Sample records for thermal gradient holes

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal...

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zacharakis, 1981) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Zacharakis,...

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Ross, 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Niggemann, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Blue Mountain Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity...

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date 1998 -...

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date 1991 - 1991 Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown...

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date 1978 - 1985 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown...

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Matlick...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Matlick & Jayne, 2008) Exploration...

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Arnold...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Known shallow hot spot in Animas Valley Notes Four thermal gradient holes were authorized to be drilled by AMEX, but no results were...

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheasternInformationPolicyREDD+ Book JumpTimken CompanyTheThermal

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area...

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Edmunds...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the North Brawley, Heber, East Mesa, and Salton Sea Geothermal Areas. Notes Well logs, thermal gradient data, and magnetic data were correlated to form a better geologic...

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Ingebritsen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (1993) Heat Flow From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades, Oregon, Usa Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleThermalGr...

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    planned but higher than anticipated drilling and permitting costs within a fixed budget reduced the number of holes to five. Four of the five holes drilled to depths of 300...

  15. Category:Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGo BackLocationSmart Jump to:Holes, click

  16. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1, -2, -3, and -4, and all four encountered geothermal fluids. The holes provided valuable water geochemistry, supporting the geothermometry results obtained from the hot springs and Magma well. The temperature data gathered from all the wells clearly indicates the presence of a major plume of thermal water centered on the Pumpernickel Valley fault, and suggests that the main plume is controlled, at least in part, by flow from this fault system. The temperature data also defines the geothermal resource with gradients >100oC/km, which covers an area a minimum of 8 km2. Structural blocks, down dropped with respect to the Pumpernickel Valley fault, may define an immediate reservoir. The geothermal system almost certainly continues beyond the recently drilled holes and might be open to the east and south, whereas the heat source responsible for the temperatures associated with this plume has not been intersected and must be at a depth greater than 920 meters (depth of the deepest well – Magma well). The geological and structural setting and other characteristics of the Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area are markedly similar to the portions of the nearby Dixie Valley geothermal field. These similarities include, among others, the numerous, unexposed en echelon faults and large-scale pull-apart structure, which in Dixie Valley may host part of the geothermal field. The Pumpernickel Valley project area, for the majority of which Nevada Geothermal Power Company has geothermal rights, represents a geothermal site with a potential for the discovery of a relatively high temperature reservoir suitable for electric power production. Among locations not previously identified as having high geothermal potential, Pumpernickel Valley has been ranked as one of four sites with the highest potential for electrical power production in Nevada (Shevenell and Garside, 2003). Richards and Blackwell (2002) estimated the total heat loss and the preliminary production capacity for the entire Pumpernickel Valley geothermal system to be at 35MW. A more conservative estimate, for

  17. Thermal Gravitational Waves from Primordial Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

    2010-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal gravitational waves can be generated in various sources such as, in the cores of stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars due to the fermion collisions in the dense degenerate Fermi gas. Such high frequency thermal gravitational waves can also be produced during the collisions in a gamma ray burst or during the final stages of the evaporation of primordial black holes. Here we estimate the thermal gravitational waves from primordial black holes and estimate the integrated energy of the gravitational wave emission over the entire volume of the universe and over Hubble time. We also estimate the gravitational wave flux from gamma ray bursts and jets.

  18. Trace-element geochemistry of gradient hole cuttings: Beowawe geothermal area, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, O.D.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multielement geochemical analysis of drill cuttings from 26 shallow temperature-gradient drill holes and of surface rock samples reveals trace element distributions developed within these rocks as a consequence of chemical interaction with thermal fluid within the Beowawe geothermal area. The presently discharging thermal fluids are dilute in all components except silica, suggesting that the residence time of these fluids within the thermal reservoir has been short and that chemical interaction with the reservoir rock minimal. Interaction between these dilute fluids and rocks within the system has resulted in the development of weak chemical signatures. The absence of stronger signatures in rocks associated with the present system suggests that fluids have had a similar dilute chemistry for some time. The spatial distribution of elements commonly associated with geothermal systems, such as As, Hg and Li, and neither laterally nor vertically continuous. This suggests that there is not now, nor has there been in the past, pervasive movement of thermal fluid throughout the sampled rock but, instead, that isolated chemical anomalies represent distinct fluid-flow chanels. Discontinuous As, Li and Hg concentrations near White Canyon to the east of the presently active surface features record the effects of chemical interaction of rocks with fluids chemically unlike the presently discharging fluids. The observed trace element distributions suggest that historically the Beowawe area has been the center of more than one hydrothermal event and that the near-surface portion of the present hot-water geothermal system is controlled by a single source fracture, the Malpais Fault, or an intersection of faults at the sinter terrace.

  19. General solutions for thermopiezoelectrics with various holes under thermal loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    induced by thermal loads. The loads may be uniform remote heat ¯ow, point heat source and temperature elastic plate with an hole of various shapes subjected to remote uniform mechanical loading. For plane

  20. ENERGY SCAVENGING BASED ON TRANSIENT THERMAL GRADIENTS: APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF AIRCRAFTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ENERGY SCAVENGING BASED ON TRANSIENT THERMAL GRADIENTS: APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING from its environment [2]. A possible source of energy could be thermal gradients. This paper, INSA 3 Thalès Alenia Space, Toulouse, France Abstract: Results about energy capture from

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Collaboration with the gold mining industry has brought two new geothermal discoveries to the attention of the geothermal...

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References S. H. Ward, W. T. Parry, W. P. Nash, W. R. Sill, K. L. Cook, R. B. Smith, D. S. Chapman, F. H. Brown, J. A. Whelan, J. R. Bowman (1978) A Summary of the...

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    studies, and seem to prove useful in most cases (Flexser, 1991; Goff et al., 1991; Smith and Suemnicht, 1991). Results from these studies are also summarized in Sorey et al....

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regime of Long Valley Caldera. Journal of Geophysical Research. 81(5):763-768. J.L. Smith,R.W. Rex. 1977. Drilling results from eastern Long Valley Caldera. () : American...

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Purtymun...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valles caldera in order to locate an of high heat flow that would serve as a favorable test site for the HDR concept. Notes Data from these wells are report in Reiter et al....

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    U.S. Geothermal Inc. (2010) Idaho Public Utilities Commission Approves Neal Hot Springs Power Purchase Agreement U.S. Geothermal Inc. (2009) U.S. Geothermal Starts New Drilling...

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fault zones. The focus of Lake City Geothermal's current effort is on enhancing the site interpretation by re-evaluating the existing seismic data, conducting a detailed gravity...

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    R.A. Cunniff, R.L. Bowers (2003) Final Report: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology Phase II: Animas Valley, New Mexico Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the area References J. Held, F. Henderson (2012) New developments in Colorado geothermal energy projects Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy) data wentOpenAlum2004)

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1974) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy) dataOpen

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1976) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003) | Open

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Zacharakis,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)Energy|2008) ||1981)

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank &

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC JumpWoodlands,EnergyHot-Dry-Rock

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Ingebritsen, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC JumpWoodlands,EnergyHot-Dry-RockAl., 1993) |

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski, 2006)

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lachenbruch,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski, 2006)|Al.,Et

  2. A HEAVY ISOTOPE IN A SOLID DRIFTS DOWN A THERMAL ENERGY GRADIENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    183 A HEAVY ISOTOPE IN A SOLID DRIFTS DOWN A THERMAL ENERGY GRADIENT R. V. HESKETH CEGB Berkeley, and indeed, related to the second law ; to the familar statement that thermal energy diffuses from hot to cold we merely add the corollary even when the carriers of thermal energy are isotopic defects

  3. Subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric broadband terahertz gradient index metamaterial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sang-Gil; Jeong, Ki-Hun, E-mail: kjeong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); KAIST Institute for Optical Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kanghee; Han, Daehoon; Ahn, Jaewook [KAIST Institute for Optical Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structuring at subwavelength scales brings out artificial media with anomalous optical features called metamaterials. All-dielectric metamaterials have high potential for practical applications over the whole electromagnetic spectrum owing to low loss and optical isotropy. Here, we report subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial with broadband THz operation. The unit cell consists of a single subwavelength through-hole on highly resistive monocrystalline silicon. Depending on the fill-factor and period, the effective index was linearly modulated at 0.3–1.6 THz. The experimental results also demonstrate silicon gradient refractive index (Si-GRIN) lenses with parabolic index profiles through the spatial modification of a single unit cell along the radial direction. Si-GRIN lenses either focus 0.4–1.6 THz beam to the diffraction-limit or serve as a flat and thin solid immersion lens on the backside of THz photoconductive antenna for highly efficient pulse extraction. This all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial opens up opportunities for integrated THz GRIN optics.

  4. Major transitions in evolution linked to thermal gradients above hydrothermal vents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthonie W. J. Muller

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of the main divisions of today's life: (1) unicellular prokaryotes, (2) unicellular eukaryotes, (3) multicellular eukaryotes, and (4) metazoans, are examples of the--still unexplained--major transitions in evolution. Regarding the origin of life, I have proposed that primordial life functioned as heat engine (thermosynthesis) while thermally cycled in convecting volcanic hot springs. Here I argue for a role of thermal gradients above submarine hydrothermal vents (SHV) in several major transitions. The last decade has witnessed the emergence of phononics, a novel discipline in physics based on controlled heat transport in thermal gradients. It builds thermal analogs to electronic devices: the thermal diode, the thermal transistor, the thermal switch, the thermal amplifier, the thermal memory--the thermal computer has been proposed. Encouraged by (1) the many similarities between microtubules (MT) and carbon nanotubes, which have a very high thermal conductivity, and (2) the recent discovery of a silk protein which also has a very high thermal conductivity, I combine and extend the mentioned ideas, and propose the general conjecture that several major transitions of evolution were effected by thermal processes, with four additional partial conjectures: (1) The first organisms used heat engines during thermosynthesis in convection cells; (2) The first eukaryotic cells used MT during thermosynthesis in the thermal gradient above SHV; (3) The first metazoans used transport of water or in water during thermosynthesis above SHV under an ice-covered ocean during the Gaskiers Snowball Earth; and (4) The first mammalian brain used a thermal machinery based on thermal gradients in or across the cortex. When experimentally proven these conjectures, which are testable by the methods of synthetic biology, would significantly enhance our understanding of life.

  5. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in lessmore »than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.« less

  6. Thermalization with chemical potentials, and higher spin black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautam Mandal; Ritam Sinha; Nilakash Sorokhaibam

    2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the long time behaviour of local observables following a quantum quench in 1+1 dimensional conformal field theories possessing additional conserved charges besides the energy. We show that the expectation value of an arbitrary string of {\\it local} observables supported on a finite interval exponentially approaches an equilibrium value. The equilibrium is characterized by a temperature and chemical potentials defined in terms of the quenched state. For an infinite number of commuting conserved charges, the equilibrium ensemble is a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). We compute the thermalization rate in a systematic perturbation in the chemical potentials, using a new technique to sum over an infinite number of Feynman diagrams. The above technique also allows us to compute relaxation times for thermal Green's functions in the presence of an arbitrary number of chemical potentials. In the context of a higher spin (hs[\\lambda]) holography, the partition function of the final equilibrium GGE is known to agree with that of a higher spin black hole. The thermalization rate from the CFT computed in our paper agrees with the quasinormal frequency of a scalar field in this black hole.

  7. Thermal Crosslinking of Organic Semiconducting Polythiophene Improves Transverse Hole Conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gearba, I.R.; Nam, C.-Y.; Pindak, R.; Black, C.T.

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal crosslinking using a suitable radical initiator simultaneously improves electrical conductivity in the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) and makes the material insoluble. Crosslinked polythiophene shows as much as a fivefold increase in hole conductivity across the film thickness without any shift in spectral light absorption. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction reveals more in-plane polymer lamellae stacking with only a small decrease in film crystallinity. Improved transverse conductivity increases the performance of model planar solar cells by threefold, from 0.07% to 0.2%. The ability to render polythiophene insoluble without disrupting film structural order enables fabrication pathways to more complex device architectures.

  8. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  9. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  10. Creation of a gradient polymer-fullerene interface in photovoltaic devices by thermally controlled interdiffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    by providing im- proved donor/acceptor proximity throughout the device using interpenetrating polymer networks5Creation of a gradient polymer-fullerene interface in photovoltaic devices by thermally controlled 24062-1704 Received 29 July 2002; accepted 27 September 2002 Efficient polymer-fullerene photovoltaic

  11. Wax diffusivity under given thermal gradient: a mathematical model , A. Fasano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    Wax diffusivity under given thermal gradient: a mathematical model S. Correra , A. Fasano , L. Fusi , M. Primicerio , F. Rosso Abstract In this paper we describe how to obtain wax diffusivity and solubility in a saturated crude oil using the measurements of solid wax deposit in the experimental apparatus

  12. Thermal lens elimination by gradient-reduced zone coupling of optical beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Ralph H. (San Ramon, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal gradient-reduced-zone laser includes a laser medium and an optically transparent plate with an index of refraction that is less than the index of refraction of the laser medium. The pump face of the laser medium is bonded to a surface of the optically transparent member. Pump light is directed through the transparent plate to optically pump the solid state laser medium. Heat conduction is mainly through the surface of the laser medium where the heat is introduced by the pump light. Heat flows in a direction opposite to that of the pump light because the side of the laser medium that is opposite to that of the pump face is not in thermal contact with a conductor and thus there is no heat flux (and hence, no temperature gradient), thus producing a thermal gradient-reduced zone. A laser cavity is formed around the laser medium such that laser light oscillating within the laser cavity reflects by total-internal-reflection from the interface between the pump face and the optically transparent plate and enters and exits through a thermal gradient-reduced zone.

  13. Geothermal potential of West-Central New Mexico from geochemical and thermal gradient data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitte, D.; Gambill, D.T.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To study the low temperature and Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal potential of west-central New Mexico, 46 water samples were collected and geothermal gradient measurements were made in 29 wells. Water chemistry data indicate that all the samples collected are meteoric waters. High temperatures of samples taken from wells between Gallup and Tohatchi indicate these wells may derive water from a warm aquifer below the depth of the wells. The chemistries of the samples farther south on the Zuni Indian reservation suggest these waters are not circulating below 600 m of the surface. Geothermometry calculations support the conclusion that the waters sampled are meteoric. The geothermometry also indicates that the deep reservoir between Gallup and Tohatchi may be greater than 60/sup 0/C. Thermal gradient data indicate an area of high gradient on the Zuni Indian Reservation with a measured maximum of 67/sup 0/C/km between 181 m and 284 m. This high probably is not hydrologically controlled. The maximum gradients in the study area are 76/sup 0/C/km and 138/sup 0/C/km, measured just east of Springerville, Arizona. These gradients are undoubtedly controlled by circulating water, possibly heated by a magmatic source at depth and circulating back to the surface.

  14. MEASUREMENTS OF ANISOTROPIC ION TEMPERATURES, NON-THERMAL VELOCITIES, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS IN A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, MC 5247, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)] [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, MC 5247, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new diagnostic allowing one to measure the anisotropy of ion temperatures and non-thermal velocities, as well as Doppler shifts with respect to the ambient magnetic field. This method provides new results, as well as an independent test for previous measurements obtained with other techniques. Our spectral data come from observations of a low-latitude, on-disk coronal hole. A potential field source surface model was used to calculate the angle between the magnetic field lines and the line of sight for each spatial bin of the observation. A fit was performed to determine the line widths and Doppler shifts parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For each line width component we derived ion temperatures T {sub i,} and T {sub i, Parallel-To} and non-thermal velocities v {sub nt,} and v {sub nt, Parallel-To }. T {sub i,} was cooler than off-limb polar coronal hole measurements, suggesting increasing collisional cooling with decreasing height. T {sub i, Parallel-To} is consistent with a uniform temperature of (1.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K for each ion. Since parallel ion heating is expected to be weak, this ion temperature should reflect the proton temperature. A comparison between our results and others implies a large proton temperature gradient around 1.02 R {sub Sun }. The non-thermal velocities are thought to be proportional to the amplitudes of various waves. Our results for v {sub nt,} agree with Alfven wave amplitudes inferred from off-limb polar coronal hole line width measurements. Our v {sub nt, Parallel-To} results are consistent with slow magnetosonic wave amplitudes inferred from Fourier analysis of time-varying intensity fluctuations. Doppler shift measurements yield outflows of Almost-Equal-To 5 km s{sup -1} for ions formed over a broad temperature range. This differs from other studies that found a strong Doppler shift dependence on formation temperature.

  15. Thermal gradient-induced forces on geodetic reference masses for LISA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Carbone; A. Cavalleri; G. Ciani; R. Dolesi; M. Hueller; D. Tombolato; S. Vitale; W. J. Weber

    2007-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The low frequency sensitivity of space-borne gravitational wave observatories will depend critically on the geodetic purity of the trajectories of orbiting test masses. Fluctuations in the temperature difference across the enclosure surrounding the free-falling test mass can produce noisy forces through several processes, including the radiometric effect, radiation pressure, and outgassing. We present here a detailed experimental investigation of thermal gradient-induced forces for the LISA gravitational wave mission and the LISA Pathfinder, employing high resolution torsion pendulum measurements of the torque on a LISA-like test mass suspended inside a prototype of the LISA gravitational reference sensor that will surround the test mass in orbit. The measurement campaign, accompanied by numerical simulations of the radiometric and radiation pressure effects, allows a more accurate and representative characterization of thermal-gradient forces in the specific geometry and environment relevant to LISA free-fall. The pressure dependence of the measured torques allows clear identification of the radiometric effect, in quantitative agreement with the model developed. In the limit of zero gas pressure, the measurements are most likely dominated by outgassing, but at a low level that does not threaten the LISA sensitivity goals.

  16. Thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: thermal stability of Nariai black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung

    2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole in five dimensions by introducing two temperatures based on the standard and Bousso-Hawking normalizations. We use the first-law of thermodynamics to derive thermodynamic quantities. The two temperatures indicate that the Nariai black hole is thermodynamically unstable. However, it seems that black hole thermodynamics favors the standard normalization, and does not favor the Bousso-Hawking normalization.

  17. Evidence of Magnetic Breakdown on the Defects With Thermally Suppressed Critical Field in High Gradient SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eremeev, Grigory [JLAB; Palczewski, Ari [JLAB

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At SRF 2011 we presented the study of quenches in high gradient SRF cavities with dual mode excitation technique. The data differed from measurements done in 80's that indicated thermal breakdown nature of quenches in SRF cavities. In this contribution we present analysis of the data that indicates that our recent data for high gradient quenches is consistent with the magnetic breakdown on the defects with thermally suppressed critical field. From the parametric fits derived within the model we estimate the critical breakdown fields.

  18. Thermodynamics of de Sitter Black Holes: Thermal Cosmological Constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuichi Sekiwa

    2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamic properties associated with the black hole event horizon and the cosmological horizon for black hole solutions in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes. We examine thermodynamics of these horizons on the basis of the conserved charges according to Teitelboim's method. In particular, we have succeeded in deriving the generalized Smarr formula among thermodynamical quantities in a simple and natural way. We then show that cosmological constant must decrease when one takes into account the quantum effect. These observations have been obtained if and only if cosmological constant plays the role of a thermodynamical state variable. We also touch upon the relation between inflation of our universe and a phase transition of black holes.

  19. Top hole drilling with dual gradient technology to control shallow hazards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elieff, Brandee Anastacia Marie

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection Dual Gradient System13 .....................14 Fig. 6 - SubSea Rock Crushing Assembly Used in SubSea MudLift JIPI .......................16 Fig. 7 - Illustration of a Cross Section of a Diaphragm Positive Displacement PumpI ...17 Fig. 8... Pressure Plotted versus Depth.......66 Fig. 34 - Wellbore and Subsea Pump Pressures Example Graph.....................................68 Fig. 35 - Pressure at the Top of the Kick in Run 4...........................................................70 Fig...

  20. Interface modified thermally stable hole transporting layer for efficient organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, Rakhi, E-mail: grover.rakhi@gmail.com [Amity Institute of Advanced Research and Studies (Materials and Devices), Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201303 (India); Srivastava, Ritu, E-mail: ritu@mail.nplindia.org; Dagar, Janardan; Kamalasanan, M. N. [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, CSIR-Network of Institute for Solar Energy (NISE), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Mehta, D. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical transport in thermally stable 2, 7-bis [N, N-bis (4-methoxy-phenyl) amino]-9, 9-spirobifluorene (MeO-Spiro-TPD) thin films has been investigated as a function of temperature and organic layer thickness. ITO/MeO-Spiro-TPD interface was found to be injection limited and has been studied in detail to find barrier height for hole injection. The thickness of tetra-fluoro-tetracyano-quinodimethane thin films were optimized to be used as hole injection buffer layer which resulted in switching of charge transport mechanism from injection limited to space charge limited conduction above a critical thickness of 3?nm. Hole mobility has been measured using transient space charge limited conduction (SCLC), field dependent SCLC, and top contact transistor characteristics. The charge carrier transport in interface modified hole only devices was analysed using Gaussian disorder model. The thermal stability of MeO-Spiro-TPD has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The study indicates a thermally stable and highly efficient hole transport material for application in organic semiconductor based devices.

  1. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  2. Thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory with generalized-gradient approximations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Jeng-Da, E-mail: jdchai@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Center for Theoretical Sciences, and Center for Quantum Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Physics, Center for Theoretical Sciences, and Center for Quantum Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the recently proposed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)] to generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. Relative to our previous TAO-LDA (i.e., the local density approximation to TAO-DFT), the resulting TAO-GGAs are significantly superior for a wide range of applications, such as thermochemistry, kinetics, and reaction energies. For noncovalent interactions, TAO-GGAs with empirical dispersion corrections are shown to yield excellent performance. Due to their computational efficiency for systems with strong static correlation effects, TAO-LDA and TAO-GGAs are applied to study the electronic properties (e.g., the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and symmetrized von Neumann entropy) of acenes with different number of linearly fused benzene rings (up to 100), which is very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. The ground states of acenes are shown to be singlets for all the chain lengths studied here. With the increase of acene length, the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, and fundamental gaps decrease monotonically, while the vertical electron affinities and symmetrized von Neumann entropy (i.e., a measure of polyradical character) increase monotonically.

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy) data wentOpenAlum Area

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Ross,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy) data wentOpenAlum

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy) data

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chocolate Mountains Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy) dataOpen Energy

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)Energy Information

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)Energy

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)Energy| Open Energy

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)Energy| Open Energy|

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)Energy| Open

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Purtymun, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)Energy| OpenAl., 1974)

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)Energy| OpenAl.,

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)Energy|

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fort Bidwell Area (Lafleur, Et Al., 2010) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open (energy)Energy|Energy

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year open

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hawthorne Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy Information lieu of

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy Information lieu

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Area (Quane, Et Al., 2000) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy Information lieuOpen

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy Information

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy Information2004) |

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy Information2004)

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Arnold, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy Information2004)1978)

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff & Bowers,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003) | Open Energy

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Sorey, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003) | OpenAl., 1978) |

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003) | OpenAl., 1978)

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003) | OpenAl.,

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Held &

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003) | OpenAl.,Henderson,

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (U.S. Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003) |

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003) |Information

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Obsidian Cliff Area (Hulen, Et Al., 2003) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)Energy

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)Energy| Open Energy

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)Energy| Open

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)Energy|

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)Energy|2008) | Open

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Tungsten Mountain Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)Energy|2008) |

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Tungsten Mountain Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)Energy|2008) || Open

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe year openEnergy2003)Energy|2008) ||

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (EERE, 2010) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC JumpWoodlands,EnergyHot-Dry-RockAl., 1993)

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Erkan, Et Al., 2007) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC JumpWoodlands,EnergyHot-Dry-RockAl., 1993)Open

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et Al., 2006) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC JumpWoodlands,EnergyHot-Dry-RockAl.,

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC JumpWoodlands,EnergyHot-Dry-RockAl.,Open

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC JumpWoodlands,EnergyHot-Dry-RockAl.,OpenOpen

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hawthorne Area (Lazaro, Et Al., 2010) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski, 2006) Jump

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski, 2006)| Open

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski, 2006)|

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski, 2006)|Al.,

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Sorey, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski,

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Edmunds & W.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski,1977) | Open

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Matlick & Jayne,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski,1977) |

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski,1977) |Open

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski,1977)

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Ward, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski,1977)Al.,

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information Szybinski,1977)Al.,Open

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Page, Et Al., 2010) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy Information

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy InformationOpen Energy

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLCEnergy InformationOpen Energy2004) | Open

  1. Technical and economic feasibility of a Thermal Gradient Utilization Cycle (TGUC) power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raiji, Ashok

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Conversion unit mass mass flow rate life of system Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power pressure heat flow Rl R4 TGUC TP T2 total primary energy subsidy expressed as BTU input per 1000 BTU output thermal energy subsidy expressed... has grown in energy technologies that use renewable resources such as solar (thermal conversion, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, wind and biomass conversion), geothermal and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) . A new concept that can...

  2. Thermal Interpretation of Schwinger Effect in Near-Extremal RN Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang Pyo Kim; Hyun Kyu Lee; Yongsung Yoon

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a thermal interpretation of the Schwinger effect for charged scalars and spinors in an extremal and near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN) black hole. The emission of charges has the distribution with an effective temperature determined by the Davies-Unruh temperature for accelerating charges by the electric field and the scalar curvature of AdS_2 from the near-horizon geometry AdS_2 X S^2. We find a charge bound for the extremal micro black hole to remain stable against the Schwinger emission in analogy with the Breitenlohlner-Freedman bound for the AdS space. In the in-out formalism we find the one-loop QED effective action consistent with the vacuum persistence and interpret the vacuum persistence as the leading Schwinger effect and the effect of a charged vacuum of the Coulomb field.

  3. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  4. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC) [Sanford, NC

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  5. Variability of black hole accretion discs: The cool, thermal disc component

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mayer; J. E. Pringle

    2006-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the model of King et al. (2004) for variability in black hole accretion discs, by taking proper account of the thermal properties of the disc. Because the degree of variability in the King et al. (2004) model depends sensitively on the ratio of disc thickness to radius, H/R, it is important to follow the time-dependence of the local disc structure as the variability proceeds. In common with previous authors, we develop a one-zone model for the local disc structure. We agree that radial heat advection plays an important role in determining the inner disc structure, and also find limit-cycle behaviour. When the stochastic magnetic dynamo model of King et al. (2004) is added to these models, we find similar variability behaviour to before. We are now better placed to put physical constraints on model parameters. In particular, we find that in order to be consistent with the low degree of variability seen in the thermal disc component of black hole binaries, we need to limit the energy density of the poloidal field that can be produced by local dynamo cells in the disc to less than a few percent of the energy density of the dynamo field within the disc itself.

  6. Results of temperature gradient and heat flow in Santiam Pass Area, Oregon, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, B.L.; Gardner, M.C.; Koenig, J.B.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conclusions of this report are: (1) There is a weakly defined thermal anomaly within the area examined by temperature-gradient holes in the Santiam Pass area. This is a relict anomaly showing differences in permeability between the High Cascades and Western Cascades areas, more than a fundamental difference in shallow crustal temperatures. (2) The anomaly as defined by the 60 F isotherms at 400 feet follows a north-south trend immediately westward of the Cascade axis in the boundary region. It is clear that all holes spudded into High Cascades rocks result in isothermal and reversal gradients. Holes spudded in Western Cascades rocks result in positive gradients. (3) Cold groundwater flow influences and masks temperature gradients in the High Cascades to a depth of at least 700 feet, especially eastward from the major north-south trending faults. Pleistocene and Holocene rocks are very permeable aquifers. (4) Shallow gradient drilling in the lowlands westward of the faults provides more interpretable information than shallow drilling in the cold-water recharge zones. Topographic and climatological effects can be filtered out of the temperature gradient results. (5) The thermal anomaly seems to have 2 centers: one in the Belknap-Foley area, and one northward in the Sand Mountain area. The anomalies may or may not be connected along a north-south trend. (6) A geothermal effect is seen in holes downslope of the Western-High Cascade boundary. Mixing with cold waters is a powerful influence on temperature gradient data. (7) The temperature-gradient program has not yet examined and defined the geothermal resources potential of the area eastward of the Western Cascades-High Cascades boundary. Holes to 1500-2000 feet in depth are required to penetrate the high permeability-cold groundwater regime. (8) Drilling conditions are unfavorable. There are very few accessible level drill sites. Seasonal access problems and environmental restrictions together with frequent lost circulation results in very high costs per foot drilled.

  7. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation (Two-Year Gradient Stress Relaxation Testing Update)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King, James [ORNL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. A previous report (ORNL/TM-2008/089) discusses the testing and results from the original three year duration of the project. This testing included compression testing to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K, subsequent compression testing on cylindrical specimens to determine loading rates for stress relaxation testing, isothermal stress relaxation testing, and gradient stress relaxation testing. This report presents the results from the continuation of the gradient temperature stress relaxation testing and the resulting updated modeling.

  8. Relationships between geology and geothermal gradients in Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stavnes, S.A.; Steeples, D.W.; Ruscetta, C.A. (ed.)

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bottom hole temperature values from existing oil and gas wells and thermal logging data from geothermal wells are used to determine the factors responsible for geographic variation in the subsurface temperature distribution in Kansas. Geothermal gradient data range from 25/sup 0/C/km to 55/sup 0/C/km in the upper 300 m. The geologic factors proposed to explain this variation are: (1) topography of the crystalline basement surface; (2) variation in rates of heat production in the crystalline basement; (3) variation in thermal conductivity in the sedimentary section; and (4) possible convection upward and eastward from the Denver-Julesberg Basin. (MJF)

  9. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and thermal bistability in a magnetic two-dimensional hole system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurstbauer, Ursula; Weiss, Dieter; Dietl, Tomasz; Wegscheider, Werner; 10.1038/nphys1782

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colossal negative magnetoresistance and the associated field-induced insulator-to-metal transition, the most characteristic features of magnetic semiconductors, are observed in n-type rare earth oxides and chalcogenides, p-type manganites, n-type and p-type diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) as well as in quantum wells of n-type DMS. Here, we report on magnetostransport studies of Mn modulation-doped InAs quantum wells, which reveal a magnetic field driven and bias voltage dependent insulator-to-metal transition with abrupt and hysteretic changes of resistance over several orders of magnitude. These phenomena coexist with the quantised Hall effect in high magnetic fields. We show that the exchange coupling between a hole and the parent Mn acceptor produces a magnetic anisotropy barrier that shifts the spin relaxation time of the bound hole to a 100 s range in compressively strained quantum wells. This bistability of the individual Mn acceptors explains the hysteretic behaviour while opening prospects for i...

  10. Introduction Conjugate Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Introduction Conjugate Gradient Method Deflation Domain Decomposition Research Master Thesis Presentation #12;Introduction Conjugate Gradient Method Deflation Domain Decomposition Research Plaxis Finite Kaliszka Master Thesis Literature Study Presentation #12;Introduction Conjugate Gradient Method Deflation

  11. Investigation of hole mobility in gate-all-around Si nanowire p-MOSFETs with high-k/metal-gate: Effects of hydrogen thermal annealing and nanowire shape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashemi, Pouya

    A detailed study of hole mobility is presented for gate-all-around Si nanowire p-MOSFETs with conformal high-?/MG and various high-temperature hydrogen annealing processes. Hole mobility enhancement relative to planar SOI ...

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries Christina M Comfort Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large

  13. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  14. Compensated geothermal gradient: new map of old data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, M.W.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bottom-hole temperature measurement is one of the oldest forms of downhole information acquired by the oil industry. Old and new geothermal maps that are based on these measurements have invariably been drawn with an assumed constant or average ground surface temperature over the mapped areas. However, near ground-surface equilibrium temperature is a variable rather than a constant over any region; therefore, old and current geothermal gradient mapping methods give a false impression of the true thermal level of subsurface strata, and may lead to erroneous results of temperature-based calculations, such as the TTI. In this paper, a geothermal mapping method is presented in which extrapolated surface temperature is coupled with the corresponding geothermal gradient over the mapped area. The method was tested on areas in the Middle East and Africa. Results indicate that it is especially effective in delineating loci of vertical geothermal heat flux carried upwards by ascending subsurface fluids; such areas are preferential sites for hydrocarbon entrapment, especially in young sedimentary basins where migration is still in progress.

  15. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P. [DEN/DTN/STPA/LIET, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  16. Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. K. Townsend

    1997-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lecture notes for a 'Part III' course 'Black Holes' given in DAMTP, Cambridge. The course covers some of the developments in Black Hole physics of the 1960s and 1970s.

  17. Thermoelectric DC conductivities from black hole horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytic expression for the DC electrical conductivity in terms of black hole horizon data was recently obtained for a class of holographic black holes exhibiting momentum dissipation. We generalise this result to obtain analogous expressions for the DC thermoelectric and thermal conductivities. We illustrate our results using some holographic Q-lattice black holes as well as for some black holes with linear massless axions, in both $D=4$ and $D=5$ bulk spacetime dimensions, which include both spatially isotropic and anisotropic examples. We show that some recently constructed ground states of holographic Q-lattices, which can be either electrically insulating or metallic, are all thermal insulators.

  18. Measurements of aerosol thermophoretic deposition: Transition with temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, A.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophoresis is the motion of aerosol particles due to a temperature gradient in the suspending gas. The thermophoretic velocity V{sub T} is expressed as: where a {alpha} = thermal diffusivity v = kinematic viscosity H= Pr K Pr = Prandtl number K = dimensionless coefficient that is a function of several parameters (particle radius, thermal conductivity, gas properties, gas surface interactions). This report describes measurements of the effects of temperature gradients on the deposition of polystyrene latex particles.

  19. Black hole accretion discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  20. Converting Level Set Gradients to Shape Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radke, Rich

    distance function (SDF) associated with a shape, and differentiate these energies with respect to the SDF to the SDF. We discuss some problematic gradients from the literature, show how they can easily be fixed function (SDF) of , i.e. the function that associates any point x with the signed distance (x) = ±d

  1. Short wavelength ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Villard, L. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode in the high wavenumber regime (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}>1), referred to as short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode (SWITG) is studied using the nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic code GENE. It is shown that, although the SWITG mode may be linearly more unstable than the standard long wavelength (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}<1) ITG mode, nonlinearly its contribution to the total thermal ion heat transport is found to be low. We interpret this as resulting from an increased zonal flow shearing effect on the SWITG mode suppression.

  2. SOLPOND: a simulation program for salinity gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, J.; Leboeuf, C.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer simulation design tool was developed to simulate dynamic thermal performance for salinity gradient solar ponds. Dynamic programming techniques allow the user significant flexibility in analyzing pond performance under realistic load and weather conditions. Finite element techniques describe conduction heat transfer through the pond, earth, and edges. Results illustrate typical thermal performance of salinity gradient ponds. Sensitivity studies of salty pond thermal performance with respect to geometry, load, and optical transmission are included. Experimental validation of the program with an operating pond is also presented.

  3. Conjugate Gradient Method Numerisches Rechnen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conjugate Gradient Method Numerisches Rechnen (für Informatiker) M. Grepl J. Berger & J.T. Frings Numerisches Rechnen #12;Conjugate Gradient Method The Quadratic Form Steepest Descent Conjugate Directions/Gradients IGPM, RWTH Aachen Numerisches Rechnen #12;Conjugate Gradient Method The Quadratic Form Steepest Descent

  4. HIGH GRADIENT INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is stimulated by the desire for compact flash x-ray radiography sources. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be described. Progress in applying this technology to several applications will be reviewed.

  5. Inertial blob-hole symmetry breaking in magnetised plasma filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kendl, Alexander

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Symmetry breaking between the propagation velocities of magnetised plasma filaments with large positive (blob) and negative (hole) amplitudes, as implied by a dimensional analysis scaling, is studied with global ("full-n") non-Boussinesq gyrofluid computations, which include finite inertia effects through nonlinear polarisation. Interchange blobs on a flat density background have higher inertia and propagate more slowly than holes. In the presence of a large enough density gradient, the effect is reversed: blobs accelerate down the gradient and holes are slowed in their propagation up the gradient. Drift wave blobs spread their initial vorticity rapidly into a fully developed turbulent state, whereas primary holes can remain coherent for many eddy turnover times. The results bear implications for plasma edge zonal flow evolution and tokamak scrape-off-layer transport.

  6. atmospheric non-thermal plasma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy distribution. Here, I review the arguments for thermal versus non-thermal plasmas in accreting black hole systems and discuss the physics and emission...

  7. Conjugate Gradient Methods in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamshardian, Mortaza; Jennrich, Robert

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. I. (1988), "Conjugate Gradient Methods in Confirmatoryapply generalized conjugate gradient methods in an attemptby used. The conjugate gradient method, which is simple and

  8. Conjugate Gradient Acceleration of the EM Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortaza Jamshidian; Robert Jennrich

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. I. (1988), "Conjugate Gradient Methods in Confirmatoryapply generalized conjugate gradient methods in an attemptby used. The conjugate gradient method, which is simple and

  9. Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <Maintained ByManagement Inc Place:InformationTelluricConventions

  10. Coronal Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are establish...

  11. Odne Stokke Burheim Thermal Signature and Thermal Conductivities of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Odne Stokke Burheim Thermal Signature and Thermal Conductivities of PEM Fuel Cells Thesis-Holst for believing in me and for giving me the opportunity to join the work on the "Thermal Effects in Fuel cell The work presented here gives estimates on thermal gradients within the PEM fuel cell, an experimental

  12. Energy in density gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vranjes, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...

  13. Black Hole Thermodynamics Based on Unitary Evolutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Yu-Lei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we try to construct black hole thermodynamics based on the fact that, the formation and evaporation of a black hole can be described by quantum unitary evolutions. First, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S_{BH}$ cannot be a Boltzmann or thermal entropy. To confirm this statement, we show that the original black hole's "first law" cannot be treated as the first law of thermodynamics formally, due to some missing metric perturbations caused by matter. Then, by including those (quantum) metric perturbations, we show that the black hole formation and evaporation can be described in a unitary manner effectively, through a quantum channel between the exterior and interior of the event horizon. In this way, the paradoxes of information loss and firewall can be resolved effectively. Finally, we show that black hole thermodynamics can be constructed in an ordinary way, by constructing statistical mechanics.

  14. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carder, B.M.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter. 10 figs.

  15. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT DATA FOR UTAH Robert E. Blackett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT DATA FOR UTAH by Robert E. Blackett February 2004 UTAH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ­ 1:750,000 scale map, showing geology; thermal wells, springs, and geothermal areas; and locations available sources including the Southern Methodist University Geothermal Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey

  16. Some remarks on black hole thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Y. Chiao

    2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Two thermodynamic "paradoxes" of black hole physics are re-examined. The first is that there is a thermal instability involving two coupled blackbody cavities containing two black holes, and second is that a classical black hole can swallow up entropy in the form of ambient blackbody photons without increasing its mass. The resolution of the second paradox by Bekenstein and by Hawking is re-visited. The link between Hawking radiation and Wigner's superluminal tunneling time is discussed using two equivalent Feynman diagrams, and Feynman's re-interpretation principle.

  17. RHIC | Black Holes?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black Holes at RHIC? Further discussion by Physicist Dmitri Kharzeev on why RHIC cannot produce a real gravitational black hole Black holes are among the most mysterious objects in...

  18. Hybrid Dynamic Energy and Thermal Management in Heterogeneous Embedded Multiprocessor SoCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Hybrid Dynamic Energy and Thermal Management in Heterogeneous Embedded Multiprocessor SoCs Shervin propose a joint thermal and energy management technique specifically designed for heterogeneous MPSo technique simultaneously reduces the thermal hot spots, temperature gradients, and energy consumption

  19. Gradient elution in capillary electrochromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anex, D.; Rakestraw, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Yan, Chao; Dadoo, R.; Zare, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In analogy to pressure-driven gradient techniques in high-performance liquid chromatography, a system has been developed for delivering electroosmotically-driven solvent gradients for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Dynamic gradients with sub-mL/min flow rates are generated by merging two electroosmotic flows that are regulated by computer-controlled voltages. These flows are delivered by two fused-silica capillary arms attached to a T-connector, where they mix and then flow into a capillary column that has been electrokinetically packed with 3-mm reversed-phase particles. The inlet of one capillary arm is placed in a solution reservoir containing one mobile phase and the inlet of the other is placed in a second reservoir containing a second mobile phase. Two independent computer-controlled programmable high-voltage power supplies (0-50 kV)--one providing an increasing ramp and the other providing a decreasing ramp--are used to apply variable high-voltage potentials to the mobile phase reservoirs to regulate the electroosmotic flow in each arm. The ratio of the electroosmotic flow rates between the two arms is changed with time according to the computer-controlled voltages to deliver the required gradient profile to the separation column. Experiments were performed to confirm the composition of the mobile phase during a gradient run and to determine the change of the composition in response to the programmed voltage profile. To demonstrate the performance of electroosmotically-driven gradient elution in CEC, a mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was separated in less than 90 minutes. This gradient technique is expected to be well-suited for generating not only solvent gradients in CEC, but also other types of gradients such as pH- and ionic-strength gradients in capillary electrokinetic separations and analyses.

  20. Block-conjugate-gradient method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.F. (Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (US))

    1989-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that by using the block-conjugate-gradient method several, say {ital s}, columns of the inverse Kogut-Susskind fermion matrix can be found simultaneously, in less time than it would take to run the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm {ital s} times. The method improves in efficiency relative to the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm as the fermion mass is decreased and as the value of the coupling is pushed to its limit before the finite-size effects become important. Thus it is potentially useful for measuring propagators in large lattice-gauge-theory calculations of the particle spectrum.

  1. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

    1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

  2. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nation, John A. (Ithaca, NY); Greenwald, Shlomo (Haifa, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  3. Utilizing Predictors for Efficient Thermal in Multiprocessor SoCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    , we investigate how to use predictors for forecasting future temperature and workload dynamicsCs. Cooling costs continue to increase following the trend in power density. In addition to thermal hot spots, spatial thermal gradients on the die affect the cooling cost as large gradients decrease cooling

  4. CONJUGATE GRADIENT WITH SUBSPACE OPTIMIZATION 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    last update. Unlike some other conjugate gradient methods, our algorithm attains a theoretical ... The method of conjugate gradients (CG) was introduced by.

  5. Modeling thermal conductivity in UO2 with BeO additions as a function of microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    direction. Ó 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most gradients which affect heat removal and overall reactor performance. These thermal gradients strongly

  6. Quantum Emission from Two-Dimensional Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven B. Giddings; W. M. Nelson

    2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate Hawking radiation from two-dimensional dilatonic black holes using standard quantization techniques. In the background of a collapsing black hole solution the Bogoliubov coefficients can be exactly determined. In the regime after the black hole has settled down to an `equilibrium' state but before the backreaction becomes important these give the known result of a thermal distribution of Hawking radiation at temperature lambda/(2pi). The density matrix is computed in this regime and shown to be purely thermal. Similar techniques can be used to derive the stress tensor. The resulting expression agrees with the derivation based on the conformal anomaly and can be used to incorporate the backreaction. Corrections to the thermal density matrix are also examined, and it is argued that to leading order in perturbation theory the effect of the backreaction is to modify the Bogoliubov transformation, but not in a way that restores information lost to the black holes.

  7. Connecting horizon pixels and interior voxels of a black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piero Nicolini; Douglas Singleton

    2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss to what extent one can infer details of the interior structure of a black hole based on its horizon. Recalling that black hole thermal properties are connected to the non-classical nature of gravity, we circumvent the restrictions of the no hair theorem by postulating that the black hole interior is singularity free due to violations of the usual energy conditions. Further these conditions allow one to establish a one-to-one, holographic projection between Planckian areal "bits" on the horizon and "voxels", representing the gravitational degrees of freedom in the black hole interior. We illustrate the repercussions of this idea by discussing an example of the black hole interior consisting of a de Sitter core postulated to arise from the local graviton quantum vacuum energy. It is shown that the black hole entropy can emerge as the statistical entropy of a gas of voxels.

  8. Black holes in extra dimensions can decay on the bulk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2003-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In the extra dimensional theories, with TeV scale Plank constant, black holes may be produced in the Large Hadron Collider experiments. We have argued that in the d-dimensional black hole, the intrinsically 4-dimensional brane fields do not see the same geometry at the horizon, as in a 4-dimensional space-time. Kaluza-Klein modes invades the brane and surroundings and the brane fields can be considered as a thermal system at the temperature of the black hole. From energy and entropy consideration, we show that whether or not a six-dimensional black hole will decay by emitting Kaluza-Klein modes or the standard model particles, will depend on the length scale of the extra dimensions as well as on the mass of the black hole. For higher dimensional black holes, Kaluza-Klein modes will dominate the decay.

  9. Perturbative String Thermodynamics near Black Hole Horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Mertens; Henri Verschelde; Valentin I. Zakharov

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work JHEP 1403 (2014) 086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of $\\alpha'$-corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large $k$ limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O'Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in $g_s$) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.

  10. The 1983 Temperature Gradient and Heat Flow Drilling Project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Summer of 1983, the Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources carried out a three-hole drilling program to collect temperature gradient and heat flow information near potential geothermal resource target areas. The project was part of the state-coupled US Department of Energy Geothermal Program. Richardson Well Drilling of Tacoma, Washington was subcontracted through the State to perform the work. The general locations of the project areas are shown in figure 1. The first hole, DNR 83-1, was located within the Green River valley northwest of Mount St. Helens. This site is near the Green River Soda Springs and along the projection of the Mount St. Helens--Elk Lake seismic zone. The other two holes were drilled near Mount Baker. Hole DNR 83-3 was sited about 1/4 km west of the Baker Hot Springs, 10.5 km east of Mount Baker, while hole DNR 83-5 was located along Rocky Creek in the Sulphur Creek Valley. The Rocky Creek hole is about 10 km south-southwest of the peak. Two other holes, DNR 83-2 and DNR 83-4, were located on the north side of the Sulphur Creek Valley. Both holes were abandoned at early stages of drilling because of deep overburden and severe caving problems. The sites were apparently located atop old landslide deposits.

  11. Vacuum polarization for lukewarm black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elizabeth Winstanley; Phil M. Young

    2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the renormalized expectation value of the square of a quantum scalar field on a Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole in which the temperatures of the event and cosmological horizons are equal (`lukewarm' black hole). Our numerical calculations for a thermal state at the same temperature as the two horizons indicate that this renormalized expectation value is regular on both the event and cosmological horizons. We are able to show analytically, using an approximation for the field modes near the horizons, that this is indeed the case.

  12. Vacuum polarization for lukewarm black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winstanley, Elizabeth; Young, Phil M. [Department of Applied Mathematics, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the renormalized expectation value of the square of a quantum scalar field on a Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter black hole in which the temperatures of the event and cosmological horizons are equal ('lukewarm' black hole). Our numerical calculations for a thermal state at the same temperature as the two horizons indicate that this renormalized expectation value is regular on both the event and cosmological horizons. We are able to show analytically, using an approximation for the field modes near the horizons, that this is indeed the case.

  13. Design, prototyping, and testing of an apparatus for establishing a linear temperature gradient in experimental fish tanks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadri, Romi Sinclair

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Immunology researchers require a new type of fish tank that provides a linear thermal gradient for experimental zebrafish in order to improve the accuracy and validity of their research. Zebrafish require the ability to ...

  14. Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

  15. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  16. THERMAL GRADIENT MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yagnik, S.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT Suresh K. Yagnik February 1982 TOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by Suresh K. Yagnik Materialsb u i l t in future. The salt deposits, however, are known

  17. THERMAL GRADIENT MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yagnik, S.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    produced by the heat generating waste. The enhanced porosityimposed by the heat generating nuclear waste w i l l

  18. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:ThisPublic PowerKentucky: EnergyPulte

  19. Black Hole Chromosphere at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis Anchordoqui; Haim Goldberg

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    If the scale of quantum gravity is near a TeV, black holes will be copiously produced at the LHC. In this work we study the main properties of the light descendants of these black holes. We show that the emitted partons are closely spaced outside the horizon, and hence they do not fragment into hadrons in vacuum but more likely into a kind of quark-gluon plasma. Consequently, the thermal emission occurs far from the horizon, at a temperature characteristic of the QCD scale. We analyze the energy spectrum of the particles emerging from the "chromosphere", and find that the hard hadronic jets are almost entirely suppressed. They are replaced by an isotropic distribution of soft photons and hadrons, with hundreds of particles in the GeV range. This provides a new distinctive signature for black hole events at LHC.

  20. Quantized black holes, their spectrum and radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khriplovich, I. B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: khriplovich@inp.nsk.su

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Under quite natural general assumptions, the following results are obtained. The maximum entropy of a quantized surface is demonstrated to be proportional to the surface area in the classical limit. The general structure of the horizon spectrum is found. In the special case of loop quantum gravity, the value of the Barbero-Immirzi parameter is found. The discrete spectrum of thermal radiation of a black hole fits the Wien profile. The natural widths of the lines are much smaller than the distances between them. The total intensity of the thermal radiation is estimated. If the density of quantized primordial black holes is close to the present upper limit on the dark-matter density in our Solar system, the sensitivity of modern detectors is close to that necessary for detecting this radiation.

  1. Geothermal gradient map of the conterminous United States. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kron, A.; Stix, J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The second edition of the Geothermal Gradient Map of the Conterminous United States (Kron and Stix 1982) is described and the changes made since the first edition (Kron and Heiken 1980) are compared. The second edition of the map presents a compilation of over 1700 wells that have been measured for temperature belwo 50 m and whose temperature/depth profiles are linear, or composed of linear segments which reflect changes in the thermal conductivity of the rocks rather than hydrology. The data are displayed at an enlarged scale of 1:2,500,000 and in a new format which shows the location, depth, and gradient of each well in a single color-coded symbol. This edition contains over two times the amount of data shown on the first map and is accompained by a table, listing for each well its location, depth, gradient, heat flow (where available), thermal conductivity (where available), and a reference. Over 200 references have been consulted and are presented with the data.

  2. Thermal Via Placement in 3D ICs Brent Goplen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    to these thermal conductivities in order to achieve a desired maximum temperature objective. Finite element, temperature, thermal gradient, placement, routing, finite element analysis, thermal via 1. INTRODUCTION cluster into parallel networks using the observation that heat transfer is much more efficient vertically

  3. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, M. Enamul

    Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications of kinetic energy and internal energy , Internal energy, Geothermal temperature gradient, Gravitational that can be estimated from reservoir properties Permeability of the reservoir system, Thermal conductivity

  4. Dynamics of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hayward

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping horizon which manifests temporally as separate horizons.

  5. Mining Energy from a Black Hole by Strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Frolov; D. Fursaev

    2001-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss how cosmic strings can be used to mine energy from black holes. A string attached to the black hole gives rise to an additional channel for the energy release. It is demonstrated that when a string crosses the event horizon, its transverse degrees of freedom are thermally excited and thermal string perturbations propagate along the string to infinity. The internal metric induced on the 2D worldsheet of the static string crossing the horizon describes a 2D black hole. For this reason thermal radiation of string excitations propagating along the string can be interpreted as Hawking radiation of the 2D black hole. It is shown that the rate of energy emission through the string channel is of the same order of magnitude as the bulk radiation of the black hole. Thus, for N strings attached to the black hole the efficiency of string channels is increased by factor N. We discuss restrictions on N which exist because of the finite thickness of strings, the gravitational backreaction and quantum fluctuations. Our conclusion is that the energy emission rate by strings can be increased as compared to the standard emission in the bulk by the factor 10^3 for GUT strings and up to the factor 10^{31} for electroweak strings.

  6. Conjugate Gradient Algorithms Using Multiple Recursions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Colorado Much is already known about when a conjugate gradient method can be implemented with short and sufficient conditions on the iteration matrix A, in order for a conjugate gradient method to be implemented that the conjugate gradient method for unitary and shifted unitary matrices can be implemented using a single short

  7. An Introduction to the Conjugate Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yi

    An Introduction to the Conjugate Gradient Method Without the Agonizing Pain Edition 11 4 Jonathan Abstract The Conjugate Gradient Method is the most prominent iterative method for solving sparse systems, the Conjugate Gradient Method is a composite of simple, elegant ideas that almost anyone can understand

  8. An Introduction to the Conjugate Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    An Introduction to the Conjugate Gradient Method Without the Agonizing Pain Edition 1 1 4 Jonathan Abstract The Conjugate Gradient Method is the most prominent iterative method for solving sparse systems, the Conjugate Gradient Method is a composite of simple, elegant ideas that almost anyone can understand

  9. Porting the NAS-NPB Conjugate Gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    .kr/Center_for_Manycore_Programming/SNU_NPB_Suite.html NPB Benchmarks #12;! "A conjugate gradient method is used to compute an approximation to the smallestPorting the NAS-NPB Conjugate Gradient Benchmark to CUDA NVIDIA Corporation #12;Outline ! Overview coding methodologies and architectures. ! Suite of benchmarks: ! Integer Sort ! Conjugate Gradient ! CFD

  10. Accurate conjugate gradient methods for shifted systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleijpen, Gerard

    Accurate conjugate gradient methods for shifted systems by Jasper van den Eshof and Gerard L. G CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS FOR SHIFTED SYSTEMS JASPER VAN DEN ESHOF AND GERARD L. G. SLEIJPEN Abstract We present an efficient and accurate variant of the conjugate gradient method for solving families of shifted

  11. A parallel scaled conjugate-gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aykanat, Cevdet

    . The scaled conjugate- gradient method is a powerful technique for solving large sparse linear systems for form-factor computation. Key words: Gathering radiosity -- Scaled conjugate-gradient method -- Parallel, the Gauss--Jacobi (GJ) method is used in the solution phase. The scaled conjugate-gradient (SCG) method

  12. An Introduction to the Conjugate Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Introduction to the Conjugate Gradient Method Without the Agonizing Pain Jonathan Richard 15213 Abstract The Conjugate Gradient Method is the most prominent iterative method for solving sparse the mumblings of their forebears. Nevertheless, the Conjugate Gradient Method is a composite of simple, elegant

  13. Accurate conjugate gradient methods for shifted systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleijpen, Gerard

    Accurate conjugate gradient methods for shifted systems by Jasper van den Eshof and Gerard L. G CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS FOR SHIFTED SYSTEMS JASPER VAN DEN ESHOF # AND GERARD L. G. SLEIJPEN # Abstract We present an e#cient and accurate variant of the conjugate gradient method for solving families

  14. 21cm Absorption by Compact Hydrogen Disks Around Black Holes in Radio-Loud Nuclei of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham Loeb

    2008-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The clumpy maser disks observed in some galactic nuclei mark the outskirts of the accretion disk that fuels the central black hole and provide a potential site of nuclear star formation. Unfortunately, most of the gas in maser disks is currently not being probed; large maser gains favor paths that are characterized by a small velocity gradient and require rare edge-on orientations of the disk. Here we propose a method for mapping the atomic hydrogen distribution in nuclear disks through its 21cm absorption against the radio continuum glow around the central black hole. In NGC 4258, the 21cm optical depth may approach unity for high angular-resolution (VLBI) imaging of coherent clumps which are dominated by thermal broadening and have the column density inferred from X-ray absorption data, ~10^{23}/cm^2. Spreading the 21cm absorption over the full rotation velocity width of the material in front of the narrow radio jets gives a mean optical depth of ~0.1. Spectroscopic searches for the 21cm absorption feature in other galaxies can be used to identify the large population of inclined gaseous disks which are not masing in our direction. Follow-up imaging of 21cm silhouettes of accelerating clumps within these disks can in turn be used to measure cosmological distances.

  15. Temperatures and interval geothermal-gradient determinations from wells in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, D.C.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature and related records from 28 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) although somewhat constrained from accuracy by data gathering methods, extrapolate to undisturbed formation temperatures at specific depths below permafrost, and lead to calculated geothermal graidents between these depths. Tabulation of the results show that extrapolated undisturbed temperatures range from a minimum of 98/sup 0/F (37/sup 0/C) at 4000 feet (1220 m) to a maximum of 420/sup 0/F (216/sup 0/C) at 20,260 feet (6177 m) and that geothermal gradients range from 0.34/sup 0/F/100' (6/sup 0/C/km) between 4470 feet to 7975 feet (Lisburne No. 1) and 3.15/sup 0/F/100' (57/sup 0/C/km) between 6830 feet to 7940 feet (Drew Point No. 1). Essential information needed for extrapolations consists of: time-sequential bottom-hole temperatures during wire-line logging of intermediate and deep intervals of the borehole; the times that circulating drilling fluids had disturbed the formations; and the subsequent times that non-circulating drilling fluids had been in contact with the formation. In several wells presumed near direct measures of rock temperatures recorded from formation fluids recovered by drill stem tests (DST) across thin (approx. 10-20 foot) intervals are made available. We believe that the results approach actual values close enough to serve as approximations of the thermal regimes in appropriate future investigations. Continuous temperature logs obtained at the start and end of final logging operations, conductivity measurements, and relatively long-term measurements of the recovery from disturbance at shallow depths in many of the wells will permit refinements of our values and provide determination of temperatures at other depths. 4 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor-Critic Algorithms Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor-Critic Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor-Critic Algorithms Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor Yaakov Engel yakiengel@gmail.com Editor: Abstract Policy gradient methods are reinforcement learning algorithms that adapt a param- eterized policy by following a performance gradient estimate. Many

  17. Probing temperature gradients within the GaN buffer layer of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with Raman thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, C., E-mail: chris.hodges@bristol.ac.uk; Pomeroy, J.; Kuball, M. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the ability of confocal Raman thermography using a spatial filter and azimuthal polarization to probe vertical temperature gradients within the GaN buffer layer of operating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. Temperature gradients in the GaN layer are measured by using offset focal planes to minimize the contribution from different regions of the GaN buffer. The measured temperature gradient is in good agreement with a thermal simulation treating the GaN thermal conductivity as homogeneous throughout the layer and including a low thermal conductivity nucleation layer to model the heat flow between the buffer and substrate.

  18. Rotating Hairy Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kleihaus; J. Kunz

    2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct stationary black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, which carry angular momentum and electric charge. Possessing non-trivial non-abelian magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon, they represent non-perturbative rotating hairy black holes.

  19. Disregarding the 'Hole Argument'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan W. Roberts

    2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Jim Weatherall has suggested that Einstein's hole argument, as presented by Earman and Norton (1987), is based on a misleading use of mathematics. I argue on the contrary that Weatherall demands an implausible restriction on how mathematics is used. The hole argument, on the other hand, is in no new danger at all.

  20. Energy decomposition within Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonas P. Pereira; Jorge A. Rueda

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the consequences of the recently found generalization of the Christodoulou-Ruffini black hole mass decomposition for Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes [characterized by the parameters $(Q,M,b)$, where $M = M(M_{irr},Q,b)$, $b$ scale field, $Q$ charge, $M_{irr}$ "irreducible mass", physically meaning the energy of a black hole when its charge is null] and their interactions. We show in this context that their description is largely simplified and can basically be split into two families depending upon the parameter $b|Q|$. If $b|Q|\\leq 1/2$, then black holes could have even zero irreducible masses and they always exhibit single, non degenerated, horizons. If $b|Q|>1/2$, then an associated black hole must have a minimum irreducible mass (related to its minimum energy) and has two horizons up to a transitional irreducible mass. For larger irreducible masses, single horizon structures raise again. By assuming that black holes emit thermal uncharged scalar particles, we further show in light of the black hole mass decomposition that one satisfying $b|Q|>1/2$ takes an infinite amount of time to reach the zero temperature, settling down exactly at its minimum energy. Finally, we argue that depending on the fundamental parameter $b$, the radiation (electromagnetic and gravitational) coming from Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes could differ significantly from Einstein-Maxwell ones. Hence, it could be used to assess such a parameter.

  1. Shape reconstruction from gradient data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettl, Svenja; Kaminski, Juergen; Knauer, Markus C.; Haeusler, Gerd

    2008-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a generalized method for reconstructing the shape of an object from measured gradient data. A certain class of optical sensors does not measure the shape of an object but rather its local slope. These sensors display several advantages, including high information efficiency, sensitivity, and robustness. For many applications, however, it is necessary to acquire the shape, which must be calculated from the slopes by numerical integration. Existing integration techniques show drawbacks that render them unusable in many cases. Our method is based on an approximation employing radial basis functions. It can be applied to irregularly sampled, noisy, and incomplete data, and it reconstructs surfaces both locally and globally with high accuracy.

  2. Gradient limits and SCRF performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norem, J.; Pellin, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting rf gradients are limited by a number of mechanisms, among them are field emission, multipactor, Lorentz detuning, global and local heating, quench fields, Q-Slope, assembly defects, and overall power use. We describe how each of these mechanisms interacts with the cavity fields and show how significant improvements may be possible assuming improvements in control over the cavity surface. New techniques such as Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), the use of layered composites, Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) smoothing and Dry Ice Cleaning (DIC) have been proposed as ways to control the surface.

  3. Gradient Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting JumpGove County, Kansas: EnergyGradient Resources Jump to:

  4. Tuning the Thermal Properties of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Vivek Pravin

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    magnetic field. This phenomenon potentially enables the controlled manipulation of temperature gradients, the recycling of wasted heat, and thermal spin-logic. Our calculations employ the Landauer-Buttiker scattering formalism, in conjunction...

  5. Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient J. Shiomi mass transport of a water cluster inside a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) with the diameter of about 1.4 nm. The influence of the non-equilibrium thermal environment on the confined water cluster has

  6. On Noncommutative Black Holes Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faizal, Mir; Ulhoa, S C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we will analyze noncommutative deformation of the Schwarzschild black holes and Kerr black holes. We will perform our analysis by relating the commutative and the noncommutative metrics using an Moyal product. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of these noncommutative black hole solutions. We will explicitly derive expression for the corrected entropy and temperature of these black hole solutions.

  7. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.; Arntz, F.; /Diversified Tech., Bedford

    2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) The gradient of the SLIM-based technology is believed to be achievable in the same range as it is for the gradient of a modern rf-linac technology ({approx}100 MeV per meter). (2) The SLIM concept is based on the nsec TEM pulse mode operation with no laser or rf systems. (3) Main components of SLIM are not stressed while the energy is pumped into the induction system. Components can accept the hard environment conditions such as a radiation dose, mismatch, hard electromagnetic nose level, etc. Only for several nanoseconds the switch is OFF and produces a stress in the induction system. At that time, the delivery of energy to the beam takes place. (4) The energy in the induction system initially is storied in the magnetic field when the switch is ON. That fact makes another benefit: a low voltage power supplies can be used. The reliability of a lower voltage power supply is higher and they are cheaper. (5) The coreless SLIM concept offers to work in the MHz range of repetition rate. The induction system has the high electric efficiency (much higher than the DWA). (6) The array of lined up and activated SLIM cells is believed to be a solid state structure of novel accelerating technology. The electron-hole plasma in the high power solid state structure is precisely controlled by the electromagnetic process of a pulsed power supply.

  8. Holes in Spectral Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontana, Peter R.; Srivastava, Rajendra P.

    1973-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decay of an atom in the presence of a static perturbation is investigated. The perturbation couples a decaying state with a nondecaying state. A "hole" appears in the emission line at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between...

  9. Optimization Online - Using Simplex Gradients of Nonsmooth ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. L. Custódio

    2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 27, 2006 ... Using Simplex Gradients of Nonsmooth Functions in Direct Search Methods. A. L. Custódio (alcustodio ***at*** fct.unl.pt) J. E. Dennis (dennis ...

  10. Optimization Online - A Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Algorithm ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Hong Dai

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 28, 2011 ... Abstract: In this paper, we seek the conjugate gradient direction closest to the direction of the scaled memoryless BFGS method and propose a ...

  11. A GLOBALLY CONVERGENT MODIFIED CONJUGATE-GRADIENT ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gradient algorithms which implements this strategy in a robust and efficient way. ... Both begin with a second-order Taylor expansion modeling changes in f(xk) ...

  12. Optimization of synchronization in gradient clustered networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xingang Wang; Liang Huang; Ying-Cheng Lai; Choy Heng Lai

    2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider complex clustered networks with a gradient structure, where sizes of the clusters are distributed unevenly. Such networks describe more closely actual networks in biophysical systems and in technological applications than previous models. Theoretical analysis predicts that the network synchronizability can be optimized by the strength of the gradient field but only when the gradient field points from large to small clusters. A remarkable finding is that, if the gradient field is sufficiently strong, synchronizability of the network is mainly determined by the properties of the subnetworks in the two largest clusters. These results are verified by numerical eigenvalue analysis and by direct simulation of synchronization dynamics on coupled-oscillator networks.

  13. Do Black Holes Exist?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    1993-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of information loss in black hole formation and the associated violations of basic laws of physics, such as conservation of energy, causality and unitarity, are avoided in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory, if the NGT charge of a black hole and its mass satisfy an inequality that does not violate any known experimental data and allows the existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  14. Helical superconducting black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct novel static, asymptotically $AdS_5$ black hole solutions with Bianchi VII$_0$ symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, non-isotropic dual ground states with emergent scaling symmetry.

  15. Noncommutative effects in the black hole evaporation in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Compean, Hugo [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Monterrey Cerro de las Mitras 2565, Colonia Obispado, Monterrey Nuevo Leon 64060 (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Soto-Campos, Carlos [Departamento de Fisica Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas del IPN Avenida IPN 2580 Colonia Laguna Ticoman 07340 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss some possible implications of a two-dimensional toy model for black hole evaporation in noncommutative field theory. While the noncommutativity we consider does not affect gravity, it can play an important role in the dynamics of massless and Hermitian scalar fields in the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole. We find that noncommutativity will affect the flux of outgoing particles and the nature of its UV/IR divergences. Moreover, we show that the noncommutative interaction does not affect Leahy's and Unruh's interpretation of thermal ingoing and outgoing fluxes in the black hole evaporation process. Thus, the noncommutative interaction still destroys the thermal nature of fluxes. In the process, some nonlocal implications of the noncommutativity are discussed.

  16. Quantum-Gravity Fluctuations and the Black-Hole Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bekenstein has put forward the idea that, in a quantum theory of gravity, a black hole should have a discrete energy spectrum with concomitant discrete line emission. The quantized black-hole radiation spectrum is expected to be very different from Hawking's semi-classical prediction of a thermal black-hole radiation spectrum. One naturally wonders: Is it possible to reconcile the {\\it discrete} quantum spectrum suggested by Bekenstein with the {\\it continuous} semi-classical spectrum suggested by Hawking ? In order to address this fundamental question, in this essay we shall consider the zero-point quantum-gravity fluctuations of the black-hole spacetime. In a quantum theory of gravity, these spacetime fluctuations are closely related to the characteristic gravitational resonances of the corresponding black-hole spacetime. Assuming that the energy of the black-hole radiation stems from these zero-point quantum-gravity fluctuations of the black-hole spacetime, we derive the effective temperature of the quanti...

  17. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  18. High Gradient Two-Beam Electron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Y. [Beam Physics Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Ave., New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Kazakov, S. Yu. [Omega-P, Inc., 258 Bradley St., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Kuzikov, S. V. [Omega-P, Inc., 258 Bradley St., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod, 603600 (Russian Federation); Hirshfield, J. L. [Beam Physics Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Ave., New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Omega-P, Inc., 258 Bradley St., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-gradient two-beam electron accelerator structure using detuned cavities is described. A self-consistent theory based on a circuit model is presented to calculate idealized acceleration gradient, transformer ratio, and efficiency for energy transfer from the drive beam to the accelerated beam. Experimental efforts are being carried out to demonstrate this acceleration concept.

  19. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  20. Thermally Induced Vibrations of a Solar Wing with Bowed STEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagler, Shawn 1983-

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    undergo thermal excitations due to a thermal gradient through the cross-section when entering and exiting solar eclipse. These vibrations can greatly reduce pointing accuracy and lead to mission failure. Boeing obtained a patent in 2006 for the High Power...

  1. Quasilinear Carbon Transport In An Impurity Hole Plasma In LHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkelsen, David R. [PPPL; Tanaka, K. [NIFS; Nunami, M. [NIFS; Watanabe, T-H. [Nagoya University; Sugama, H. [NIFS; Yoshinuma, M. [NIFS; Suzuki, Y. [NIFS; Goto, M. [NIFS; Morita, S. [NIFS; Wieland, B. [NIFS; Yamada, I. [NIFS; Yashura, R. [NIFS; Akiyama, T. [NIFS; Pablant, Novimir A. [PPPL

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive electrostatic gyrokinetic linear stability calculations for ion-scale microinstabilities in an LHD plasma with an ion-ITB and carbon "impurity hole" are used to make quasilinear estimates of particle flux to explore whether microturbulence can explain the observed outward carbon fluxes that flow "up" the impurity density gradient. The ion temperature is not stationary in the ion-ITB phase of the simulated discharge, during which the core carbon density decreases continuously. To fully sample these varying conditions the calculations are carried out at three radial locations and four times. The plasma parameter inputs are based on experimentally measured profiles of electron and ion temperature, as well as electron and carbon density. The spectroscopic line-average ratio of hydrogen and helium densities is used to set the density of these species. Three ion species (H,He,C) and the electrons are treated kinetically, including collisions. Electron instability drive does enhance the growth rate significantly, but the most unstable modes have characteristics of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in all cases. As the carbon density gradient is scanned between the measured value and zero, the quasilinear carbon flux is invariably inward when the carbon density profile is hollow, so turbulent transport due to the instabilities considered here does not explain the observed outward flux of impurities in impurity hole plasmas. The stiffness of the quasilinear ion heat flux is found to be 1.7-2.3, which is lower than several estimates in tokamaks.

  2. Laser window with annular grooves for thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Horton, J.A.; Alger, T.W.

    1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser window or other optical element which is thermally loaded, heats up and causes optical distortions because of temperature gradients between the center and the edge. A number of annular grooves, one to three or more, are formed in the element between a central portion and edge portion, producing a web portion which concentrates the thermal gradient and thermally isolates the central portion from the edge portion, producing a uniform temperature profile across the central portion and therefore reduce the optical distortions. The grooves are narrow and closely spaced with respect to the thickness of the element, and successive grooves are formed from alternate sides of the element.

  3. Thermodynamical instability of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Kiselev

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to Hawking radiation of black hole with a given spacetime structure, we consider a competitive transition due to a heat transfer from a hotter inner horizon to a colder outer horizon of Kerr black hole, that results in a stable thermodynamical state of extremal black hole. In this process, by supposing an emission of gravitational quanta, we calculate the mass of extremal black hole in the final state of transition.

  4. Towards noncommutative quantum black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Sabido, M.; Ramirez, C. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, P.O. Box E-143, 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, P.O. Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.

  5. Measurement of thermodynamics using gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze bulk thermodynamics and correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory using the energy-momentum tensor defined by the gradient flow and small flow time expansion. Our results on thermodynamic observables are consistent with those obtained by the conventional integral method. The analysis of the correlation function of total energy supports the energy conservation. It is also addressed that these analyses with gradient flow require less statistics compared with the previous methods. All these results suggest that the energy-momentum tensor can be successfully defined and observed on the lattice with moderate numerical costs with the gradient flow.

  6. Time changes in gradient and observed winds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ronald Dale

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TIME CHANGES IN GRADIENT AND OBSERVED WINDS A Thesis by RONALD DALE CARLSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillm=n of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1972 Major Subject...: Meteorology TIME CHANGES IN GRADIENT AND OBSERVED WINDS A Thesis by RONALD D. CARLSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Co , ee) (Member) (Member) May 1972 ABSTRACT Time Changes in Gradient and Observed Winds. (May 1972) Ronald Dale...

  7. The ISO Galactic Metallicity Gradient Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uriel Giveon; Christophe Morisset; Amiel Sternberg

    2002-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Two independent groups (Giveon et al. 2002; Martin-Hernandez et al. 2002) have recently investigated the Galactic metallicity gradient as probed by ISO observations of mid-infrared emission lines from HII regions. We show that the different gradients inferred by the two groups are due to differing source selection and differing extinction corrections. We show that both data sets in fact provide consistent results if identical assumptions are made in the analysis. We present a consistent set of gradients in which we account for extinction and variation in electron temperature across the disk.

  8. THE MULTIGRID PRECONDITIONED CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD Osamu Tatebe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE MULTIGRID PRECONDITIONED CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD Osamu Tatebe Department of Information Science University of Tokyo Tokyo, JAPAN SUMMARY A multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method iterations and the multigrid preconditioner is a desirable preconditioner of the conjugate gradient method. 1

  9. Relativistic Viscous Fluid Description of Microscopic Black Hole Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Kapusta

    2001-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic black holes explode with their temperature varying inversely as their mass. Such explosions would lead to the highest temperatures in the present universe, all the way to the Planck energy. Whether or not a quasi-stationary shell of matter undergoing radial hydrodynamic expansion surrounds such black holes is been controversial. In this paper relativistic viscous fluid equations are applied to the problem. It is shown that a self-consistent picture emerges of a fluid just marginally kept in local thermal equilibrium; viscosity is a crucial element of the dynamics.

  10. Improvement of tap holes at Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, M.; Kashiwada, M.; Shibuta, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The service life of blast furnaces, as the result of various improvement measures, has been extended from the conventional 5 to 7 years to 15 to 20 years. Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace adopted SiC bricks. Though SiC brick excelled in strength and durability, it has raised problems such as tap hole inside temperature lowering attributable to its high thermal conductivity, insufficient mud burning and gas blow-out. Nevertheless, various countermeasures described within have been taken against such problems, and as the result it has now become possible to maintain tap holes in stable conditions.

  11. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  12. Quantum black hole inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Altaie

    2001-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we follow a new approach for particle creation by a localized strong gravitational field. The approach is based on a definition of the physical vacuum drawn from Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Using the fact that the gravitational field red-shifts the frequency modes of the vacuum, a condition on the minimum stregth of the gravitational field required to achieve real particle creation is derived. Application of this requirement on a Schwartzchid black hole resulted in deducing an upper limit on the region, outside the event horizon, where real particles can be created. Using this regional upper limit, and considering particle creation by black holes as a consequence of the Casimir effect, with the assumption that the created quanta are to be added to the initial energy, we deduce a natural power law for the development of the event horizon, and consequently a logarithmic law for the area spectrum of an inflating black hole. Application of the results on a cosmological model shows that if we start with a Planck-dimensional black hole, then through the process of particle creation we end up with a universe having the presently estimated critical density. Such a universe will be in a state of eternal inflation.

  13. Black Holes at Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Webber

    2006-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In theories with large extra dimensions and TeV-scale gravity, black holes are copiously produced in particle collisions at energies well above the Planck scale. I briefly review some recent work on the phenomenology of this process, with emphasis on theoretical uncertainties and possible strategies for measuring the number of extra dimensions.

  14. Hawking Radiation of a Charged Black Hole in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ichiro Oda

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study black hole radiation of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole with an electric charge in the framework of quantum gravity. Based on a canonical quantization for a spherically symmetric geometry, under physically plausible assumptions, we solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the regions not only between the outer apparent horizon and the spatial infinity but also between the spacetime singularity and the inner apparent horizon, and then show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole due to thermal radiation agrees with the semiclassical result when we choose an integration constant properly by physical reasoning. Furthermore, we also solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the region between the inner Cauchy horizon and the outer apparent horizon, and show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole has the same expression. The present study is the natural generalization of the case of a Schwarzschild black hole to that of a charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

  15. Hawking Radiation of a Charged Black Hole in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oda, Ichiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study black hole radiation of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole with an electric charge in the framework of quantum gravity. Based on a canonical quantization for a spherically symmetric geometry, under physically plausible assumptions, we solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the regions not only between the outer apparent horizon and the spatial infinity but also between the spacetime singularity and the inner apparent horizon, and then show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole due to thermal radiation agrees with the semiclassical result when we choose an integration constant properly by physical reasoning. Furthermore, we also solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the region between the inner Cauchy horizon and the outer apparent horizon, and show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole has the same expression. The present study is the natural generalization of the case of a Schwarzschild black hole to that of a charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

  16. Program predicts two-phase pressure gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacks, D.C.; Hill, A.D.

    1983-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The calculator program discussed, ORK, was designed for the HP-41CV hand-held calculator and uses the Orkiszewski correlation for predicting 2-phase pressure gradients in vertical tubulars. Accurate predictions of pressure gradients in flowing and gas lift wells over a wide range of well conditions can be obtained with this method, which was developed based on data from 148 wells. The correlation is one of the best generalized 2-phase pressure gradient prediction methods developed to date for vertical flow. It is unique in that hold-up is derived from observed physical phenomena, and the pressure gradient is related to the geometrical distribution of the liquid and gas phase (flow regime).

  17. A Study To Determine Necessity of Pilot Holes When Drilling Shallow Gas Zones Using Top Hole Dual Gradient Drilling Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Lauren

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Mud Weight OWM Old Weight Mud RBOP Rotating Blowout Preventer SICP Shut In Casing Pressure SIDPP Shut In Drillpipe Pressure SMD JIP SubSea MudLift Drilling Joint Industry Project TD Total Depth TVD True Vertical Depth vii TABLE... Geometry and Subsea Pump Data ............................................. 16 Figure 5- Kick and Formation Property Data...................................................... 17 Figure 6- Pump Data and Other Information...

  18. Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new high energy gradient concentration cathode material Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  19. A globally convergent modified conjugate-gradient line-search ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenwen Zhou

    2009-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 23, 2009 ... Further, we provide a new variant of modified conjugate gradient algorithms ... optimization, trust region methods, conjugate gradient method.

  20. An inexact accelerated proximal gradient method for large scale ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    projected gradient method, and usually has good practical performance on .... conditioned, the conjugate gradient (CG) method would have great difficulty in ...

  1. On the regularizing behavior of recent gradient methods in the ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberta De Asmundis

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 14, 2014 ... On the regularizing behavior of recent gradient methods in the ... can be competitive with the Conjugate Gradient (CG) method, since they are ...

  2. a perry descent conjugate gradient method with restricted spectrum ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new nonlinear conjugate gradient method, based on Perry's ... Key words and phrases. large scale optimization, conjugate gradient method, descent property ...

  3. Comparative systems biology across an evolutionary gradient within...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems biology across an evolutionary gradient within the Shewanella genus . Comparative systems biology across an evolutionary gradient within the Shewanella genus . Abstract: To...

  4. Distributed Task Migration for Thermal Management in Many-core Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Qinru

    chip complexity and power envelope elevate peak temperatures of chip and imbalance the thermal gradientDistributed Task Migration for Thermal Management in Many-core Systems Yang Ge, Parth Malani, Qinru York {yge2, pmalani1, qqiu}@binghamton.edu ABSTRACT In the deep submicron era, thermal hot spots

  5. Gradient effects on the fracture of inhomogeneous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, T.L.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) have a spatial variation in physical properties that can be tailored to meet the needs of a specific application and/or to minimize internal stresses arising from thermal and elastic mismatch. Modeling these materials as inhomogeneous continua allows assessment of the role of the gradient without requiring detailed knowledge of the microstructure. Motivated by the relative difficulty of obtaining analytical solutions to boundary value problems for FGMs, an accurate finite-element code is developed for obtaining numerical planar and axisymmetric linear thermoelastic solutions. In addition an approximate analytical technique for mapping homogeneous-modulus solutions to those for FGMs is assessed and classes of problems to which it applies accurately are identified. The fracture mechanics analysis of FGMs can be characterized by the classic stress intensities, KI and KII, but there has been scarce progress in understanding the role of the modulus gradient in determining fracture initiation and propagation. To address this question, a statistical fracture model is used to correlate near-tip stresses with brittle fracture initiation behavior. This describes the behavior of a material experiencing fracture initiation away from the crack tip. Widely dispersed zones of fracture initiation sites are expected. Finite-length kinks are analyzed to describe the crack path for continuous crack growth. For kink lengths much shorter than the gradient dimension, a parallel stress term describes the deviation of the kinking angle from that for homogeneous materials. For longer kinks there is a divergence of the kink angle predicted by the maximum energy release rate and the pure opening mode criteria.

  6. BLACK HOLE AURORA POWERED BY A ROTATING BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Masaaki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi 448-8542 (Japan); Takahashi, Rohta, E-mail: takahasi@phyas.aichi-edu.ac.j [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model for high-energy emission sources generated by a standing magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) shock in a black hole magnetosphere. The black hole magnetosphere would be constructed around a black hole with an accretion disk, where a global magnetic field could be originated by currents in the accretion disk and its corona. Such a black hole magnetosphere may be considered as a model for the central engine of active galactic nuclei, some compact X-ray sources, and gamma-ray bursts. The energy sources of the emission from the magnetosphere are the gravitational and electromagnetic energies of magnetized accreting matters and the rotational energy of a rotating black hole. When the MHD shock generates in MHD accretion flows onto the black hole, the plasma's kinetic energy and the black hole's rotational energy can convert to radiative energy. In this Letter, we demonstrate the huge energy output at the shock front by showing negative energy postshock accreting MHD flows for a rapidly rotating black hole. This means that the extracted energy from the black hole can convert to the radiative energy at the MHD shock front. When an axisymmetric shock front is formed, we expect a ring-shaped region with very hot plasma near the black hole; this would look like an 'aurora'. The high-energy radiation generated from there would carry to us the information for the curved spacetime due to the strong gravity.

  7. Spectral properties of acoustic black hole radiation: Broadening the horizon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finazzi, Stefano; Parentani, Renaud [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste 34151 (Italy) and INFN sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, CNRS UMR 8627, Batiment 210, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The sensitivity of the black hole spectrum when introducing short distance dispersion is studied in the context of atomic Bose condensates. By considering flows characterized by several length scales, we show that, while the spectrum remains remarkably Planckian, the temperature is no longer fixed by the surface gravity. Rather it is determined by the average of the flow gradient across the horizon over an interval fixed by the healing length and the surface gravity, as if the horizon were broadened. This remains valid as long as the flow does not induce nonadiabatic effects that produce oscillations or some parametric amplification of the flux.

  8. Thermal Tests of Undulator Quad

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Andrew; /SLAC; ,

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Running at the nominal temperature, the undulator quadrupole has a several degree temperature increase. This note describes the test used to determine the effect on the undulator integrals from the temperature gradient caused by the heat from the quadrupole conducting down the beam pipe. The undulator quadrupoles running at their nominal current of 4 amps heat up approximately 4 degrees Celsius; this magnet in turn heats up the beampipe which goes into the undulator. The heating ends up introducing a thermal gradient across the undulator which causes small changes in the magnetic field of the heated poles. By measuring the temperature change in the poles we can model the effects on the field and determine what the magnetic errors will be.

  9. Shape of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, María E Gabach

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that celestial bodies tend to be spherical due to gravity and that rotation produces deviations from this sphericity. We discuss what is known and expected about the shape of black holes' horizons from their formation to their final, stationary state. We present some recent results showing that black hole rotation indeed manifests in the widening of their central regions, limits their global shapes and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotation speed. The results depend only on the horizon area and angular momentum. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the spacetime and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. We also discuss the the relation of this result with the Hoop conjecture.

  10. Thermodynamics of topological nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zangeneh, M Kord; Dehghani, M H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we construct a new class of analytic topological Lifshitz black holes with constant curvature horizon in the presence of power-law Maxwell field in four and higher dimensions. We find that in order to obtain these exact Lifshitz solutions, we need a dilaton and at least three electromagnetic fields. Interestingly enough, we find that the reality of the charge of the electromagnetic field which is needed for having solutions with curved horizon rules out black holes with hyperbolic horizon. Next, we study the thermodynamics of these nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes with spherical and flat horizons by calculating all the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the solutions. Furthermore, we obtain a generalized Smarr formula and show that the first law of thermodynamics is satisfied. Finally, we perform a stability analysis in both canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. We find that the solutions are thermally stable in a proper ranges of the metric parameters.

  11. Turbulent electron transport in edge pedestal by electron temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of) [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Jhang, Hogun [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of) [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); CMTFO and CASS, University of California, San Diego 92093-0424, California (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model for turbulent electron thermal transport at the edge pedestal in high (H)-mode plasmas based on electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence. A quasi-linear analysis of electrostatic toroidal ETG modes shows that both turbulent electron thermal diffusivity and hyper-resistivity exhibits the Ohkawa scaling in which the radial correlation length of turbulence becomes the order of electron skin depth. Combination of the Ohkawa scales and the plasma current dependence results in a novel confinement scaling inside the pedestal region. It is also shown that ETG turbulence induces a thermoelectric pinch, which may accelerate the density pedestal formation.

  12. Electron transport and frozen concentration gradients in a mixed valent viologen molten salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrill, R.H.; Hatazawa, Tsuyonobu; Murray, R.W. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1995-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows that electrolytically generated crossed concentration gradients of viologen (2+) and viologen (1+) in films of its mixed valent molten salt on interdigitated array electrodes can be thermally and stably frozen in place in the interelectrode gaps. A study is presented of properties of the gradient-containing films, as compared to films that are non-mixed valent (V{sup 2+}) or that are mixed valent but lack concentration gradients. Comparisons of charge transport measurements show that the 2-5 {mu}m wide concentration gradients are persistent in the molten salt at lowered temperatures, where ionic motions are quenched relative to electron hopping as shown by differences in conductivity between mixed valent and non-mixed valent films as the temperature is lowered from +50 to -70{degree}C. Differences in the magnitude and shape of high-field current-voltage curves taken from mixed valent nongradient and V{sup 2+}/V{sup +} gradient-containing samples are interpreted with an electron-hopping model that includes a parameter for kinetic dispersity. Differences between the capacitance of the mixed valent and non-mixed valent phase of the viologen molten salt are consistent with the formation of an electronic space charge at the metal/redox conductor interface. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. TOWARDS STOCHASTIC CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS Nicol N. Schraudolph Thore Graepel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schraudolph, Nicol N.

    TOWARDS STOCHASTIC CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS Nicol N. Schraudolph Thore Graepel schraudo of conjugate gradients provides a very effective way to optimize large, deterministic systems by gradient de. Here we explore a number of ways to adopt ideas from conjugate gradient in the stochastic setting

  14. Relationship between gradient and EM steps in latent variable models.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roweis, Sam

    includes random search, standard gradient­based algorithms, line search methods such as conjugate gradient to to first order method operat­ ing on the gradient of a locally reshaped likelihood function. DirectRelationship between gradient and EM steps in latent variable models. Ruslan Salakhutdinov Sam

  15. 11 SOME PROPERTIES OF A NEW CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Ya-xiang

    11 SOME PROPERTIES OF A NEW CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD Y. H. Dai and Y. Yuan State Key Laboratory@cc.ac.cn Abstract: It is proved that the new conjugate gradient method proposed by Dai and Yuan 5] produces problem minf(x) x 2 Rn (1.1) where f is smooth and its gradient g is available. Conjugate gradient methods

  16. Relationship between gradient and EM steps in latent variable models.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roweis, Sam

    includes random search, standard gradient-based algorithms, line search methods such as conjugate gradient to to first order method operat- ing on the gradient of a locally reshaped likelihood function. DirectRelationship between gradient and EM steps in latent variable models. Ruslan Salakhutdinov Sam

  17. Critical gradient formula for toroidal electron temperature gradient modes F. Jenko, W. Dorland,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Greg

    Critical gradient formula for toroidal electron temperature gradient modes F. Jenko, W. Dorland and edge plasmas are presented. An algebraic formula for the threshold of the linear instability is derived formula. We discuss the results with respect to previous analytical results and to experimental

  18. Electric field gradient, generalized Sternheimer shieldings and electric field gradient polarizabilities by multiconfigurational SCF response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helgaker, Trygve

    Electric field gradient, generalized Sternheimer shieldings and electric field gradient at the nuclei, the generalized Sternheimer shielding constants and the EFG electric dipole polarizabilities discussed by Egstro¨m and co-workers4 and recently in a more general way by Fowler and co-workers.5

  19. Black holes in massive gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babichev, Eugeny

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the black hole solutions of the ghost-free massive gravity theory and its bimetric extension and outline the main results on the stability of these solutions against small perturbations. Massive (bi)-gravity accommodates exact black hole solutions, analogous to those of General Relativity. In addition to these solutions, hairy black holes -- solutions with no correspondent in General Relativity -- have been found numerically, whose existence is a natural consequence of the absence of the Birkhoff's theorem in these theories. The existence of extra propagating degrees of freedom, makes the stability properties of these black holes richer and more complex than those of General Relativity. In particular, the bi-Schwarzschild black hole exhibits an unstable spherically symmetric mode, while the bi-Kerr geometry is also generically unstable, both against the spherical mode and against superradiant instabilities. If astrophysical black holes are described by these solutions, the superradiant instability o...

  20. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  1. Conjugate gradient algorithms using multiple recursions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Much is already known about when a conjugate gradient method can be implemented with short recursions for the direction vectors. The work done in 1984 by Faber and Manteuffel gave necessary and sufficient conditions on the iteration matrix A, in order for a conjugate gradient method to be implemented with a single recursion of a certain form. However, this form does not take into account all possible recursions. This became evident when Jagels and Reichel used an algorithm of Gragg for unitary matrices to demonstrate that the class of matrices for which a practical conjugate gradient algorithm exists can be extended to include unitary and shifted unitary matrices. The implementation uses short double recursions for the direction vectors. This motivates the study of multiple recursion algorithms.

  2. Ocean thermal energy conversion plants : experimental and analytical study of mixing and recirculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirka, Gerhard H.

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a method of generating power using the vertical temperature gradient of the tropical ocean as an energy source. Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to determine ...

  3. Quantum Black Hole Formation in the BFSS Matrix Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinya Aoki; Masanori Hanada; Norihiro Iizuka

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the various head-on collisions of two bunches of D0-branes and their real-time evolution in the BFSS matrix model in classical limit. For a various matrix size N respecting the 't Hooft scaling, we find quantitative evidence for the formation of a single bound state of D0-branes at late time, which is matrix model thermalization and dual to the formation of a larger black hole.

  4. Time changes in gradient and observed winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ronald Dale

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - cal purposes, represents the changes in the components of the gradient wind speed, as calculated from Eqs. (9) and (10). Equations (9) and (10) were solved by the use of finite dif- ference methods. Due to the long incremental time steps, 3 to 12... hours, the changes in the components of the gradient wind speed obtained numerically from Eqs. (9) and (10) may differ slightly from the changes observed due to the numerical techniques employed. How- ever, the patterns obtained by the two methods...

  5. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  6. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA); Sakaji, Richard H. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  7. Observational Evidence for Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramesh Narayan; Jeffrey E. McClintock

    2014-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly correlated with properties of their host galaxies, suggesting that these black holes, although extremely small in size, have a strong influence on the formation and evolution of entire galaxies. Spin parameters have recently been measured for a handful of black holes. Based on the data, there is an indication that the kinetic power of at least one class of relativistic jet ejected from accreting black holes may be correlated with black hole spin. If verified, it would suggest that these jets are powered by a generalized Penrose process mediated by magnetic fields.

  8. New Coordinates for BTZ Black Hole and Hawking Radiation via Tunnelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenbiao Liu

    2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hawking radiation can usefully be viewed as a semi-classical tunnelling process that originates at the black hole horizon. For the stationary axisymmetric BTZ black hole, a generalized Painleve coordinate system (Painleve-BTZ coordinates) is introduced, and Hawking radiation as tunnelling under the effect of self-gravitation is investigated. The corrected radiation is obtained which is not precise thermal spectrum. The result is consistent with the underlying unitary theory. Moreover, Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of BTZ black hole is not necessarily corrected when we choose appropriate coordinate system to study the tunnelling effect.

  9. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  10. Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here.Telluric Survey asWest,CEI Jump to:Cerion EnergyEnergy

  11. Artificial ozone holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Dolya

    2014-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  12. Efficient Gradient Computation for Dynamical B. Sengupta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    descriptive length, variational free energy, etc. Generally, optimisation rests on evaluating the localEfficient Gradient Computation for Dynamical Models B. Sengupta , K.J. Friston and W.D. Penny of thousands of neurons using fMRI. Data assimilation involves inverting a generative model that can not only

  13. Multi-gradient drilling method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maurer, William C. (Houston, TX); Medley, Jr., George H. (Spring, TX); McDonald, William J. (Houston, TX)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-gradient system for drilling a well bore from a surface location into a seabed includes an injector for injecting buoyant substantially incompressible articles into a column of drilling fluid associated with the well bore. Preferably, the substantially incompressible articles comprises hollow substantially spherical bodies.

  14. Application of Gradient Expansion to Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasusada Nambu; Atsushi Taruya

    1994-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the long wave perturbation scheme(gradient expansion), the effect of inhomogeneity on the inflationary phase is investigated. We solved the perturbation equation of which source term comes from inhomogeneity of a scalar field and a seed metric. The result indicates that sub-horizon scale inhomogeneity strongly affects the onset of inflation.

  15. Gradient Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gradient Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks Philipp Sommer Computer Engineering- olution. Without doubt, time is a first-class citizen in wireless sensor networks. Without accurate time if the nodes in the wireless sensor network manage to have an adequate agreement of time. Indeed

  16. Universal Microfluidic Gradient Generator Daniel Irimia1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geba, Dan-Andrei

    Universal Microfluidic Gradient Generator Daniel Irimia1 , Dan A Geba2 , Mehmet Toner1 1 Bio, Building 114, 16th St, Charlestown, MA 02129. Email: mtoner@hms.harvard.edu Keywords: microfluidics cells in vitro. While microfluidic devices have shown unmatched capability in generating linear stable

  17. Fourier Accelerated Conjugate Gradient Lattice Gauge Fixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Hudspith

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide details of the first implementation of a non-linear conjugate gradient method for Landau and Coulomb gauge fixing with Fourier acceleration. We find clear improvement over the Fourier accelerated steepest descent method, with the average time taken for the algorithm to converge to a fixed, high accuracy, being reduced by a factor of 2 to 4.

  18. The Ozone Hole Some perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    The Ozone Hole · Some perspective · The British Antarctic Survey · The "Ozone Hole" · International of the predicted ozone losses! This was quite a controversy. Ultimately, ozone losses started appearing in the late 1980s (see Figure below), but by then, there was already a credibility issue for ozone scientists. #12

  19. Optical black holes and solitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawn Westmoreland

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We exhibit a static, cylindrically symmetric, exact solution to the Euler-Heisenberg field equations (EHFE) and prove that its effective geometry contains (optical) black holes. It is conjectured that there are also soliton solutions to the EHFE which contain black hole geometries.

  20. Black Holes of Negative Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    I demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, regions of negative energy density can undergo gravitational collapse into a black hole. The resultant exterior black hole spacetimes necessarily have negative mass and non-trivial topology. A full theory of quantum gravity, in which topology-changing processes take place, could give rise to such spacetimes.

  1. Density matrix of black hole radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasma Alberte; Ram Brustein; Andrei Khmelnitsky; A. J. M. Medved

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Hawking's model of black hole evaporation is not unitary and leads to a mixed density matrix for the emitted radiation, while the Page model describes a unitary evaporation process in which the density matrix evolves from an almost thermal state to a pure state. We compare a recently proposed model of semiclassical black hole evaporation to the two established models. In particular, we study the density matrix of the outgoing radiation and determine how the magnitude of the off-diagonal corrections differs for the three frameworks. For Hawking's model, we find power-law corrections to the two-point functions that induce exponentially suppressed corrections to the off-diagonal elements of the full density matrix. This verifies that the Hawking result is correct to all orders in perturbation theory and also allows one to express the full density matrix in terms of the single-particle density matrix. We then consider the semiclassical theory for which the corrections, being non-perturbative from an effective field-theory perspective, are much less suppressed and grow monotonically in time. In this case, the R\\'enyi entropy for the outgoing radiation is shown to grow linearly at early times; but this growth slows down and the entropy eventually starts to decrease at the Page time. In addition to comparing models, we emphasize the distinction between the state of the radiation emitted from a black hole, which is highly quantum, and that of the radiation emitted from a typical classical black body at the same temperature.

  2. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS operating at 30 GHz. It was shown that the ratio of maximum surface electric field to accelerating field at the metal wall is only 0.35-0.4 for DLA, much smaller than the value 2.2 for HDS; and the ratio of surface magnetic field to accelerating field is 3.0 mA/V for DLA, compared with 3.45 mA/V for HDS. These values bode well for DLA in helping to avoid breakdown and to reducing pulsed surface heating and fatigue. The shunt impedance is found to be 160-175 M{Omega}/m for DLA, as compared to 99 M{Omega}/m for HDS. Conclusions are reached from this project that CVD diamond appears promising as a dielectric with a high threshold for RF breakdown, and that rectangular accelerator structures can be devised using planar CVD diamond elements that could be operated at higher acceleration gradients with low probability of RF breakdown, as compared with corresponding all-metallic structures.

  3. Laboratory Observation of Electron Phase-Space Holes during Magnetic Reconnection W. Fox, M. Porkolab, J. Egedal, N. Katz, and A. Le

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egedal, Jan

    the electron thermal speed and have a three-dimensional, approximately spherical shape, with a scale size $2 mm at the bow shock and in the magnetotail [14,15]. Here we report the laboratory observation of electron holes

  4. Non-linear Plasma Wake Growth of Electron Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, I H; Zhou, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts \\emph{across} the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind wake and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable...

  5. Fast quantum algorithm for numerical gradient estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen P. Jordan

    2005-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a blackbox for f, a smooth real scalar function of d real variables, one wants to estimate the gradient of f at a given point with n bits of precision. On a classical computer this requires a minimum of d+1 blackbox queries, whereas on a quantum computer it requires only one query regardless of d. The number of bits of precision to which f must be evaluated matches the classical requirement in the limit of large n.

  6. Exploration of very high gradient cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several of the 9-cell ILC cavities processed at Jlab within ongoing ILC R&D program have shown interesting behavior at high fields, such as mode mixing and sudden field emission turn-on during quench. Equipped with thermometry and oscillating superleak transducer (OST) system for quench detection, we couple our RF measurements with local dissipation measurements. In this contribution we report on our findings with high gradient SRF cavities.

  7. A Preconditioner for a Primal-Dual Newton Conjugate Gradients ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimon Fountoulakis

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 30, 2014 ... A Preconditioner for a Primal-Dual Newton Conjugate Gradients Method for Compressed Sensing Problems.

  8. Optimization Online - Conjugate gradient methods based on secant ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y Narushima

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Conjugate gradient methods based on secant conditions that generate descent search directions for unconstrained optimization.

  9. A three-term conjugate gradient method with sufficient descent ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Finally, some numerical results of the proposed method are given. keyword; Unconstrained optimization, three-term conjugate gradient method, sufficient.

  10. BASIC GEOPHYSICAL FLUID Lecture 3: Gradient winds, pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    cyclostrophic balance. 2 #12;Example of gradient-wind balance: Hurricane Andrew 3 #12;Examples of cyclostrophic

  11. Energy Gradient Theory of Hydrodynamic Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua-Shu Dou

    2005-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new universal theory for flow instability and turbulent transition is proposed in this study. Flow instability and turbulence transition have been challenging subjects for fluid dynamics for a century. The critical condition of turbulent transition from theory and experiments differs largely from each other for Poiseuille flows. In this paper, a new mechanism of flow instability and turbulence transition is presented for parallel shear flows and the energy gradient theory of hydrodynamic instability is proposed. It is stated that the total energy gradient in the transverse direction and that in the streamwise direction of the main flow dominate the disturbance amplification or decay. A new dimensionless parameter K for characterizing flow instability is proposed for wall bounded shear flows, which is expressed as the ratio of the energy gradients in the two directions. It is thought that flow instability should first occur at the position of Kmax which may be the most dangerous position. This speculation is confirmed by Nishioka et al's experimental data. Comparison with experimental data for plane Poiseuille flow and pipe Poiseuille flow indicates that the proposed idea is really valid. It is found that the turbulence transition takes place at a critical value of Kmax of about 385 for both plane Poiseuille flow and pipe Poiseuille flow, below which no turbulence will occur regardless the disturbance. More studies show that the theory is also valid for plane Couette flows and Taylor-Couette flows between concentric rotating cylinders.

  12. Laser drilling of superdeep micron holes in various materials with a programmable control of laser radiation parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Osiko, Vyacheslav V [Laser Materials and Technology Research Center, A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, A V; Smetanin, S N; Fedin, A V [V.A.Degtyarev Kovrov State Technological Academy, Kovrov, Vladimir region (Russian Federation)

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibilities of enhancing the efficiency of laser drilling of micron holes, increasing their depth, and eliminating their conic shape are studied by using a single-mode loop Nd:YAG laser with self-phase conjugation on the gain gratings and passive Q-switching by a scanned gradiently coloured F{sub 2}{sup -}:LiF crystal. Holes of diameters 15-150 {mu}m and depth up to 20 mm with the aspect ratio (ratio of the hole depth to its diameter) of 50-155 are drilled in various metals and alloys. It is shown that passive Q-switch scanning during drilling provides the increase in the depth and speed of the laser drilling of superdeep holes by a factor of 1.5-2. (laser technologies)

  13. Strings, higher curvature corrections, and black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Mohaupt

    2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We review old and recent results on subleading contributions to black hole entropy in string theory.

  14. Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................... 4 2.2 Dual Gradient Drilling Method.............................................. 5 2.3 Methods of Achieving Dual Gradient Drilling ...................... 9 2.3.1 Subsea Mudlift Drilling... ................................................... 9 2.5 Schematic diagram of a modified subsea mudlift system .......................... 11 2.6 Hollow glass-spheres dual gradient drilling system................................... 13 2.7 A typical offshore drilling rig modified...

  15. Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient drilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................... 4 2.2 Dual Gradient Drilling Method.............................................. 5 2.3 Methods of Achieving Dual Gradient Drilling ...................... 9 2.3.1 Subsea Mudlift Drilling... ................................................... 9 2.5 Schematic diagram of a modified subsea mudlift system .......................... 11 2.6 Hollow glass-spheres dual gradient drilling system................................... 13 2.7 A typical offshore drilling rig modified...

  16. USING SIMPLEX GRADIENTS OF NONSMOOTH FUNCTIONS IN DIRECT SEARCH METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vicente, Luís Nunes

    USING SIMPLEX GRADIENTS OF NONSMOOTH FUNCTIONS IN DIRECT SEARCH METHODS A. L. CUST´ODIO , J. E by reordering the poll directions according to descent indicators built from simplex gradients. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we analyze the properties of simplex gradients of nonsmooth functions

  17. AN EXTENDED CLASS OF NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Ya-xiang

    AN EXTENDED CLASS OF NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS \\Lambda Y. H. Dai and Y. Yuan State Key 100080, P. R. China. Email: dyh,yyx@lsec.cc.ac.cn Abstract Conjugate gradient methods are very important be analyzed uniformly, conjugate gradient methods are often analyzed individually. Recently, Dai and Yuan

  18. AN AUGMENTED CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD FOR SOLVING CONSECUTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AN AUGMENTED CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD FOR SOLVING CONSECUTIVE SYMMETRIC POSITIVE DEFINITE LINEAR definite matrix A. The conjugate gradient method applied to the first system generates a Krylov subspace conjugate gradient method is then applied with a specific initial guess and initial descent direction

  19. CONVERGENCE PROPERTIES OF NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Ya-xiang

    CONVERGENCE PROPERTIES OF NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS1 Yuhong Dai2 , Jiye Han3 , Guanghui contributions on convergence studies of conjugate gradient methods have been made by Gilbert and Nocedal [6 for ensuring the global convergence of conjugate gradient methods. This paper shows that the sufficient descent

  20. ON THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsgren, Anders

    ON THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD AND QUASI-NEWTON METHODS ON QUADRATIC Royal Institute of Technology February 2013 Abstract It is well known that the conjugate gradient method gradient method. In the framework based on a sufficient condition to obtain mutually conjugate search

  1. Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Methods for Three Dimensional Linear Elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterloo, University of

    Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Methods for Three Dimensional Linear Elasticity by John Kenneth. A brief review is also made of stopping criteria for conjugate gradient solvers. One method based and tested with poor results. iv #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Methods

  2. CG DESCENT, A CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD WITH GUARANTEED DESCENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hongchao

    CG DESCENT, A CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD WITH GUARANTEED DESCENT #3; WILLIAM W. HAGER y AND HONGCHAO are given. Key words. Conjugate gradient method, unconstrained optimization, convergence, line search, Wolfe nonlinear conjugate gradient method for solving an unconstrained optimization problem min ff(x) : x 2

  3. Exploiting Matrix Symmetry to Improve FPGA-Accelerated Conjugate Gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakos, Jason D.

    the Conjugate Gradient (CG) method using an FPGA co-processor. As in previous approaches, our coExploiting Matrix Symmetry to Improve FPGA- Accelerated Conjugate Gradient Jason D. Bakos, Krishna, high- performance computing, sparse matrix vector multiply, conjugate gradient I. INTRODUCTION Linear

  4. A conjugate gradient learning algorithm for recurrent neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mak, Man-Wai

    ]. In particular, the conjugate gradient method is commonly used in training BP networks due to its speed1 A conjugate gradient learning algorithm for recurrent neural networks (Revised Version) Wing algorithm by incorporating conjugate gradient computation into its learning procedure. The resulting

  5. APPROXIMATE INVERSE PRECONDITIONING FOR THE CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tùma, Miroslav

    APPROXIMATE INVERSE PRECONDITIONING FOR THE CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD ON A VECTOR COMPUTER Michele definite matrix, by the preconditioned conjugate gradient method (PCG) (see, e.g., [4]). It is well of the conjugate gradient method reduces to computing a matrix­ vector product with G, an operation which offers

  6. Alternate Explosions: Collapse and Accretion Events with Red Holes instead of Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James S. Graber

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A red hole is "just like a black hole" except it lacks an event horizon and a singularity. As a result, a red hole emits much more energy than a black hole during a collapse or accretion event. We consider how a red hole solution can solve the "energy crisis" and power extremely energetic gamma ray bursts and hypernovae.

  7. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  8. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  9. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

  10. Focusing of an elongated hole in porous medium S. B. Angenent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    which is valid for all m. This approximation indicates that the numerically observed power law behavior other applications such as population biology [21], diffusion of strong thermal waves [9], and, most. By Darcy's law, the velocity in porous medium flow is proportional to the pressure gradient. Thus, in order

  11. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: thermal hydraulics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    -fluid modeling of nuclear reactor systems. Thermal-hydraulic analysis codes such as RELAP5-3D ~Ref. 1! and FLICA regions of the system. In fact, the CFD code FLUENT has previously been coupled to RELAP5-3D ~Refs. 3

  12. Thermodynamics of regular black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2008-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate thermodynamics for a magnetically charged regular black hole (MCRBH), which comes from the action of general relativity and nonlinear electromagnetics, comparing with the Reissner-Norstr\\"om (RN) black hole in both four and two dimensions after dimensional reduction. We find that there is no thermodynamic difference between the regular and RN black holes for a fixed charge $Q$ in both dimensions. This means that the condition for either singularity or regularity at the origin of coordinate does not affect the thermodynamics of black hole. Furthermore, we describe the near-horizon AdS$_2$ thermodynamics of the MCRBH with the connection of the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory. We also identify the near-horizon entropy as the statistical entropy by using the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence.

  13. Black Hole Interior Mass Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthapratim Pradhan

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue by explicit computations that, although the area product, horizon radii product, entropy product and \\emph {irreducible mass product} of the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are universal, the \\emph{surface gravity product}, \\emph{surface temperature product} and \\emph{Komar energy product} of the said horizons do not seem to be universal for Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole space-time. We show the black hole mass formula on the \\emph{Cauchy horizon} following the seminal work by Smarr\\cite{smarr} for the outer horizon. We also prescribed the \\emph{four} laws of black hole mechanics for the \\emph{inner horizon}. New definition of the extremal limit of a black hole is discussed.

  14. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  15. Fishing in Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Brotas

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coordinate system $(\\bar{x},\\bar{t})$ defined by $r = 2m + K\\bar{x}- c K \\bar{t}$ and $t=\\bar{x}/cK - 1 /cK \\int_{r_a}^r (1- 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2} (1 - 2m/r)^{-1}dr$ allow us to write the Schwarzschild metric in the form: \\[ds^2=c^2 d\\bar{t}^2 + (W^2/K^2 - 2W/K) d\\bar{x}^2 + 2c (1 + W/K) d\\bar{x}d\\bar{t} - r^2 (d\\theta^2 + cos^2\\theta d\\phi^2)\\] with $W=(1 - 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2}$, in which the coefficients' pathologies are moved to $r_K = 2m/(1+K^2)$. This new coordinate system is used to study the entrance into a black hole of a rigid line (a line in which the shock waves propagate with velocity c).

  16. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has · STOP (Structural, Thermal, and Optical Performance) analyses of optical systems Thermal engineers lead evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  17. Black Hole Fluctuations and Backreaction in Stochastic Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Sinha; Alpan Raval; B. L. Hu

    2002-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a framework for analyzing black hole backreaction from the point of view of quantum open systems using influence functional formalism. We focus on the model of a black hole described by a radially perturbed quasi-static metric and Hawking radiation by a conformally coupled massless quantum scalar field. It is shown that the closed-time-path (CTP) effective action yields a non-local dissipation term as well as a stochastic noise term in the equation of motion, the Einstein-Langevin equation. Once the thermal Green's function in a Schwarzschild background becomes available to the required accuracy the strategy described here can be applied to obtain concrete results on backreaction. We also present an alternative derivation of the CTP effective action in terms of the Bogolyubov coefficients, thus making a connection with the interpretation of the noise term as measuring the difference in particle production in alternative histories.

  18. The gradient flow running coupling scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoltan Fodor; Kieran Holland; Julius Kuti; Daniel Nogradi; Chik Him Wong

    2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yang-Mills gradient flow in finite volume is used to define a running coupling scheme. As our main result the discrete beta-function, or step scaling function, is calculated for scale change s=3/2 at several lattice spacings for SU(3) gauge theory coupled to N_f = 4 fundamental massless fermions. The continuum extrapolation is performed and agreement is found with the continuum perturbative results for small renormalized coupling. The case of SU(2) gauge group is briefly commented on.

  19. Steep Gradient Flume | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt.Steep Gradient Flume Jump to: navigation, search

  20. The Plasma Puddle as a Perturbative Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clifford Cheung; Jared Kaplan

    2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that the weak coupling regime of a large N gauge theory in the Higgs phase contains black hole-like objects. These so-called ``plasma puddles'' are meta-stable lumps of hot plasma lying in locally un-Higgsed regions of space. They decay via O(1/N) thermal radiation and, perhaps surprisingly, absorb all incident matter. We show that an incident particle of energy E striking the plasma puddle will shower into an enormous number of decay products whose multiplicity grows linearly with E, and whose average energy is independent of E. Once these ultra-soft particles reach the interior they are thermalized by the plasma within, and so the object appears ``black.'' We determine some gross properties like the size and temperature of the the plasma puddle in terms of fundamental parameters in the gauge theory. Interestingly, demanding that the plasma puddle emit thermal Hawking radiation implies that the object is black (i.e. absorbs all incident particles), which implies classical stability, which implies satisfaction of the Bekenstein entropy bound. Because of the AdS/CFT duality and the many similarities between plasma puddles and black holes, we conjecture that black objects are a robust feature of quantum gravity.

  1. Gradient Navigation Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Dietrich; Gerta Köster

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new microscopic ODE-based model for pedestrian dynamics: the Gradient Navigation Model. The model uses a superposition of gradients of distance functions to directly change the direction of the velocity vector. The velocity is then integrated to obtain the location. The approach differs fundamentally from force based models needing only three equations to derive the ODE system, as opposed to four in, e.g., the Social Force Model. Also, as a result, pedestrians are no longer subject to inertia. Several other advantages ensue: Model induced oscillations are avoided completely since no actual forces are present. The derivatives in the equations of motion are smooth and therefore allow the use of fast and accurate high order numerical integrators. At the same time, existence and uniqueness of the solution to the ODE system follow almost directly from the smoothness properties. In addition, we introduce a method to calibrate parameters by theoretical arguments based on empirically validated assumptions rather than by numerical tests. These parameters, combined with the accurate integration, yield simulation results with no collisions of pedestrians. Several empirically observed system phenomena emerge without the need to recalibrate the parameter set for each scenario: obstacle avoidance, lane formation, stop-and-go waves and congestion at bottlenecks. The density evolution in the latter is shown to be quantitatively close to controlled experiments. Likewise, we observe a dependence of the crowd velocity on the local density that compares well with benchmark fundamental diagrams.

  2. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.

  3. Old Maid Flat geothermal exploratory hole No. 7A drilling and completion report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling and testing efforts for a 6000-foot geothermal exploratory hole on the western approaches to Mount Hood, near Portland, Oregon were completed. The intent of the drilling was to encounter a hydrothermal reservoir in a postulated fracture system and confirm the existence of a moderate-temperature (200/sup 0/F) geothermal resource in the Old Main Flat (OMF) vicinity of Mount Hood. The exploratory hole, OMF No. 7A, was completed to a total depth of 6027 feet in 54 days using conventional rotary drilling techniques. The hole was found to be incapable of producing fluids with the desired temperatures. A maximum hole temperature of about 235/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth and a temperature gradient of about 3.3/sup 0/F/100 feet was exhibited over the lower 1000 feet of hole. A variety of technical data, including physical samples such as cores, cuttings, and borehole fluids, plus geophysical well logs were acquired. Data analyses are continuing, with results to be made available through future separate reports.

  4. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matt Visser

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Is the Hawking flux "thermal"? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word "thermal". The original 1850's notions of thermality --- based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized "black bodies" or "lamp black surfaces" --- when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900's, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but "without" any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, and quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only "approximately" Planck-shaped over a bounded frequency range. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is "approximately" Planck-shaped from both above and below --- the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  5. Signatures of Energy Flux in Particle Production: A Black Hole Birth Cry and Death Gasp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Good, Michael R R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole's mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole's birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  6. Equilibrium temperature anisotropy and black-hole analogues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel K. L. Oi; Jonathan Oppenheim

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When long-range interactions are present the usual definition of temperature implies that two systems in thermal equilibrium can be at different temperatures. This local temperature has physical significance, if the sub-systems cease to interact, each system will be at their different local temperatures. This is formally related to redshifting of temperature in general relativity. We propose experiments to test this effect which are feasible using current microfabrication techniques. It is also possible to display thermodynamical analogues to black-hole space-time.

  7. Heat Engine of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeghi, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As we know, the cosmological constant in different theories of gravity acts as a thermodynamics variable. The cosmological constant exists in different actions of gravity and also appears in the solution of such theories. These lead to use the black hole as a heat engines. Also, there are two values for the cosmological constant as positive and negative values. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. In this paper, we are going to define heat engines for two different black holes as Dyonic BH and Kerr BH. And also, we calculate maximum efficiency for two black holes.

  8. Heat Engine of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Sadeghi; Kh. Jafarzade

    2015-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    As we know, the cosmological constant in different theories of gravity acts as a thermodynamics variable. The cosmological constant exists in different actions of gravity and also appears in the solution of such theories. These lead to use the black hole as a heat engines. Also, there are two values for the cosmological constant as positive and negative values. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. In this paper, we are going to define heat engines for two different black holes as Dyonic BH and Kerr BH. And also, we calculate maximum efficiency for two black holes.

  9. Energy on black hole spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Corichi

    2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the issue of defining energy for test particles on a background black hole spacetime. We revisit the different notions of energy as defined by different observers. The existence of a time-like isometry allows for the notion of a total conserved energy to be well defined, and subsequently the notion of a gravitational potential energy is also meaningful. We then consider the situation in which the test particle is adsorbed by the black hole, and analyze the energetics in detail. In particular, we show that the notion of horizon energy es defined by the isolated horizons formalism provides a satisfactory notion of energy compatible with the particle's conserved energy. As another example, we comment a recent proposal to define energy of the black hole as seen by an observer at rest. This account is intended to be pedagogical and is aimed at the level of and as a complement to the standard textbooks on the subject.

  10. On The Thermal Consolidation Of Boom Clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a mass of saturated clay is heated, as in the case of host soils surrounding nuclear waste disposals at great depth, the thermal expansion of the constituents generates excess pore pressures. The mass of clay is submitted to gradients of pore pressure and temperature, to hydraulic and thermal flows, and to changes in its mechanical properties. In this work, some of these aspects were experimentally studied in the case of Boom clay, so as to help predicting the response of the soil, in relation with investigations made in the Belgian underground laboratory at Mol. Results of slow heating tests with careful volume change measurements showed that a reasonable prediction of the thermal expansion of the clay-water system was obtained by using the thermal properties of free water. In spite of the density of Boom clay, no significant effect of water adsorption was observed. The thermal consolidation of Boom clay was studied through fast heating tests. A simple analysis shows that the hydraulic and thermal trans...

  11. Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    These lecture notes are an elementary and pedagogical introduction to the black hole evaporation, based on a lecture given by the author at the Ninth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics and are intended for PhD students. First, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is studied and tools needed for the remaining of the course are introduced. Then, quantum field theory in Rindler spacetime in 1+1 dimensions and in the spacetime of a spherically collapsing star are considered, leading to Unruh and Hawking effects, respectively. Finally, some consequences such as thermodynamics of black holes and information loss paradox are discussed.

  12. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  13. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.

  14. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  15. Gradient methods for convex minimization: better rates under ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui Zhang

    2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Gradient methods for convex minimization: better rates under weaker conditions. Hui Zhang(hhuuii.zhang ***at*** gmail.com)

  16. Geology and Temperature Gradient Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gradient Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal Discovery, Humboldt County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Geology and...

  17. Spatiotemporal Gradient Modeling with Applications Harrison S. Quick1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    , and geospatial information storage, analysis, and distribution systems have led to a burgeoning of spatial 2.3 Gradient analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.5 Data analysis

  18. On the application of the spectral projected gradient method in ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    On the application of the spectral projected gradient method in image segmentation. 7. (a) cameraman – 204 × 204. (b) carplate – 285 × 224. (c) granite – 225 × ...

  19. second-order convex splitting schemes for gradient flows with ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract. We construct unconditionally stable, unconditionally uniquely solvable, and second-order accurate (in time) schemes for gradient flows with energy of ...

  20. Existence and uniqueness of global classical solutions of a gradient ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This gradient flow is generated by the Laudau-de Gennes energy functional that ... feature of this evolution problem is that it is generated by an energy functional ...

  1. Optimization Online - A three-term conjugate gradient method with ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y Narushima

    2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 3, 2009 ... A three-term conjugate gradient method with sufficient descent property for unconstrained optimization. Y Narushima(narusima ***at*** ...

  2. Optimization Online - Linearizing the Method of Conjugate Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serge Gratton

    2012-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 9, 2012 ... Abstract: The method of conjugate gradients (CG) is widely used for the iterative solution of large sparse systems of equations $Ax=b$, where ...

  3. A Perry Descent Conjugate Gradient Method with Restricted Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongyi Liu

    2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 7, 2011 ... Abstract: A new nonlinear conjugate gradient method, based on Perry's idea, is presented. And it is shown that its sufficient descent property is ...

  4. On the connection between the conjugate gradient method and ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders Forsgren

    2013-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 9, 2013 ... Abstract: It is well known that the conjugate gradient method and a quasi-Newton method, using any well-defined update matrix from the ...

  5. A Nonmonotone Approach without Differentiability Test for Gradient ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias S. Helou

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 18, 2015 ... A Nonmonotone Approach without Differentiability Test for Gradient Sampling Methods. Elias S. Helou(elias ***at*** icmc.usp.br) Sandra A.

  6. Concentration Gradient and Information Energy for Decentralized UAV Control1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohseni, Kamran

    spills, industrial release accidents, or chemical/biological/nuclear terrorist attacks. DependingConcentration Gradient and Information Energy for Decentralized UAV Control1 William J. Pisano2

  7. High Gradient Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) Accelerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gradient High energy gain Inverse Free Electron Laser P. Musumeci UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy On Behalf of the RUBICON collaboration ATF user meeting, BNL, October 6...

  8. alpine elevation gradient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Niche expansion leads to small-scale adaptive divergence along an elevation gradient in a medium of the Environment, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA Niche...

  9. An accelerated proximal gradient algorithm for nuclear norm ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim-Chuan Toh

    2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 27, 2009 ... An accelerated proximal gradient algorithm for nuclear norm regularized least squares problems. Kim-Chuan Toh (mattohkc ***at*** nus.edu.sg)

  10. Hawking Emission and Black Hole Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Don N. Page

    2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review of Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics is given, based largely upon hep-th/0409024.

  11. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Bandhauer, Todd (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Garimella, Srinivas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  12. Thermodynamics of the Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet anti-de Sitter Black Hole with Higher Derivative Gauge Corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dionysios Anninos; Georgios Pastras

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The local and global thermal phase structure for asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes charged under an abelian gauge group, with both Gauss-Bonnet and quartic field strength corrections, is mapped out for all parameter space. We work in the grand canonical ensemble where the external electric potential is held fixed. The analysis is performed in an arbitrary number of dimensions, for all three possible horizon topologies - spherical, flat or hyperbolic. For spherical horizons, new metastable configurations are exhibited both for the pure Gauss-Bonnet theory as well as the pure higher derivative gauge theory and combinations thereof. In the pure Gauss-Bonnet theory with negative coefficient and five or more spatial dimensions, two locally thermally stable black hole solutions are found for a given temperature. Either one or both of them may be thermally favored over the anti-de Sitter vacuum - corresponding to a single or a double decay channel for the metastable black hole. Similar metastable configurations are uncovered for the theory with pure quartic field strength corrections, as well combinations of the two types of corrections, in three or more spatial dimensions. Finally, a secondary Hawking-Page transition between the smaller thermally favored black hole and thermal anti-de Sitter space is observed when both corrections are turned on and their couplings are both positive.

  13. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  14. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  15. Signatures of black holes at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cavaglia; Romulus Godang; Lucien M. Cremaldi; Donald J. Summers

    2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.

  16. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  17. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  18. Absorption cross section in Lifshitz black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taeyoon Moon; Yun Soo Myung

    2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the absorption cross section of a minimally coupled scalar in the Lifshitz black hole obtained from the new massive gravity. The absorption cross section reduces to the horizon area in the low energy and massless limit of s-wave mode propagation, indicating that the Lifshitz black hole also satisfies the universality of low energy absorption cross section for black holes.

  19. HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daugherty, M.A.; Coulter, J.Y.; Hults, W.L. [and others

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold end cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The upper stage of the cryocooler cools the thermal shield and two heat pipe thermal intercepts. The lower stage of the cryocooler cools the HTS magnet and the bottom end of the HTS current leads. The HTS magnet was initially characterized in liquid cryogens. We report on the current- voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HTS magnet at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 K. At 40 K the magnet can generate a central field of 2.0 T at a current of 120 A.

  20. Einstein, Black Holes Gravitational Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Greg

    1 #12;Einstein, Black Holes and Gravitational Waves Gregory B. Cook Wake Forest University 2 #12;Einstein's Miraculous Year: 1905 · Einstein, A. "¨Uber einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light. · Einstein, A. "¨Uber die von der molekularkinetischen

  1. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  2. Precision Micron Hole Drilling using a Frequency Doubled, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H W; Pierce, E L

    2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This work represents the second phase of a program to demonstrate precision laser drilling with minimal Heat Affected Zone. The technique uses a Diode Pumped Solid State Laser with two wavelengths and two modes of operation. The fundamental mode of the DPSSL at 1.06 microns is used to drill a hole with a diameter of a fraction of a millimeter diameter in a millimeter thick substrate quickly, but with low precision. This hole is then machined to precision dimensions using the second harmonic of the DPSSL Laser at 532 nm using a trepanning technique. Both lasers operate in the ablative mode with peak powers at or above a giga-watt per square centimeter and pulse durations in the 80 - 100 ns range. Under these conditions, the thermal diffusion distance is of the order of a micron or less and that fact coupled with the ablative nature of the process results in little or no HAZ (heat affected zone). With no HAZ, there isn't any change in the crystalline structure surrounding the hole and the strength of the substrate is maintained. Applications for these precision holes include cooling passages in turbine blades, ports for diesel injectors, suction holes for boundary layer control on wings and holes for dies in precision extrusion processes.

  3. Correlation, entropy, and information transfer in black hole radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baocheng Zhang; Qingyu Cai; Mingsheng Zhan; Li You

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the discovery of Hawking radiation, its consistency with quantum theory has been widely questioned. In the widely described picture, irrespective of what initial state a black hole starts with before collapsing, it eventually evolves into a thermal state of Hawking radiations after the black hole is exhausted. This scenario violates the principle of unitarity as required for quantum mechanics and leads to the acclaimed "information loss paradox". This paradox has become an obstacle or a reversed touchstone for any possible theory to unify the gravity and quantum mechanics. Based on the results from Hawking radiation as tunneling, we recently show that Hawking radiations can carry off all information about the collapsed matter in a black hole. After discovering the existence of information-carrying correlation, we show in great detail that entropy is conserved for Hawking radiation based on standard probability theory and statistics. We claim that information previously considered lost remains hidden inside Hawking radiation. More specifically, it is encoded into correlations between Hawking radiations. Our study thus establishes harmony between Harking radiation and the unitarity of quantum mechanics, which establishes the basis for a significant milestone towards resolving the long-standing information loss paradox. The paper provides a brief review of the exciting development on Hawking raidation. In addition to summarize our own work on this subject, we compare and address other related studies.

  4. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  5. Regulation of thermal conductivity in hot galaxy clusters by MHD turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven A. Balbus; Christopher S. Reynolds

    2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of thermal conduction in regulating the thermal behavior of cooling flows in galaxy clusters is reexamined. Recent investigations have shown that the anisotropic Coulomb heat flux caused by a magnetic field in a dilute plasma drives a dynamical instability. A long standing problem of cooling flow theory has been to understand how thermal conduction can offset radiative core losses without completely preventing them. In this Letter we propose that magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the heat flux instability regulates field-line insulation and drives a reverse convective thermal flux, both of which may mediate the stabilization of the cooling cores of hot clusters. This model suggests that turbulent mixing should accompany strong thermal gradients in cooling flows. This prediction seems to be supported by the spatial distribution of metals in the central galaxies of clusters, which shows a much stronger correlation with the ambient hot gas temperature gradient than with the parent stellar population.

  6. Black Hole Radiation and Volume Statistical Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The simplest possible equation for Hawking radiation, and other black hole radiated power is derived in terms of black hole density. Black hole density also leads to the simplest possible model of a gas of elementary constituents confined inside a gravitational bottle of Schwarzchild radius at tremendous pressure, which yields identically the same functional dependence as the traditional black hole entropy. Variations of Sbh can be obtained which depend on the occupancy of phase space cells. A relation is derived between the constituent momenta and the black hole radius which is similar to the Compton wavelength relation.

  7. SampleRank: Training Factor Graphs with Atomic Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCallum, Andrew

    a user-provided loss function to distribute stochastic gradients across an MCMC chain. As a result, parameter updates can be computed between arbitrary MCMC states. Sam- pleRank is not only faster than CD- expensive gradients between the ground-truth and samples along an MCMC chain yielding a stochastic

  8. The Simplex Gradient and Noisy Optimization Problems \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Simplex Gradient and Noisy Optimization Problems \\Lambda D. M. Bortz C. T. Kelley North the simplex gradient from [14], the first order estimates it satisfies, and its application to the Nelder/or exploit parallelism. The algorithms we discuss in this paper all examine a simplex of points in R N

  9. Dynamics of the Dorsal morphogen gradient Jitendra S. Kanodiaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shvartsman, Stanislav "Stas"

    Dynamics of the Dorsal morphogen gradient Jitendra S. Kanodiaa , Richa Rikhyb , Yoosik Kima Road, Princeton, NJ 08544; bCell Biology and Metabolism Branch, NIH, Building 32, 18 Library Drive localization gradient of Dorsal (Dl), a protein related to the mammalian NF- B transcription factors. Current

  10. Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1 Philippe Tassin,2,* Costas M demonstrate how the optical gradient force between two waveguides can be enhanced using transformation optics perceived by light, resulting in a more than tenfold enhancement of the optical force. This process

  11. Combining Conjugate Direction Methods with Stochastic Approximation of Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schraudolph, Nicol N.

    Combining Conjugate Direction Methods with Stochastic Approximation of Gradients #3; Nicol N-8092 Zurich, Switzerland http://www.icos.ethz.ch/ Abstract The method of conjugate directions provides from conjugate gra- dient in the stochastic (online) setting, us- ing fast Hessian-gradient products

  12. Combining Conjugate Direction Methods with Stochastic Approximation of Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schraudolph, Nicol N.

    Combining Conjugate Direction Methods with Stochastic Approximation of Gradients Nicol N-8092 Z¨urich, Switzerland http://www.icos.ethz.ch/ Abstract The method of conjugate directions provides conjugate gra- dient in the stochastic (online) setting, us- ing fast Hessian-gradient products to set up

  13. anisotropic plasticity gradient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can be resistant to chemicals. Consider all of the cleaning products that are packaged in plastic containers. 2. Polymers can be both thermal and electrical insulators. Thermal...

  14. Constraints on the density perturbation spectrum from primordial black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne M Green; Andrew R Liddle

    1997-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We re-examine the constraints on the density perturbation spectrum, including its spectral index $n$, from the production of primordial black holes. The standard cosmology, where the Universe is radiation dominated from the end of inflation up until the recent past, was studied by Carr, Gilbert and Lidsey; we correct two errors in their derivation and find a significantly stronger constraint than they did, $n \\lesssim 1.25$ rather than their 1.5. We then consider an alternative cosmology in which a second period of inflation, known as thermal inflation and designed to solve additional relic over-density problems, occurs at a lower energy scale than the main inflationary period. In that case, the constraint weakens to $n \\lesssim 1.3$, and thermal inflation also leads to a `missing mass' range, $10^{18} g \\lesssim M \\lesssim 10^{26} g$, in which primordial black holes cannot form. Finally, we discuss the effect of allowing for the expected non-gaussianity in the density perturbations predicted by Bullock and Primack, which can weaken the constraints further by up to 0.05.

  15. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  16. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  17. Generalized Hooke's law for isotropic second gradient materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. dell'Isola; G. Sciarra; S. Vidoli

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In the spirit of Germain the most general objective stored elastic energy for a second gradient material is deduced using a literature result of Fortun\\'e & Vall\\'ee. Linear isotropic constitutive relations for stress and hyperstress in terms of strain and strain-gradient are then obtained proving that these materials are characterized by seven elastic moduli and generalizing previous studies by Toupin, Mindlin and Sokolowski. Using a suitable decomposition of the strain-gradient, it is found a necessary and sufficient condition, to be verified by the elastic moduli, assuring positive definiteness of the stored elastic energy. The problem of warping in linear torsion of a prismatic second gradient cylinder is formulated, thus obtaining a possible measurement procedure for one of the second gradient elastic moduli.

  18. Stewart Thermal Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt.Steep GradientWashington: EnergyThermal Ltd Place:

  19. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B. [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico-IST, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa-UTL, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Astronomical Institute of Kharkov, V. N. Karazin National University, 35 Sumskaya Street, Kharkov, 61022 (Ukraine)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less difficult than one could think of it.

  20. Black Hole Evaporation as a Nonequilibrium Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiromi Saida

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    When a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from the black hole into its outside environment due to the Hawking radiation and the energy accretion onto black hole. Exactly speaking, due to the net energy flow, the black hole evaporation is a nonequilibrium process. To study details of evaporation process, nonequilibrium effects of the net energy flow should be taken into account. In this article we simplify the situation so that the Hawking radiation consists of non-self-interacting massless matter fields and also the energy accretion onto the black hole consists of the same fields. Then we find that the nonequilibrium nature of black hole evaporation is described by a nonequilibrium state of that field, and we formulate nonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-self-interacting massless fields. By applying it to black hole evaporation, followings are shown: (1) Nonequilibrium effects of the energy flow tends to accelerate the black hole evaporation, and, consequently, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon of semi-classical black hole evaporation is suggested. Furthermore a suggestion about the end state of quantum size black hole evaporation is proposed in the context of information loss paradox. (2) Negative heat capacity of black hole is the physical essence of the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics, and self-entropy production inside the matter around black hole is not necessary to ensure the generalized second law. Furthermore a lower bound for total entropy at the end of black hole evaporation is given. A relation of the lower bound with the so-called covariant entropy bound conjecture is interesting but left as an open issue.

  1. Natural Conjugate Gradient on Complex Flag Manifolds for Complex Independent Subspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plumbley, Mark

    conjugate gradient method yields better convergence compared to the natural gradient geodesic search method is the natural gradient geodesic search method (NGS), and the other is the natural conjugate gradient method (NCG the natural gradient or the Newton's method on complex manifolds, however, the behavior of the conjugate

  2. A conjugate Rosen's gradient projection method with global line search for piecewise linear optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beltran-Royo, Cesar

    A conjugate Rosen's gradient projection method with global line search for piecewise linear cutting plane method, simplex method, Rosen's gradient projection, conjugate gradient. 1 Introduction the zig-zagging of the gradient projection, we propose a conjugate gradient version of the face simplex

  3. BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liancheng Wang; Feng He; Xiangyun Fu

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

  4. Time-dependent models of two-phase accretion discs around black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mayer; J. E. Pringle

    2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present time-dependent simulations of a two-phase accretion flow around a black hole. The accretion flow initially is composed of an optically thick and cool disc close to the midplane, while on top and below the disc there is a hot and optically thin corona. We consider several interaction mechanisms as heating of the disc by the corona and Compton cooling of the corona by the soft photons of the disc. Mass and energy can be exchanged between the disc and the corona due to thermal conduction. For the course of this more exploratory work, we limit ourselves to one particular model for a stellar mass black hole accreting at a low accretion rate. We confirm earlier both theoretical and observational results which show that at low accretion rates the disc close to the black hole cannot survive and is evaporated. Given the framework of this model, we now can follow through this phase of disc evaporation time dependently.

  5. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Richard G. (Las Cruces, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  6. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/{radical}(3)){<=}(a/M){<=}1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  7. Determination of heat (mass) transfer from blockages with round and elongated holes in a wide rectangular channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupakula, Venkata Panduranga Praveen

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    for a thermally fully developed turbulent flow in a smooth channel. Results indicate that this ratio ranged between 3.6 and 12.4, while the friction factor ratio varied between 500-1700. The blockage configuration with round holes was found to yield best...

  8. Submicron patterned metal hole etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR); Liberman, Vladimir (Needham, MA); Morse, Jeffrey (Martinez, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet chemical process for etching submicron patterned holes in thin metal layers using electrochemical etching with the aid of a wetting agent. In this process, the processed wafer to be etched is immersed in a wetting agent, such as methanol, for a few seconds prior to inserting the processed wafer into an electrochemical etching setup, with the wafer maintained horizontal during transfer to maintain a film of methanol covering the patterned areas. The electrochemical etching setup includes a tube which seals the edges of the wafer preventing loss of the methanol. An electrolyte composed of 4:1 water: sulfuric is poured into the tube and the electrolyte replaces the wetting agent in the patterned holes. A working electrode is attached to a metal layer of the wafer, with reference and counter electrodes inserted in the electrolyte with all electrodes connected to a potentiostat. A single pulse on the counter electrode, such as a 100 ms pulse at +10.2 volts, is used to excite the electrochemical circuit and perform the etch. The process produces uniform etching of the patterned holes in the metal layers, such as chromium and molybdenum of the wafer without adversely effecting the patterned mask.

  9. Quantum Geometry and Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G., J Fernando Barbero

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overall picture of the advances in the description of black hole physics from the perspective of loop quantum gravity. After an introduction that discusses the main conceptual issues we present some details about the classical and quantum geometry of isolated horizons and their quantum geometry and then use this scheme to give a natural definition of the entropy of black holes. The entropy computations can be neatly expressed in the form of combinatorial problems solvable with the help of methods based on number theory and the use of generating functions. The recovery of the Bekenstein-Hawking law and corrections to it is explained in some detail. After this, due attention is paid to the discussion of semiclassical issues. An important point in this respect is the proper interpretation of the horizon area as the energy that should appear in the statistical-mechanical treatment of the black hole model presented here. The chapter ends with a comparison between the microscopic and semiclassical app...

  10. Efficient and robust gradient enhanced Kriging emulators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalbey, Keith R.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    %E2%80%9CNaive%E2%80%9D or straight-forward Kriging implementations can often perform poorly in practice. The relevant features of the robustly accurate and efficient Kriging and Gradient Enhanced Kriging (GEK) implementations in the DAKOTA software package are detailed herein. The principal contribution is a novel, effective, and efficient approach to handle ill-conditioning of GEK's %E2%80%9Ccorrelation%E2%80%9D matrix, RN%CC%83, based on a pivoted Cholesky factorization of Kriging's (not GEK's) correlation matrix, R, which is a small sub-matrix within GEK's RN%CC%83 matrix. The approach discards sample points/equations that contribute the least %E2%80%9Cnew%E2%80%9D information to RN%CC%83. Since these points contain the least new information, they are the ones which when discarded are both the easiest to predict and provide maximum improvement of RN%CC%83's conditioning. Prior to this work, handling ill-conditioned correlation matrices was a major, perhaps the principal, unsolved challenge necessary for robust and efficient GEK emulators. Numerical results demonstrate that GEK predictions can be significantly more accurate when GEK is allowed to discard points by the presented method. Numerical results also indicate that GEK can be used to break the curse of dimensionality by exploiting inexpensive derivatives (such as those provided by automatic differentiation or adjoint techniques), smoothness in the response being modeled, and adaptive sampling. Development of a suitable adaptive sampling algorithm was beyond the scope of this work; instead adaptive sampling was approximated by omitting the cost of samples discarded by the presented pivoted Cholesky approach.

  11. Water Polarization under Thermal Gradients Fernando Bresme,1,2,* Anders Lervik,3,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    (Soret effect) or reversible heat conduction (Peltier effect) [1]. The latter provides the physical- particles are in contact with materials [3] and are strong enough to destroy biological cells. This notion

  12. DNA Transport and Delivery in Thermal Gradients near Optofluidic Resonators Xavier Serey,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, David

    that pinch the flow around the resonator while thermophoretic drift can either expel or attract particles from the resonator according to the signs of their thermophoretic coefficient. As in any thermo of particular interest due to its biophysical appli- cations and whose thermophoretic properties have been

  13. Algorithm PREQN: Fortran 77 Subroutines for Preconditioning the Conjugate Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nocedal, Jorge

    Algorithm PREQN: Fortran 77 Subroutines for Preconditioning the Conjugate Gradient Method Jos subroutines for automatically generating pre­ conditioners for the conjugate gradient method. It is designed. Additional Key Words and Phrases: Preconditioning, conjugate gradient method, quasi­ Newton method, Hessian

  14. COMPARISON OF THE DEFLATED PRECONDITIONED CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD AND ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID FOR COMPOSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLachlan, Scott

    COMPARISON OF THE DEFLATED PRECONDITIONED CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD AND ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID algorithms such as the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) method. This paper considers the Deflated Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (DPCG) method in which the rigid body modes of sets of elements

  15. X-ray Probes of Black Hole Accretion Disks for Testing the No-Hair Theorem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannsen, Tim

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spins of a number of supermassive and stellar-mass black holes have been measured based on detections of thermal continuum emission and relativistically broadened iron lines in their x-ray spectra. Likewise, quasiperiodic variability has been observed in several sources. Such measurements commonly make the assumption that black holes are described by the Kerr metric, which according to the no-hair theorem characterizes black holes uniquely in terms of their masses and spins. This fundamental property of black holes can be tested observationally by measuring potential deviations from the Kerr metric introduced by a parametrically deformed Kerr-like spacetime. Thermal spectra, iron lines, and variability have already been studied extensively in several such metrics, which usually depend on only one particular type of deviation or contain unphysical regions outside of the compact object. In this paper, I study these x-ray probes in the background of a new Kerr-like metric which depends on four independent de...

  16. Black holes are almost optimal quantum cloners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Adami; G. Ver Steeg

    2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    If black holes were able to clone quantum states, a number of paradoxes in black hole physics would disappear. However, the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids exact cloning of quantum states. Here we show that black holes indeed clone incoming quantum states with a fidelity that depends on the black hole's absorption coefficient, without violating the no-cloning theorem because the clones are only approximate. Perfectly reflecting black holes are optimal universal "quantum cloning machines" and operate on the principle of stimulated emission, exactly as their quantum optical counterparts. In the limit of perfect absorption, the fidelity of clones is equal to what can be obtained via quantum state estimation methods. But for any absorption probability less than one, the cloning fidelity is nearly optimal as long as $\\omega/T\\geq10$, a common parameter for modest-sized black holes.

  17. The effect of injection hole orientation on flat-plate film cooling and heat transfer using a transient liquid crystal technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapata, Dyrk Oliver

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 63 64 65 NOMENCLATURE Cv specific heat of test surface injection hole diameter convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m -K) convective heat transfer coefficient for no film injection momentum ratio, prUt2/p U 2 N Rea test surface... thermal conductivity length of injection hole blowing ratio, prUi/p U number of step changes Reynolds number, p U d/lt TOW time of color change adiabatic wall temperature Tm TU initial temperature film temperature mainstream temperature...

  18. Remarks on Renormalization of Black Hole Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang Pyo Kim; Sung Ku Kim; Kwang-Sup Soh; Jae Hyung Yee

    1996-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We elaborate the renormalization process of entropy of a nonextremal and an extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole by using the Pauli-Villars regularization method, in which the regulator fields obey either the Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac distribution depending on their spin-statistics. The black hole entropy involves only two renormalization constants. We also discuss the entropy and temperature of the extremal black hole.

  19. Hole cleaning requirements with seabed returns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordt, David Paul

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of different non-Newtonian fluids 56 INTRODUCTION A drilling fluid is used for removing cuttings from the hole, controlling subsurface pressures, preventing caving-in of the formations, suspension of cuttings, weighting materials, and many other uses... of the hole. The drilling problems related to hole cleaning can occur at low as well as high annular velocities. Cuttings can travel no faster than the fluid in which they are transported; however, they can travel more slowly. Their fall (slip) rate...

  20. Probing the Constituent Structure of Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukas Gruending; Stefan Hofmann; Sophia Müller; Tehseen Rug

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the cross section for scattering processes between graviton emitters on the near side of a Schwarzschild surface and absorbers on its far side, that is black hole constituents. We show that these scatterings allow to directly extract structural observables such as the momentum distribution of black hole constituents. For this we employ a quantum bound state description originally developed in quantum chromodynamics and recently applied to general relativity that allows to consider black holes in a relativistic Hartree like framework.

  1. Black hole initial data without elliptic equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    István Rácz; Jeffrey Winicour

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore whether a new method to solve the constraints of Einstein's equations, which does not involve elliptic equations, can be applied to provide initial data for black holes. We show that this method can be successfully applied to a nonlinear perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole by establishing the well-posedness of the resulting constraint problem. We discuss its possible generalization to the boosted, spinning multiple black hole problem.

  2. Absorption cross section of RN black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sini R.; V. C. Kuriakose

    2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of a charged scalar field in the RN black hole space time is studied using WKB approximation. In the present work it is assumed that matter waves can get reflected from the event horizon. Using this effect, the Hawking temperature and the absorption cross section for RN black hole placed in a charged scalar field are calculated. The absorption cross section $\\sigma _{abs}$ is found to be inversely proportional to square of the Hawking temperature of the black hole.

  3. Black holes with massive graviton hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Brito; Vitor Cardoso; Paolo Pani

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    No-hair theorems exclude the existence of nontrivial scalar and massive vector hair outside four-dimensional, static, asymptotically flat black-hole spacetimes. We show, by explicitly building nonlinear solutions, that black holes can support massive graviton hair in theories of massive gravity. These hairy solutions are, most likely, the generic end state of the recently discovered monopole instability of Schwarzschild black holes in massive graviton theories.

  4. Modelling Flow through Porous Media under Large Pressure Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Shriram

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most interesting and technologically important problems in the study of flow through porous media involve very high pressures and pressure gradients in the flow do- main such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration. The popular...

  5. Distributed Kalman filtering compared to Fourier domain preconditioned conjugate gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Julia R.

    Distributed Kalman filtering compared to Fourier domain preconditioned conjugate gradient for laser of the tomography problem. The second algorithm is the distributed Kalman filter (DKF) developed by Massioni et al

  6. Colour Gradients in the Optical and Near-IR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roelof S. de Jong

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For many years broadband colours have been used to obtain insight into the contents of galaxies, in particular to estimate stellar and dust content. Broadband colours are easy to obtain for large samples of objects, making them ideal for statistical studies. In this paper I use the radial distribution of the colours in galaxies, which gives more insight into the local processes driving the global colour differences than integrated colours. Almost all galaxies in my sample of 86 face-on galaxies become systematically bluer with increasing radius. The radial photometry is compared to new dust extinction models and stellar population synthesis models. This comparison shows that the colour gradients in face-on galaxies are best explained by age and metallicity gradients in the stellar populations and that dust reddening plays a minor role. The colour gradients imply $M/L$ gradients, making the `missing light' problem as derived from rotation curve fitting even worse.

  7. Field Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center (Mcagcc), Twenty-Nine Palms, Ca Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  8. alternating gradient synchrotron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sources also have the advantage of a time structure with a high peak neutron flux. The basic requirement is for a... Bryant, P J 1995-01-01 36 Gradient House. Open...

  9. Optimization Online - A conjugate-gradient based approach for ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fredrik Carlsson

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 29, 2008 ... In particular, it is noted that with a bound on the two-norm of the columns, the method is equivalent to the conjugate-gradient method. Further ...

  10. Function of the anterior gradient protein family in cancer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fourtouna, Argyro

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proteomic technologies verified Anterior Gradient 2, AGR-2, as a protein over-expressed in human cancers, including breast, prostate and oesophagus cancers, with the ability to inhibit the tumour suppressor protein p53. AGR-2 gene is a hormone...

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - High Gradient Inverse Free Electron Laser...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hi h G di t Hi h i High Gradient High energy gain Inverse Free Electron Laser at BNL P. Musumeci UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy ATF user meeting April 2-3 2009 Outline...

  12. Energy Flow in Extended Gradient Partial Differential Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Flow in Extended Gradient Partial Differential Equations Th. Gallay S. Slijepâ??atiment 425 BijeniŸcka 30 F­91405 Orsay, France 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Thierry.Gallay@math.u­psud.fr slijepce

  13. A Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Algorithm with An Optimal Property ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    State Key Laboratory of Scientific and Engineering Computing, ..... To establish a basic property for the family of conjugate gradient methods (1.3), (2.11) and ...... of Engineering Economic Systems, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1972. 23

  14. Spatial gradient of protein phosphorylation underlies replicative bacterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y. Erin

    Spatial asymmetry is crucial to development. One mechanism for generating asymmetry involves the localized synthesis of a key regulatory protein that diffuses away from its source, forming a spatial gradient. Although ...

  15. A HIGH GRADIENT QUADRUPOLE MAGNET FOR THE SSC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on gradient and qu;;lity, if the buss grooves are located atto accommodate the m;;! in current buss, the lowp.r ']roovewIring and corrector buss, and thp. symmetrically-placed

  16. Mineral Test Hole Regulatory Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Mineral Hole Regulatory Act is applicable to any person (individual, corporation, company, association, joint venture, partnership, receiver, trustee, guardian, executor, administrator,...

  17. Black Holes: from Speculations to Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas W. Baumgarte

    2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a brief review of the history of our understanding and knowledge of black holes. Starting with early speculations on ``dark stars'' I discuss the Schwarzschild "black hole" solution to Einstein's field equations and the development of its interpretation from "physically meaningless" to describing the perhaps most exotic and yet "most perfect" macroscopic object in the universe. I describe different astrophysical black hole populations and discuss some of their observational evidence. Finally I close by speculating about future observations of black holes with the new generation of gravitational wave detectors.

  18. Lower Dimensional Black Holes: Inside and Out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1995-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    I survey the physics of black holes in two and three spacetime dimensions, with special attention given to an understanding of their exterior and interior properties.

  19. Approximate initial data for binary black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenneth A. Dennison; Thomas W. Baumgarte; Harald P. Pfeiffer

    2006-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct approximate analytical solutions to the constraint equations of general relativity for binary black holes of arbitrary mass ratio in quasicircular orbit. We adopt the puncture method to solve the constraint equations in the transverse-traceless decomposition and consider perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes caused by boosts and the presence of a binary companion. A superposition of these two perturbations then yields approximate, but fully analytic binary black hole initial data that are accurate to first order in the inverse of the binary separation and the square of the black holes' momenta.

  20. A new spin on black hole hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that scalar hair can be added to rotating, vacuum black holes of general relativity. These hairy black holes (HBHs) clarify a lingering question concerning gravitational solitons: if a black hole can be added at the centre of a boson star, as it typically can for other solitons. We argue that it can, but only if it is spinning. The existence of such HBHs is related to the Kerr superradiant instability triggered by a massive scalar field. This connection leads to the following conjecture: a (hairless) black hole which is afflicted by the superradiant instability of a given field must allow hairy generalizations with that field.

  1. Accounting for the Change in the Gradient: Health Inequality among Infants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Wanchuan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. 1985. “Social Class Inequality in Mortality from 1921 toin the Gradient: Health Inequality Among Infants Wanchuanin the Gradient: Health Inequality Among Infants * Wanchuan

  2. A Spectral Conjugate Gradient Method for Unconstrained Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birgin, E. G. [Department of Computer Science, IME-USP, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 1010 - Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)], E-mail: egbirgin@ime.usp.br; Martinez, J. M. [Department of Applied Mathematics, IMECC-UNICAMP, University of Campinas, CP 6065, 13081-970 Campinas SP (Brazil)], E-mail: martinez@ime.unicamp.br

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of scaled conjugate gradient algorithms for large-scale unconstrained minimization is defined. The Perry, the Polak-Ribiere and the Fletcher-Reeves formulae are compared using a spectral scaling derived from Raydan's spectral gradient optimization method. The best combination of formula, scaling and initial choice of step-length is compared against well known algorithms using a classical set of problems. An additional comparison involving an ill-conditioned estimation problem in Optics is presented.

  3. Reduction of particle deposition on substrates using temperature gradient control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dykhuizen, Ronald C. (Albuquerque, NM); Geller, Anthony S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing particle deposition during the fabrication of microelectronic circuitry is presented. Reduction of particle deposition is accomplished by controlling the relative temperatures of various parts of the deposition system so that a large temperature gradient near the surface on which fabrication is taking place exists. This temperature gradient acts to repel particles from that surface, thereby producing cleaner surfaces, and thus obtaining higher yields from a given microelectronic fabrication process.

  4. Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

  5. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1985-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  6. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  7. Mass Function Gradients and the Need for Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jason A. Taylor

    1998-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    There is substantial evidence that the initial mass function (IMF) may be a function of the local star formation conditions. In particular, the IMF is predicted to flatten with increasing local luminosity density, with the formation of massive stars being preferentially enhanced in brighter regions. If IMF gradients are general features of galaxies, several previous astrophysical measurements, such as the surface mass densities of spirals (obtained assuming constant mass to light ratios), were plagued by substantial systematic errors. In this Letter, calculations which account for possible IMF gradients are presented of surface densities of spiral galaxies. Compared to previous estimates, the mass densities corrected for IMF gradients are higher in the outer regions of the disks. For a model based on the Milky Way but with an IMF scaled according to R136, the rotation curve without the traditional dark halo component falls with Galactocentric radius, though slower than it would without IMF gradients. For a second model of the Milky Way in which the IMF gradient is increased by 50%, the rotation curve is approximately flat in the outer disk, with a rotational velocity below ~220 km/s only before the traditional dark halo component is added. These results, if generalizable to other galaxies, not only call into question the assertion that dark matter halos are compatible with the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies, but also may clarify our understanding of a wide variety of other astrophysical phenomena such as the G-dwarf problem, metallicity gradients, and the Tully-Fisher relation.

  8. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  9. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  10. Scaling of Macroscopic Properties of Porous Sediments Experiencing Compaction: Implications for Geothermal Gradient and Methane Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous sediments in geological systems experience stress by the above-laying mass and consequent compaction, which may be significantly nonuniform across the massif. We derive scaling laws for the compaction of sediments of similar geological origin. With these laws, we evaluate the dependence of the transport properties of a fluid-saturated porous medium (permeability, effective molecular diffusivity, hydrodynamic dispersion, and thermal conductivity) on its porosity. In particular, we demonstrate irrelevance of the assumption of a uniform geothermal gradient for systems with nonuniform compaction and importance of the derived scaling laws for mathematical modelling of methane hydrate deposits, which are believed to have potential for impact on global climate change and Glacial-Interglacial cycles.

  11. Rotating embedded black holes: Entropy and Hawking's radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng Ibohal

    2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we derive a class of rotating embedded black holes. Then we study Hawking's radiation effects on these embedded black holes. The surface gravity, entropy and angular velocity are given for each of these black holes.

  12. Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    conduction · Heat conduction in Bose condensates ­ electronic superconductors ­ superfluid helium ­ Bose condensate of magnons #12;Outline--toward perfect thermal insulators · Einstein and minimum thermal directions #12;Gas kinetic equation is a good place to start · Anharmonicity (high T limit) · Point defect

  13. Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    -thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer;Leuchtstoffröhre Plasma-Bildschirm Energiesparlampe #12;electrical engineering light sources textile industry

  14. Black Holes at the LHC: Progress since 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Seong Chan [FRDP, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the recent noticeable progresses in black hole physics focusing on the up-coming super-collider, the LHC. We discuss the classical formation of black holes by particle collision, the greybody factors for higher dimensional rotating black holes, the deep implications of black hole physics to the 'energy-distance' relation, the security issues of the LHC associated with black hole formation and the newly developed Monte-Carlo generators for black hole events.

  15. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  16. Gravitating discs around black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Karas; J. -M. Hure; O. Semerak

    2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid discs and tori around black holes are discussed within different approaches and with the emphasis on the role of disc gravity. First reviewed are the prospects of investigating the gravitational field of a black hole--disc system by analytical solutions of stationary, axially symmetric Einstein's equations. Then, more detailed considerations are focused to middle and outer parts of extended disc-like configurations where relativistic effects are small and the Newtonian description is adequate. Within general relativity, only a static case has been analysed in detail. Results are often very inspiring, however, simplifying assumptions must be imposed: ad hoc profiles of the disc density are commonly assumed and the effects of frame-dragging and completely lacking. Astrophysical discs (e.g. accretion discs in active galactic nuclei) typically extend far beyond the relativistic domain and are fairly diluted. However, self-gravity is still essential for their structure and evolution, as well as for their radiation emission and the impact on the environment around. For example, a nuclear star cluster in a galactic centre may bear various imprints of mutual star--disc interactions, which can be recognised in observational properties, such as the relation between the central mass and stellar velocity dispersion.

  17. Topological Black Holes in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kowalski-Glikman; D. Nowak-Szczepaniak

    2000-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the black hole solutions with horizons of non-trivial topology and investigate their properties in the framework of an approach to quantum gravity being an extension of Bohm's formulation of quantum mechanics. The solutions we found tend asymptotically (for large $r$) to topological black holes. We also analyze the thermodynamics of these space-times.

  18. Primordial black holes and asteroid danger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Shatskiy

    2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Probability for a primordial black hole to invade the Kuiper belt was calculated. We showed that primordial black holes of certain masses can significantly change asteroids' orbits. These events may result in disasters, local for our solar system and global for the Earth (like the Tunguska meteorite). We also estimated how often such events occur.

  19. Dynamics of Primordial Black Hole Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer; K. Jedamzik

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical investigation of the gravitational collapse of horizon-size density fluctuations to primordial black holes (PBHs) during the radiation-dominated phase of the Early Universe. The collapse dynamics of three different families of initial perturbation shapes, imposed at the time of horizon crossing, is computed. The perturbation threshold for black hole formation, needed for estimations of the cosmological PBH mass function, is found to be $\\delta_{\\rm c} \\approx 0.7$ rather than the generally employed $\\delta_{\\rm c} \\approx 1/3$, if $\\delta$ is defined as $\\Delta M/\\mh$, the relative excess mass within the initial horizon volume. In order to study the accretion onto the newly formed black holes, we use a numerical scheme that allows us to follow the evolution for long times after formation of the event horizon. In general, small black holes (compared to the horizon mass at the onset of the collapse) give rise to a fluid bounce that effectively shuts off accretion onto the black hole, while large ones do not. In both cases, the growth of the black hole mass owing to accretion is insignificant. Furthermore, the scaling of black hole mass with distance from the formation threshold, known to occur in near-critical gravitational collapse, is demonstrated to apply to primordial black hole formation.

  20. Black holes cannot support conformal scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Zannias

    1994-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the only static asymptotically flat non-extrema black hole solution of the Einstein-conformally invariant scalar field equations having the scalar field bounded on the horizon, is the Schwarzschild one. Thus black holes cannot be endowed with conformal scalar hair of finite length.

  1. Strings, black holes, and quantum information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We find multiple relations between extremal black holes in string theory and 2- and 3-qubit systems in quantum information theory. We show that the entropy of the axion-dilaton extremal black hole is related to the concurrence of a 2-qubit state, whereas the entropy of the STU black holes, Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) as well as non-BPS, is related to the 3-tangle of a 3-qubit state. We relate the 3-qubit states with the string theory states with some number of D-branes. We identify a set of large black holes with the maximally entangled Greenberger, Horne, Zeilinger (GHZ) class of states and small black holes with separable, bipartite, and W states. We sort out the relation between 3-qubit states, twistors, octonions, and black holes. We give a simple expression for the entropy and the area of stretched horizon of small black holes in terms of a norm and 2-tangles of a 3-qubit system. Finally, we show that the most general expression for the black hole and black ring entropy in N=8 supergravity/M theory, which is given by the famous quartic Cartan E{sub 7(7)} invariant, can be reduced to Cayley's hyperdeterminant describing the 3-tangle of a 3-qubit state.

  2. Quantum Entropy of Charged Rotating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1996-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss a method for obtaining the one-loop quantum corrections to the tree-level entropy for a charged Kerr black hole. Divergences which appear can be removed by renormalization of couplings in the tree-level gravitational action in a manner similar to that for a static black hole.

  3. Phosphine Oxide Based Electron Transporting and Hole Blocking...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxide Based Electron Transporting and Hole Blocking Materials for Blue Electrophosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Phosphine Oxide Based Electron Transporting and Hole Blocking...

  4. Three Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts: Oxyanion Hole Mimics and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts: Oxyanion Hole Mimics and Transition State Analogues. Three Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts: Oxyanion Hole Mimics and Transition State Analogues....

  5. T-623: HP Business Availability Center Input Validation Hole...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3: HP Business Availability Center Input Validation Hole Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks T-623: HP Business Availability Center Input Validation Hole Permits Cross-Site...

  6. Can Superconducting Cosmic Strings Piercing Seed Black Holes Generate Supermassive Black Holes in the Early Universe?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lake, Matthew J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes at redshifts $z> 6$, when the Universe was only nine hundred million years old, has raised the fundamental question of how such massive compact objects could form in a (cosmologically) short time interval. Each of the proposed standard scenarios for black hole formation, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes, or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short time formation of supermassive objects. In the present Letter, we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of supermassive black holes in the early Universe in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings, piercing small seed black holes, is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. The increase in mass of a primordial seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings is estimated and it is shown that this increases linearly in time. Due to the high energy transfer rate from the cosmic strings, we find that supermassi...

  7. Environmental regulation of carbon isotope composition and crassulacean acid metabolism in three plant communities along a water availability gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gradient Á Tissue acidity Á Yucatan Introduction Crassulacean acid metabolism (metabolism in three plant communities along a water availability gradient

  8. Black hole and holographic dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung

    2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the connection between black hole and holographic dark energy. We examine the issue of the equation of state (EOS) for holographic energy density as a candidate for the dark energy carefully. This is closely related to the EOS for black hole, because the holographic dark energy comes from the black hole energy density. In order to derive the EOS of a black hole, we may use its dual (quantum) systems. Finally, a regular black hole without the singularity is introduced to describe an accelerating universe inside the cosmological horizon. Inspired by this, we show that the holographic energy density with the cosmological horizon as the IR cutoff leads to the dark energy-dominated universe with $\\omega_{\\rm \\Lambda}=-1$.

  9. Quantum Black Hole Model and Hawking's Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Berezin

    1996-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The black hole model with a self-gravitating charged spherical symmetric dust thin shell as a source is considered. The Schroedinger-type equation for such a model is derived. This equation appeared to be a finite differences equation. A theory of such an equation is developed and general solution is found and investigated in details. The discrete spectrum of the bound state energy levels is obtained. All the eigenvalues appeared to be infinitely degenerate. The ground state wave functions are evaluated explicitly. The quantum black hole states are selected and investigated. It is shown that the obtained black hole mass spectrum is compatible with the existence of Hawking's radiation in the limit of low temperatures both for large and nearly extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. The above mentioned infinite degeneracy of the mass (energy) eigenvalues may appeared helpful in resolving the well known information paradox in the black hole physics.

  10. Fourier Analysis of the BTZ Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian M. Tolfree

    2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we extend our previous work regarding the role of the Fourier transformation in bulk to boundary mappings to include the BTZ black hole. We follow standard procedures for modifying Fourier Transformations to accommodate quotient spaces and arrive at a bulk to boundary mapping in a black hole background. We show that this mapping is consistent with known results and lends a new insight into the AdS/CFT duality. We find that the micro-states corresponding to the entropy of a bulk scalar field are the Fourier coefficients on the boundary, which transform under the principal series representation of $SL(2,R)$. Building upon this we present a toy model to analyze the implications of this for the origin of black hole entropy. We find that the black hole micro-states live on the boundary and correspond to the possible emission modes of the black hole

  11. An electromagnetic black hole made of metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Qiang

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, a black hole is a region of space with huge gravitational field in the means of general relativity, which absorbs everything hitting it including the light. In general relativity, the presence of matter-energy densities results in the motion of matter propagating in a curved spacetime1, which is similar to the electromagnetic-wave propagation in a curved space and in an inhomogeneous metamaterial2. Hence one can simulate the black hole using electromagnetic fields and metamaterials. In a recent theoretical work, an optical black hole has been proposed based on metamaterials, in which the numerical simulations showed a highly efficient light absorption3. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of electromagnetic black hole in the microwave frequencies. The proposed black hole is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can absorb electromagnetic waves efficiently coming from all directions due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. Hence the elect...

  12. Fermionic greybody factors in dilaton black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahed Abedi; Hessamaddin Arfaei

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the question of emission of fermions in the process of dilaton black hole evolution and its characters for different dilaton coupling constants $\\alpha$ is studied. The main quantity of interest, the greybody factors are calculated both numerically and in analytical approximation. The dependence of rates of evaporation and behaviour on the dilaton coupling constant is analyzed. Having calculated the greybody factors we are able to address the question of the final fate of the dilaton black hole. For that we also need to make dynamical treatment of the solution by considering the backreaction which will show a crucial effect on the final result. We find a transition line in $(Q/M, \\alpha)$ plane that separates the two regimes for the fate of the black hole, decay regime and extremal regime. In the decay regime the black hole completely evaporates, while in the extremal regime the black hole approaches the extremal limit by radiation and becomes stable.

  13. Black holes in Asymptotically Safe Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saueressig, Frank; D'Odorico, Giulio; Vidotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black holes are among the most fascinating objects populating our universe. Their characteristic features, encompassing spacetime singularities, event horizons, and black hole thermodynamics, provide a rich testing ground for quantum gravity ideas. In this note we observe that the renormalization group improved Schwarzschild black holes constructed by Bonanno and Reuter within Weinberg's asymptotic safety program constitute a prototypical example of a Hayward geometry used to model non-singular black holes within quantum gravity phenomenology. Moreover, they share many features of a Planck star: their effective geometry naturally incorporates the one-loop corrections found in the effective field theory framework, their Kretschmann scalar is bounded, and the black hole singularity is replaced by a regular de Sitter patch. The role of the cosmological constant in the renormalization group improvement process is briefly discussed.

  14. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  15. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  16. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  17. Evolutionary and Gradient-Based Algorithms for Lennard-Jones Cluster Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schraudolph, Nicol N.

    gradient method, while Section 3 shows how the asynchronous conjugate gradient method compares and randomized gradient methods with respect to their global search behavior. The randomized gradient method.g., conjugate gra- dient method) is started. With the local minima in- formation, the search is continued

  18. The Solution of Systems of Linear Equations using the Conjugate Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Jean-Guy

    The Solution of Systems of Linear Equations using the Conjugate Gradient Method on the Parallel gradient solver on the SPMD­programmable MUSIC­system. We outline the conjugate gradient method, give­associativity of the floating point addition. We investi­ gate the speed of convergence of the conjugate gradient method

  19. Newton-conjugate-gradient methods for solitary wave computations Jianke Yang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jianke

    Newton-conjugate-gradient methods for solitary wave computations Jianke Yang Department's method Conjugate-gradient methods a b s t r a c t In this paper, the Newton-conjugate-gradient methods the linearization operator is self-adjoint, the preconditioned conjugate-gradient method is pro- posed to solve

  20. A NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD WITH A STRONG GLOBAL CONVERGENCE PROPERTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Ya-xiang

    A NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD WITH A STRONG GLOBAL CONVERGENCE PROPERTY Y. H. DAI AND Y­182 Abstract. Conjugate gradient methods are widely used for unconstrained optimization, especially large scale gradient methods. This paper presents a new version of the conjugate gradient method, which converges

  1. Algorithm 851: CG DESCENT, a Conjugate Gradient Method with Guaranteed Descent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hongchao

    Algorithm 851: CG DESCENT, a Conjugate Gradient Method with Guaranteed Descent WILLIAM W. HAGER In Hager and Zhang [2005] we introduce a new nonlinear conjugate gradient method for solving con- jugate gradient research. The iterates xk, k 0, in conjugate gradient methods satisfy

  2. Efficient Computation of Entropy Gradient for Semi-Supervised Conditional Random Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCallum, Andrew

    gradient that is significantly more efficient--having the same asymptotic time complexity as su- pervised

  3. Quasi-linear gradients for capillary liquid chromatography with mass and tandem mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    Gradient elution, capillary liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was performed with linear, static the use of additional valves, mixers, pumps or software. It took less than 10 minutes to form a gradient-line as static gradients.12­14 The technique of forming static gradients was first proposed by Ishii and co

  4. Structural Evolution and Li Dynamics in Nanophase Li3PS4 by Solid-State and Pulsed Field Gradient NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobet, Mallory [Hunter College of the City University of New York] [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Greenbaum, Steve [Hunter College of the City University of New York] [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ceramic lithium ion conductor -Li3PS4 has a disordered and nanoporous structure that leads to an enhancement in ionic conductivity by some three orders of magnitude compared to the crystalline phase. The phase is prepared by thermal treatment of an inorganic-organic complex based on Li3PS4 and THF. Multinuclear (1H, 6,7Li, 31P) solid state NMR spectroscopy is used to characterize the structural phase evolution of the starting material at various steps in the thermal treatment. The phase formed after high temperature treatment is recognized as spectroscopically distinct from the bulk -Li3PS4 compound. Also formed is an amorphous lithium thiophosphate phase that is metastable as verified by annealing over an extended period. Lithium ion self-diffusion coefficients are measurable by standard pulsed gradient NMR methods at 100oC and with values consistent with the high ionic conductivity previously reported for this material.

  5. Digital Manufacturing of Gradient Meshed SOFC Sealing Composites with Self-Healing Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathy Lu; Christopher Story; W.T. Reynolds

    2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) hold great promise for clean power generation. However, high temperature stability and long term durability of the SOFC components have presented serious problems in SOFC technological advancement and commercialization. The seals of the fuel cells are the most challenging area to address. A high temperature gas seal is highly needed which is durable against cracking and gas leakage during thermal cycling and extended operation. This project investigates a novel composite seal by integrating 3D printed shape memory alloy (SMA) wires into a glass matrix. The SMA we use is TiNiHf and the glass matrix we use is SrO-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (SLABS). Dilatometry shows to be an extremely useful tool in providing the CTEs. It pinpoints regions of different CTEs under simulated SOFC thermal cycles for the same glass. For the studied SLABS glass system, the region with the greatest CTE mismatch between the glass seal and the adjacent components is 40-500 C, the typical heating and cooling regions for SOFCs. Even for low temperature SOFC development, this region is still present and needs to be addressed. We have demonstrated that the proposed SLABS glass has great potential in mitigating the thermal expansion mismatch issues that are limiting the operation life of SOFCs. TiNiHf alloy has been successfully synthesized with the desired particle size for the 3DP process. The TiNiHf SMA shape memory effect very desirably overlaps with the problematic low CTE region of the glass. This supports the design intent that the gradient structure transition, phase transformation toughening, and self-healing of the SMA can be utilized to mitigate/eliminate the seal problem. For the 3DP process, a new binder has been identified to match with the specific chemistry of the SMA particles. This enables us to directly print SMA particles. Neutron diffraction shows to be an extremely useful tool in providing information regarding the austenite to martensite phase transformation, SMA alloy lattice constant change, and the corresponding thermal stress from the glass matrix. It pinpoints regions of SMA phase transformation and the thermal stress effect under simulated SOFC thermal cycles. The bilayer test shows that there is still much work to be done for the proper integration of the seal components. Large scale production should lower the cost associated with the proposed approach, especially on the raw material cost and 3D printing.

  6. Gravitational waves versus black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevor W. Marshall

    2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    It is argued that, in order for the gravitational field to be propagated as a wave, it is necessary for it to satisfy a further set of field equations, in addition to those of Einstein and Hilbert, and these equations mean there is a preferred coordinate frame, called the Global Inertial Frame, giving rise to a unique metric . The implication is that a true gravitational field is not compatible with Einstein's Principle of Equivalence, which is in contradiction with his other fundamental concept of locality. The additional field equations ensure that gravitational collapse does not go below the Schwarzschild radius, thereby excluding the possibility of singular solutions (black holes) of the Einstein-Hilbert equations. Such solutions would also violate Einstein's locality principle.

  7. Holes in the ghost condensate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krotov, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Department of Physics, Vorobjevy Gory, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya, 25, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation); Rebbi, C. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Zakharov, V. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik, Foeringer Ring 6, 80805, Munichn (Germany)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recently proposed model of 'ghost condensation', spatially homogeneous states may mix, via tunneling, with inhomogeneous states which are somewhat similar to bubbles in the theory of false vacuum decay, the corresponding bubble nucleation rate being exponentially sensitive to the ultraviolet completion of the model. The conservation of energy and charge requires that the energy density is negative and the field is strongly unstable in a part of the nucleated bubble. Unlike in the theory of false vacuum decay, this region does not expand during subsequent real-time evolution. In the outer part, positive energy outgoing waves develop, which eventually form shocks. Behind the outgoing waves and away from the bubble center, the background settles down to its original value. The outcome of the entire process is thus a microscopic region of negative energy and strong field - 'hole in the ghost condensate' - plus a collection of outgoing waves (particles of the ghost condensate field) carrying away finite energy.

  8. Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low, Gwf , test the Wiedemann-Franz (wf) law, and infer the electronic heat capacity, with a minimum value of a Coulomb-interacting electron-hole plasma may result in deviations from the Fermi-liquid values of the Mott

  9. Geosynthetics in a salinity-gradient solar pond environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichwardt, M.A.; Comer, A.I.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the latest in salinity-gradient solar pond lining systems. The high-temperature, high-salinity environment unique to a salinity-gradient solar pond resulted in failure of the geomembrane liner at the El Paso Solar Pond Test Facility after only eight years of operation. Research involved in pond reconstruction led to the selection of a lining system consisting of a flexible polypropylene (PP) geomembrane for the sidewalls and a specially formulated geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) on the bottom of the pond. The two liners have been installed and a comprehensive test program is being conducted to measure their performance. The environment encountered in a salinity-gradient solar pond will be discussed as well as material selection criteria and the design of the two liners. Preliminary results of the GCL performance monitoring will also be presented.

  10. Radial gradients and metallicities in the galactic disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. J. Maciel

    2000-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Radial O/H abundance gradients derived from HII regions, hot stars and planetary nebulae are combined with [Fe/H] gradients from open cluster stars in order to derive an independent [O/Fe] x [Fe/H] relation for the galactic disk. A comparison of the obtained relation with recent observational data and theoretical models suggests that the [O/Fe] ratio is not higher than [O/Fe] ~ 0.4, at least within the metallicity range of the considered samples.

  11. Nonlinear elastic free energies and gradient Young-Gibbs measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Kotecký; Stephan Luckhaus

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate, in a fairly general setting, the limit of large volume equilibrium Gibbs measures for elasticity type Hamiltonians with clamped boundary conditions. The existence of a quasiconvex free energy, forming the large deviations rate functional, is shown using a new interpolation lemma for partition functions. The local behaviour of the Gibbs measures can be parametrized by Young measures on the space of gradient Gibbs measures. In view of unboundedness of the state space, the crucial tool here is an exponential tightness estimate that holds for a vast class of potentials and the construction of suitable compact sets of gradient Gibbs measures.

  12. On Higuchi Ghosts and Gradient Instabilities in Bimetric Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Könnig, Frank

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the conditions to satisfy the Higuchi bound and to avoid gradient instabilities in the scalar sector for cosmological solutions in singly coupled bimetric gravity theories. We find that in expanding universes the ratio of the scale factors of the reference and observable metric has to increase at all times. This automatically implies a ghost-free helicity-2 sector and enforces a phantom Dark Energy. Furthermore, the condition for the absence of gradient instabilities in the scalar sector will be analyzed. Finally, we discuss whether cosmological solutions, including exotic evolutions like bouncing cosmologies, can exist, in which both the Higuchi ghost and scalar instabilities are absent at all times.

  13. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  14. Velocity bunching in travelling wave accelerator with low acceleration gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Rui-Xuan; Li, Wei-Wei; Jia, Qi-Ka

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analytical and simulated results concerning the influences of the acceleration gradient in the velocity bunching process, which is a bunch compression scheme that uses a traveling wave accelerating structure as a compressor. Our study shows that the bunch compression application with low acceleration gradient is more tolerant to phase jitter and more successful to obtain compressed electron beam with symmetrical longitudinal distribution and low energy spread. We also present a transverse emittance compensation scheme to compensate the emittance growth caused by the increasing of the space charge force in the compressing process that is easy to be adjusted for different compressing factors.

  15. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for gradient plasticity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garikipati, Krishna. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Ostien, Jakob T.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we apply discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods to the equations of an incompatibility based formulation of gradient plasticity. The presentation is motivated with a brief overview of the description of dislocations within a crystal lattice. A tensor representing a measure of the incompatibility with the lattice is used in the formulation of a gradient plasticity model. This model is cast in a variational formulation, and discontinuous Galerkin machinery is employed to implement the formulation into a finite element code. Finally numerical examples of the model are shown.

  16. Gradients of meteorological parameters in convective and nonconvective areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCown, Milton Samuel

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . SYNOPTIC CONDITIONS 4. STRATIFICATION OF DATA 5. COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES 21 25 a. Gridding of rawinsonde data 25 b. Gradients 26 5'' lp t* 27 RESULTS 29 a. Gradients 29 1) Convective areas 29 2) Nonconvective areas 31 3) Combined areas 33 vi... air turbulence. By using airplane data from over the western United States, Scoggins (1975) has shown that CAT at 300 mb occurred 71% of the time when the magnitude of the vector horizontal wind shear -5 -1 exceeded 4. 5 x 10 sec . The horizontal...

  17. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  18. The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Colin F.; Sass, John H.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming minerals vary with both temperature and confining pressure, leading to substantial changes in the thermal properties of some rocks at the high temperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In areas with large geothermal gradients, the successful use of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict temperatures at depth depends upon accurate corrections for varying thermal conductivity. Previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of dry rock samples as a function of temperature were inadequate for porous rocks and susceptible to thermal cracking effects in nonporous rocks. We have developed an instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks at temperatures from 20 to 350 °C and confining pressures up to 100 MPa. A transient line-source of heat is applied through a needle probe centered within the rock sample, which in turn is enclosed within a heated pressure vessel with independent controls on pore and confining pressure. Application of this technique to samples of Franciscan graywacke from The Geysers reveals a significant change in thermal conductivity with temperature. At reservoir-equivalent temperatures of 250 °C, the conductivity of the graywacke decreases by approximately 25% relative to the room temperature value. Where heat flow is constant with depth within the caprock overlying the reservoir, this reduction in conductivity with temperature leads to a corresponding increase in the geothermal gradient. Consequently, reservoir temperature are encountered at depths significantly shallower than those predicted by assuming a constant temperature gradient with depth. We have derived general equations for estimating the thermal conductivity of most metamorphic and igneous rocks and some sedimentary rocks at elevated temperature from knowledge of the room temperature thermal conductivity. Application of these equations to geothermal exploration should improve estimates of subsurface temperatures derived from heat flow measurements.

  19. Thermodynamics of Dyonic Lifshitz Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Zingg

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Black holes with asymptotic anisotropic scaling are conjectured to be gravity duals of condensed matter system close to quantum critical points with non-trivial dynamical exponent z at finite temperature. A holographic renormalization procedure is presented that allows thermodynamic potentials to be defined for objects with both electric and magnetic charge in such a way that standard thermodynamic relations hold. Black holes in asymptotic Lifshitz spacetimes can exhibit paramagnetic behavior at low temperature limit for certain values of the critical exponent z, whereas the behavior of AdS black holes is always diamagnetic.

  20. Black hole hair in higher dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao Cao; Yi-Xin Chen; Jian-Long Li

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the property of matter in equilibrium with a static, spherically symmetric black hole in D-dimensional spacetime. It requires this kind of matter has an equation of state (\\omega\\equiv p_r/\\rho=-1/(1+2kn), k,n\\in \\mathbb{N}), which seems to be independent of D. However, when we associate this with specific models, some interesting limits on space could be found: (i)(D=2+2kn) while the black hole is surrounded by cosmic strings; (ii)the black hole can be surrounded by linear dilaton field only in 4-dimensional spacetime. In both cases, D=4 is special.

  1. Radion clouds around evaporating black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Kaluza-Klein model, with a matter source associated with Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole, is used to obtain a simple form for the radion effective potential. The environmental effect generally causes a matter-induced shift of the radion vacuum, resulting in the formation of a radion cloud around the hole. There is an albedo due to the radion cloud, with an energy dependent reflection coefficient that depends upon the size of the extra dimensions and the temperature of the hole.

  2. Spectroscopy of the near-nuclear regions of Cygnus A: estimating the mass of the supermassive black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Tadhunter; A. Marconi; D. Axon; K. Wills; T. G. Robinson; N. Jackson

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a combination of high spatial resolution optical and near-IR spectroscopic data to make a detailed study of the kinematics of the NLR gas in the near-nuclear regions of the powerful, FRII radio galaxy Cygnus A (z=0.0560), with the overall goal of placing limits on the mass of any supermassive black hole in the core. Our K-band infrared observations (0.75 arcsec seeing) -- taken with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope -- show a smooth rotation pattern across the nucleus in the Paschen alpha and H_2 emission lines along a slit position (PA180) close to perpendicular to the radio axis, however, there is no evidence for such rotation along the radio axis (PA105). Higher spatial resolution observations of the [OIII]5007 emission line -- taken with STIS on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) -- confirm the general rotation pattern of the gas in the direction perpendicular to the radio axis, and provide evidence for steep velocity gradients within a radius of 0.1 arcsec of the core. The circular velocities measured from both the Keck and HST data lead to an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole of 2.5+/-0.7x10^9 solar masses. For the host galaxy properties of Cygnus A, this mass is consistent with the global correlations between black hole mass and host galaxy properties deduced for non-active galaxies. Therefore, despite the extreme power of its radio source and the quasar-like luminosity of its AGN, the black hole in Cygnus A is not unusually massive considering theluminosity of its host galaxy. Indeed, the estimated mass of the black hole in Cygnus A is similar to that inferred for the supermassive black hole in the FRI radio galaxy M87, despite the fact that the AGN and radio jets of Cygnus A are 2 -- 3 orders of magnitude more powerful.

  3. Black hole evolution: I. Supernova-regulated black hole growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubois, Yohan; Silk, Joseph; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of a supermassive black hole (BH) is determined by how much gas the host galaxy is able to feed it, which in turn is controlled by the cosmic environment, through galaxy mergers and accretion of cosmic flows that time how galaxies obtain their gas, but also by internal processes in the galaxy, such as star formation and feedback from stars and the BH itself. In this paper, we study the growth of a 10^12 Msun halo at z=2, which is the progenitor of an archetypical group of galaxies at z=0, and of its central BH by means of a high-resolution zoomed cosmological simulation, the Seth simulation. We study the evolution of the BH driven by the accretion of cold gas in the galaxy, and explore the efficiency of the feedback from supernovae (SNe). For a relatively inefficient energy input from SNe, the BH grows at the Eddington rate from early times, and reaches self-regulation once it is massive enough. We find that at early cosmic times z>3.5, efficient feedback from SNe forbids the formation of a settled...

  4. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  5. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Shocks in Non-Equatorial Plasma Flows around a Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keigo Fukumura; Masaaki Takahashi; Sachiko Tsuruta

    2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) standing shocks in inflowing plasmas in a black hole magnetosphere. Fast and intermediate shock formation is explored in Schwarzschild and Kerr geometry to illustrate general relativistic effects. We find that non-equatorial standing MHD shocks are physically possible, creating a very hot plasma region close to the event horizon. Shocked downstream plasmas can be heated or magnetized depending on the values of various magnetic field-aligned parameters. Then we may expect high-energy thermal/nonthermal emissions from the shocked region. We present the properties of non-equatorial MHD shocks and discuss the shocked plasma region in the black hole magnetosphere. We also investigate the effects of the poloidal magnetic field and the black hole spin on the properties of shocks, and show that both effects can modify the distribution of the shock front and shock strength. We find for strong MHD shock formation that fast rotating magnetic fields are necessary. The physics of non-equatorial MHD shocks in the black hole magnetosphere could be very important when we are to construct the central engine model of various astrophysical phenomena.

  7. A strong polynomial gradient algorithm in Linear Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    peter bruijs

    2015-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 1 ... Karmarkar don't have the strong characteristic. ... Probably he had no notion of the concept of a convex space, so that is what will have to be .... For the best direction that is left now, one has to exclude from the gradient c exactly and.

  8. Seasonal mass balance gradients in Norway L. A. Rasmussen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    16 Aug 05 Seasonal mass balance gradients in Norway L. A. Rasmussen1 and L. M. Andreassen2 1 Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) P. O. Box 5091 Majorstua, N-0301 Oslo, Norway in Norway exists in their profiles of both seasonal balances, winter bw(z) and summer bs(z). Unlike many

  9. The Urban Environmental Gradient: Anthropogenic Influences on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgia, through Atlanta, to the Gulf of Mexico and reflects a steep gradient in population density from as vehicular traffic. Introduction Many of the common anthropogenic pollution problems are focused in urban geographic areas. Suburbia does not contribute much by way of industrial pollution, but it does serve

  10. Gradient expansion of superhorizon perturbations in G-inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frusciante, Noemi; Zhou, Shuang-Yong; Sotiriou, Thomas P., E-mail: nfruscia@sissa.it, E-mail: szhou@sissa.it, E-mail: sotiriou@sissa.it [SISSA and INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop the gradient expansion formalism for shift-symmetric Galileon-type actions. We focus on backgrounds that undergo inflation, work in the synchronous gauge, and obtain a general solution up to second order without imposing extra conditions at first order. The solution simplifies during the late stages of inflation. We also define a curvature perturbation conserved up to first order.

  11. Continuous Edge Gradient-Based Template Matching for Articulated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachmann, Gabriel

    Zachmann IfI Technical Report Series IfI-09-01 #12;Impressum Publisher: Institut für Informatik, Technische (Technical Computer Science) Prof. Dr. Gabriel Zachmann (Computer Graphics) #12;Continuous Edge Gradient-Based Template Matching for Articulated Objects Daniel Mohr and Gabriel Zachmann Abstract Detection

  12. Computing several eigenpairs of Hermitian problems by conjugate gradient iterations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovtchinnikov, E.E. [Harrow School of Computer Science, University of Westminster, Watford Road, Northwick Park, London HA1 3TP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e_ovtchinnikov@hotmail.com

    2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is concerned with algorithms for computing several extreme eigenpairs of Hermitian problems based on the conjugate gradient method. We analyse computational strategies employed by various algorithms of this kind reported in the literature and identify their limitations. Our criticism is illustrated by numerical tests on a set of problems from electronic structure calculations and acoustics.

  13. BIOGEOCHEMICAL GRADIENTS AS A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING WASTE SITE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denham, M; Karen Vangelas, K

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The migration of biogeochemical gradients is a useful framework for understanding the evolution of biogeochemical conditions in groundwater at waste sites contaminated with metals and radionuclides. This understanding is critical to selecting sustainable remedies and evaluating sites for monitored natural attenuation, because most attenuation mechanisms are sensitive to geochemical conditions such as pH and redox potential. Knowledge of how gradients in these parameters evolve provides insights into the behavior of contaminants with time and guides characterization, remedy selection, and monitoring efforts. An example is a seepage basin site at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina where low-level acidic waste has seeped into groundwater. The remediation of this site relies, in part, on restoring the natural pH of the aquifer by injecting alkaline solutions. The remediation will continue until the pH up-flow of the treatment zone increases to an acceptable value. The time required to achieve this objective depends on the time it takes the trailing pH gradient, the gradient separating the plume from influxing natural groundwater, to reach the treatment zone. Predictions of this length of time will strongly influence long-term remedial decisions.

  14. Soil macroaggregate dynamics in a mountain spatial climate gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Soil macroaggregate dynamics in a mountain spatial climate gradient Lauric Cécillon1,2,* , Nilvania://lauric.cecillon.free.fr/ Key words: Mountain soils; Climate change; Soil aggregation; Soil organic matter; Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy; Soil threats Biogeochemistry 97: 31-43 (2010) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533

  15. Gradient Improvement by Removal of Identified Local Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Geng, W.A. Clemens, C.A. Cooper, H. Hayano, K. Watanabe

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experience of ILC cavity processing and testing at Jefferson Lab has shown that some 9-cell cavities are quench limited at a gradient in the range of 15-25 MV/m. Further studies reveal that these quench limits are often correlated with sub-mm sized and highly localized geometrical defects at or near the equator weld. There are increasing evidence to show that these genetic defects have their origin in the material or in the electron beam welding process (for example due to weld irregularities or splatters on the RF surface and welding porosity underneath the surface). A local defect removal method has been proposed at Jefferson Lab by locally re-melting the niobium material. Several 1-cell cavities with known local defects have been treated by using the JLab local e-beam re-melting method, resulting in gradient and Q0 improvement. We also sent 9-cell cavities with known gradient limiting local defects to KEK for local grinding and to FNAL for global mechanical polishing. We report on the results of gradient improvements by removal of local defects in these cavities.

  16. Scaling limits for gradient systems in random environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Goncalves; M. D. Jara

    2007-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    For interacting particle systems that satisfies the gradient condition, the hydrodynamic limit and the equilibrium fluctuations are well known. We prove that under the presence of a symmetric random environment, these scaling limits also hold for almost every choice of the environment, with homogenized coefficients that does not depend on the particular realization of the random environment.

  17. Overfitting in Neural Nets: Backpropagation, Conjugate Gradient, and Early Stopping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caruana, Rich

    Overfitting in Neural Nets: Backpropagation, Conjugate Gradient, and Early Stopping Rich Caruana is that backprop nets with excess hidden units generalize poorly. We show that nets with excess capacity generalize) Regardless of size, nets learn task subcomponents in similar sequence. Big nets pass through stages similar

  18. SUBMIT TO IEEE TIP 1 Motion-Aware Gradient Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    SUBMIT TO IEEE TIP 1 Motion-Aware Gradient Domain Video Composition Tao Chen, Jun-Yan Zhu, Ariel blending boundary based on a user provided blending trimap for the source video. Our approach extends mean performance. We also provide a user interface and source object positioning method that can efficiently deal

  19. A distributed accelerated gradient algorithm for distributed model predictive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Como, Giacomo

    of hydro power plants is to manage the available water resources efficiently, while following an optimal is applied to the power reference tracking problem of a hydro power valley (HPV) system. The applied power control, Distributed optimization, Accelerated gradient algorithm, Model predictive control

  20. A study of microbend test by strain gradient plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsia, K Jimmy

    A study of microbend test by strain gradient plasticity W. Wanga , Y. Huangb, *, K.J. Hsiac , K with plastic deformation is on the order of microns. This size effect cannot be explained by classical plasticity theories since their constitutive relations do not have an intrinsic material length. Strain