 721302 (India)] [Molecular Modeling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur - 721302 (India)

    2013-12-21

    Identification of the intermediates along the folding-unfolding pathways and probing their interactions with surrounding solvent are two important but relatively unexplored issues in protein folding. In this work, we have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to study the thermal unfolding of barstar in aqueous solution from its folded native form at two different temperatures (400 K and 450 K). The calculations at 400 K reveal partial unfolding of two ?-helices (helix-1 and helix-2) and their interconnecting loop. At 450 K, on the other hand, the entire protein attains an expanded flexible conformation due to disruption of a large fraction of tertiary contacts and breaking of almost all the secondary structures. These two disordered structures obtained at such high temperatures are then studied around room temperature to probe their influence on the properties of surrounding solvent. It is found that though the unfolding of the protein in general leads to increasingly hydrated interface, but new structural motifs with locally dehydrated interface may also form during the structural transition. Additionally, independent of the conformational state of the protein, its influence on surrounding solvent has been found to be restricted to the first hydration layer.

  15. Process and apparatus for thermal enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrill, Jr., Charles E. (Billerica, MA); Smirlock, Martin E. (Brimfield, MA); Krepchin, Ira P. (Newton Upper Falls, MA)

    1984-06-26

    Thermal treatment apparatus for downhole deployment comprising a combustion stage with an elongated hot wall combustion zone for the substantially complete combustion of the fuel-air mixture and an ignition zone immediately upstream from the combustion zone in which a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and air at or below stoichiometric ratio is ignited; together with a water injection stage immediately downstream from the combustion zone through which essentially partuculate free high temperature combustion products flow from the combustion zone and into which water is sprayed. The resulting mixture of steam and combustion products is injected into an oil formation for enhancing the speed and effectiveness of reservoir response due to physical, chemical, and/or thermal stimulation interactions.

  16. Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valent, P.J.; Riggins, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high-quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep-penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor-resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35/degree/ and in water depths to 1300 m. 74 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  18. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  19. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  20. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep your energy bills out...

  1. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

    1999-05-11

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  2. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski (Wilmington, DE); Forsythe, George Daniel (Landenberg, PA); Domanski, Daniel Matthew (New Castle, DE); Chambers, Jeffrey Allen (Hockessin, DE); Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam (Boothwyn, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  3. Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop reactive tracer method for monitoring thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems.

  4. Hot Showers, Fresh Laundry, Clean Dishes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hot Showers, Fresh Laundry, Clean Dishes Hot Showers, Fresh Laundry, Clean Dishes March 5, 2013 - 11:17am Addthis The GE GeoSpring™ Electric Heat Pump Water Heater is readily integrated into new and existing home designs. Taking up the same footprint as a traditional 50-gallon tank water heater, the Electric Heat Pump Water Heater uses the existing water heater's plumbing and electrical connections. Credit: GE The GE GeoSpring(tm) Electric Heat Pump Water Heater is readily integrated into

  5. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  6. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water and alkaline pretreatment on cellulose accessible surface area and overall porosity of Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Sun, Qining; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-06-19

    Pretreatment is known to render biomass more reactive to cellulase by altering the chemical compositions as well as physical structures of biomass. Simons stain technique along with mercury porosimetry were applied on the acid, neutral, and alkaline pretreated materials to measure the accessible surface area of cellulose and pore size distribution of Populus. Results indicated that acid pretreatment is much more effective than water and alkaline pretreatment in terms of cellulose accessibility increase. Further investigation suggests that lignin does not dictate cellulose accessibility to the extent that hemicellulose does, but it does restrict xylan accessibility which in turn controls the access of cellulase to cellulose. The most interesting finding is that severe acid pretreatment significantly decreases the average pore size, i.e., 90% average size decrease could be observed after 60 min dilute acid pretreatment at 160 oC; however, the nano-pore space formed between coated microfibrils is increased after pretreatment, especially for the acid pretreatment, suggesting this particular type of biomass porosity is probably the most fundamental barrier to effective enzymatic hydrolysis.

  7. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water and alkaline pretreatment on cellulose accessible surface area and overall porosity of Populus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Sun, Qining; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-06-19

    Pretreatment is known to render biomass more reactive to cellulase by altering the chemical compositions as well as physical structures of biomass. Simons stain technique along with mercury porosimetry were applied on the acid, neutral, and alkaline pretreated materials to measure the accessible surface area of cellulose and pore size distribution of Populus. Results indicated that acid pretreatment is much more effective than water and alkaline pretreatment in terms of cellulose accessibility increase. Further investigation suggests that lignin does not dictate cellulose accessibility to the extent that hemicellulose does, but it does restrict xylan accessibility which in turn controls themore » access of cellulase to cellulose. The most interesting finding is that severe acid pretreatment significantly decreases the average pore size, i.e., 90% average size decrease could be observed after 60 min dilute acid pretreatment at 160 °C; moreover, the nano-pore space formed between coated microfibrils is increased after pretreatment, especially for the acid pretreatment, suggesting this particular type of biomass porosity is probably the most fundamental barrier to effective enzymatic hydrolysis.« less

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Erkan, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    while 5 wells reached depths of 600 - 1020 feet. References Kamil Erkan, Gwen Holdman, David Blackwell, Walter Benoit (2007) Thermal Characteristics of the Chena Hot Springs...

  9. Oxidation of coal-water slurry feed to hydrogasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Bernard S.

    1976-01-01

    An aqueous coal slurry is preheated, subjected to partial oxidation and vaporization by injection of high pressure oxygen and is introduced into a top section of a hydrogasifier in direct contact with hot methane-containing effluent gases where vaporization of the slurry is completed. The resulting solids are reacted in the hydrogasifier and the combined gases and vapors are withdrawn and subjected to purification and methanation to provide pipeline gas. The amount of oxygen injected into the slurry is controlled to provide the proper thermal balance whereby all of the water in the slurry can be evaporated in contact with the hot effluent gases from the hydrogasifier.

  10. Hot vibration durability of ceramic preconverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locker, R.J.; Schad, M.J.; Sawyer, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    The advent of thermally durable catalyst technologies has created the opportunity to move catalytic converters closer to the engine, providing a potential solution for cold start emissions. Close-coupled positioning exposes the converter to higher exhaust gas temperatures than experienced in underbody applications, permitting earlier catalyst light-off. The proximity of the converter to the engine will result in increased exposure to the vibrational energy created by combustion processes as well as intake and exhaust valve dynamics. This study investigated the thermo-mechanical challenges of mounting a ceramic substrate under severe conditions. In some instances ceramic substrates have been overlooked for application in the more demanding close-coupled environment. It will be shown that ceramic substrates mounted with standard intumescent mats survive under the most severe hot vibration testing conditions in the industry. Hot vibration testing is a very expensive activity. Therefore, testing a statistically significant sample population is not cost effective. Additional testing techniques were employed in this study to quantify hot vibration performance. These tests show promise in predicting hot vibration durability.

  11. Hot filament CVD of boron nitride films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    Using a hot filament (.apprxeq.1400.degree. C.) to activate borazine (B.sub.3 N.sub.3 H.sub.6) molecules for subsequent reaction with a direct line-of-sight substrate, transparent boron ntiride films as thick as 25,000 angstroms are grown for a substrate temperature as low as 100.degree. C. The minimum temperature is determined by radiative heating from the adjacent hot filament. The low temperature BN films show no indication of crystallinity with X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) show the films to have a B:N ratio of 0.97:1 with no other XPS detectable impurities above the 0.5% level. Both Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are characteristic of h-BN with small amounts of hydrogen detected as N-H and B-H bands in the IR spectrum. An important feature of this method is the separation and localization of the thermal activation step at the hot filament from the surface reaction and film growth steps at the substrate surface. This allows both higher temperature thermal activation and lower temperature film growth.

  12. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  13. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Charles R. (Scotia, NY); Gibson, Michael A. (Houston, TX); Knudsen, Christian W. (Houston, TX)

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  14. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  15. Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project January 23, 2008 - 4:37pm Addthis The first commercial attempt to create a commercial geothermal power plant using hot dry rock technology reached a crucial milestone on January 22, when a production well successfully reached its target depth. Hot dry rock technology was invented to draw energy from deep underground areas where geothermal heat is abundant, but no water exists to carry the

  16. Florida Sunshine -- Natural Source for Heating Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-05-01

    This brochure, part of the State Energy Program (SEP) Stellar Project series, describes a utility solar hot water program in Lakeland, Florida. It is the first such utility-run solar hot water program in the country.

  17. Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska PI-Gwen Holdmann Co-PI Anupma Prakash Co-PI Jo Mongrain University of Alaska Fairbanks Validation of Innovative Geothermal Technologies May 19, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Insert photo of your choice 2 | US DOE Geothermal Program eere.energy.gov * Timeline - Project Length (4/1/10-12/1/12) * Preliminary planning complete * Project Funding - Total Project Funding-$6,365,222* - DOE

  18. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  19. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Water Heating September 2, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo...

  20. Statistical properties of super-hot solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Amir; Krucker, Sm; Lin, R. P.

    2014-01-20

    We use Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy observations from ?6 to 100 keV to determine the statistical relationships between measured parameters (temperature, emission measure, etc.) of hot, thermal plasma in 37 intense (GOES M- and X-class) solar flares. The RHESSI data, most sensitive to the hottest flare plasmas, reveal a strong correlation between the maximum achieved temperature and the flare GOES class, such that 'super-hot' temperatures >30 MK are achieved almost exclusively by X-class events; the observed correlation differs significantly from that of GOES-derived temperatures, and from previous studies. A nearly ubiquitous association with high emission measures, electron densities, and instantaneous thermal energies suggests that super-hot plasmas are physically distinct from cooler, ?10-20 MK GOES plasmas, and that they require substantially greater energy input during the flare. High thermal energy densities suggest that super-hot flares require strong coronal magnetic fields, exceeding ?100 G, and that both the plasma ? and volume filling factor f cannot be much less than unity in the super-hot region.

  1. Commercial Solar Hot Water Financing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A variety of financing options will be available depending on the project, including power purchase agreements or energy service agreements. A third party will finance the construction, maintenan...

  2. CPS Energy- Solar Hot Water Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers will be responsible for choosing their own contractor from a list of installers registered with CPS Energy. Customers are also responsible for obtaining all applicable permissions and...

  3. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  4. Detachment Faulting & Geothermal Resources- Pearl Hot Spring, NV

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: Integration of new thermochronometric, structural and geological analyses, reflection and refraction seismic surveys and existing geophysical data into a 3-D Earth Model to elucidate the tectonic and 4-D thermal evolution of southern Clayton Valley and the Weepah Hills (Pearl Hot Spring geothermal play).

  5. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill after heating and cooling. There are

  6. Hot cell examination table

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaal, Peter S. (Monroeville, PA); Ebejer, Lino P. (Weston, MA); Kareis, James H. (Slickville, PA); Schlegel, Gary L. (McKeesport, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  7. Hot Summer | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hot Summer July 27, 2010 One might think that we should be into the lazy, hazy days of summer. In contrast, since the beginning of June we have experienced a heat wave, and I am not referring to the "typical" Virginia summer with 100 degrees Fahrenheit registering on the thermometer. On June 1, we made our strategic plan presentation to the Office of Science. June 3, we made our mid-year performance presentation to the local Thomas Jefferson Site Office. June 6-9, the users held their

  8. HBLED Hot Testing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HBLED Hot Testing 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Dr. Richard Solarz, richard.solarz@kla-tencor.com KLA-Tencor Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 9/20/12 Planned end date: Early 2015 (3 or 4 month ext. request planned) Key Milestones: 1. Initial maps of CIE variation vs phosphor and film temperature variations 7/18/2013 actual 9/19/2013 2. LED partner crosscheck 2/24/2014 actual 1/13/2013 3. Conceptual Design for high throughput tool 7/28/2014 Budget: $3,994,729 DOE, $4,626,422

  9. Development of Modeling Capabilities for the Analysis of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Michael Z. Podowski

    2009-04-16

    Develop an experimental and theoretical data base for heat transfer in tubes and channels cooled by water and CO2 at supercritical pressures.

  10. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  11. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  12. Hot Spot | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Tectonic Settings List of tectonic settings known to host modern geothermal systems: Extensional Tectonics Subduction Zone Rift Zone Hot Spot...

  13. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Water heating accounts for about 18% of your home's energy use. Reducing your hot water use, employing energy-saving strategies, and choosing an energy efficient

  14. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters (Redirected from - Solar Hot Water) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of...

  15. Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The most life-limiting structural component in light-water reactors (LWR) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) because replacement of the RPV is not considered a viable option at this time. LWR...

  16. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater ...

  17. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water | Department of Energy Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems - Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water This presentation will be delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar on January 21, 2015, by Jordan Dentz and Eric Ansanelli of the Levy Partnership. Central domestic hot water (CDHW) systems are

  18. Permeability, geochemical, and water quality tests in support of an aquifer thermal energy storage site in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, S.C.; Deutsch, W.J.; Mitchell, P.J.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the Underground Energy Storage Program's efforts to characterize physicochemical processes at DOE's ATES Field Test Facility (FTF) located on the University of Minnesota campus at St. Paul, Minnesota. Experimental efforts include: field tests at the St. Paul FTF to characterize fluid injectability and to evaluate the effectiveness of fluid-conditioning equipment, geochemical studies to investigate chemical reactions resulting from alterations to the aquifer's thermal regime, and laboratory tests on sandstone core from the site. Each experimental area is discussed and results obtained thus far are reported. 23 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  20. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

  1. Georgia-Pacific Palatka Plant Uses Thermal Pinch Analysis and Evaluates Water Reduction in Plant-Wide Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-12-01

    This OIT BestPractices Case Study describes the methods and results used in a plant-wide assessment at a Georgia-Pacific paper mill in Palatka, FL. Assessment personnel recommended several projects, which, if implemented, have the potential to save the plant more than 729,000 MMBtu per year and $2.9 million per year. In addition, the plant could reduce water use by 2,100 gallons per minute.

  2. Hot Springs Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Springs Wind Farm Facility Hot Springs Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Idaho...

  3. Surprise Valley water geochmical data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicolas Spycher

    2015-04-13

    Chemical analyses of thermal and cold ground waters from Surprise Valley, compiled from publicly available sources.

  4. Surprise Valley water geochmical data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicolas Spycher

    Chemical analyses of thermal and cold ground waters from Surprise Valley, compiled from publicly available sources.

  5. District cooling gets hot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

  6. The decay of hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs.

  7. Method and Apparatus for separation of heavy and tritiated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Myung, W.

    2000-02-28

    An object of the present invention is to provide a method for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes that avoids the disadvantages of the prior art, is more simple, and allows for continuous hydrogen isotope separation and recovery. The disclosed invention does not require the use of isotope exchange reaction catalysts and/or hydrogen sulfide gas. The present invention achieves the advantages of the thermal diffusion and the chemical exchange processes. The disclosed invention provides a method for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes from a fluid containing the hydrogen isotopes by providing counter-current cold and hot streams of the fluid containing the hydrogen isotopes separated by a proton exchange membrane made of thermally insulating and chemically transparent material that allows exchange of heavy and light hydrogen isotopes there through. The heavier isotopes migrate to the cold stream producing a deuterium and tritium-enriched fluid, while lighter isotopes migrate to the hot stream producing a lighter isotope-enriched fluid. The heavy and light isotopes are withdrawn from the cold and hot streams respectively. According to the present invention, the fluid is water or hydrogen gas, and the desired hydrogen isotope species are deuterium and/or tritium. Further, according to the present invention, the streams of said high and low temperature fluids are interconnected at their respective top and bottom ends forming a continuous loop, and a feed stream is provided at an intermediate portion of either hot or cold stream to feed the process.

  8. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the

  9. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  10. OLADE-Solar Thermal World Portal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Solar Hot Water User Interface: Website Website: www.solarthermalworld.org Cost: Free UN Region: Caribbean, South America Language: "English, Spanish; Castilian" is not in...

  11. Status and prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.; Duchane, D.

    1992-01-01

    The vast majority of accessible geothermal energy exists in the form of heat stored in dry rock at depth. For nearly the last two decades, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been engaged in a program to develop the technology to mine the thermal energy in this hot dry rock (HDR). The world's first heat mine was developed and operated at Fenton Hill, N.M. in the 1970's by using drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to create an artificial reservoir in hot rock and subsequently circulating water through this reservoir to mine the heat from the rock. Over the last ten years, a much larger, deeper, and hotter heat mine has been constructed at Fenton Hill and a permanent energy extraction plant has been built on the surface. A long-term testing program has recently begun to evaluate the potential for sustained energy extraction from the large Fenton Hill heat mine. This paper summarizes the history of HDR research and development at Los Alamos, reports the initial results of the long-term testing program at Fenton Hill, and discusses the possible future course of HDR technology.

  12. Status and prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.; Duchane, D.

    1992-08-01

    The vast majority of accessible geothermal energy exists in the form of heat stored in dry rock at depth. For nearly the last two decades, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been engaged in a program to develop the technology to mine the thermal energy in this hot dry rock (HDR). The world`s first heat mine was developed and operated at Fenton Hill, N.M. in the 1970`s by using drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to create an artificial reservoir in hot rock and subsequently circulating water through this reservoir to mine the heat from the rock. Over the last ten years, a much larger, deeper, and hotter heat mine has been constructed at Fenton Hill and a permanent energy extraction plant has been built on the surface. A long-term testing program has recently begun to evaluate the potential for sustained energy extraction from the large Fenton Hill heat mine. This paper summarizes the history of HDR research and development at Los Alamos, reports the initial results of the long-term testing program at Fenton Hill, and discusses the possible future course of HDR technology.

  13. Electrically tunable hot-silicon terahertz attenuator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minjie; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kono, Junichiro

    2014-10-06

    We have developed a continuously tunable, broadband terahertz attenuator with a transmission tuning range greater than 10{sup 3}. Attenuation tuning is achieved electrically, by simply changing the DC voltage applied to a heating wire attached to a bulk silicon wafer, which controls its temperature between room temperature and ?550?K, with the corresponding free-carrier density adjusted between ?10{sup 11?}cm{sup ?3} and ?10{sup 17?}cm{sup ?3}. This hot-silicon-based terahertz attenuator works most effectively at 450550?K (corresponding to a DC voltage variation of only ?7?V) and completely shields terahertz radiation above 550?K in a frequency range of 0.12.5 THz. Both intrinsic and doped silicon wafers were tested and demonstrated to work well as a continuously tunable attenuator. All behaviors can be understood quantitatively via the free-carrier Drude model taking into account thermally activated intrinsic carriers.

  14. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M

    2014-12-30

    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  15. Process for making ceramic hot gas filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski (Wilmington, DE); Forsythe, George Daniel (Landenberg, PA); Domanski, Daniel Matthew (New Castle, DE); Chambers, Jeffrey Allen (Hockessin, DE); Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam (Boothwyn, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  16. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-25

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La{sub 2?x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, ?V??I{sup 3}, with a coefficient ?(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity d?/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g{sub e?ph}?1 W/K cm{sup 2} at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  17. Water absorption in thermally grown oxides on SiC and Si: Bulk oxide and interface properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Gang; Xu, Can; Feldman, Leonard C.; Yakshinskiy, Boris; Wielunski, Leszek; Gustafsson, Torgny; Bloch, Joseph; Dhar, Sarit

    2014-11-10

    We combine nuclear reaction analysis and electrical measurements to study the effect of water exposure (D{sub 2}O) on the n-type 4H-SiC carbon face (0001{sup }) MOS system and to compare to standard silicon based structures. We find that: (1) The bulk of the oxides on Si and SiC behave essentially the same with respect to deuterium accumulation; (2) there is a significant difference in accumulation of deuterium at the semiconductor/dielectric interface, the SiC C-face structure absorbs an order of magnitude more D than pure Si; (3) standard interface passivation schemes such as NO annealing greatly reduce the interfacial D accumulation; and (4) the effective interfacial charge after D{sub 2}O exposure is proportional to the total D amount at the interface.

  18. TRAC-PF1/MOD1: an advanced best-estimate computer program for pressurized water reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light-water reactors. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 program provides this capability for pressurized water reactors and for many thermal-hydraulic test facilities. The code features either a one- or a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and its associated internals, a two-fluid nonequilibrium hydrodynamics model with a noncondensable gas field and solute tracking, flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment, optional reflood tracking capability for bottom-flood and falling-film quench fronts, and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) numerical algorithm is used in the one-dimensional hydrodynamics and permits this portion of the fluid dynamics to violate the material Courant condition. This technique permits large time steps and, hence, reduced running time for slow transients.

  19. Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-27

    Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

  20. Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

  1. HotSpot | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HotSpot HotSpot Current Central Registry Toolbox Version(s): 2.07.1 Code Owner: Department of Energy, Office of Emergency Operations and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Description: The HotSpot Health Physics Code is used for safety-analysis of DOE facilities handling nuclear material. Additionally, HotSpot provides emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. HotSpot

  2. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use --

  3. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Connect Technical Report: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy's Zero Energy Ready Home program and California's proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    () | SciTech Connect : Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Ducts in conditioned space (DCS) represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. Various strategies exist for incorporating ducts within the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013

  5. Feasibility of EGS Development at Bradys Hot Springs, Nevada | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Feasibility of EGS Development at Bradys Hot Springs, Nevada Feasibility of EGS Development at Bradys Hot Springs, Nevada DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review PDF icon egs_006_krieger.pdf More Documents & Publications Concept Testing and Development at the Raft River Geothermal Field, Idaho Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation;

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References S. H. Ward, W. T. Parry, W. P. Nash, W. R. Sill, K. L. Cook, R. B. Smith, D. S. Chapman, F. H. Brown, J. A. Whelan, J. R. Bowman (1978) A Summary of the...

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    consists of a previously identified geothermal site that has been explored with both geophysics and drilling (Hedel, 1981), but has not been characterized adequately to allow...

  8. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent on effective stress to account for the effects of porosity. This provides insight into granular salt...

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Collaboration with the gold mining industry has brought two new geothermal discoveries to the attention of the...

  10. THERMAL PROCESSES GOVERNING HOT-JUPITER RADII (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2013-07-20 OSTI Identifier: 22121845 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 772; Journal Issue: 1; ...

  11. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Low-flow fixtures will...

  12. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  13. Geothermal Energy Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Hot granite Geopressured Hot Dry Rock Hot water Wells Magma Volcanic ... Well Man-made Fracture System Hot Basement Rock Electric or Thermal Application EGS ...

  14. Water information bulletin No. 30 geothermal investigations in Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Anderson, J.E.; Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-06-01

    There are 899 thermal water occurrences known in Idaho, including 258 springs and 641 wells having temperatures ranging from 20 to 93/sup 0/C. Fifty-one cities or towns in Idaho containing 30% of the state's population are within 5 km of known geothermal springs or wells. These include several of Idaho's major cities such as Lewiston, Caldwell, Nampa, Boise, Twin Falls, Pocatello, and Idaho Falls. Fourteen sites appear to have subsurface temperatures of 140/sup 0/C or higher according to the several chemical geothermometers applied to thermal water discharges. These include Weiser, Big Creek, White Licks, Vulcan, Roystone, Bonneville, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, Indian Creek, and Deer Creek hot springs, and Raft River, Preston, and Magic Reservoir areas. These sites could be industrial sites, but several are in remote areas away from major transportation and, therefore, would probably be best utilized for electrical power generation using the binary cycle or Magma Max process. Present uses range from space heating to power generation. Six areas are known where commercial greenhouse operations are conducted for growing cut and potted flowers and vegetables. Space heating is substantial in only two places (Boise and Ketchum) although numerous individuals scattered throughout the state make use of thermal water for space heating and private swimming facilities. There are 22 operating resorts using thermal water and two commercial warm-water fish-rearing operations.

  15. Hot spot generation in energetic materials created by long-wavelength

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    infrared radiation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hot spot generation in energetic materials created by long-wavelength infrared radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hot spot generation in energetic materials created by long-wavelength infrared radiation Hot spots produced by long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) radiation in an energetic material, crystalline RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), were studied by thermal-imaging microscopy. The LWIR source was a CO{sub

  16. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulchaey, John S. [Carnegie Observatories (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E. [UCO/Lick Observatories (United States)

    2010-06-08

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study how the hot gas content in early-type galaxies varies with environment. We find that the L{sub X}-L{sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. This suggests that internal processes such as supernovae driven winds or AGN feedback may expel hot gas from low mass field galaxies. Such mechanisms are less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium may confine outflowing material.

  17. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  18. Residential solar-absorption chiller thermal dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guertin, J.M.; Wood, B.D.; McNeill, B.W.

    1981-03-01

    Research is reported on the transient performance of a commercial residential 3 ton lithium bromide-water absorption chiller designed for solar firing. Emphasis was placed on separating the chiller response from that of the entire test facility so that its transient response could solely be observed and quantified. It was found that the entire system time response and thermal capacitance has a major impact on performance degradation due to transient operation. Tests run to ascertain computer algorithms which simulate system isolated chiller performance, revealed processes hitherto undocumented. Transient operation is simulated by three distinct algorithms associated with the three phases of chiller operation. The first phase is start up time. It was revealed during testing that the time required to reach steady state performance values, when the chiller was turned on, was a linear function of steady state water supply temperatures. The second phase is quasi steady state performance. Test facility's performance compared favorably with the manufacturer's published data. The third phase is the extra capacity produced during spin down. Spin down occurs when the hot water supply pump is turned off while the other system pumps remain operating for a few minutes, thus allowing extra chiller capacity to be realized. The computer algorithms were used to generate plots which show the operational surface of an isolated absorption chiller subjected to off design and transient operation.

  19. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J; Frank, James M; Deotte, Joshue R; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-11-06

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  20. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  1. Trimble Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Trimble Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Trimble Hot...

  2. Orr Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Orr Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Orr Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Orr Hot...

  3. Belknap Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Belknap Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Belknap Hot...

  4. Castle Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Castle Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Castle Hot...

  5. Crystal Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Crystal Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Crystal Hot...

  6. Austin Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Austin Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Austin Hot...

  7. Steele Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Steele Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Steele Hot...

  8. Sierra Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Sierra Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Sierra Hot...

  9. Mono Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Mono Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Mono Hot...

  10. Salmon Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Salmon Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Salmon Hot...

  11. Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Redirected from Roosevelt Hot Springs Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal...

  12. Cove Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cove Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cove Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Cove Hot...

  13. Camas Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Camas Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Camas Hot...

  14. Hot Springs Ranch Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Ranch Geothermal Area (Redirected from Hot Springs Ranch Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Hot Springs Ranch Geothermal Area Contents 1...

  15. Hobo Hot Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hobo Hot Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hobo Hot Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hobo Hot...

  16. Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Power Plant General Information Name Neal Hot...

  17. Weiser Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Weiser Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Weiser Hot...

  18. Lava Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lava Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lava Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Lava Hot...

  19. Harbin Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Harbin Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Harbin Hot...

  20. Pilgrim Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilgrim Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Redirected from Pilgrim Hot Springs Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Pilgrim Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

  1. Crane Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crane Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Redirected from Crane Hot Springs Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Crane Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1...

  2. Colorado's Hot Springs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Colorado's Hot Springs Author D. Frazier Published Pruett Publishing Company, 2000 DOI Not...

  3. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  4. Hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krohn, Kenneth A.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Link, Jeanne M.; Welch, Michael J.

    2012-12-19

    The chemical products made in a cyclotron target are a combined result of the chemical effects of the nuclear transformation that made the radioactive atom and the bulk radiolysis in the target. This review uses some well-known examples to understand how hot atom chemistry explains the primary products from a nuclear reaction and then how radiation chemistry is exploited to set up the optimal product for radiosynthesis. It also addresses the chemical effects of nuclear decay. There are important principles that are common to hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceutical chemistry. Both emphasize short-lived radionuclides and manipulation of high specific activity nuclides. Furthermore, they both rely on radiochromatographic separation for identification of no-carrieradded products.

  5. Hot gas engine heater head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berntell, John O. (Staffanstorp, SE)

    1983-01-01

    A heater head for a multi-cylinder double acting hot gas engine in which each cylinder is surrounded by an annular regenerator unit, and in which the tops of each cylinder and its surrounding regenerator are interconnected by a multiplicity of heater tubes. A manifold for the heater tubes has a centrally disposed duct connected to the top of the cylinder and surrounded by a wider duct connecting the other ends of the heater tubes with the regenerator unit.

  6. Percolation Cooling of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Lower Head by Way of Thermal Cracking and Gap Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomsen, K.L.

    2002-01-15

    Two partial models have been developed to elucidate the Three Mile Island Unit 2 lower head coolability by water percolation from above into the thermally cracking debris bed and into a gap between the debris and the wall. The bulk permeability of the cracked top crust is estimated based on simple fracture mechanics and application of Poiseuille's law to the fractures. The gap is considered as an abstraction representing an initially rugged interface, which probably expanded by thermal deformation and cracking in connection with the water ingress. The coupled flow and heat conduction problem for the top crust is solved in slab geometry based on the two-phase Darcy equations together with quasi-steady mass and energy conservation equations. The resulting water penetration depth is in good agreement with the depth of the so-called loose debris bed. The lower-head and bottom-crust problem is treated analogously by a two-dimensional axisymmetric model. The notion of a gap is maintained as a useful concept in the flow analysis. Simulations show that a central hot spot with a peak wall temperature of 1075 to 1100 deg. C can be obtained, but the quenching rates are not satisfactory. It is concluded that a three-dimensional model with an additional mechanism to explain the sudden water ingress to the hot spot center would be more appropriate.

  7. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.

    1985-02-22

    Test work centered on investigation of HCl leaching parameters. Some initial hot-water leaching tests were also performed.

  8. Water Heating: Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-08-01

    Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to supply hot water in the home while saving energy.

  9. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  10. Hot

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... al. (2005) measured ex- perimentally, a minimal conductivity at vanishing carrier ... The constant conductivity 2 e 2 h (3.41) is the minimal conductivity Lewkowicz ...

  11. Axion hot dark matter bounds after Planck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y. E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de

    2013-10-01

    We use cosmological observations in the post-Planck era to derive limits on thermally produced cosmological axions. In the early universe such axions contribute to the radiation density and later to the hot dark matter fraction. We find an upper limit m{sub a} < 0.67 eV at 95% C.L. after marginalising over the unknown neutrino masses, using CMB temperature and polarisation data from Planck and WMAP respectively, the halo matter power spectrum extracted from SDSS-DR7, and the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} released by the Carnegie Hubble Program based on a recalibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project sample. Leaving out the local H{sub 0} measurement relaxes the limit somewhat to 0.86 eV, while Planck+WMAP alone constrain the axion mass to 1.01 eV, the first time an upper limit on m{sub a} has been obtained from CMB data alone. Our axion limit is therefore not very sensitive to the tension between the Planck-inferred H{sub 0} and the locally measured value. This is in contrast with the upper limit on the neutrino mass sum, which we find here to range from ? m{sub ?} < 0.27 eV at 95% C.L. combining all of the aforementioned observations, to 0.84 eV from CMB data alone.

  12. Statistical Hot Channel Analysis for the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuadra A.; Baek J.

    2014-05-27

    A statistical analysis of thermal limits has been carried out for the research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The objective of this analysis was to update the uncertainties of the hot channel factors with respect to previous analysis for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. Although uncertainties in key parameters which enter into the analysis are not yet known for the LEU core, the current analysis uses reasonable approximations instead of conservative estimates based on HEU values. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) were obtained for critical heat flux ratio (CHFR), and onset of flow instability ratio (OFIR). As was done previously, the Sudo-Kaminaga correlation was used for CHF and the Saha-Zuber correlation was used for OFI. Results were obtained for probability levels of 90%, 95%, and 99.9%. As an example of the analysis, the results for both the existing reactor with HEU fuel and the LEU core show that CHFR would have to be above 1.39 to assure with 95% probability that there is no CHF. For the OFIR, the results show that the ratio should be above 1.40 to assure with a 95% probability that OFI is not reached.

  13. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  14. METHANE IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE TRANSITING HOT NEPTUNE GJ436B?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, J.-P.; Batista, V.; Tinetti, G.; Kipping, D. M.; Barber, R. J.; Tennyson, J.; Waldmann, I.; Miller, S.; Fossey, S. J.; Aylward, A.; Ribas, I.; Cho, J. Y.-K.; Polichtchouk, I.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Griffith, C. A.; Carey, S.; Mousis, O.

    2011-04-10

    We present an analysis of seven primary transit observations of the hot Neptune GJ436b at 3.6, 4.5, and 8 {mu}m obtained with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. After correcting for systematic effects, we fitted the light curves using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Combining these new data with the EPOXI, Hubble Space Telescope, and ground-based V, I, H, and K{sub s} published observations, the range 0.5-10 {mu}m can be covered. Due to the low level of activity of GJ436, the effect of starspots on the combination of transits at different epochs is negligible at the accuracy of the data set. Representative climate models were calculated by using a three-dimensional, pseudospectral general circulation model with idealized thermal forcing. Simulated transit spectra of GJ436b were generated using line-by-line radiative transfer models including the opacities of the molecular species expected to be present in such a planetary atmosphere. A new, ab-initio-calculated, line list for hot ammonia has been used for the first time. The photometric data observed at multiple wavelengths can be interpreted with methane being the dominant absorption after molecular hydrogen, possibly with minor contributions from ammonia, water, and other molecules. No clear evidence of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide is found from transit photometry. We discuss this result in the light of a recent paper where photochemical disequilibrium is hypothesized to interpret secondary transit photometric data. We show that the emission photometric data are not incompatible with the presence of abundant methane, but further spectroscopic data are desirable to confirm this scenario.

  15. Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Residential Water Heaters Webinar Residential Water Heaters Webinar PDF icon 20110224_residential_water_heater_webinar.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters 2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Solar Water Heaters; Request for Information Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes

  16. Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the result of high-temperature durability and thermal cycling testing and analysis for the selected diodes to study the detail of the thermal design and relative long-term reliability of the bypass diodes used to limit the detrimental effects of module hot-spot susceptibility.

  17. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  18. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  19. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-10-15

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  20. Hot Links to Cool Spots - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fire Department Hot Links to Cool Spots Hanford Fire Department Hanford Fire Department Home About Hanford Fire Department Fire and Life Safety Information Hot Links to Cool Spots Contact Hanford Fire Department Hot Links to Cool Spots Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size Federal Agencies Bureau of Land Management - Oregon/Washington National Highway Traffic Safety Administration U.S. Fire Administration Federal Emergency Management Agency U.S.

  1. Paleomagnetic Measurements At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area. Notes Paleomagnetic dating performed by Brown (1977) on opal samples in order to date the age of the hydrothermal system. The...

  2. Covered Product Category: Hot Food Holding Cabinets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for hot food holding cabinets, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  3. Geothermal resistivity resource evaluation survey Waunita Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    resistivity resource evaluation survey Waunita Hot Springs project, Gunnison County, Colorado Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geothermal...

  4. SMUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the...

  5. Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question"Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  6. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  7. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D.; Nagaraj, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  8. Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fincke, J.R.; Anderson, R.P.; Hyde, T.; Wright, R.; Bewley, R.; Haggard, D.C.; Swank, W.D.

    2000-01-31

    This report describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. The process utilizes a thermal plasma heat source to dissociation products react to form a mixture of acetylene and hydrogen. The use of a supersonic expansion of the hot gas is investigated as a method of rapidly cooling (quenching) the product stream to prevent further reaction or thermal decomposition of the acetylene which can lower the overall efficiency of the process.

  9. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  10. Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    determine the chemistry of dilute meteoric water, mixtures with sea water,and thermal water. Data for well and spring samples of non-thermal water indicate that mixing with sea...

  11. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a demand water heater at each hot water outlet. ENERGY STAR estimates that a typical family can save 100 or more per year with an ENERGY STAR qualified tankless water heater....

  12. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  13. Ames Laboratory Hot Canyon | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Laboratory Hot Canyon This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  14. Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry Climate: Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    After 12 to 26 Years of Field Exposure | Department of Energy and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry Climate: Results After 12 to 26 Years of Field Exposure Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry Climate: Results After 12 to 26 Years of Field Exposure Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado PDF icon pvmrw13_openingsession_asu_mani.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical

  15. Integrated thermal solar heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, D.N.

    1980-04-08

    A compression module may comprise a hermetic helical screw rotary compressor having injection and ejection ports in addition to discharge and suction ports or may comprise a multiple cylinder, multiple level, reciprocating compressor. The module incorporates a subcooler coil and is connected to an outside air coil, a thermal energy storage coil, a direct solar energy supply coil, one or more inside coils for the space to be conditioned and a hot water coil through common, discharge manifold, suction manifold, liquid drain manifold and liquid feed manifold, by suitable solenoid operated control valves and check valves. The solenoid operated control valves are selectively operated in response to system operating parameters. Seal pots and positive displacement pumps may operate to force liquid refrigerant condensed at intermediate pressure to flow to the receiver which is pressurized at a pressure corresponding to the condensation temperature of the highest pressure condensing coil in the system. Alternatively, liquid refrigerant expansion may be used to reach a common receiver pressure for all condenser returns.

  16. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  17. Parametric study of a silica gel-water adsorption refrigeration cycle -- The influence of thermal capacitance and heat exchanger UA-values on cooling capacity, power density, and COP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boelman, E.C.; Saha, B.B.; Kashiwagi, Takao

    1997-12-31

    The influence of heat exchanger UA-values (adsorber/desorber, evaporator, and condenser) is investigated for an adsorption chiller, with consideration given to the thermal capacitance of the adsorber/desorber by means of a lumped-parameter cycle simulation model developed by the authors and co-workers for the single-stage silica gel-water adsorption chiller. The closed-cycle-type chiller, for use in air conditioning, is driven by low-grade waste heat (85 C [185 F]) and cooled by water at 31 C (88 F) and operates on relatively short cycle times (420 seconds adsorption/desorption; 30 second adsorber/desorber sensible cooling and heating). The results showed cycle performance to be considerably affected by the thermal capacitance and UA-value of the adsorber/desorber, which is attributed to the severe sensible cooling/heating requirements resulting from batched cycle operation. The model is also sensitive to the evaporator UA-value--but to a lesser extent. The condenser UA-value is the least sensitive parameter due to the working pair adsorption behavior in the temperature range defined for desorption and condensation.

  18. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  19. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating and cooling systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-Chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  20. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  1. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's space heating system to heat water. They're part of what's called integrated or combination water and space heating systems. How They Work A tankless coil water heater provides hot water on demand without a tank. When a hot water faucet is turned on, water is heated as it flows through a heating coil or heat exchanger

  2. Bagby Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bagby Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bagby Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bagby...

  3. Ritter Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ritter Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ritter Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Ritter...

  4. Banbury Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Banbury Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Banbury Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  5. Mystic Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Mystic Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Mystic Hot Springs Sector...

  6. Murphy Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Murphy Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Murphy Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Murphy...

  7. Chico Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chico Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Chico Hot Springs Sector...

  8. Elkhorn Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elkhorn Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Elkhorn Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  9. Vichy Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Vichy Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Vichy Hot Springs Sector...

  10. Campbell Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Campbell Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Campbell...

  11. Circle Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Circle Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Circle Hot Springs Sector...

  12. Bozeman Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bozeman Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bozeman Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  13. Dunton Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dunton Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Dunton Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Dunton...

  14. Matilija Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Matilija Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Matilija Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  15. Chena Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chena Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Chena Hot Springs Sector...

  16. Mercey Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercey Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Mercey Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Mercey...

  17. Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Villa Hot Springs Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  18. Bashfords Hot Mineral Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bashfords Hot Mineral Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bashfords Hot Mineral Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  19. Heise Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heise Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Heise Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Heise...

  20. Downatta Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Downatta Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Downatta Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  1. Hot Creek Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Creek Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hot Creek Sector Geothermal energy...

  2. Boulder Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boulder Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Boulder Hot Springs...

  3. Darrough Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Darrough Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Darrough Hot Springs...

  4. Roman Spa Hot Springs Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spa Hot Springs Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Roman Spa Hot Springs Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  5. Tolovana Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tolovana Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Tolovana Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  6. Miracle Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Miracle Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Miracle Hot Springs...

  7. Medicine Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Medicine Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Medicine Hot...

  8. White Arrow Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    White Arrow Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home White Arrow Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  9. White Licks Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    White Licks Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home White Licks Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  10. Green Canyon Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Green Canyon Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Green Canyon Hot...

  11. Green Canyon Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Green Canyon Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Green Canyon Hot...

  12. Horse Creek Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creek Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Horse Creek Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  13. Donlay Ranch Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Donlay Ranch Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Donlay Ranch Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  14. Broadwater Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Broadwater Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Broadwater Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  15. Reed River Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reed River Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Reed River Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  16. Bear Trap Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trap Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bear Trap Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bear...

  17. Sitka Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sitka Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Sitka Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure...

  18. Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  19. Ishtalitna Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ishtalitna Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Ishtalitna Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  20. Bradfield Canal Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bradfield Canal Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Bradfield Canal Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2...

  1. Granite Creek Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creek Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Granite Creek Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  2. Challis Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  3. Alive Polarity's Murrietta Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  4. River Inn Natural Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  5. Broadwater Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Broadwater Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Broadwater...

  6. Cold Bay Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cold Bay Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Cold Bay Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  7. Hunter Hot Spring Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hunter Hot Spring Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunter Hot Spring Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

  8. Dann Ranch Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dann Ranch Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Dann Ranch Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  9. Upper Division Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Upper Division Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Upper Division Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History...

  10. Fisher Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fisher Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Fisher Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  11. Macfarlane's Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Macfarlane's Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Macfarlane's Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  12. Geology and Geothermal Potential of the Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Field Mapping At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Petersen, 1975) Geothermal Literature Review At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Petersen, 1975) Geothermometry At...

  13. GEOTHERMAL CASE STUDY: WAUNITA HOT SPRINGS, GUNNISON COUNTY,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL CASE STUDY: WAUNITA HOT SPRINGS, GUNNISON COUNTY, COLORADO Travis Brown and Kamran Bakhsh, Colorado School of Mines I. Details 1. Area Overview Waunita Hot Springs is...

  14. Jacumba Hot Springs Health Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jacumba Hot Springs Health Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jacumba Hot Springs Health Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

  15. Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot...

  16. California Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name California Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility California Hot...

  17. Baileys Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baileys Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Baileys Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  18. Hunters Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  19. Boulder Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  20. Manley Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  1. Circle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Circle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Circle Hot Springs...

  2. Desert Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Desert Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Desert Hot...

  3. Lava Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  4. Hot Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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  5. Medical Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  6. Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  7. Cottonwood Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cottonwood Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  8. Tecopa Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Tecopa Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Tecopa Hot Springs...

  9. Arrowhead Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  10. Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  11. Lolo Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  12. Vichy Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Vichy Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Vichy Hot Springs...

  13. Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Waunita Hot...

  14. Chico Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chico Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Chico Hot Springs...

  15. Chena Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Chena Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chena Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  16. Breitenbush Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Breitenbush Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  17. Bozeman Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bozeman Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bozeman Hot...

  18. Pinkerton Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Pinkerton Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pinkerton Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  19. Del Rio Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Rio Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Del Rio Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  20. Miracle Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Miracle Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Miracle Hot...

  1. Miracle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Miracle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Miracle Hot...

  2. Radium Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Radium Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Radium Hot Springs...

  3. Banbury Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Banbury Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Banbury Hot...

  4. Burgdorf Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Burgdorf Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Burgdorf Hot...

  5. Kelly Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

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    Kelly Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Kelly Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  6. Kelly Hot Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Kelly Hot Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kelly Hot Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Kelly...

  7. Bald Mountain Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Bald Mountain Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bald Mountain Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  8. Wheeler Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wheeler Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Wheeler Hot...

  9. Quenching and Partitioning Process Development to Replace Hot...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quenching and Partitioning Process Development to Replace Hot Stamping of High-Strength Automotive Steel Quenching and Partitioning Process Development to Replace Hot Stamping of ...

  10. Port Moller Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

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    Port Moller Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Port Moller Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  11. Crump's Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Survey GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Ground Magnetics At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Ground Magnetics GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Reflection Survey At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE...

  12. Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen -...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen - implications for the intramolecular potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman spectroscopy in hot...

  13. Gila Hot Springs District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Gila Hot Springs Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Gila Hot Springs, New Mexico Coordinates Show Map...

  14. Silver Star Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

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    Silver Star Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Silver Star Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  15. Big Bend Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Big Bend Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Big Bend Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  16. Big Creek Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

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    Big Creek Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Big Creek Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  17. Hot Lake RV Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Lake RV Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Lake RV Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hot Lake...

  18. Jackson Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jackson Hot...

  19. Red River Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

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    Red River Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Red River Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  20. Red River Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Red River Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Red River Hot...

  1. Auburn Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Auburn Hot Spring Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Auburn, Wyoming Coordinates...

  2. Pilgrim Hot Springs Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

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    Pilgrim Hot Springs Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Pilgrim Hot Springs Geothermal Project Project Location...

  3. Pilgrim Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilgrim Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Pilgrim Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  4. Chico Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Chico Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chico Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Chico...

  5. Reflection Survey At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell, Et Al., 2012) Exploration Activity Details Location Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity...

  6. Kaiser Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Kaiser Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kaiser Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Kaiser...

  7. Petrography Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

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    Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Petersen, 1975) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Petrography Analysis At Roosevelt Hot...

  8. Lehman Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Lehman Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lehman Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Lehman...

  9. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates School districts around the...

  10. Camperworld Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Camperworld Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Camperworld Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  11. Manley Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Manley Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Manley Hot Springs Sector...

  12. Radium Hot Springs Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Radium Hot Springs Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Radium Hot Springs Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  13. Carson Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Carson Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Carson Hot...

  14. Baumgartner Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Baumgartner Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Baumgartner Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  15. Grover Hot Springs State Park Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Hot Springs State Park Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Grover Hot Springs State Park Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  16. Wilbur Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Wilbur Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wilbur Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Wilbur...

  17. Hot Sulphur Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Sulphur Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hot Sulphur Springs Sector...

  18. Burgdorf Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Burgdorf Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Burgdorf Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  19. Avila Hot Springs Spa & RV Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature...

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    Avila Hot Springs Spa & RV Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Avila Hot Springs Spa & RV Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature...

  20. Hot Springs Soaking Pools Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Springs Soaking Pools Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hot Springs...