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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Thermal rectification in quantum graded mass systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show the existence of thermal rectification in the graded mass quantum chain of harmonic oscillators with self-consistent reservoirs. Our analytical study allows us to identify the ingredients leading to the effect. The presence of rectification in this effective, simple model (representing graded mass materials, systems that may be constructed in practice) indicates that rectification in graded mass quantum systems may be an ubiquitous phenomenon. Moreover, as the classical version of this model does not present rectification, our results show that, here, rectification is a direct result of the quantum statistics.

Emmanuel Pereira

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.M. Yin", G. H. Paulino", W.G. Buttlar", and L.Z. Sun'' '^Department of Civil and Environmental the effective thermal conductivity distribution in functionally graded materials (FGMs) considering the Kapitza is developed to derive the averaged heat flux field of the particle phase. Then the temperature gradient can

Paulino, Glaucio H.

3

Thermally Induced Stresses in Functionally Graded Thick Tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermal barrier coating for high temperature applications, a discrete layer of ceramic material is bondedThermally Induced Stresses in Functionally Graded Thick Tubes Senthil S. Vel and Rajeev Baskiyar method to obtain the temperature, displacements and thermal stresses. In addition to the thermal

Vel, Senthil

4

EFFECT OF ELECTROLYZER CONFIGURATION AND PERFORMANCE ON HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

Gorensek, M

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

5

Sulfur distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the thermal cracking process of the El-Lujjan oil shale showed that the yield of oil was around 12 wt of the boiling point for different distillate fractions. Sulfur in Jordanian oil shale was found to be mainly the dominant phases in these fractions. q 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Oil shale

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

6

Dielectric tunability of graded barium strontium titanate multilayers: Effect of thermal strains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dielectric tunability of graded barium strontium titanate multilayers: Effect of thermal strains M TEC of a multilayered barium strontium titanate Ba1-ySryTiO3 BST ferroelectric heterostructure such as barium strontium titanate Ba1-ySryTiO3 BST have emerged as leading candidates for such applications due

Alpay, S. Pamir

7

Effective thermal conductivity of two-phase functionally graded particulate H. M. Yin, G. H. Paulino,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a continuous trade-off of fracture toughness and high thermal conductivity of metals is made with ceramic of the ceramic portions of FGMs. The effective thermal properties in the gradation direction are es- sentialEffective thermal conductivity of two-phase functionally graded particulate composites H. M. Yin, G

Paulino, Glaucio H.

8

Grade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to correlate the degree of contrast enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI and the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values on T2*-weighted MRI in patients with high-grade brain neoplasms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Ten patients with biopsy-proven high-grade gliomas underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient-echo technique (TR/TE, 8.3/1.5) during IV infusion of 0.1 mmol/kg of MR contrast medium. This sequence was followed within 5 minutes by dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging (1,500/80) during IV infusion of 0.2 mmol/kg of MR contrast medium. Dynamic contrast-enhanced analysis was performed using the maximum-signal-intensity algorithm, and DSC analysis was performed using the negative enhancement integral program. For each tumor, we performed two comparisons: first, the average dynamic contrast-enhanced and rCBV values within a region of interest drawn around the entire contrast-enhancing tumor on a single image through the center of the lesion and, second, the highest dynamic contrast-enhanced and highest rCBV values within each tumor. Statistical analyses of the first comparison were performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, R 2 correlation coefficient, and Spearman’s rank correlation

James M. Provenzale; Gerald York; Marcelo Galvez Moya; Lauren Parks; Michael Choma; Susan Kealey; Patricia Cole; Humaira Serajuddin; J. M. Provenzale

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

MHUG process for production of low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel. [Medium-pressure Hydro UpGrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new hydro-upgrading process operated under medium pressure has been developed to reduce the sulfur and the aromatics content in light cycle oil (LCO). Two catalysts were used in series in this technology. The commercial RN-1 catalyst, which is known as having high activity in hydrodenitrogenation, desulfurization and aromatic saturation, was chosen as the first catalyst. The second one was a nickel-tungsten zeolite catalyst, named RT-5, which was developed by RIPP specially for hydrogenolysis of naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The pilot plant tests showed that high quality diesel oil with aromatics content less than 20 v% and sulfur content less than 0.05 wt% could be produced from various LCO/straight-run-gas-oil (SRGO) blended feedstocks under hydrogen partial pressure of 6.4 MPa. The reaction temperature and overall space velocity (S.V.) varied in the range of 350--380 C and 0.6--1.2 h[sup [minus]1], respectively, depending on the properties of the feedstocks to be processed and the upgrading depth required. Several examples presented also illustrated that this technology could be used to prepare catalytic reforming feedstock as well, which is in urgent need in China. A life test operated in relatively high severity for 3,000 hr. indicated that the catalysts possessed excellent stability. A commercial demonstration unit has been running well since the last Oct 1.

Shi, Yu Lin; Shi, Jian Wen; Zhang, Xin Wei; Shi, Ya Hua; Li, Da Dong (SINOPEC, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Petroleum Processing)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per ton if using dried chips from the biorefinery. Including a 12% return on invested capital raised all of the operating cost results by about $20/ton.

Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract: In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.

Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini; Mohd Maarof Moksin; Harrison Lau; Lik Nang; Monir Norozi; W. Mahmood; Mat Yunus; Azmi Zakaria

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

13

Functionally graded materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems research. Semi-annual report, May 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combination of two new production methods, reaction-bonded metal oxide (RBMO) and electrochemical processing, have been utilized to create a functionally graded thermal barrier coating. Electrochemical processing, which includes both electrodeposition (EDEP) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD), has been used to deposit both the metallic and ceramic layers of the coating. EPD has been used to deposit the RBMO precursor powders, which exhibit the dual properties of both a metal and ceramic due to its composite nature. A summary of the FGM production methods and resulting characterization of the produced coatings for the eleventh and twelfth quarters (5/96--12/96), as well as a project summary, are outlined in this final report.

NONE

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic sulfur heterocycles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale Summary: . Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles IV. Determination of polycyclic...

15

ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

17

DSRP, direct sulfur production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to demonstrate on a bench-scale the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for up to 99 percent or higher recovery of sulfur (as elemental sulfur) from regeneration off-gases and coal-gas produced in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generating systems. Fundamental kinetic and thermodynamic studies will also be conducted to enable development of a model to predict DSRP performance in large-scale reactors and to shed light on the mechanism of DSRP reactions. The ultimate goal of the project is to advance the DSRP technology to the point where industry is willing to support its further development.

McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.L.; Howe, G.B. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

19

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

KALB, P.

2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermally-Chargeable Supercapacitor Fluctuating Low-GradeThermally-Chargeable Supercapacitor for Fluctuating Low-Thermally-Chargeable Supercapacitor for Fluctuating Low-

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Sulfur and Sulfur Diluted with Hydrogen Sulfide Flowing Through Circular Tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is called the pumping-power advantage factor, and has the value 2. 5 x 10 for sodium. The only metals having a higher value of H are 13 lithium 7 and bismuth. Lithium 7 comprises 92. 5% of natural lithium, but the cost of separating it from lithium 6...-section for thermal neutrons being 0. 130 barns. For comparison, water has an absorption cross-section of 0. 58 barns for thermal neutrons (2) . Sulfur is not activated by exposure to neutron flux in such a way as to produce a radioactive isotope which...

Stone, Porter Walwyn

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

24

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic sulfur compounds Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale Summary: . It has been also shown that most of the sulfur compounds in oil shale are...

25

Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

26

RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

Hobbs, D.

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

27

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 °C and with 1

California at Riverside, University of

28

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen, 2009. Published May 19, 2009. The hybrid sulfur process is being investigated as an efficient way

Weidner, John W.

29

Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

30

Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A joint research effort is being conducted on ways to produce cost-effective pulping catalysts from lignin. This project addresses improving selectivities and reducing the levels of sulfur chemicals used in pulping. Improved selectivity means...

Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

31

Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

CLOSEOUT REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR PRESSURIZED BUTTON CELL TEST FACILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the Close-Out Report for design and partial fabrication of the Pressurized Button Cell Test Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This facility was planned to help develop the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) that is a key component of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for generating hydrogen. The purpose of this report is to provide as much information as possible in case the decision is made to resume research. This report satisfies DOE Milestone M3GSR10VH030107.0. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by watersplitting. The HyS Cycle utilizes the high temperature (>800 C) thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both high thermodynamic efficiency and low hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. Sulfur dioxide from the decomposer is cycled back to electrolyzers. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. Anode and cathode are formed by spraying a catalyst, typically platinized carbon, on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). SRNL has been testing SDEs for several years including an atmospheric pressure Button Cell electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2} active area) and an elevated temperature/pressure Single Cell electrolyzer (54.8 cm{sup 2} active area). SRNL tested 37 MEAs in the Single Cell electrolyzer facility from June 2005 until June 2009, when funding was discontinued. An important result of the final months of testing was the development of a method that prevents the formation of a sulfur layer previously observed in MEAs used in the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle electrolyzer. This result is very important because the sulfur layer increased cell voltage and eventually destroyed the MEA that is the heart of the cell. Steimke and Steeper [2005, 2006, 2007, 2008] reported on testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility in several periodic reports. Steimke et. al [2010] issued a final facility close-out report summarizing all the testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility. During early tests, significant deterioration of the membrane occurred in 10 hours or less; the latest tests ran for at least 200 hours with no sign of deterioration. Ironically, the success with the Single Cell electrolyzer meant that it became dedicated to long runs and not available for quick membrane evaluations. Early in this research period, the ambient pressure Button Cell Electrolyzer test facility was constructed to quickly evaluate membrane materials. Its small size allowed testing of newly developed membranes that typically were not available in sizes large enough to test in the Single Cell electrolyzer. The most promising membranes were tested in the Single Cell Electrolyzer as soon as sufficient large membranes could be obtained. However, since the concentration of SO{sub 2} gas in sulfuric acid decreases rapidly with increasing temperature, the ambient pressure Button Cell was no longer able to achieve the operating conditions needed to evaluate the newer improved high temperature membranes. Significantly higher pressure operation was required to force SO{sub 2} into the sulfuric acid to obtain meaningful concentrations at increased temperatures. A high pressure (200 psig), high temperature (120 C) Button Cell was designed and partially fabricated just before funding was discontinued in June 2009. SRNL completed the majority of the design of the test facility, including preparation of a process and instrument drawing (P&ID) and preliminary designs for the major components. SRNL intended to complete the designs and procu

Steeper, T.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

CSP Policies & Procedures Process for Grade Appeals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CSP Policies & Procedures Process for Grade Appeals Grade Appeals ­ Generally speaking, once grades

Leistikow, Bruce N.

36

Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life. Molecular Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long...

37

LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated Bacterial Phyla. Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated Bacterial Phyla....

39

Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Marketing eggs on grade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

t t t t t t t t t ~ t Some of tbe farmers in Quan County Texas have made aoney by selling eggs on grades They have been selling that wey since august 4e 1945, Since that time they have cone. to regard. the. graded market as an important faator in influenoing the suaaees... tbe vicinity af Caneron in MGaa County as a result af selling their eggs on grade, Data ham been obtained shioh shoe the resuIts of pxoduoers seIIing on grade to a buyer 9n Cameroni These data snd the infprsatipn froa merous other sources wi11 he...

Wischkaemper, Theodore Frederick Paul

1947-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Natural Gas Processing Plant- Sulfur (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This regulation establishes sulfur emission standards for natural gas processing plants. Standards are stated for both existing and new plants. There are also rules for stack height requirements,...

44

Sulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal II: Sulfur forms and mercury uptake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promote the formation of organic sulfur and the presence of H2S during the cooling process increased in the presence of H2S was very effective towards Hg uptake in nitrogen. Corre- lation of mercury uptake capacitySulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal ­ II: Sulfur forms and mercury

Borguet, Eric

45

December 2002 Issue #13 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

December 2002 Issue #13 ­ 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR SURVEY 1/ K response of alfalfa in the final 2 years of a 4-year experiment at Arlington on a 3.8% organic matter soil better identification of sulfur need and improved S management on Wisconsin alfalfa. Question #1

Balser, Teri C.

46

Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes, volca- noes) or produced within the atmosphere by oxidation of re- duced sulfur speciesTransition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur importance of sulfate production by Fe(III)- and Mn(II)-catalyzed oxidation of S(IV) by O2. We scale

Alexander, Becky

47

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

48

Sulfur adsorption on nickel(100) and its effect on carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and deuterium chemisorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of CO, NO, and D/sub 2/ was studied on clean and sulfided Ni(100) near 100K using Auger electron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, and work function change measurements. The evidence suggests that sulfur's effects are predominantly steric in nature. Weak, short-range (approx.4 angstrom) electrostatic effects are also present, due to charge transfer of about 0.04 of an electron from nickel to sulfur. The blocking effect of S on the adsorption of each gas at various temperatures is discussed.

Hardegree, E.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode...

50

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

51

Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds...

52

Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide...

53

Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis). The effect of operation at higher anolyte concentrations on the flowsheet, and on the net thermal efficiency for a nuclear-heated HyS process, is examined and quantified.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

55

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

56

Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transport to the anode influences the concentration of the sulfuric acid produced. The resulting sulfuric loss is the diffusion of SO2 through the sulfuric acid to the catalyst site. Here, we extend our and correlated the operating potential to the sulfuric acid concentration produced at the anode.15-17 We have

Weidner, John W.

57

Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal resistance in lattices with mass gradient Nuo Yang,1 Nianbei Li,1 Lei Wang,1 and Baowen Li1,2,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal resistance in lattices with mass gradient thermal resistance is observed. Possible applications in constructing thermal rectifiers and thermal properties, the thermal properties of graded materials have not yet been fully studied see the recent review

Li, Baowen

58

Definition of Non-Conventional Sulfur Utilization in Western Kazakhstan for Sulfur Concrete (Phase 1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Battelle received a contract from Agip-KCO, on behalf a consortium of international oil and gas companies with exploration rights in the North Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. The objective of the work was to identify and help develop new techniques for sulfur concrete products from waste, by-product sulfur that will be generated in large quantitites as drilling operations begin in the near future. BNL has significant expertise in the development and use of sulfur concrete products and has direct experience collaborating with the Russian and Kazakh partners that participated. Feasibility testing was successfully conducted for a new process to produce cost-effective sulfur polymer cement that has broad commerical applications.

Kalb, Paul

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Process for removing sulfur from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

1983-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

60

Economics of Grade Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Study of the General Principles of the Economics to Be Effected By the Reduction of Grades, the Elimination of Rise and Fall and Curvature, and the Bettering of the Other Physical Condition on the ST. Louis & San Francisco Railroad Lines....

Neff, Paul J.

1914-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

World copper smelter sulfur balance-1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. The 37 US and foreign smelters represented roughly 73.2% of world and 89.3% of market economy primary copper production in 1988. The 29 non-US smelters attained 55.3% control of their input sulfur in 1988. Combined with the 90.4% control of US smelters, an aggregate 63.4% sulfur control existed. Roughly 1,951,100 mt of sulfur was emitted from the 37 market economy smelters in 1988. Identifiable SO[sub 2] control regulations covered 72.4% of the 29 foreign smelters, representing 65.5% of smelting capacity. Including US smelters, 78.4% of the major market economy smelters were regulated, representing 73.1% of smelting capacity. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

Towle, S.W. (Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Documents & Publications CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

64

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low ...

Lee, Seok Woo

65

An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

Grant, K E

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

66

Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

Ji-lu Chen

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

Safety considerations for the use of sulfur in sulfur-modified pavement materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the surround1ng environment. As sulfur-modified paving materials were being developed, there was a corresponding concern for studying the amounts of gaseous emiss1ons that were generated. The Texas Trans- portat1on Inst1tute (TTI) was one of the first... organizations in the United States to become 1nvolved in the research and development of sulfur-modified pavements, Throughout 1ts laboratory stud1es TTI cont1nually mon1tored hydrogen sulf1de (H25) and sulfur d1oxide (502) em1ssions produced during mix...

Jacobs, Carolyn Yuriko

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

68

Thermal Fluids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermal Fluids The Thermal Fluids and Heat Transfer program works on thermal hydraulic reactor safety code development and experimental heat transferthermal hydraulics. The...

69

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

1997-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for increased sulfur loading Cathode Anode Investigatingoptimizing Li and Si composite anodes Exploring polymer electrolytes Electrolyte Determining new...

71

Posting type Advisory update Subject Inconstant bias in XRF sulfur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Posting type Advisory update Subject Inconstant bias in XRF sulfur Module/Species A/ S Sites entire attention to observable discontinuities in XRF sulfur data. Shifts in the sulfur/sulfate ratio during 2003-4 were shown to coincide with recalibrations of the XRF system and to correlate with other XRF biases

Fischer, Emily V.

72

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison of molybdenum able to trigger the copper sulfur molybdenum interference in sheep was measured with either only) and 4 increasing molybdenum doses. The sulfur-molybdenum-copper interference was quantified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

OPTIONS FOR ONLINE GRADE SUBMISSION Web-Based Grade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spring 2014 Phone Support IT Express Computing Services Help Desk (530) 754-HELP (4357) http enter your grades. The Gradebook2 tool allows you to track student assign- ments throughout the quarter completed online grade submission for that particular course. 1 2 3 4 #12;NEED HELP? Fall 2013 Winter 2014

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

75

Oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons on platinum and palladium catalysts in the presence of sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report on a study of the effect of sulfur dioxide on the activity of platinum and palladium catalysts with respect to oxidation of the principal toxic components in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines: carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (propylene (C/sub 3/H/sub 6/) and propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/)). The experiments were carried out in a flow system equipped with Beckman infrared analyzers to monitor the concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons and of sulfur dioxide. A series of thermal desorption experiments was carried out in a low-pressure flow system with mass spectrometric analysis of the gas phase. The results indicate that the low-temperature adsorption of sulfur dioxide on platinum (and also palladium) catalysts inhibits the oxidation of carbon monoxide and propylene. The poisoning effect of O/sub 2/ is due to blockage of the platinum centers for adsorption of the oxidizable compounds and oxygen.

Panchishnyi, V.I.; Bondareva, N.K.; Sklyarov, A.V.; Rozanov, V.V.; Chadina, G.P.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

76

Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

77

Investigation of new heat exchanger design performance for solar thermal chemical heat pump.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The emergence of Thermally Driven Cooling system has received more attention recently due to its ability to utilize low grade heat from engine, incinerator… (more)

Cordova, Cordova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Materials Science and Engineering A252 (1998) 117132 Optimization of 316 stainless steel/alumina functionally graded  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Due to differences of thermal and mechanical prop- erties in ceramics and metals, residual stresses develop in regions near the ceramic/metal interfaces during fabrication and under thermal/alumina functionally graded material for reduction of damage induced by thermal residual stresses M. Grujicic *, H

Grujicic, Mica

79

Revised November 2012 GRADE SUBMISSION PROCEDURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are required to submit grades via MyUH or LAULIMA for all students by 4pm on the Tuesday following the finalUH. Therefore, for grades entered via LAULIMA, faculty will need to load grade via LAULIMA and then access My to the Grading Deadlines/Procedure Grades for students enrolled in the following courses will be processed

80

Surface Acoustic Waves in an Infinite Plate of Functionally Graded Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and thermal constants, to improve certain functions like thermal resistance and local strength in variousSurface Acoustic Waves in an Infinite Plate of Functionally Graded Materials Ji Wang, Lehui Zhou, and Jianke Du Piezoelectric Device Laboratory, Mechanics and Materials Science Research Center, School

Wang, Ji

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Dense Layered Molybdenum DisilicideSilicon Carbide Functionally Graded Composites Formed by Field-Activated Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermal cracking during formation of the layered functionally graded materials. I. Introduction was the development of thermal barrier materials for use in the United States­Japan National Space Plane.1 FGMs have ceramic that exhibits excel- lent high-temperature oxidation resistance. Above 800°C, in air, MoSi2 forms

Paulino, Glaucio H.

82

Sulfur dioxide removal by enhanced electrostatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The economic removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) still represents a significant technical challenge which could determine the use of certain types of fossil fuels for energy production. This paper will present the preliminary results of an innovative research project utilizing a low-cost wet electrostatic precipitator to remove sulfur dioxide. There are many aspects for gas removal in an electrostatic precipitator which are not currently being used. This project utilizes electron attachment of free electrons onto gas molecules and ozone generation to remove sulfur dioxide which is a typical flue gas pollutant. This research was conducted on a bench-scale, wet electrostatic precipitator. A direct-current negative discharge corona is used to generate the ozone in-situ. This ozone will be used to oxidize SO{sub 2} to form sulfuric acid, which is very soluble in water. However, it is believed that the primary removal mechanism is electron attachment of the free electrons from the corona which force the SO{sub 2} to go to equilibrium with the water and be removed from the gas stream. Forcing the equilibrium has been shown to achieve removal efficiencies of up to 70%. The bench scale unit has been designed to operate wet or dry, positive and negative for comparison purposes. The applied dc voltage is variable from 0 to 100 kV, the flow rate is a nominal 7 m{sup 3}/hr and the collecting electrode area is 0.20 m{sup 2}. Tests are conducted on a simulated flue gas stream with SO{sub 2} ranging from 0 to 4,000 ppmv. This paper presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of operating conditions on removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was found to vary with gas residence time, water flow rate, inlet concentration, applied power, and the use of corona pulsing.

Larkin, K.; Tseng, C.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

A Detailed Approach To Low-Grade Geothermal Resources In The Appalachian Basin Of New York And Pennsylvania: Heterogeneities Within The Geologic Model And Their Effect On Geothermal Resource Assessment .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The potential to utilize widespread low -grade geothermal resources of the Northeastern U.S. for thermal direct use and combined heat and power applications can be… (more)

Shope, Elaina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Educational Product Educators Grades 58  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Educational Product Educators Grades 5­8 WEATHER Investigating the Climate System WEATHER Global Theon, Former Program for your favorite music group!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Scientist for NASA TRMM Editorial Assistance, Dan Stillman, Science Communications Specialist

Waliser, Duane E.

85

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

Denver, University of

87

Analyses of sulfur-asphalt field trials in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

128 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGF Layout of SNPA sulfur bitumen binder pavem nt test ? U. S. Highway 69, Lufkin, Texas 15 Col 1oi d mi 1 1 furnished by SNPA for preparation of sul fur-asphalt emulsions View of mixing station showing sulfur... designed to investigate the advantage of using a colloid mill to prepare sulfur-asphalt binders as compared to comingling the asphalt and molten sulfur in a pipeline leading directly to the pug mill. After only six months of testing, the results...

Newcomb, David Edward

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of long cycle-life in half cells and expand the synthesis of sulfurcarbon composite materials of various sulfur loadings 2. Compare the performance for different...

89

Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry PI: Nitash Balsara LBNL June 17, 2014 Project ID ESS224 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

90

LARGE-SCALE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE SULFUR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Concentrationsvalida- tion studies of XRF measurements have establishedelemental sulfur measurement by XRF can be closely related

Loo, B.W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Related Links FAQs Contact Us Offices You are here Home Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based...

92

SULFUR-TOLERANT CATALYST FOR THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??JP-8 fuel is easily accessible, transportable, and has hydrogen content essential to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. However, this syngas has sulfur content which… (more)

Bozeman, Joe Frank, III

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

1987-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

96

Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData Files DataADVANCESDepartmentDepartmentalDeployment of a

97

BU BRAIN Self Service GRADING PROCEDURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 BU BRAIN Self Service GRADING PROCEDURES FOR FACULTY Updated May 2014/PD #12;2 Table of Contents BRAIN Self Service icon on left side of page: #12;4 Entering Grades: Once in BU BRAIN Self Service, go BRAIN Self Service; Registered ­ student registered through the department). Grade: Student's grade

Suzuki, Masatsugu

98

Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

1980-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

99

Correlation for the total sulfur content in char after devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall process of coal combustion takes place in two successive steps: devolatilization and char combustion. The fate of sulfur during the devolatilization of coal of different rank was investigated. The significance of the investigation is in fact that a major part of sulfur release occurs during devolatilization of coal, (i.e., emission of sulfur oxides during combustion of coal largely depends on sulfur release during devolatilization). The experimental investigations were conducted to obtain the data about the quantitative relation between sulfur content in the coal and sulfur content in the char. Standard procedures were used for obtaining the chars in a laboratory oven and determining the sulfur forms in the coal and char samples. The experiments were done with ground coal samples ({lt}0.2 mm), at the temperatures in the range of 500-1000{sup o}C. We showed that the amount of sulfur remaining in the char decreases, but not significantly in the temperature range 600-900{sup o}C. On the basis of the theoretical consideration of behavior of sulfur forms during devolatilization, certain simplifying assumptions, and obtained experimental data, we propose two correlations to associate the content of sulfur in the coal and in the char. The correlations are based on the results of the proximate analysis and sulfur forms in coal. Good agreement was found when the proposed correlations were compared with the experimental results obtained for investigated coals. Moreover, the correlations were verified by results found in the literature for numerous Polish, Albanian, and Turkish coals. Significant correlations (P {lt}0.05) between observed and calculated data with correlation coefficient, R {gt}0.9, were noticed in the case of all coals. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Vasilije Manovic; Borislav Grubor [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia & Montenegro)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

Dyni, J.R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

102

Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerosols can potentially result in an increase in acid deposition. [4] Acid rain has been studiedSulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols Ben Kravitz,1 Alan limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2

Robock, Alan

104

Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

Dejonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Berkeley, CA); Armand, Michel B. (St. Martin D'Uriage, FR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

106

Effect of sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst. Effect of sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst....

107

E-Print Network 3.0 - amoco sulfur recovery process Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Medicine 80 Sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of the atmosphere in Saxony (Germany) Tichomirowa et al. Summary: ? a) Mixing processes 12;Sulfur and oxygen isotope...

108

Influence of fuel sulfur on the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More intensive regulations of the emissions of nitrogen oxides from stationary combustion sources have prompted the innovation and characterization of new control technologies suitable for applications in utilities. One of the more recent and attractive abatement technologies is the Thermal DeNO/sub x/ process which has been described by Lyon and Longwell. This process removes NO by selectively reducing it with NH/sub 3/ added to the post-combustion gases containing excess oxygen. This process is thus independent of the NO formation mechanism and makes no distinction between thermal and fuel NO. The present study is concerned with characterizing the selective reduction process for light distillate oil fuel admixed with variable amounts of pyridene and thiophene in a laboratory scale combustion tunnel under a variety of experimental conditions. This paper reports on those aspects of the study concerned with the investigation of possible synergistic effects between the sulfur and selective reduction chemistry.

Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery: Task 2. Topical report, September 30, 1992--August 29, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to present conceptual designs developed to treat a large portion of proven domestic natural gas reserves which are low quality. The conceptual designs separate hydrogen sulfide and large amounts of carbon dioxide (>20%) from methane, convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, produce a substantial portion of the carbon dioxide as EOR or food grade CO{sub 2}, and vent residual CO{sub 2} virtually free of contaminating sulfur containing compounds. A secondary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to review existing gas treatment technology and identify existing commercial technologies currently used to treat large volumes of low quality natural gas with high acid content. Section II of this report defines low quality gas and describes the motivation for seeking technology to develop low quality gas reserves. The target low quality gas to be treated with the proposed technology is identified, and barriers to the production of this gas are reviewed. Section III provides a description of the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFG)-CNG technologies, their features, and perceived advantages. The three conceptual process designs prepared under Task 2 are presented in Section IV along with the design basis and process economics. Section V presents an overview of existing gas treatment technologies, organized into acid gas removal technology and sulfur recovery technology.

Cook, W.J.; Neyman, M.; Brown, W. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Klint, B.W.; Kuehn, L.; O`Connell, J.; Paskall, H.; Dale, P. [Bovar, Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Role of Nuclear Grade Graphite in Oxidation in Modular HTGRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940’s and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

Willaim Windes; G. Strydom; J. Kane; R. Smith

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vulcanizedpolyaniline/sulfur (SPANI/S) nanostructures were investigated for Li-S battery applications, but the detailed molecular structures of such composites have not been fully illustrated. In this paper, we synthesize SPANI/S composites with different S content in a nanorod configuration. FTIR, Raman, XPS, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis methods are used to characterize the molecular structure of the materials. We provide clear evidence that a portion of S was grafted on PANI during heating and connected the PANI chains with disulfide bonds to form a crosslinked network and the rest of S was encapsulated within it.. Polysulfides and elementary sulfur nanoparticles are physically trapped inside the polymer network and are not chemically bound to the polymer. The performance of the composites is further improved by reducing the particle size. Even after 500 cycles a capacity retention rate of 68.8% is observed in the SPANI/S composite with 55% S content.

Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Schwenzer, Birgit; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Nie, Zimin; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Liu, Jun

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

113

Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanisms by which various fuel component hydrocarbons related to both heavy petroleum and coal-derived liquids are converted to hydrogen without forming carbon were investigated. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in autothermal reforming (ATR) were shown to be responsible for the observed fuel-specific carbon formation characteristics. The types of carbon formed in the reformer were identified by SEM and XRD analyses of catalyst samples and carbon deposits. From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation. The effects of propylene addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics, synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Indications that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation were found. The conversion and degradation effects of the sulfur additive (thiophene) were examined.

Not Available

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Standard Syllabi and Grading Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard Syllabi and Grading Policy Professor and Executive Vice Dean Phil Phan The Johns Hopkins Is a Syllabus #12;· All the current Carey standard syllabi are listed online http://carey.jhu.edu/standard_syllabi · Carey standard syllabus templates are available online http

von der Heydt, RĂĽdiger

115

High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Fractal Geometric Characterization of Functionally Graded Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fractal Geometric Characterization of Functionally Graded Materials A. Saharan1 ; M. Ostoja graded materials (FGM) is studied from the standpoint of fractal geometry. First, upon introducing fractals, and an interfacial fractal dimension is estimated for varying degrees of fineness. Avariation

Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

118

Amphiphilic Surface Modification of Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Cycle Life of Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lithium sulfur batteries, due to their high specific energy and relatively low cost. Despite recent progress in addressing the various problems of sulfur cathodes, lithium sulfur batteries still exhibit at C/2. KEYWORDS: Lithium sulfur batteries; energy storage; surface modification Increasing the energy

Cui, Yi

119

Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjani

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Low Temperature Sorbents for removal of Sulfur Compounds from fluid feed Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjan

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

122

Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Sulfurized olefin lubricant additives and compositions containing same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricant additives having substantially improved extreme pressure characteristics are provided by modifying certain sulfurized olefins by reacting said olefins with a cyclic polydisulfide under controlled reaction conditions and at a temperature of at least about 130/sup 0/ C.

Braid, M.

1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

124

Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NO{sub x} and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

None

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

125

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

127

Low temperature fracture evaluation of plasticized sulfur paving mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 1985 Major Subject: Civil Engineering LOW TEMPERATURE FRACTURE EVALUATION OF PLASTICIZED SULFUR PAVING MIXTURES A Thesis by KAMYAR MAHBOUB Approved as to style and content by: Dallas N. Li tie (Chai rman of Committee) Ro e . Lytto Member... modifications to the standard ASTM procedure. These modifications were required due to the nature of plasticized sulfur mixtures and asphalt cement mixtures. The J-integral version of Paris ' law was successfully used to characterize the fatigue...

Mahboub, Kamyar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

128

Low Grade Heat Recovery- A Unique Approach at Polysar Limited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-~--,,:,,---r--~I-.L..-rL--T----l'--..L.-.16S p.ig SlUm Qs:"c:. 1f ... IS p-L--'----;----"'--r--......------'--.. Sleam LEGEND BLR - boiler BBO - boiler blowdown TG - turbogenerator S,eam BfT - boiler feedwater pump turbine SWT - service water turbine lOT - induced draft... for changing production grades or simply from plant upsets. This thermal shock problem was especially severe during the winter season when large temperature differences were observed between the nonnal service water and the river water temperature. (3...

Shyr, S.

129

A NOVEL TECHNIQUE TO GENERATE SHARP CRACKS IN METALLIC/CERAMIC FUNCTIONALLY GRADED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials with high fracture toughness and elevated temperature resistance. Ideally, the ceramic side of the FGM provides thermal and corrosion resistance while the metallic side gives the necessary strengthA NOVEL TECHNIQUE TO GENERATE SHARP CRACKS IN METALLIC/CERAMIC FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

Paulino, Glaucio H.

130

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Reaction of Elemental Sulfur with a Copper(I) Complex Forming a trans--1,2 End-On Disulfide Complex: New Directions in Copper-Sulfur Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reaction of Elemental Sulfur with a Copper(I) Complex Forming a trans-µ-1,2 End-On Disulfide Complex: New Directions in Copper-Sulfur Chemistry Matthew E. Helton, Peng Chen, Partha P. Paul, Zolta, investigations into copper-sulfur interactions have been of marked interest in the research fields of copper

Chen, Peng

132

Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Process Development Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Thermochemical Process is a means of producing hydrogen via water-splitting through a combination of chemical reactions and electrochemistry. Energy is supplied to the system as high temperature heat (approximately 900 C) and electricity. Advanced nuclear reactors (Generation IV) or central solar receivers can be the source of the primary energy. Large-scale hydrogen production based on this process could be a major contributor to meeting the needs of a hydrogen economy. This project's objectives include optimization of the HyS process design, analysis of technical issues and concerns, creation of a development plan, and laboratory-scale proof-of-concept testing. The key component of the HyS Process is the SO2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Studies were performed that showed that an electrolyzer operating in the range of 500-600 mV per cell can lead to an overall HyS cycle efficiency in excess of 50%, which is superior to all other currently proposed thermochemical cycles. Economic analysis indicated hydrogen production costs of approximately $1.60 per kilogram for a mature nuclear hydrogen production plant. However, in order to meet commercialization goals, the electrolyzer should be capable of operating at high current density, have a long operating lifetime , and have an acceptable capital cost. The use of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) technology, which leverages work for the development of PEM fuel cells, was selected as the most promising route to meeting these goals. The major accomplishments of this project were the design and construction of a suitable electrolyzer test facility and the proof-of-concept testing of a PEM-based SDE.

Summers, William A.; Buckner, Melvin R.

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

134

Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

Epler, John

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

Basu, Arunabha (Aurora, IL); Meyer, Howard S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA); Leppin, Dennis (Chicago, IL); Wangerow, James R. (Medinah, IL)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

136

Indication of Meissner Effect in Sulfur-Substituted Strontium Ruthenates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ceramic samples of Sr2RuO(4-y)Sy (y=0.03-1.2) with intended isovalent substitution of oxygen by sulfur have been synthesized and explored in the temperature range 4-300K. It is found that at a range of optimum sulfur substitution the magnetic response of ceramic samples reveals large diamagnetic signal with amplitudes approaching comparability with that of the YBCO-superconductors. Contrary to a pure ceramic Sr2RuO4, if properly optimized, the resistivity of sulfur-substituted samples has a metallic behavior except at lower temperatures where an upturn occurs. Both synthesis conditions and results of measurements are reported. The Meissner effect may point to high-temperature superconductivity.

Gulian, Armen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

138

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2} formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650{degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams, The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Williams, R.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Sulfur gas geochemical detection of hydrothermal systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a system of exploration using sulfur gases was capable of detecting convecting hydrothermal systems. Three surveying techniques were used at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA in Utah. These were (a) a sniffing technique, capable of instantaneous determinations of sulfur gas concentration, (b) an accumulator technique, capable of integrating the sulfur gas emanations over a 30 day interval, and (c) a method of analyzing the soils for vaporous sulfur compounds. Because of limitations in the sniffer technique, only a limited amount of surveying was done with this method. The accumulator and soil sampling techniques were conducted on a 1000 foot grid at Roosevelt Hot Springs, and each sample site was visited three times during the spring of 1980. Thus, three soil samples and two accumulator samples were collected at each site. The results are shown as averages of three soil and two accumulator determinations of sulfur gas concentrations at each site. Soil surveys and accumulator surveys were conducted at two additional KGRA's which were chosen based on the state of knowledge of these hydrothermal systems and upon their differences from Roosevelt Hot Springs in an effort to show that the exploration methods would be effective in detecting geothermal reservoirs in general. The results at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah show that each of the three surveying methods was capable of detecting sulfur gas anomalies which can be interpreted to be related to the source at depth, based on resistivity mapping of that source, and also correlatable with major structural features of the area which are thought to be controlling the geometry of the geothermal reservoir. The results of the surveys at Roosevelt did not indicate that either the soil sampling technique or the accumulator technique was superior to the other.

Rouse, G.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.00 = __________ TOTALS: _________ __________ CREDITS QUALITY PTS. Divide total credits into total quality pointsGRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE A _________ x 4 and the result is the grade point average (GPA). QUALITY PTS. = GPA ____________ = CREDITS

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

143

Sulfur dioxide oxidation and plume formation at cement kilns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of source sampling at the Glens Falls cement kiln in Glens Falls, N.Y., are reported for sulfur oxides, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, oxygen, and moisture content. The origin of a detached, high-opacity, persistent plume originating from the cement kiln stack is investigated. It is proposed that this plume is due to ammonium salts of SOx and sulfuric acid that have been formed in condensed water droplets in the plume by the pseudocatalytic action of ammonia. (1 diagram, 1 graph, 22 references, 7 tables)

Dellinger, B.; Grotecloss, G.; Fortune, C.R.; Cheney, J.L.; Homolya, J.B.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas, which contains far more contaminants than can be simulated in the laboratory. The results are very encouraging, with stable and efficient operation being obtained for a prolonged period of time.

Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

146

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Make the Grade General Test Taking Tips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Make the Grade General Test Taking Tips Adapted from: The Academic Skills Center At California Polytechnic State University Tips Before, During, and After the Test Here are some tips you can implement to help you through tests. Try implementing these techniques to make the grade! Before Start to prepare

Kasman, Alex

148

The Quantitation of Sulfur Mustard By-Products, Sulfur-Containing Herbicides, and Organophosphonates in Soil and Concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past fifty years, the facilities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal have been used for the manufacturing, bottling, and shipping sulfur- containing herbicides, sulfur mustard, and Sarin. There is a need for analytical methods capable of determining these constituents quickly to determine exactly how specific waste structural materials should be handled, treated, and landfilled.These species are extracted rapidly from heated samples of soil or crushed concrete using acetonitrile at elevated pressure, then analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Thiodiglycol, the major hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard, must be converted to a silylated derivative prior to quantitation. Detection limits, calculated using two statistically-unbiased protocols, ranged between 2-13 micrograms analyte/g soil or concrete.

Tomkins, B.A., Sega, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)], Macnaughton, S.J. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

Mukerjee, Subhasish (Pittsford, NY); Haltiner, Jr., Karl J (Fairport, NY); Weissman, Jeffrey G. (West Henrietta, NY)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

150

A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOxĚł automotive catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

Tang, Hairong

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Abstract: Surface...

152

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols (2010), Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols" (Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D14109

Robock, Alan

153

Studies on the sulfur poisoning of Ru-RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst for the adsorption and methanation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of sulfur poisoning on the chemisorption and on the methanation of carbon monoxide over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalyst were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and volumetric gas adsorption measurements. The CS{sub 2} molecules are {eta}` bonded to Ru sites through one of the sulfur atoms and decompose to the constituent elements on thermal activation. Each S atom may deactivate 3 to 10 metal sites even at low coverages, the effect being more pronounced on the chemisorption of hydrogen. The deposited sulfur (and possibly carbon also) sterically hinders the formation of certain multicarbonyl and monocarbonyl species (vCO in 2055-2140 cm{sup -1} region), which otherwise transform to methane via surface methylene groups in the presence of chemisorbed hydrogen and are found to play an important role in the low-temperature methanation activity of the studied catalyst. The Ru-CO species giving rise to lower frequency vibrational bands are affected to a lesser extent. The presence of sulfur also results in the development of some new CO binding states which are weak and are identified with the CO and S coadsorbed at Ru sites of different oxidation states or of varying crystallographic nature. The CO adsorbed in these states is not reactive to hydrogen. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Kamble, V.S.; Londhe, V.P.; Gupta, N.M. [Bhambha Atomic Research centre, Bombay (India)] [and others] [Bhambha Atomic Research centre, Bombay (India); and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHASTAN: USING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY-PRODUCT SULFUR FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SECONDARY END-USE PRODUCTS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for by-product sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a low-value industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The research and development to deploy Kazakhstan recycled sulfur for secondary applications described in this paper is being conducted with support from the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (DOE IPP).

KALB, P.D.; VAGIN, S.; BEALL, P.W.; LEVINTOV, B.L.

2004-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric sulfur dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) will be measured... Ren...

156

Chromium modified nickel-iron aluminide useful in sulfur bearing environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved nickel-iron aluminide containing chromium and molybdenum additions to improve resistance to sulfur attack.

Cathcart, John V. (Knoxville, TN); Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

157

Sulfur Degassing From Volcanoes: Source Conditions, Surveillance, Plume Chemistry and Earth System Impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sulfur in magmas owes much to its multiple valence states (-II, 0, IV, VI), speciation (e.g., S2, H2S, SO on the redox chemistry of sulfur: by reducing sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite and sulfate to H2S, or oxidizing sulfur and H2S to sulfate (e.g., Takano et al. 1997; Amend and Shock 2001; Shock et al. 2010

Boyer, Edmond

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous organic sulfur Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Prediction Laboratory, University of South Florida Collection: Geosciences 13 Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A Summary: ) Transmission electron...

159

Sulfur Impregnation on Activated Carbon Fibers through H2S Oxidation for Vapor Phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfur Impregnation on Activated Carbon Fibers through H2S Oxidation for Vapor Phase Mercury: Sulfur was impregnated onto activated carbon fibers ACFs through H2S oxidation catalyzed by the sorbent CE Database subject headings: Activated carbon; Sulfur; Mercury; Hydrogen sulfides; Oxidation

Borguet, Eric

160

Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Sulfur-induced greenhouse warming on early Mars Sarah Stewart Johnson,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and 500 mbar CO2 with varying abundances of H2O and sulfur volatiles (H2S and SO2 mixing ratios of 10Ă?3Sulfur-induced greenhouse warming on early Mars Sarah Stewart Johnson,1 Michael A. Mischna,2 melting model, we obtain a high sulfur solubility, approximately 1400 ppm, in Martian mantle melts. We

Zuber, Maria

162

REGULAR PAPER Photoproduction of hydrogen by sulfur-deprived C. reinhardtii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dramatic was the effect of sulfur deprivation on the H2-production process, which depends both on the presREGULAR PAPER Photoproduction of hydrogen by sulfur-deprived C. reinhardtii mutants with impaired+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Photoproduction of H2 was examined in a series of sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas

Meier, Iris

163

Dissociation of Import of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria from Proteolytic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processing peptidase was investigated using high concentrations of metal chelators and iron-sulfur protein- sulfur protein into the mitochondrial matrix is inde- pendent of proteolytic processing first removes a 22-amino acid peptide from the prese- quence of the precursor iron-sulfur protein (p

Trumpower, Bernard L.

164

Revisit Carbon/Sulfur Composite for Li-S Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To correlate the carbon properties e.g. surface area and porous structure, with the electrochemical behaviors of carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, four different carbon frameworks including Ketjen Black (KB, high surface area and porous), Graphene (high surface area and nonporous), Acetylene Black (AB, low surface area and nonporous) and Hollow Carbon Nano Sphere (HCNS, low surface area and porous) are employed to immobilize sulfur (80 wt.%). It has been revealed that high surface area of carbon improves the utilization rate of active sulfur and decreases the real current density during the electrochemical reactions. Accordingly, increased reversible capacities and reduced polarization are observed for high surface area carbon hosts such as KB/S and graphene/S composites. The porous structure of KB or HCNS matrix promotes the long-term cycling stability of C/S composites but only at relatively low rate (0.2 C). Once the current density increases, the pore effect completely disappears and all Li-S batteries show similar trend of capacity degradation regardless of the different carbon hosts used in the cathodes. The reason has been assigned to the formation of reduced amount of irreversible Li2S on the cathode as well as shortened time for polysulfides to transport towards lithium anode at elevated current densities. This work provides valuable information for predictive selection on carbon materials to construct C/S composite for practical applications from the electrochemical point of view.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

165

Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate Xiaoping Wang, Theodore Krause, and Romesh Kumar Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies 2003 Merit Review Berkeley, CA May 19-22, 2003 #12;Argonne Electrochemical Technology

166

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for Nuclear Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two Sulfur-based cycles--the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) and the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS)--have emerged as the leading thermochemical water-splitting processes for producing hydrogen utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors. Numerous international efforts have been underway for several years to develop the SI Cycle, but development of the HyS Cycle has lagged. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background, current status, recent development results, and the future potential for this thermochemical process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology since 2004 to evaluate and to conduct research and development for the HyS Cycle. Process design studies and flowsheet optimization have shown that an overall plant efficiency (based on nuclear heat converted to hydrogen product, higher heating value basis) of over 50% is possible with this cycle. Economic studies indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant based on this process can be economically competitive, assuming that the key component, the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer, can be successfully developed. SRNL has recently demonstrated the use of a proton-exchange-membrane electrochemical cell to perform this function, thus holding promise for economical and efficient hydrogen production.

Summers, William A.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.; Buckner, Melvin R.

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

169

Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced at SNL and Clemson. These membranes also exhibit good chemical stability and conductivity in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions and, thus, serve as promising candidates for the SDE. Therefore, we recommend further testing of these membranes including electrolyzer testing to determine if the reduced SO{sub 2} transport eliminates the formation of sulfur-containing films at the membrane/cathode interface. SO{sub 2} transport measurements in the custom built characterization cell identified experimental limitations of the original design. During the last quarter of FY08 we redesigned and fabricated a new testing cell to overcome the previous limitations. This cell also offers the capability to test membranes under polarized conditions as well as test the performance of MEAs under selected electrolyzer conditions.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600°C and 800°C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs.

A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Strong Sulfur Binding with Conducting Magneli-Phase TinO2n-1 Nanomaterials for Improving Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will go through a series of soluble intermediate higher-order polysulfides (Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4 of Li2S2, Li2S, and sulfur.6-8 In order to solve these challenges, there have been recent developmentsStrong Sulfur Binding with Conducting Magneli-Phase TinO2n-1 Nanomaterials for Improving Lithium-Sulfur

Cui, Yi

173

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Mass-dependent fractionation of quadruple stable sulfur isotope system as a new tracer of sulfur biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ing rare isotopes for Earth materials was the discovery of anomalous 17 O abundance in a wide variety, USA b Department of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland and extraterrestrial materials. Ă? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Sulfur (32 S, 33 S, 34 S

Long, Bernard

176

Behavior of trace and companion elements of ULC-IF steel grades during RH-treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large number of metallurgical reactions are caused by lowering the partial pressure during vacuum treatment. One of these reactions is the volatilization of elements with high vapor pressure. The concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment mostly changes because of cooling scrap, deoxidation agents and ferro-alloy additions, slag/metal reactions, vaporization and also because of reactions with the RH-vessel lining. These changes in the concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment are exemplified for ULC-IF (ultra low carbon--interstitial free) steel grades. The elements which are considered are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, vanadium, tin, zinc, lead, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. Calculations of the theoretical equilibrium solubility using thermodynamic data--in dependence of pressure and temperature--correspond well with the values obtained during steel production operations. 67 refs.

Jungreithmeier, A.; Viertauer, A.; Presslinger, H. [Voest-Alpine Stahl Linz GmbH (Austria)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Racial Differences in the Psychometric Properties of Grades: Are the Grades of non-White Students More Variable?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigating race differences in the psychometric properties of college grades. One reason to suspect that the psychometric properties of grades might display subgroup differences is that current theories of racial bias suggest some professors might grade non-White...

Dovalina, Christen L

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD...

179

Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the degradation mechanisms for SOFC anodes in the presence of sulfur and recent developments in sulfur-tolerant anodes. There are two primary sulfur-degradation mechanisms for the anode materials: physical absorption of sulfur that blocks the hydrogen reaction sites, and chemical reaction that forms nickel sulfide. The sulfur-tolerant anodes are categorized into three kinds of materials: thiospinels and metal sulfides, metal cermets, and mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the combined application of available materials to serve as different functional components in anodes through proper design may be effective to achieve a balance between stability and performance.

Gong, M. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Liu, X. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Trembly, J.; Johnson, C.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

Tsang, C.-F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

Tsang, C.-F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

Tsang, C.-F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October 1993--December 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400-650 {degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a portion of the inlet H{sub 2}S. Oxidation catalysts may also produce some elemental sulfur under these conditions, which can be removed and recovered prior to the CrystaSulf absorber. The CrystaSulf-DO process can utilize direct oxidation catalyst from many sources. Numerous direct oxidation catalysts are available from many suppliers worldwide. They have been used for H{sub 2}S oxidation to sulfur and/or SO{sub 2} for decades. It was believed at the outset of the project that TDA Research, Inc., a subcontractor, could develop a direct oxidation catalyst that would offer advantages over other commercially available catalysts for this CrystaSulf-DO process application. This project involved the development of several of TDA's candidate proprietary direct oxidation catalysts through laboratory bench-scale testing. These catalysts were shown to be effective for conversion of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} and to elemental sulfur under certain operating conditions. One of these catalysts was subsequently tested on a commercial gas stream in a bench-scale reactor at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas with good results. However, commercial developments have precluded the use of TDA catalysts in the CrystaSulf-DO process. Nonetheless, this project has advanced direct oxidation catalyst technology for H{sub 2}S control in energy industries and led to several viable paths to commercialization. TDA is commercializing the use of its direct oxidation catalyst technology in conjunction with the SulfaTreat{reg_sign} solid scavenger for natural gas applications and in conjunction with ConocoPhillips and DOE for gasification applications using ConocoPhillips gasification technology. CrystaTech is commercializing its CrystaSulf-DO process in conjunction with Gas Technology Institute for natural gas applications (using direct oxidation catalysts from other commercial sources) and in conjunction with ChevronTexaco and DOE for gasification applications using ChevronTexaco's gasification technology.

Dennis Dalrymple

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Model Investment Grade Audit and Project Proposal  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Information and documents for conducting an investment grade audit to evaluate potential measures and presenting a project proposal for a set of bundled measures that deliver savings to pay for the project over the finance term.

188

CSCE3030: Project Grading Sheet (Krishna Kavi)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CSCE3030: Project Grading Sheet (Krishna Kavi) Student Name: _____________________________________________ Project Title: _______________________________________________ 1.Problem Difficulty 15% Originality, material from outside of the class new concepts, etc. are used to determine the difficulty of the project 2

Kavi, Krishna

189

CSCE4610: Project Grading Sheet (Krishna Kavi)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CSCE4610: Project Grading Sheet (Krishna Kavi) Assumption: A report on one or more commercially available architecture Student Name: _____________________________________________ Project Title. are used to determine the difficulty of the project 2. Project Details 60% Completeness Identification

Kavi, Krishna

190

Design of a reaction protocol for decoupling sulfur removal and thermal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape, Density, andaging effects during desulfation of

191

Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Grading of lumber using stress waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 2, 500 psi/min was used for all the tension tests, resulting in an average ume to failure of approximately 2 minutes. The section to follow presents an analysis of these experimental results. 40 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION MISCELLANEOUS... gravity and MOEs grouped by grade. Grade Sample Size Specifice Gravity Averageee Static Bending MOE (10' psi) Conjugate++e MOE (10 psi) Transverse Long Span Vibration MOE Bending MOE (10' psi) (10' psi) fmpact Stress Wave MOE (10 psi) 302...

Bethi, Rajeshwar

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Name____________________________________________ ID #______________________________ Course Semester Taken Hours Grade Course Semester Taken Hours Grade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Name____________________________________________ ID #______________________________ Course Semester *MATH 152 4 STAT 302 3 Course Semester Taken Hours Grade KINE 199 1 S/U KINE 198 1 Course Semester Taken

194

Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

195

Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Posting type Informational Subject Changed reporting of XRF sulfur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Posting type Informational Subject Changed reporting of XRF sulfur Module/Species A/ S Sites entire network Period Starting 1/1/05 Submitter W.H. White, white@crocker.ucdavis.edu Supporting information XRF and 2005 seen in Figure 1. 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 12/1/04 1/1/05 2/1/05 3S/SO4 = ADJUSTMENT REPORTED XRF

Fischer, Emily V.

197

Intensities of electronic transitions in sulfur dioxide vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Relation between Oscillator Strength and Probability Coefficient of Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 V. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of Sulfur Dioxide Gas . . . . . . 22 ) VI. Experimental Procedure and Computations . . . . . . . . . 23 U A... where )(e is defined as the dielectric constant of the medium. This equation holds for radiation which has a frequency sufficiently dif- ferent from that of the resonant frequencies of'the molecules of the medium, The polarizability o( of a molecule...

McCray, James Arthur

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic requirements for getting reliable Li-S battery data have been discussed in this work. Unlike Li-ion batteries, electrolyte-rich environment significantly affects the cycling stability of Li-S batteries prepared and tested under the same conditions. The reason has been assigned to the different concentrations of polysulfide-containing electrolytes in the cells, which have profound influences on both sulfur cathode and lithium anode. At optimized S/E ratio of 50 g L-1, a good balance among electrolyte viscosity, wetting ability, diffusion rate dissolved polysulfide and nucleation/growth of short-chain Li2S/Li2S2 has been built along with largely reduced contamination on the lithium anode side. Accordingly, good cyclability, high reversible capacity and Coulombic efficiency are achieved in Li-S cell with controlled S/E ratio without any additive. Other factors such as sulfur content in the composite and sulfur loading on the electrode also need careful concern in Li-S system in order to generate reproducible results and gauge the various methods used to improve Li-S battery technology.

Zheng, Jianming; Lu, Dongping; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

Olmstead, W.N.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

200

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina-iron functionally graded Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

...23 Enter Grades View Grades ... Source: Utah, University of - Energy and Geoscience Institute,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in a sea bay water area used for water supply to nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consideration is given to the numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in sea water areas used for both water supply to and dissipation of low-grade heat from a nuclear power plant on the shore of a sea bay.

Sokolov, A. S. [JSC 'B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG)' (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG)' (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Li, Chao [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sadok, Rachel G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

205

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

206

ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

207

Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Incomplete_Grade_Contract_10_31.docx | Revised: 10/31/2013 Graduate Incomplete Grade Contract Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Incomplete_Grade_Contract_10_31.docx | Revised: 10/31/2013 Graduate Incomplete Grade Contract Form-2846 | WEB: http://www.grad.usf.edu/ PURPOSE OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACT An Incomplete Grade ("I") is exceptional MISSING ASSIGNMENTS AT THE TIME WHEN THE INCOMPLETE GRADE CONTRACT IS SIGNED. For example, a student may

Meyers, Steven D.

209

Status of Initial Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Graphite Grades for NGNP Appkications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current candidate graphite grades for the core structures of NGNP include grades NBG-17, NBG-18, PCEA and IG-430. Both NBG-17 and NBG-18 are manufactured using pitch coke, and are vibrationally molded. These medium grain products are produced by SGL Carbon SAS (France). Tayo Tanso (Japan) produces IG-430 which is a petroleum coke, isostatically molded, nuclear grade graphite. And PCEA is a medium grain, extruded graphite produced by UCAR Carbon Co. (USA) from petroleum coke. An experimental program has been initiated to develop physical and mechanical properties data for these current candidate graphites. The results will be judged against the requirements for nuclear grade graphites set forth in ASTM standard D 7219-05 "Standard Specification for Isotropic and Near-isotropic Nuclear Graphites". Physical properties data including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion, and mechanical properties data including tensile, compressive and flexural strengths will be obtained using the established test methods covered in D-7219 and ASTM C 781-02 "Standard Practice for Testing Graphite and Boronated Graphite Components for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors". Various factors known to effect the properties of graphites will be investigated. These include specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation (ag and wg) within a billet, and billet-to-billet variations. The current status of the materials characterization program is reported herein. To date billets of the four graphite grades have been procured, and detailed cut up plans for obtaining the various specimens have been prepared. Particular attention has been given to the traceability of each specimen to its spatial location and orientation within a billet.

Strizak, Joe P [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Windes, Will [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1990--October 1, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts CARMELA FREDA,1, * DON R. BAKER,1,2 February 3, 2005) Abstract--We measured the diffusion coefficients of sulfur in two different basaltic for sulfur diffusion in anhydrous basalts: D 2.19 10 4 exp 226.3 58.3 RT where D is the diffusion coefficient

Long, Bernard

214

An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 [97% TD]. This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

Jamil A. Khan

2009-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

215

Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of long cycle life in half cells and expand the synthesis of sulfurcarbon composite materials of various sulfur loading 2. Compare the performance for different...

217

Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Christensen, Del Scot (Friendswood, TX)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashless low-sulfur fuel Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Blendstocks for Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel in PADD III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17... markets for low ... Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Transportation...

219

Sulfur-tolerant natural gas reforming for fuel-cell applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An attractive simplification of PEM-FC systems operated with natural gas would be the use of a sulfur tolerant reforming catalyst, but such a catalyst has… (more)

Hennings, Ulrich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sulfuric acid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Chemistry, Temple University Collection: Materials Science ; Chemistry 13 Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A Summary: , 2009. Accepted July 9, 2009....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing sulfur dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provides some chemicals which are incompatible with other compounds. Summary: Potassium carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate sulfuric and other acids...

222

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient sulfur dioxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provides some chemicals which are incompatible with other compounds. Summary: Potassium carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate sulfuric and other acids...

223

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

224

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

225

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric sulfur behavior Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

change are intimately linked to sulfur (1). Over the last 25 years the primary energy demand in Asia has Source: Jacobson, Mark - Department of Civil and Environmental...

227

E-Print Network 3.0 - agent sulfur mustard Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Types of defensive stragegies Summary: . 4 Glucosinolates (Thioglucosides, or Mustard Oils) sulfur containing glycosides - amino acid... as a foods - B. nigra, other species...

228

Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

Maddalena, Randy

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

231

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

232

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

233

HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE FLOWSHEETS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process flowsheets intended for use with high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are presented. The flowsheets were developed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, and couple a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer for the SO2-depolarized electrolysis step with a silicon carbide bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step. One presumes an HTGR reactor outlet temperature (ROT) of 950 C, the other 750 C. Performance was improved (over earlier flowsheets) by assuming that use of a more acid-tolerant PEM, like acid-doped poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI), instead of Nafion{reg_sign}, would allow higher anolyte acid concentrations. Lower ROT was accommodated by adding a direct contact exchange/quench column upstream from the bayonet reactor and dropping the decomposition pressure. Aspen Plus was used to develop material and energy balances. A net thermal efficiency of 44.0% to 47.6%, higher heating value basis is projected for the 950 C case, dropping to 39.9% for the 750 C case.

Gorensek, M.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

234

High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

235

Sulfur polymer cement for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In FY 1997, the US DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) sponsored a demonstration of the macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris using sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Two mixed wastes were tested--a D006 waste comprised of sheets of cadmium and a D008/D009 waste comprised of lead pipes and joints contaminated with mercury. The demonstration was successful in rendering these wastes compliant with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thereby eliminating one Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) waste stream from the national inventory.

Mattus, C.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowellis a town inRiver93.Information Martinez Sulfuric Acid

237

A Soft Approach to Encapsulate Sulfur: Polyaniline Nanotubes for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011A FirstEMSL Shell Model forIronLithium-Sulfur

238

OIMB GK12 CURRICULUM Grade 45 minutes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIMB GK12 CURRICULUM 4th Grade 45 minutes KELP FOREST VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP Oregon Science Content experience the kelp forest ecosystem Concepts: ! The kelp forest has a high amount of diversity: ! Kelp forest video (video of a dive in the kelp forest near the Cape Arago Lighthouse is available from

239

A GRADED REPRESENTATION MODEL FOR MACDONALD'S POLYNOMIALS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A GRADED REPRESENTATION MODEL FOR MACDONALD'S POLYNOMIALS. Adriano M. Garsia and Mark Haiman representations in various bi-degrees are given by the Macdonald coefficients Kµ. Assuming one fundamental the conjectures in various special cases. 1 #12;1. Introduction Macdonald in (1, 2) introduced a remarkable new

Haiman, Mark D.

240

A GRADED REPRESENTATION MODEL FOR MACDONALD'S POLYNOMIALS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A GRADED REPRESENTATION MODEL FOR MACDONALD'S POLYNOMIALS. Adriano M. Garsia and Mark Haiman representations in various bi­degrees are given by the Macdonald coefficients K â??ÂŻ . Assuming one fundamental the conjectures in various special cases. 1 #12; 1. Introduction Macdonald in (1, 2) introduced a remarkable new

Haiman, Mark D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

How to compute grades using AWK.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

{s=$2+$3+$4+$5+$6; print $0 "\\t" s} The command awk -f program grades ... $3, etc. stand for columns 1,2,3, etc., $0 stands for the whole line. s is the sum of the ... 348) gr="D" else gr="F" print gr,"\\t",$1} If the grand total score of each student is

242

A continuous ultrasonic scanner for lumber grading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(R) between the predicted and actual UTS using the MOE and density data was 0.590 and 0.398 respectively. These two nondestructive testing (NDT) variables form the basis for current state of the art grading systems. The ultrasonic predictor variables...

Mayhew, Stephen Allison

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

243

2008 by Nichole Flynn Grade Earth Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2008 by Nichole Flynn 8th Grade Earth Science Ainsworth Middle School, Ainsworth, NE Field trip of these units. 3) Students will have practice at matching samples of rocks or sediment with the correct units. 4 everyone a couple of minutes to prepare to present the answer to the question(s) on their card. (They can

Frank, Tracy D.

244

Seasonal thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contribute to thermal resistance · Isotopically pure diamond has highest thermal conductivity of any material materials: disordered layered crystals Conclude with some thoughts on promising, high-risk, research even in a computer model. #12;Thermal resistance is created by Umklapp scattering (U

Braun, Paul

246

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Thermal Control & System Integration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

248

Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

249

Extracellular iron-sulfur precipitates from growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have examined extracellular iron-bearing precipitates resulting from the growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in a basal medium with lactate as the carbon source and ferrous sulfate. Black precipitates were obtained when D. desulfuricans was grown with an excess of FeSO{sub 4}. When D. desulfuricans was grown under conditions with low amounts of FeSO{sub 4}, brown precipitates were obtained. The precipitates were characterized by iron K-edge XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer-effect spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. Both were noncrystalline and nonmagnetic (at room temperature) solids containing high-spin Fe(III). The spectroscopic data for the black precipitates indicate the formation of an iron-sulfur phase with 6 nearest S neighbors about Fe at an average distance of 2.24(1) {angstrom}, whereas the brown precipitates are an iron-oxygen-sulfur phase with 6 nearest O neighbors about Fe at an average distance of 1.95(1) {angstrom}.

Antonio, M. R.; Tischler, M. L.; Witzcak, D.

1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

250

Demonstration of Mixed Waste Debris Macroencapsulation Using Sulfur Polymer Cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers work performed during FY 1997 as part of the Evaluation of Sulfur Polymer Cement Fast-Track System Project. The project is in support of the ``Mercury Working Group/Mercury Treatment Demonstrations - Oak Ridge`` and is described in technical task plan (TTP) OR-16MW-61. Macroencapsulation is the treatment technology required for debris by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Based upon the results of previous work performed at Oak Ridge, the concept of using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) for this purpose was submitted to the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). Because of the promising properties of the material, the MWFA accepted this Quick Win project, which was to demonstrate the feasibility of macroencapsulation of actual mixed waste debris stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The waste acceptance criteria from Envirocare, Utah, were chosen as a standard for the determination of the final waste form produced. During this demonstration, it was shown that SPC was a good candidate for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris, especially when the debris pieces were dry. The matrix was found to be quite easy to use and, once the optimum operating conditions were identified, very straightforward to replicate for batch treatment. The demonstration was able to render LDR compliant more than 400 kg of mixed wastes stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Mattus, C.H.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

Gary M. Blythe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Driver comprehension of railroad-highway grade crossings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the past twenty years, over $2 billion has been allocated for the improvement of railroad-highway grade crossings. Many passive crossings have been upgraded with active protection which has decreased the number of collisions at grade crossings...

Messick, Jennifer

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

Lefohn, A.S. [A.S.L. and Associates, Helena, MT (United States); Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis; Brimblecombe, P. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

254

In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high of these batteries for commercial use. The two primary obstacles are the solubility of long chain lithium

Cui, Yi

255

The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

principles, we model here the likely sulfur contents of (1) the martian and terrestrial mantles and (2 a denser atmosphere are shown to be dominated by CO ± CO2 and H2 ± H2O species, depending on fO2, sulfur by H2S, which should have favored the acidification of any persistent water layer. The calculated

Boyer, Edmond

256

Evidence for a Plasma Core during Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Sulfuric Acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.g., SOx, trace amounts of H2S, and elemental sulfur)7 are either highly soluble or solids. Prior MBSL to be problematic. These volatile products can have limited solubility in the liquid and therefore accumulate for the generation of higher temperatures during cavitation. Sulfuric acid is one such liquid because it has a very

Suslick, Kenneth S.

257

Density functional and Monte Carlo studies of sulfur. II. Equilibrium polymerization of the liquid phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density functional and Monte Carlo studies of sulfur. II. Equilibrium polymerization of the liquid 7 July 2003; accepted 28 July 2003 The equilibrium polymerization of sulfur is investigated by Monte), within which polymerization occurs readily, with entropy from the bond distribution overcompensating

258

Molecular and atomic emission during single-bubble cavitation in concentrated sulfuric acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular and atomic emission during single- bubble cavitation in concentrated sulfuric acid David during cavitation. Single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) from sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is much brighter than occurring during single- bubble cavitation. In fact, SBSL spectra from organic liquids8,9 have been

Suslick, Kenneth S.

259

STERN 978-0-12-370875-5 00005 Sulfur: From Acquisition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

159 STERN 978-0-12-370875-5 00005 Sulfur: From Acquisition to Assimilation David Gonzalez 5 INTRODUCTION Sulfur (S) is an essential element present in proteins, lipids, and important productivity s0010s0010 p0010p0010 CHAPTER CONTENTS Introduction 159 I. SO4 2 Acquisition and assimilation 160

260

Modeling of Water-rock interaction in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sulfuric and carbonic acids E. Beaulieu, Y. Godd´eris, D. Labat, C. Roelandt, D. Calmels, J. Gail- lardet of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids. E. Beaulieu1 , Y. Goddéris1 , D. Labat1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The impact of dilute sulfuric acid on the selectivity of xylooligomer depolymerization to monomers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impact of dilute sulfuric acid on the selectivity of xylooligomer depolymerization to monomers of polymerization (DP) ranging from 2 to 5 was followed at 160 °C with sulfuric acid added to adjust the pH from acid is low in cost itself, the over- all process is still quite expensive due to the combined costs

California at Riverside, University of

262

Generalised column removal for graded homomorphisms between Specht modules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and in particular the study of their graded Specht modules. These were defined by Brundan, Kleshchev and Wang [BKW

Fayers, Matthew

263

Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c[subscript 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling ...

Sim, Min Sub

264

Population, Economy and Energy Use’s Influence on Sulfur Emissions in the United States Since 1900  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The change in sulfur emissions is formulated as a function of changes in these trends. During this century, population growth and increasing economic activity have put upward pressure on sulfur emissions. The declining energy intensity of the economy...

Kissock, J. K.; Husar, R. B.

265

Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test and is most commonly used. Sulfur hexafluoride use has ...

Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Investigation of the sulfur and lithium to sulfur ratio threshold in stress corrosion cracking of sensitized alloy 600 in borated thiosulfate solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Alloy 600 was investigated in aerated solutions of sodium thiosulfate generally containing 1.3% boric acid. The aim of the investigation, among others, was to determine the existence, if any, of a threshold level of sulfur, and lithium to sulfur ratio governing the SCC. Specimens were first solution annealed at 1135/sup 0/C for 45 minutes, water quenched, and then sensitized at 621/sup 0/C for 18 hours. Reverse U-bends were tested at room temperature, whereas slow strain rate and constant load tests were performed at 80/sup 0/C. All tests were performed in solutions open to the atmosphere. The results indicate that in the borated thiosulfate solution containing 7 ppM sulfur, 5 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide is sufficient to inhibit SCC in U-bends. The occurrence of inhibition seems to correlate to the rapid increase of pH and conductivity of the solution as a result of the lithium hydroxide addition. In the slow strain rate tests in the borated solution containing 0.7 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide, significant stress corrosion cracking is observed at a sulfur level of 30 ppb, i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of 23. In a parallel test in 30 ppb sulfur level but without any lithium hydroxide, the stress corrosion cracking is more severe than that in the lithiated environment, thus implying that lithium hydroxide plays some role in the stress corrosion cracking inhibition.

Bandy, R.; Kelly, K.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

1989-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

268

Petrography and chemistry of sized fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December, 1994, from two units representing high- and low-sulfur feed coals at a Kentucky power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh. The dried ({approximately}40 C) fractions were then weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, mounted in epoxy and prepared as polished pellets, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The November ashes had a similar size distribution in the +325 mesh fractions. The low-sulfur hot side and cool side ashes had a similar size distribution in the November ashes. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the typical trend, the cool-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh fraction) than the hot-side ash. Carbon tends to be relatively concentrated in the coarse fractions. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes is an important consideration in the utilization potential of the fly ash.

Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Trimble, A.S. [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Comparative analysis of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles isolated from four shale oils. [Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles; thiophenes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the isolation of sulfur heterocycle fractions from four shale oils (Paraho, Geokinetics, Occidental, and Rio Blanco), the use of capillary column gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the identification of individual mixture components, and a reverse (Ames) and forward mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium to screen for possible health hazards. The major components of the Polycyclic Aromatic Sulfur Heterocycles (PASH) fractions for all four shale oils were found to be two- to three-ringed parent and alkylated thiophene compounds. In all cases the PASH fractions showed no more specific mutagenic response than the neutral PAC fractions from which they were isolated. The only mutagenic response which was detected in the PASH fractions was for the Rio Blanco shale oil and showed specific mutagenic response similar to the neutral PAC fraction from which it was isolated. Finally, the forward mutation 8-azaguanine test was apparently more sensitive than the Ames histidine reversion test in detecting mutagenic activity for the chemical fractions from the shale oils.

Willey, C.; Pelroy, R.; Stewart, D.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Effect of Prussian blue on organic sulfur of coal in aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from coal samples with ferric hexacyanoferrate (II), Fe{sub 4} (Fe(CN){sub 6}), as the desulfurization agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the coal samples has been investigated. The temperature and stirring time are the most important parameters for the level of desulfurization of organic sulfur. Removal of organic sulfur content increased continuously with increasing temperature from 298 to 368 K. The organic sulfur removal rate sharply increases from 10 min to 30 min stirring time. After 30 min, it reaches a value of plateau. Particle size between -100 mesh and -200 mesh slightly affects the amount of organic sulfur removal. Gradual increase in the concentration of ferric hexacyanoferrate (II) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Sampling, preservation, and analytical methods research plan - liquid redox sulfur recovery technologies: Stretford process. Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GRI has developed a sampling, preservation, and analytical (SPandA) methods research plan for developing and validating analytical methodologies for liquid redox sulfur recovery processes (e.g., Stretford process). The document describes the technical approach which will be used to direct research activities to develop SPandA methodologies to analyze gaseous, aqueous, and solid process streams from the Stretford sulfur recovery process. The primary emphasis is on developing and validating methodologies for analyzing vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V), anthraquinone disulphonic acids (ADA), polysulfide-sulfur, sulfide-sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfate, thiocyanate, total soluble sulfur, alkalinity, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, and dissolved oxygen in aqueous process streams. The document includes descriptions of the process streams and chemical species, selection of candidate analytical methods, and technical approach for methods development and validation.

Trofe, T.W.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

CONSTRUCTION-GRADE CEMENT PRODUCTION FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS USING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CONSTRUCTION-GRADE CEMENT PRODUCTION FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS USING CEMENT-LOCKTM TECHNOLOGY A manufacturing technology for producing construction-grade cements from a wide variety of contaminated waste cementitious properties that allow it to be transformed into construction-grade cement. The Cement

Brookhaven National Laboratory

273

LNG FEM: Graded Meshes on Domains of Polygonal Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LNG FEM: Graded Meshes on Domains of Polygonal Structures Hengguang Li and Victor Nistor Abstract. We develop LNG FEM, a software package for graded mesh generation and for solving elliptic equations. LNG FEM gen- erates user-specified graded meshes on arbitrary 2D domains with straight edges

Nistor, Victor

274

A model for determining shelf life, estimating terminal body composition, yield grade and quality grade of feedlot cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as to style and content by: F. M. Byers (Chairman of Co m ttee) James McGrann (Member) ~&~& G. T. Schelling (Member) December 1986 ABSRACT A Model for Determining Shelf Life, Estimating Terminal Body Composition, Yield Grade and Quality Grade... of Feedlot Cattle. (December 1985) Richard Jay Perry, B, S. , Texas AlkM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. F, M. Byers A model for determining shelf life and estimating carcass fat (kg), yield grade and quality grade was developed. Shelf...

Perry, Richard Jay

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Prediction of mathematics 102 grades from high school algebra grades and the cooperative elementary algebra test scores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PREDICTION OF MATHEMATICS 102 GRADES FROM HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA GRADES AND THE COOPERATIVE ELEMENTARY ALGEHRA TEST SCORES A thesis by ELDRED SEAMON OLDHAM Subaitted to the Graduate School oi the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in Dsrtisl fulfillaent of the requirenents for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May I 962 Ma/or Subject Education PREDICTION OF MATHENAT ICE 102 GRADES PRON HIGH SCHOOL ALGEBRA GRADES AND THE COOPERATIVE ELENENTARY ALGEBRA TEST SCORES A thesis...

Oldham, Eldred Beamon

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Thermal Management of Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a better thermal conductance and when ceramic particles areor ceramic fillers that enhances thermal conductivity. Solid

Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Nanotechnology Alert. Nanofountain for Treatment of Cancer; Nanocomposites To Improve Computers' Life Span; Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Nanocarbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' Life Span; Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Nanocarbon Electrodes This issue profiles a nanofountain, and lithium sulfur batteries that use nanocarbon electrodes. Deliverable Type: Technical Insights Date OF CANCER 3. NANOCOMPOSITES TO IMPROVE COMPUTERS LIFE SPAN 4. LITHIUM SULFUR BATTERIES USING NANOCARBON

Espinosa, Horacio D.

278

Transport properties of functionally graded materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of thermal expansion of epoxy resin/silica composites. waterthermal expansion of some epoxy resin/silica com- posites byand 0.5 ppm/ K for epoxy resin and silica, respectively, 49

Wang, Moran; Meng, Fankong; Pan, Ning

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Evaluation of weapons-grade mixed oxide fuel performance in U.S. Light Water Reactors using COMETHE 4D release 23 computer code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The COMETHE 4D Release 23 computer code was used to evaluate the thermal, chemical and mechanical performance of weapons-grade MOX fuel irradiated under U.S. light water reactor typical conditions. Comparisons were made to and UO? fuels exhibited...

Bellanger, Philippe

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

280

Synthesis and development of processes for the recovery of sulfur from acid gases. Part 1, Development of a high-temperature process for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas using limestone -- thermodynamic and kinetic considerations; Part 2, Development of a zero-emissions process for recovery of sulfur from acid gas streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limestone can be used more effectively as a sorbent for H{sub 2}S in high-temperature gas-cleaning applications if it is prevented from undergoing calcination. Sorption of H{sub 2}S by limestone is impeded by sintering of the product CaS layer. Sintering of CaS is catalyzed by CO{sub 2}, but is not affected by N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The kinetics of CaS sintering was determined for the temperature range 750--900{degrees}C. When hydrogen sulfide is heated above 600{degrees}C in the presence of carbon dioxide elemental sulfur is formed. The rate-limiting step of elemental sulfur formation is thermal decomposition of H{sub 2}S. Part of the hydrogen thereby produced reacts with CO{sub 2}, forming CO via the water-gas-shift reaction. The equilibrium of H{sub 2}S decomposition is therefore shifted to favor the formation of elemental sulfur. The main byproduct is COS, formed by a reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S that is analogous to the water-gas-shift reaction. Smaller amounts of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} also form. Molybdenum disulfide is a strong catalyst for H{sub 2}S decomposition in the presence of CO{sub 2}. A process for recovery of sulfur from H{sub 2}S using this chemistry is as follows: Hydrogen sulfide is heated in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of CO{sub 2} and a suitable catalyst. The primary products of the overall reaction are S{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture to roughly 600{degrees}C prevents loss Of S{sub 2} during cooling. Carbonyl sulfide is removed from the product gas by hydrolysis back to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Unreacted CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H{sub 2} and CO, which recovers the hydrogen value from the H{sub 2}S. This process is economically favorable compared to the existing sulfur-recovery technology and allows emissions of sulfur-containing gases to be controlled to very low levels.

Towler, G.P.; Lynn, S.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

ALTERNATIVE FLOWSHEETS FOR THE SULFUR-IODINE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN CYCLE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 A hydrogen economy will need significant new sources of hydrogen. Unless large-scale carbon sequestration can be economically implemented, use of hydrogen reduces greenhouse gases only if the hydrogen is produced with non-fossil energy sources. Nuclear energy is one of the limited options available. One of the promising approaches to produce large quantities of hydrogen from nuclear energy efficiently is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical water-splitting cycle, driven by high temperature heat from a helium Gas-Cooled Reactor. They have completed a study of nuclear-driven thermochemical water-splitting processes. The final task of this study was the development of a flowsheet for a prototype S-I production plant. An important element of this effort was the evaluation of alternative flowsheets and selection of the reference design.

BROWN,LC; LENTSCH,RD; BESENBRUCH,GE; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JE

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was deermined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

Russ, Ben

2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

284

Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bates, John K. (Plainfield, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

286

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

288

Geologic controls on sulfur content of the Blue Gem coal seam, southeastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed petrographic and lithologic data on the Blue Gem coal seam for a local area in Knox County, Kentucky, suggest that a relationship may exist between overlying roof lithology, petrographic composition of the coal, and sulfur content. In the western part of the area, where thick (20-40 feet) shale sequences overlie the coal, sulfur contents are low (less than 1%). In isolated areas where discontinuous sandstones occur within 6 feet of the coal, sulfur contents range from 1% to over 3%. In the east, a sandstone body usually overlies and frequently scours out the coal, yet sulfur content varies independently of roof lithology. Towards the east, there is an increase in abundance, thickness and variability of fusain bands within the coal and an increase in pyrite and siderite either as cell fillings in fusinite or as masses within vitrinite; early emplacement of these minerals is indicated by compaction features. Data suggest the importance of depositional environment of the peat and overlying sediments as a control on sulfur occurrence. High sulfur contents in the west are related to sandstone bodies which may have allowed sulfate-bearing waters to permeate into the peat. In the east, where increases in pyrite, siderite and fusain content of the coal and coarsening of the overlying sediments suggest a change in environment, the presence or absence of pyrite-containing fusain bands may account for sulfur variability. Siderite occurrence may reflect local fluctuations in sulfate supply to the peat swamp.

Rimmer, S.M.; Moore, T.A.; Esterle, J.S.; Hower, J.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis). If the amount of sulfur exceeds its tolerance level a molten salt will accumulate and upset melter operations and potentially shorten melter useful life. Therefore relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed which in-turn significantly impacts the amount of glass that will be produced, in particular at the Hanford site. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 312 individual glass compositions. This model was shown to well represent the data, accounting for over 80% of the variation in data and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed based on 19 scaled melter tests. The model is appropriate for control of waste glass processing which includes uncertainty quantification. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5 ? TiO2 < CaO < P2O5 ? ZnO. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > SiO2 ? ZrO2 > Al2O3.

Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Kruger, Albert A.

2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

290

Toward Understanding the Effect of Nuclear Waste Glass Composition of Sulfur Solubility  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, I. S.; Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

291

NONEQUILIBRIUM SULFUR CAPTURE & RETENTION IN AN AIR COOLED SLAGGING COAL COMBUSTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor reacts with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur-bearing particles. The reacted particles impact and melt in the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall by the centrifugal force of the swirling combustion gases. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, it must be rapidly drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Prior analyses and laboratory scale data indicated that for Coal Tech's 20 MMBtu/hour, air-cooled, slagging coal combustor slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re-evolution. The objective of this 42-month project was to validate this sulfur-in-slag model in a group of combustor tests. A total of 36 days of testing on the combustor were completed during the period of performance of this project. This was more that double the 16 test days that were required in the original work statement. The extra tests were made possible by cost saving innovations that were made in the operation of the combustor test facility and in additional investment of Coal Tech resources in the test effort. The original project plan called for two groups of tests. The first group of tests involved the injection of calcium sulfate particles in the form of gypsum or plaster of Paris with the coal into the 20 MMBtu/hour-combustor. The second group of tests consisted of the entire two-step process, in which lime or limestone is co-injected with coal and reacts with the sulfur gas released during combustion to form calcium sulfate particles that impact and dissolve in the slag layer. Since this sulfur capture process has been validated in numerous prior tests in this combustor, the primary effort in the present project was on achieving the high slag flow rates needed to retain the sulfur in the slag.

Bert Zauderer

2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

292

Surface performance grading and grade selection process for surface treatment binders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-22 Fort Worth 67-18 Amarillo 65-26 San Angelo 67-18 Abilene 67-20 Atlanta 67-17 Ausun 66-16 Bcanunon'I C)4-13 Dallas 67-18 Yoakum 65-12 /ttote: ? /nfnrnt&ttlon not provided Binder Tvpe- Suppller AC15P F AC15 STR F ACS F AC15P F AC15 5TR F...: Civil Engineering ABSTRACT Surface Performance Grading and Grade Selection Process for Surface Treatment Binders. (December 2001) Roberto Barcena Mendoza, B. S. , Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Chair of Advisory...

Barcena Mendoza, Roberto

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Holographic thermalization patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the behaviour of various correlators in N=4 super Yang Mills theory, taking finite coupling corrections into account. In the thermal limit we investigate the flow of the quasinormal modes as a function of the 't Hooft coupling. Then by using a specific model of holographic thermalization we investigate the deviation of the spectral densities from their thermal limit in an out-of-equilibrium situation. The main focus lies on the thermalization pattern with which the various plasma constituents of different energies approach their final thermal distribution as the coupling constant decreases from the infinite coupling limit. All results point towards the weakening of the usual top down thermalization pattern.

Stefan Stricker

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

294

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

296

Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

World copper smelter sulfur balance, 1988. (Information circular, 1993). Information circular/1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

Towle, S.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Influence of fuel sulfur on the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/ addition has been studied in a lean-burning oil fired laboratory combustion tunnel with pyridine and thiophene added to the fuel oil. Two distinct, but interrelated effects were observed. The conversion of a fixed amount of fuel nitrogen to NO in the flame increased as the fuel sulfur concentration increased. In the post-combustion gases, there was a shift in the temperature dependence of the reduction process when the sulfur combustion products were present. The extent of the NO reduction was not significantly altered, but the optimum temperature for reduction shifted to higher values as the sulfur concentration increased.

Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

302

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

303

Improvement of ASME NH for Grade 91  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report has been prepared in the context of Task 3 of the ASME/DOE Gen IV material project. It has been identified that creep-fatigue evaluation procedures presently available in ASME (1) and RCC-MR (2) have been mainly developed for austenitic stainless steels and may not be suitable for cyclic softening materials such as mod 9 Cr 1 Mo steel (grade 91). The aim of this document is, starting from experimental test results, to perform a review of the procedures and, if necessary, provide recommendations for their improvements.

Bernard Riou

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

304

EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005Department ofDOEDisability EmploymentDrain-Water00:Department ofGrade

305

Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer;Leuchtstoffröhre Plasma-Bildschirm Energiesparlampe #12;electrical engineering light sources textile industry

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

306

Thermal contact resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work deals with phenomena of thermal resistance for metallic surfaces in contact. The main concern of the work is to develop reliable and practical methods for prediction of the thermal contact resistance for various ...

Mikic, B. B.

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Thermal Processes | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen Production Current Technology Thermal Processes Thermal Processes Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass,...

308

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

In-situ Phase transformation study in fine grained heat affected zone of Grade 91 steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep strength-enhanced ferritic (CSEF) steels such as the 9 Cr steel [ASTM A387 Grade 91] are widely used as tubing and piping in the new generation of fossil fired power plants. Microstructures in the fine-grained heat affected zone (FGHAZ) may significantly reduce creep strength leading Type IV failures. Current research suggest that reducing pre-weld tempering temperature from 760 C (HTT) to 650 C (LTT) has the potential to double the creep life of these welds. To understand this improvement, time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) measurement with synchrotron radiation was used to characterize the microstructure evolution during fine grained heat-affected zone (HAZ) thermal cycling of grade 91 steel. The measurements showed both M23C6 (M=Fe, Cr) and MX (M=Nb, V; X=C,N) are present in the sample after the HTT condition. Near equilibrium fraction of M23C6 was measured in high temperature tempering condition (HTT, 760 C). However, the amount of M23C6 in LTT condition was very low since the diffraction peaks are close to the background. During simulated FGHAZ thermal cycling, the M23C6 partially dissolved in HTT sample. Interestingly, MX did not dissolve in both LTT and HTT samples. Hypothesis for correlation of M23C6 carbide distribution and pre-mature creep failure in FGHAZ will be made.

Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Ohio State University; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL; Komizo, Prof. Y [Osaka University; Terasaki, Prof. H [Osaka University

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Arsenic biomineralization: The role of the sulfur cycle in preventing arsenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contamination Lucia Rodriguez-Freire Dr. James A Field and Dr. Reyes Sierra-Alvarez Chemical and Environmental of sulfur cycle in preventing arsenic groundwater contamination Lucia Rodriguez-Freire 1 1. Introduction

Fay, Noah

311

Sulfur-rich carbon cryogels for supercapacitors with improved conductivity and wettability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfur-rich carbon cryogels for supercapacitors with improved conductivity and wettability Yao Zhou electrolytes. 1 Introduction Supercapacitors have been extensively investigated for decades due as backup energy devices to batteries due to their higher power density. Generally, supercapacitors can

Cao, Guozhong

312

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim data report summarizes results as of August, 1999, on the status of the test programs being conducted on three technologies: lean-NO{sub x} catalysts, diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalysts.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and Sales Type Energy Information Administration ...

315

ON-LINE OPTIMIZATION, ENERGY ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SULFURIC ACID CATALYZED ALKYLATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pool, increased amounts of gasoline per volume of crude oil and high heats of combustion. The overall in sulfuric acid consumption potentially could be obtained. 1. Introduction Alkylation process is one

Pike, Ralph W.

316

The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH[subscript 4]), nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF[subscript 6]) from Darjeeling, India are presented from December 2011 (CH[subscript 4])/March ...

Chatterjee, A.

317

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced sulfur control Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

No.7, July 1997 The Electrochemical Society, Inc. 2323 19. D. Davies, U. Evans, and J. Agar Proc. Roy. Soc., 225, Summary: solution of sulfuric acid was used as the electrolyte....

318

Sulfur by-product formation in the Stretford process. Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid redox sulfur recovery processes remove H2S from sour gas streams and produce elemental sulfur for sale or disposal. The Stretford Process is one of the oldest commercial liquid redox processes and it is based on a vanadium and anthraquinone redox system. Improvements in the operability and reliability of the Stretford process would be beneficial to the process user. The report presents results of research focused on developing an understanding of the process parameters and factors that impact sulfur by-product formation (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate) in the Stretford process. The information in the report can help current Stretford plant process users better understand the operations of their plants, especially with regards to sulfur by-product formation and control strategies.

Trofe, T.W.; DeBerry, D.W.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Effect of Sulfur and Hydrocarbon Fuels on Titanate/Ceria SOFC Anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to develop low-cost, high-performance anodes that offer low polarization resistance as well as improved tolerance for nonidealities in anode environment such as redox cycles, sulfur and other poisons, and hydrocarbons.

Marina, O.A.; Pedersen, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

Excellent Sulfur Resistance of Pt/BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NOx Trap Catalysts. Excellent Sulfur Resistance of PtBaOCeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts. Abstract: In this work, we investigated the NOx storage behavior of Pt-BaOCeO2 catalysts,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy studies of the electronic structure of silicon supersaturated with sulfur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) to measure the electronic structure of crystalline silicon supersaturated with sulfur (up to 0.7 at. %), a candidate intermediate-band solar cell material. Si L[subscript ...

Sullivan, Joseph Timothy

322

Effective hydrogen generation and resource circulation based on sulfur cycle system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the effective hydrogen generation from H{sub 2}S, it should be compatible that the increscent of the photocatalytic (or electrochemical) activities and the development of effective utilization method of by-products (poly sulfide ion). In this study, “system integration” to construct the sulfur cycle system, which is compatible with the increscent of the hydrogen and or electron energy generation ratio and resource circulation, is investigated. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation rate can be enhanced by using stratified photocatalysts. Photo excited electron can be transpired to electrode to convert the electron energy to hydrogen energy. Poly sulfide ion as the by-products can be transferred into elemental sulfur and/or industrial materials such as rubber. Moreover, elemental sulfur can be transferred into H{sub 2}S which is the original materials for hydrogen generation. By using this “system integration”, the sulfur cycle system for the new energy generation can be constructed.

Takahashi, Hideyuki; Mabuchi, Takashi; Hayashi, Tsugumi; Yokoyama, Shun; Tohji, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

Multiwavelength Thermal Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

California at Santa Cruz, University of

324

Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

Moreno, G.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Thermal neutron detection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

327

Sulfur resistance of Group VIII transition metal promoted nickel catalysts for synthesis gas methanation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SULFUR RESISTANCE OF GROUP VIII TRANSITION METAL PROMOTED NICKEL CATALYSTS FOR SYNTHESIS GAS METHANATION A Thesis by KELLEE HALL HAMLIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AgrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...: Aydin Akger n (Chairman of Co 'ttee) Ahme M. Gadalla (Member) Michael . Rosynek (Member) aries D. Holland . ( ead of Department) May 1986 ABSTRACT Sulfur Resistance of Group VIII Transition Metal Promoted Nickel Catalysts For Synthesis Gas...

Hamlin, Kellee Hall

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

328

A Mathematical Model for a LithiumSulfur Cell Karthikeyan Kumaresan,a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S8 l is reduced to S2- in steps. For example, S8 l is reduced to S8 2- , then to S6 2- , S4 2- , S2,4 Figure 1 presents a typical experimental discharge profile at a C/50 rate C = 2.5 Ah . The lithium/sulfur Development The schematic of the lithium/sulfur cell modeled in this work is shown in Fig. 2. The cell is made

329

New ZnO-Based Regenerable Sulfur Sorbents for Fluid-Bed/Transport Reactor Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the ongoing sorbent development work at GTI is the advancement to the demonstration stage of a promising ZnO-TiO2 sulfur sorbent that has been developed under DCCA/ICCI and DOE/NETL sponsorship. This regenerable sorbent has been shown to possess an exceptional combination of excellent chemical reactivity, high effective capacity for sulfur absorption, high resistance to attrition, and regenerability at temperatures lower than required by typical zinc titanates.

Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Abbasian, J.; Ho, K.H.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

330

Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in a dry process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases by the addition thereto of hydrated lime containing sugar in a coal combustion unit, wherein the flue gases result from the combustion of a coal in a combustion chamber, and the flue gases are treated in an electrostatic precipitator prior to discharge to the atmosphere the improvement comprising: passing the flue gases, after the addition of the hydrated lime is of fine particles of a specific surface of 7 to 25 square meters per gram, through a conduit towards the electrostatic precipitator; and adding an aqueous media to the flue gases in the conduit in an amount to increase the water content of the flue gases and cool the same by evaporative cooling to a temperature no lower than 20{sup 0}F. about the dew point of the gas, so as to avoid forming water droplets in the gas, so as to prevent condensation of water therefrom.

Robinson, M.W. Jr.

1989-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

333

Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Improved Grades and Consumer Demand for In-Shell Pecans.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the proposed grade index, Suc- cess cmd Mahan retail store samples that were be- low grade according to USDA grade standards, were actually superior to the U. S. No. 1 grade store sam- 1 ples of Stuart and mixed varieties. About half of the pecans sold... and at- tractiveness of the product. In many cases the quality of the pecans stocked appeared to be poor. The Stuart was the most common variety handled. It has acceptable but not superior eat- ing and shelling qualities. Shelled nuts of various...

Brison, Fred R.; Branson, Robert E.; Clark, Wayne W.; Krezdorn, A. H.; Storey, J. B.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

337

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

338

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

339

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

340

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

342

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

343

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

344

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

345

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

- - - - 64.7 64.7 - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

346

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

- - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

347

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

348

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

349

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

350

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

351

Experimental and computational investigations of sulfur-resistant bimetallic catalysts for reforming of biomass gasification products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental studies of supported catalysts was used to identify H{sub 2}S-resistant biomass gasification product reforming catalysts. DFT calculations were used to search for bimetallic, nickel-based (1 1 1) surfaces with lower sulfur adsorption energies and enhanced ethylene adsorption energies. These metrics were used as predictors for H{sub 2}S resistance and activity toward steam reforming of ethylene, respectively. Relative to Ni, DFT studies found that the Ni/Sn surface alloy exhibited enhanced sulfur resistance and the Ni/Ru system exhibited an improved ethylene binding energy with a small increase in sulfur binding energy. A series of supported bimetallic nickel catalysts was prepared and screened under model ethylene reforming conditions and simulated biomass tar reforming conditions. The observed experimental trends in activity were consistent with theoretical predictions, with observed reforming activities in the order Ni/Ru > Ni > Ni/Sn. Interestingly, Ni/Ru showed a high level of resistance to sulfur poisoning compared with Ni. This sulfur resistance can be partly explained by trends in sulfur versus ethylene binding energy at different types of sites across the bimetallic surface.

Rangan, Meghana; Yung, Matthew M.; Medlin, J. William (NREL); (Colorado)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

352

Adsorption of sulfur dioxide from coal combustion gases on natural zeolite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, better efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal in flue gas from lignite coal combustion by adding of NZ in the gas phase was achieved. Natural zeolite was exposed to flue gas containing sulfur dioxide at varying conditions of relative humidity and temperature. It was found that the amount of sulfate on the zeolite increased with increasing relative humidity and temperature. The percents of adsorbed sulfur dioxide were 86, 74, 56, and 35, while the values of relative humidity (RH) were 75, 60, 45, and 30% for 40 minutes, respectively. The percents of adsorbed sulfur dioxide sharply increased within the first 40 min for the values of RH were 75 and 60, and after 40 min, slightly increased, then reached a plateau. In general, as increasing the RH increased the amount of sulfur dioxide adsorbed by natural zeolite. The amounts of adsorbed sulfur dioxide increased with exposure time. It increased and reached 30.2 mg/g for 40 min. After 40 min, it slightly increased and then reached a plateau. The NZ adsorbs 35.1 mg SO{sub 2} per gram adsorbent with 75% RH at 298 K from a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The amounts of adsorbed sulfur dioxide increased with increasing temperature. The NZ adsorbs 71.5 mg SO{sub 2} per gram adsorbent with 75% RH for 100 min exposure time from the flue gas mixture.

Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Method of making a functionally graded material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Method of making a functionally graded material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article includes the steps of: preparing at least two slurries, each of the slurries including a different gelcastable powder suspended in a gelcasting solution, the slurries characterized by having comparable shrinkage upon drying and sintering thereof; casting the slurries into a mold having a selected shape, wherein relative proportions of the slurries is varied in at least one direction within the selected shape; gelling the slurries to form a solid gel while preserving the variation in relative proportions of the slurries; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying because of the variation in relative proportions of the starting slurries. A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Revised: 12.23.2013 Bb 9(SP13): Customizing the Instructor's View of the Grade Center p. 1 of 7 This document covers features in the Grade Center that helps an instructor to manage the grade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document covers features in the Grade Center that helps an instructor to manage the grade columns Center documents for more information about managing the Grade Center. Renaming Columns You can change in the Grade Center table. The document includes the following topics: Renaming Columns Rearranging Columns

Qiu, Weigang

356

Multi-objective optimization of functionally graded thick shells for thermal loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spacecraft heat shields, coatings on gas turbine blades, plasma facings for fusion reactors, etc. [1 methodology is illustrated by opti- mizing the material composition profile for two model problems. In the first model problem, both the mass and the peak hoop stress of Zirconia/Titanium alloy plates and shells

Vel, Senthil

357

Assessment of environmental effects of the coal used in the Seyitomer thermal power plant (Turkey) on white willow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal power plants increase local pollution through SOx, NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and oils containing primarily particulates (including heavy metals) and increase global pollution through CO{sub 2}, the greenhouse gas that causes global warming. These strong pollutants have harmful effects on living organisms and the entire ecosystem. In this study, we analysed the heavy metals iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and sulfur (S) induced by sulfur dioxide found in both the washed and unwashed leaves of Salix alba L. tree, grown in six distinct localities in the vicinity of the Seyitomer thermal power plant, to assess the environmental impact. All parameters were examined in the surface soils (0-30 cm), and the most intense concentration of the pollutants in both soils and leaves was observed to be in the direction of the prevailing wind.

Cicek, A.; Koparal, A.S. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Applied Research Center for Environmental Problems

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Non-matrix corrected organic sulfur determination by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for western Kentucky coals and residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for non-matrix corrected organic sulfur analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has been developed using petroleum coke standards. Typically, electron beam microanalysis is a rapid, nondestructive analytical technique to quantitatively measure organic sulfur in coal. The results show good correlation to ASTM values for numerous well characterized coals with a wide range in total and pyritic sulfur content. This direct analysis is capable of reducing error commonly associated with the present ASTM method which relies on an indirect measure of organic sulfur by difference. The precision of the organic sulfur values determined in the present study is comparable to that obtained by ZAF matrix corrected microanalysis. The energy dispersive microanalysis is capable of measuring micro as well as bulk organic sulfur levels.

Clark, C.P.; Freeman, G.B.; Hower, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Isotope shift in the sulfur electron affinity: Observation and theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfur electron affinities {sup e}A(S) are measured by photodetachment microscopy for the two isotopes {sup 32}S and {sup 34}S (16 752.975 3(41) and 16 752.977 6(85) cm{sup -1}, respectively). The isotope shift in the electron affinity is found to be more probably positive, {sup e}A({sup 34}S)- {sup e}A({sup 32}S) =+0.0023(70) cm{sup -1}, but the uncertainty allows for the possibility that it may be either ''normal''[{sup e}A({sup 34}S) > {sup e}A({sup 32}S)] or ''anomalous''[{sup e}A({sup 34}S) < {sup e}A({sup 32}S)]. The isotope shift is estimated theoretically using elaborate correlation models, monitoring the electron affinity and the mass polarization term expectation value. The theoretical analysis predicts a very large specific mass shift (SMS) that counterbalances the normal mass shift (NMS) and produces an anomalous isotope shift {sup e}A({sup 34}S)- {sup e}A({sup 32}S) =-0.0053(24) cm{sup -1}, field shift corrections included. The total isotope shift can always be written as the sum of the NMS (here +0.0169 cm{sup -1}) and a residual isotope shift (RIS). Since the NMS has nearly no uncertainty, the comparison between experimental and theoretical RIS is more fair. With respective values of -0.0146(70) cm{sup -1} and -0.0222(24) cm{sup -1}, these residual isotope shifts are found to agree within the estimated uncertainties.

Carette, Thomas; Scharf, Oliver; Godefroid, Michel [Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles - CP160/09, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Drag, Cyril; Blondel, Christophe; Delsart, Christian [Laboratoire Aime-Cotton, CNRS, Universite Paris-sud, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); Froese Fischer, Charlotte [National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8420 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

ComputerDerived Nuclear "Grade" and Breast Cancer Prognosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wolberg 1 Computer­Derived Nuclear "Grade" and Breast Cancer Prognosis William H. Wolberg, M.D., W of nuclear grade are subjective, yet still prognostically important. Now, computer­based analytical techniques can objectively and accurately measure size, shape, and texture features that constitute nuclear

Street, Nick

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Optimization For Grade Transitions In Polyethylene Solution Polymerization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization For Grade Transitions In Polyethylene Solution Polymerization Jun Shi1, Intan Hamdan2 Engineering Carnegie Mellon University 2The Dow Chemical Company #12;Dynamic Optimization Models Grade Transition for LLDPE · Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) (represents two actual processes) · Assume

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

362

Elasticity solutions for plane anisotropic functionally graded beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elasticity solutions for plane anisotropic functionally graded beams H.J. Ding a , D.J. Huang a This paper considers the plane stress problem of generally anisotropic beams with elastic compliance of anisotropic functionally graded plane beams, with the integral constants completely determined from boundary

Wang, Ji

363

Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

Elmore, B.B.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The use of ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Final report, September 1991--December 1992; Revision  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial technical goal in the project was to develop a chemical method for the cost effective removal of both inorganic and organic sulfur from Ohio coals. Verifying and using a process of reacting ethanol vapors with coal under conditions disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,888,029, the immediate technical objectives were to convert a small scale laborative batch process to a larger scale continuous process which can serve as the basis for commercial development of the technology. This involved getting as much information as possible from small scale batch autoclave or fluid bed laboratory reactors for use in pilot plant studies. The laboratory data included material balances on the coal and sulfur, temperature and pressure ranges for the reaction, minimum reaction times at different conditions, the effectiveness of different activators such as oxygen and nitric oxide, the amount and nature of by-products such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and acetaldehyde, the effect of coal particle size on the speed and completeness of the reaction, and the effectiveness of the reaction on different Ohio coals. Because the laboratory experiments using the method disclosed in U.S. 4,888,029 were not successful, the objective for the project was changed to develop a new laboratory process to use ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Using copper as a catalyst and as an H{sub 2}S scavenger, a new laboratory procedure to use ethanol to remove sulfur from coal has been developed at Ohio University and a patent application covering this process was filed in March, 1993. The process is based on the use of copper as a catalyst for the dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce nascent hydrogen to remove sulfur from the coal and the use of copper as a scavenger to capture the hydrogen sulfide formed from the sulfur removed from coal.

Savage, R.L.; Lazarov, L.K.; Prudich, M.E.; Lange, C.A.; Kumar, N.

1994-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

365

TUDE DE L'ABSORPTION ULTRAVIOLETTE DU SULFURE DE CARBONE Par Mlles ODETTE AMIOT et HENRIETTE MARSAC.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dilué de plus en plus le sulfure de carbone dans un solvant inactif. Nous avons choisi l'hexane, liquide montage par autocollimation. 2. Purification du sulfure de carbone et prépa- ration des solutions. - On sait que le sulfure de car- bone est un liquide altérable et qu'il se décompose à la lumière avec

Boyer, Edmond

366

Thermal comfort during surgery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMAL COMFORT DURING SURGERY A Thesis by DAVID HAROLD MANNING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Industrial... Engineering THERMAL COMFORT DURING SURGERY A Thesis by DAVID HAROLD MANNING Approved as to style and content by: airman of C it ee Head of Department Member Me er December 1978 ABSTRACT Thermal Comfort During Surgery (December 1978) David Harold...

Manning, David Harold

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing #12;0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4 and x-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic.77 700 red limit 30k0.041 2.48 green500 near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrare refers

368

Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

369

Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test… (more)

Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, Results of the Phase II Testing of Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International collaborative effort to construct a laboratory-scale Sulfur-Iodine process capable of producing 100-200 L/hr of hydrogen.

Benjamin Russ; G. Naranjo; R. Moore; W. Sweet; M. Hele; N. Pons

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

world-best-practice-energy- intensity-values-selected-World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedof the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Page 1 | B.A. in Middle Grades Education | Academic Plan of Study Updated March 2014 B.A. in Middle Grades Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1 | B.A. in Middle Grades Education | Academic Plan of Study Updated March 2014 B.A. in Middle 2 | B.A. in Middle Grades Education | Academic Plan of Study Updated March 2014 Middle Grades Grades Education Academic Plan of Study College of Education Department of Middle, Secondary and K-12

Raja, Anita

373

Toward Understanding the Effect of Nuclear Waste Glass Composition of Sulfur Solubility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, I. S.; Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

374

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

"A New Class od Functionally Graded Cearamic-Metal Composites for Next Generation Very High Temperature Reactors"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Generation IV Very High Temperature power generating nuclear reactors will operate at temperatures greater than 900 oC. At these temperatures, the components operating in these reactors need to be fabricated from materials with excellent thermo-mechanical properties. Conventional pure or composite materials have fallen short in delivering the desired performance. New materials, or conventional materials with new microstructures, and associated processing technologies are needed to meet these materials challenges. Using the concept of functionally graded materials, we have fabricated a composite material which has taken advantages of the mechanical and thermal properties of ceramic and metals. Functionally-graded composite samples with various microstructures were fabricated. It was demonstrated that the composition and spatial variation in the composition of the composite can be controlled. Some of the samples were tested for irradiation resistance to neutrons. The samples did not degrade during initial neutron irradiation testing.

Dr. Mohit Jain; Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Gordon E. Khose; Mrs. Judith Maro, Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, MIT

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

NANO REVIEW Open Access Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NANO REVIEW Open Access Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary resistance of nanostructures and the thermal transport prop- erties is a key point to design materials with preferred thermal properties with the heat dissipation on them. The influence of the interfacial roughness on the thermal conductivity

Boyer, Edmond

378

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Establishment of a laboratory mix-design method for open-graded friction courses using sulfur-extended asphalt (SEA) binders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Nard, Arable. reristance ta ab stion snd st Ipp(m. sharp angular an4 polish slats t Nlnlwwa 755 c shed. Slntee stone o cr shed gra el 1th 905 by weight havtng at le4st olla fr4ct red fa San? as Califot'Ria speciflcatloas. Crushed gravel, slag...

Ho, Kee-Kwong

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

382

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Thermal Diffusivity and Viscosity of Suspensions of Disc Shaped Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we conduct a transient heat conduction experiment with an aqueous suspension of nanoparticle disks of Laponite JS, a sol forming grade, using laser light interferometry. The image sequence in time is used to measure thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the suspension. Imaging of the temperature distribution is facilitated by the dependence of refractive index of the suspension on temperature itself. We observe that with the addition of 4 volume % of nano-disks in water, thermal conductivity of the suspension increases by around 30%. A theoretical model for thermal conductivity of the suspension of anisotropic particles by Fricke as well as by Hamilton and Crosser explains the trend of data well. In turn, it estimates thermal conductivity of the Laponite nanoparticle itself, which is otherwise difficult to measure in a direct manner. We also measure viscosity of the nanoparticle suspension using a concentric cylinder rheometer. Measurements are seen to follow quite well, the theoretical relation for viscosity of suspensions of oblate particles that includes up to two particle interaction. This result rules out the presence of clusters of particles in the suspension. The effective viscosity and thermal diffusivity data show that the shape of the particle has a role in determining enhancement of thermophysical properties of the suspension.

Susheel S. Bhandari; K. Muralidhar; Yogesh M Joshi

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

384

Solar thermal aircraft  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

385

Tunable thermal link  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Thermal Recovery Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal Recovery Methods describes the basic concepts of thermal recovery and explains the injection patterns used to exploit reservoir conditions. Basic reservoir engineering is reviewed with an emphasis on changes in flow characteristics caused by temperature. The authors discuss an energy balance for steam and combustion drive, and they explain in situ reactions. Heat loss, combustion drive, and steam displacement also are examined in detail, as well as cyclic steam injection, downhole ignition, well heating, and low-temperature oxidation. Contents: Thermal processes; Formation and reservoir evaluations; Well patterns and spacing; Flow and process equations; Laboratory simulation of thermal recovery; Heat loss and transmission; Displacement and production; Equipment; Basic data for field selection; Laboratory evaluation of combustion characteristics; Thermal properties of reservoirs and fluids.

White, P.D.; Moss, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Thermal treatment wall  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Microsecond switchable thermal antenna  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr; Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

389

Computational Study of Sulfur–nickel Interactions: A New S–Ni Phase Diagram  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prediction of the interactions between H2S-contaminated hydrogen fuel and Ni surfaces under conditions similar to those for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation using DFT (density function theory) calculations (with thermodynamic corrections) has resulted in a new S–Ni phase diagram, which suggests the existence of an intermediate state between clean Ni surfaces and nickel sulfides – sulfur atoms adsorbed on Ni surfaces. This prediction is consistent with many experimental observations relevant to sulfur poisoning of Nibased anodes in SOFCs, which cannot be explained using the existing S–Ni bulk phase diagram from classical thermodynamics. The accurate prediction of the adsorption phase is vital to a fundamental understanding of the sulfur poisoning mechanism of Ni-based anodes under SOFC operating conditions.

Wang, Jeng-Han; Liu, Meilin

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

390

Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Electrochemical separation and concentration of sulfur containing gases from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4.sup.= or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S.sup.=. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

Winnick, Jack (3805 Woodrail-on-the-Green, Columbia, MO 65201)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary nonferrous smelters in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The greatest source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the West has been the pyrometallurgical processing of copper, lead, and zinc ores. Until the early 1970s, the emissions from most nonferrous metal smelters were released without control into the environment. However, recent Federal and State legislation has mandated the need for large reductions of emissions, a task that will require the introduction of highly efficient sulfur dioxide control technology. The particular processes at each smelter, the smelter location, the capital and operating costs including the cost of energy, the resolution of currently litigated issues, and the metal market prices will be major influences on the choice of technology and on the schedule for implementation of smelter control plans. These parameters are examined, and the problems and issues associated with them are described. The future impact of smelter sulfur dioxide emissions is discussed within the framework of the relevant economic, technologial, and legal issues.

Mangeng, C.; Mead, R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

Gunther Dieckmann

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Bimodal Distribution of Sulfuric Acid Aerosols in the Upper Haze of Venus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The upper haze (UH) of Venus is variable on the order of days and it is populated by two particle modes. We use a 1D microphysics and vertical transport model based on the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres to evaluate whether interaction of upwelled cloud particles and sulfuric acid particles nucleated in situ on meteoric dust are able to generate the two size modes and whether their observed variability are due to cloud top vertical transient winds. Nucleation of photochemically produced sulfuric acid onto polysulfur condensation nuclei generates mode 1 cloud droplets that then diffuse upwards into the UH. Droplets generated in the UH from nucleation of sulfuric acid onto meteoric dust coagulate with the upwelled cloud particles and cannot reproduce the observed bimodal size distribution. The mass transport enabled by cloud top transient winds are able to generate a bimodal size distribution in a time scale consistent with observations. Sedimentation and convection in the middle and lower...

Gao, Peter; Crisp, David; Bardeen, Charles G; Yung, Yuk L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

The use of ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Final report, September 1991--December 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In developing the new Ohio University procedure the thermodynamic limitations of the reactions for removal of both pyritic and organic sulfur from coal at 400--600{degrees}C were studied using copper as a very strong H{sub 2}S-acceptor. Copper serves as a catalyst for ethanol dehydrogenation to form nascent hydrogen. Copper also serves as a scavenger to form copper sulfide from the hydrogen sulfide evolved during the reaction. Copper sulfide in turn serves as a catalyst for organic sulfur hydrodesulfurization reactions. If the coal to be desulfurized contains pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) or FeS, the copper scavenger effect reduces any back reaction of hydrogen sulfide with the iron and increases the removal of sulfur from the carbonaceous material. The desired effect of using copper can be achieved by using copper or copper containing alloys as materials of construction or as liners for a regenerable reactor. During the time period that Ohio Coal Development Office supported this work, small scale (560 grams) laboratory experiments with coals containing about 3.5% sulfur have achieved up to 90% desulfurization at temperatures of 500{degrees}C when using a copper reactor. Results from the autoclave experiments have identified the nature of the chemical reactions taking place. Because the process removes both pyritic and organic sulfur in coal, the successful scale up of the process would have important economic significance to the coal industry. Even though this and other chemical processes may be relatively expensive and far from being commercial, the reason for further development is that this process may hold the promise of achieving much greater sulfur reduction and of producing a cleaner coal than other methods. This would be especially important for small or older power plants and industrial boilers.

Not Available

1993-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling...

398

Treatment of nitrocellulose by thermal decomposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste fines generated during the manufacture of nitrocellulose (NC) are classified as a RCRA K044 hazardous waste due to their explosive properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate controlled thermal treatment of NC in order to render it nonhazardous and allow for more economical ultimate disposal. The results indicate that controlled thermal decomposition at 130--150 C is a technically feasible process. Rates improved significantly at higher temperatures. At 150 C, only 10 hours were needed to reduce the nitrogen content of NC from 13.7% to below 10% (versus 105 h at 130 C), a level found in many commercial, nonhazardous grades of NC. The air flow rate over the heated NC, and the moisture content of the NC or air above it had no discernible effect on rates of nitrogen removal. Greater mass loss from the NC than what was attributable to the nitro groups alone indicated that decomposition of the polymer backbone also occurred. This was confirmed by FTIR analyses, the appearance of CO{sub 2} in the off-gas, and a lack of correlation between percent nitrogen and heat of combustion. Samples of thermally treated NC containing 9.7% nitrogen failed three of the basic tests used by the Bureau of Explosives to ascertain explosive characteristics, indicating that the product was no longer hazardous based on its energetic properties. Although technically feasible, use of thermal decomposition to treat NC fines will most likely be restricted by safety concerns. Operating close to 130 C would mitigate the risk, but considerably extends the time required for treatment. The most suitable application of this technology may instead by treatment of NC-contaminated soils.

Campbell, R.K.; Freedman, D.L.; Kim, B.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Study of the thermochemistry for oxygen production for a solar sulfur-ammonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power-Photovoltaics or Solar Thermal Power? ” Proceedings ofA.W. , “Likely Near-Term Solar-Thermal Water Splittingto use concentrated solar thermal energy to power a cost

Wang, Mimi Kai Wai

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

NO[sub x] reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter. 7 figs.

Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

NOx reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Structural and Functional Studies on Human Mitochondrial Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. (2003) Formation of iron-sulfur clusters in bacteria: an emerging field in bioinorganic chemistry. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7, 166-173]. 3 as the nitrogen-fixation (NIF) machinery (8). The NIF pathway is often a specialized assembly system... of Fe?S Cluster Biogenesis in Human Mitochondria Name Essential in yeast Yeast homologs Bacterial homologs Proposed function & protein interactions Nfs1 Yes Nfs1 IscS, NifS, SufS Cysteine desulfurase, sulfur donor, Interacts with Isd11, Isu2...

Tsai, Chi-Lin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP) Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

406

Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide at porous, phthalocyanine-containing electrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrodes containing catalysts, particularly electrodes containing metal chelate compounds, were studied for their effect on reducing cathodic sulfur dioxide. The electrodes were prepared with an iron phthalocyanine polymer deposited onto activated carbon. Fluoropolymer dispersions was used as the binder and electrochemical studies were performed in a glove box under dry argon. Lithium perchlorate solution in propylene carbonate was used as the electrolyte solution. The results indicate that materials with high catalytic activity show promise in raising the discharge voltage in power sources of the lithium-sulfur dioxide system.

Shembel', E.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.; Danilova, N.P.; Shustov, V.A.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Morbidity And Sulfur Dioxide: Evidence From French Strikes At Oil Refineries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper examines the impact of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in France on health outcomes at a census track level. To do so, we use recent strikes affecting oil refineries in France, in October 2010, as a natural experiment. Our work offers several contributions. We first show that a temporal shut down in the refining process leads to a reduction in sulfur dioxide concentration. We then use this narrow time frame exogenous shock to assess the impact of a change in air pollution concentration on respiratory outcomes. Our estimates suggest that daily variation in SO2 air pollution has economically significant health effects at levels below the current standard. 0

Matthew Neidell; Emmanuelle Lavaine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Bioprocessing of High-sulfur Crudes Via Appliaction of Critical Fluid Biocatalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This experimental research project investigated protein-based biocatalysis in supercritical fluid solvents as an integrated process approach to catalyze the removal of sulfur atoms from crude oils and fuels. The work focused on the oxidation of model sulfur-containing compounds in supercritical reaction media and included three major tasks: microbiological induction experiments, proteincatalyzed biooxidation in supercritical solvents, and a work-in-kind cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA). This work demonstrated that the biooxidation reaction could be improved by an order-of-magnitude by carrying out the reaction in emulsions in supercritical fluids.

Ginosar, Daniel Michael; Bala, Greg Alan; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Stanescue, Marina A.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Award Number: DE-EE00025828 Report Date: March 15, 2013 PI: Stephen Obrey * Technical approach is focused on...

411

Trace Fission Product Ratios for Nuclear Forensics Attribution of Weapons-Grade Plutonium from Fast Breeder Reactor Blankets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), whereas that used in an FBR blanket fuel is depleted uranium (0.25 atom percent 235U). The energy production in the FBR core is from the seed fuel subassemblies containing mixed oxides (MOX) of PuO2 and UO2. A plot of fast and thermal neutron energy... of the program involves a fleet of fast breeder reactors. The stage two fast breeder reactors, beginning with the PFBR, will be fueled with reactor-grade plutonium and depleted uranium from the reprocessed spent fuel of stage one reactors and will breed more...

Osborn, Jeremy

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

412

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

413

subm. to Surf. Sci. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of H2 adsorption on sulfur-and chlorine-covered  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

subm. to Surf. Sci. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of H2 adsorption on sulfur- and chlorine/Germany The adsorption of molecular hydrogen on sulfur- and chlorine-covered Pd(100) in a (2Ă?2) geometry is studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The potential energy surfaces of H2/S(2 Ă? 2)/Pd(100) and H2/Cl(2

Ulm, Universität

414

Monte Carlo Simulations of Small Sulfuric Acid-Water Clusters S. M. Kathmann,* and B. N. Hale,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-to-liquid nucleation1-5 to acid rain formation6-8 and ozone depletion mechanisms.9-11 Doyle's early work2 predictedMonte Carlo Simulations of Small Sulfuric Acid-Water Clusters S. M. Kathmann,* and B. N. Hale§,* En Form: August 7, 2001 Effective atom-atom potentials are developed for binary sulfuric acid

Hale, Barbara N.

415

Evaluation of Alfalfa Sulfur Needs in K.A. Kelling, P.E. Speth, and S. van Wychen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of Alfalfa Sulfur Needs in Wisconsin K.A. Kelling, P.E. Speth, and S. van Wychen: New versus older stands (Arlington and Lancaster) On-farm +/- S in three counties Alfalfa S survey;#12;Wisconsin Alfalfa Sulfur Survey: Sample numbers: ­ 53 in 2000 ­ 73 in 2001 ­ 9 to be analyzed 28 counties

Balser, Teri C.

416

Agriculture Education Curriculum Grades 6-12 (BS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agriculture Education Curriculum Grades 6-12 (BS) Freshman Year English (GER) English 101, 102..................................................... 3 Agricultural Science 209,211..............................3 Animal Science 111...................................................3 Agricultural Business 220................................... 3 Content Electives

Selmic, Sandra

417

Mathematics Assessment Alignment Matrix for Grades 2-12  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mathematics Assessment Alignment Matrix for Grades 2-12 California High School Exit Examination, California Standards Tests, Mathematics Diagnostic Testing Program, Entry Level Mathematics Based Effort by Orange County Department of Education, California State University, Fullerton - Mathematics

de Lijser, Peter

418

The homogeneous spectrum of a graded commutative ring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rn is a Z-graded integral domain, if t is a nonzero element of R1, and if H is the multiplicative set of .... ian, then Spec R is Noetherian. Without the assumption in

1910-10-83T23:59:59.000Z

419

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

420

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Predicting violations at gated active highway-railroad grade crossings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-railroad grade crossing. It also was recommended that constant warning time devices be used whenever feasible with priority given to crossings with multiple tracks and/or average train speeds below 35 km/hr....

Bean, Jonathan Alan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

TIGHT CLOSURE IN GRADED RINGS Karen E. Smith \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TIGHT CLOSURE IN GRADED RINGS Karen E. Smith \\Lambda Abstract. This paper facilitates is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation. Typeset by A M S­T E X 1 #12; 2 KAREN E. SMITH \\Lambda

Smith, Karen E.

423

Graded Materials for Resistance to Contact Deformation and Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graded Materials for Resistance to Contact Deformation and Damage S. Suresh The mechanical response as diverse as tribology, geology, optoelectronics, biomechanics, fracture mechanics, and nanotechnology changes in the elastic properties of sands, soils, and rocks beneath Earth's surface in- fluence

Suresh, Subra

424

Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

99.2 - 105.3 See footnotes at end of table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD...

425

Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

66.6 - 72.3 See footnotes at end of table. 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD...

426

HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

427

ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Solar Thermal Conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Mastery of sixth grade TEKS objectives through integrated learning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Lindner The purpose of this study was to assess learning in sixth grade students? by gain scores in science and mathematics while participating in the integrative curriculum modules developed by the Partnership for Environmental Education... treatment in this study. The alliance of the PEER Program and Texas A&M University has developed a middle school integrated curriculum based on sixth grade mathematics, science, English, reading and social studies TEKS (Texas Essential Knowledge...

Trevino-Anderson, Monika Raquel

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

431

Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH{sub 4} powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH{sub 4} allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

Unemoto, Atsushi, E-mail: unemoto@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Ikeshoji, Tamio [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yasaku, Syun; Matsuo, Motoaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu [Mitsubishi Gas Chemicals Co., Ltd., 182 Tayuhama Shinwari, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3112 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

432

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 4: Diesel Particulate Filters -- Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This is the fourth and final report for the DPF test program and covers the effect of diesel sulfur level on: a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF).

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Thermal insulations using vacuum panels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

434

Sulfur Emissions from Volcanic A c t i v i t y i n 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz and M. A l t a f Mubaraki  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPENDIX C Sulfur Emissions from Volcanic A c t i v i t y i n 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz). Global estimates o f anthropogenic emissions o f sulfur f o r 1985 are approximately 65 Tg S y-l (Benkovi Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions f o r 1985 and 1990 i n t h i s report). Sulfur from biogenic sources i s emitted

435

U.S. Dept of Energy’s EECBG-SEP Technical Assistance Program Webcast ESPC Investment Grade Audit  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Learn what the investment grade audit is, what to expect from an investment grade audit, how to ensure IGA success.

436

Manipulation of Thermal Phonons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials — phononic crystals — might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many...

Hsu, Chung-Hao

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

437

Thermally Polymerized Rylene Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rylene dyes functionalized with varying numbers of phenyl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) moieties were subjected to a thermal emulsion polymerization to yield shape-persistent, water-soluble chromophore nanoparticles. Perylene ...

Andrew, Trisha Lionel

438

Thermal Insulation Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

Stanley, T. F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Thermally driven circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several problems connected by the theme of thermal forcing are addressed herein. The main topic is the stratification and flow field resulting from imposing a specified heat flux on a fluid that is otherwise confined to a ...

Nelken, Haim

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Contact thermal lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Photovoltaic-thermal collectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

442

A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid stover Dilute sulfuric acid Hydrothermal pretreatment Kinetic model Xylose a b s t r a c t Pretreatment of corn stover in 0.5% sulfuric acid at 160 °C for 40 min realized a maximum monomeric plus oligomeric

California at Riverside, University of

443

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 105, NO. Dl, PAGES 1387-1415, JANUARY 20,2000 Sulfur chelllistry in the National Center for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding the tropospheric sulfur cycle is impor- tant because of its contribution to acid rain and its effect on the Earth's radiation balance. The role of sulfuric acid in acid rain has been recognizedJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 105, NO. Dl, PAGES 1387-1415, JANUARY 20,2000 Sulfur

Schwartz, Stephen E.

444

Global Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions for 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

remains mainly in the residual sulfur-containing materials (e.g., roast oil fraction. ing of ores inventory of SOx emissions from anthropogenic sources for circa 1985 was compiled by an international group under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (Benkovit z and Graedel , 1992

445

Understanding Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of Nickel Biomass Conditioning Catalysts using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of biofuels can proceed via a biomass gasification to produce syngas, which can then undergo catalytic conditioning and reforming reactions prior to being sent to a fuel synthesis reactor. Catalysts used for biomass conditioning are plagued by short lifetimes which are a result of, among other things, poisoning. Syngas produced from biomass gasification may contain between 30-300 ppm H2S, depending on the feedstock and gasification conditions, and H2S is a key catalyst poison. In order to overcome catalyst poisoning, either an H2S-tolerant catalyst or an efficient regeneration protocol should be employed. In this study, sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used to monitor sulfur species on spent catalyst samples and the transformation of these species from sulfides to sulfates during steam and air regeneration on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 catalyst used to condition biomass-derived syngas. Additionally, nickel K-edge EXAFS and XANES are used to examine the state of nickel species on the catalysts. Post-reaction samples showed the presence of sulfides on the H2S-poisoned nickel catalyst and although some gaseous sulfur species were observed to leave the catalyst bed during regeneration, sulfur remained on the catalyst and a transformation from sulfides to sulfates was observed. The subsequent H2 reduction led to a partial reduction of sulfates back to sulfides. A proposed reaction sequence is presented and recommended regeneration strategies are discussed.

Yung, M. M.; Cheah, S.; Kuhn, J. N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Two-dimensional kinetics of binary nucleation in sulfuric acidwater mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Binary homogeneous nucleation is a mechanism for gas- to-particle conversion that can result in significant rates of new particle formation even if both components are under- saturated in the gas phase. An important example is the at- mospheric production of sulfuric acid in the presence of am- bient water vapor

447

Posting type Advisory Subject Varying bias of XRF sulfur relative to IC sulfate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Posting type Advisory Subject Varying bias of XRF sulfur relative to IC sulfate Module/Species A of evidence point to XRF measurement bias as the source of most of the observed variation. Figure 1 shows that was offset by two abrupt increases, each coming at the start of a new sample month. The XRF analyses, unlike

Fischer, Emily V.

448

Ensemble Forecasting of Volcanic Sulfur Emissions in Hawai'i Andre Pattantyus and Steven Businger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Hawai'i. The probabilistic forecast products show uncertainty in pollutant concentrations of pollution known as "vog" after volcanic smog. Prevailing northeast trade winds in Hawaii advectEnsemble Forecasting of Volcanic Sulfur Emissions in Hawai'i Andre Pattantyus and Steven Businger

Businger, Steven

449

Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) or directly through adsorbed nitrogen and hydrogen atoms (11, 12). Ammonia emissions from tunnel studies have mea- surements than all other data combined. Sulfur compounds in gasoline combust in the engine to help facilitate the stringent 2007 diesel engine emission requirements. These reductions

Denver, University of

450

Multilayer sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes and methods of making and repairing the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from multi-layers of palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports, methods of making these membranes, methods of repairing layers of these membranes and devices that incorporate these membranes.

Way, J. Douglas; Hatlevik, Oyvind

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Sulfur in peridotites and gabbros at Lost City (30N, MAR): Implications for hydrothermal alteration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

minerals in samples from near the base of hydrothermal carbonate towers at Lost City show d34 S valuesSulfur in peridotites and gabbros at Lost City (30°N, MAR): Implications for hydrothermal of serpentinized peridotites and gabbros beneath the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at the southern face

Gilli, Adrian

452

Far-infrared spectroelectrochemistry: a study of linear molybdenum/iron/sulfur clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Far-infrared spectroelectrochemistry: a study of linear molybdenum/iron/sulfur clusters Michael D Received 7 June 2003; accepted 29 November 2003 Abstract The far-infrared spectroelectrochemistry of linear identical electro- chemical properties, allows one to observe solute bands in the 450-cmĂ?1 region. The far-infrared

Reid, Scott A.

453

Effects of sulfuric acid and nitrogen deposition on mineral nutrition of Picea abies (L.) Karst.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ecosystems, saplings have been sprayed with artificial acid rain, structured soil samples have been extractedEffects of sulfuric acid and nitrogen deposition on mineral nutrition of Picea abies (L.) Karst. B sites in the Fichtel- gebirge, and low fogwater pH (Trautner, 1989) of 2.2 indicate a high acid stress

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

454

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

74.4 73.3 70.4 60.5 69.0 71.9 77.8 71.0 60.5 See footnotes at end of table. 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information...

455

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

80.8 75.7 76.2 67.5 71.8 77.4 83.7 75.0 64.4 See footnotes at end of table. 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information...

456

Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program is focused on the process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture for the development of coal fired combustion gas turbines. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering materials. During this period, further dismantling of the existing bimodal test unit was performed. The design of a revised process development unit and hot gas cleanup unit have been completed.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Sulfur Cycling in the Terrestrial Subsurface: Commensal Interactions, Spatial Scales, and Microbial Heterogeneity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfur Cycling in the Terrestrial Subsurface: Commensal Interactions, Spatial Scales, and Microbial microbial processes in the terrestrial subsurface. Previous geochemical studies suggested that sulfide environment in shallow sediments (5 m), and produces acidic waters (pH 3.8) that are rich in sulfate (28 m

Grossman, Ethan L.

458

Influence of transport and ocean ice extent on biogenic aerosol sulfur in the Arctic atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of transport and ocean ice extent on biogenic aerosol sulfur in the Arctic atmosphere S, such as methanesulfonic acid (MSA). This study examines relationships between changes in total sea ice extent north of 70. These results suggest that a decrease in seasonal ice cover influencing other mechanisms of DMS production could

459

Mercury and Sulfur Dynamics in the SPRUCE Experiment Brandy Toner1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury and Sulfur Dynamics in the SPRUCE Experiment Brandy Toner1 , Randy Kolka2 , Steve Sebestyen will lead studies assessing the influence of SPRUCE treatments on the cycling of THg, MeHg and S. Mercury. Mercury levels are determined by complex interactions between deposition, chemical transformation

460

The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change combines cutting-edge scientific research with independent policy analysis to provide a solid foundation for the public and private decisions needed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitoring, solid-oxide fuel cells, and coal gasification, require operation at much higher temperatures thanSulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor Yung Ho to hydrogen sulfide, even in the presence of hydrogen or oxygen at partial pressures of 20­600 times greater

Tobin, Roger G.

462

Performance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel Simulants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,2 operated by fuel cells. Unfortunately, the lack of infrastructure, such as a network of hydrogen refueling of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which poisons the anode in the fuel cell stack, leading to low SOFC efficiencyPerformance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

463

Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not consume fossil fuels or pro- duce CO2 while producing highly pure hydrogen.1-10 Gaseous SO2 fedTransport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur and Biological Systems Department, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, USA c Department of Materials Science

Weidner, John W.

464

Rare sulfur and triple oxygen isotope geochemistry of volcanogenic sulfate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rare sulfur and triple oxygen isotope geochemistry of volcanogenic sulfate aerosols I.N. Bindeman a of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA c Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Que., Canada d Department of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland

Bindeman, Ilya N.

465

Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks Beatriz L´opez-Wallea,1 and analytical calculations. Key words: Micro-actuators, Thermal modelling, Electrical analogy, Thermal network 1 and MicroMechatronic Systems Department (AS2M), 24 rue Alain Savary, 25000 Besan¸con, France Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

466

Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Comparison of modified sulfur cement and hydraulic cement for encapsulation of radioactive and mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The majority of solidification/stabilization systems for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste, both in the commercial sector and at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, utilize hydraulic cement (such as portland cement) to encapsulate waste materials and yield a monolithic solid waste form for disposal. A new and innovative process utilizing modified sulfur cement developed by the US Bureau of Mines has been applied at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the encapsulation of many of these problem'' wastes. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material, and as such, it can be heated above it's melting point (120{degree}C), combined with dry waste products to form a homogeneous mixture, and cooled to form a monolithic solid product. Under sponsorship of the DOE, research and development efforts at BNL have successfully applied the modified sulfur cement process for treatment of a range of LLWs including sodium sulfate salts, boric acid salts, and incinerator bottom ash and for mixed waste contaminated incinerator fly ash. Process development studies were conducted to determine optimal waste loadings for each waste type. Property evaluation studies were conducted to test waste form behavior under disposal conditions by applying relevant performance testing criteria established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (for LLW) and the Environmental Protection Agency (for hazardous wastes). Based on both processing and performance considerations, significantly greater waste loadings were achieved using modified sulfur cement when compared with hydraulic cement. Technology demonstration of the modified sulfur cement encapsulation system using production-scale equipment is scheduled for FY 1991. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.

Not Available

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Nonequilibrium sulfur capture and retention in an air cooled slagging coal combustor. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this 24 month project is to determine the degree of sulfur retention in slag in a full scale cyclone coal combustor with sulfur capture by calcium oxide sorbent injection into the combustor. This sulfur capture process consists of two steps: Capture of sulfur with calcined calcium oxide followed by impact of the reacted sulfur-calcium particles on the liquid slag lining the combustor. The sulfur bearing slag must be removed within several minutes from the combustor to prevent re-evolution of the sulfur from the slag. To accomplish this requires slag mass flow rates in the range of several 100 lb/hr. To study this two step process in the combustor, two groups of tests are being implemented. In the first group, calcium sulfate in the form of gypsum, or plaster of Paris, was injected in the combustor to determine sulfur evolution from slag. In the second group, the entire process is tested with limestone and/or calcium hydrate injected into the combustor. This entire effort consists of a series of up to 16 parametric tests in a 20 MMtu/hr slagging, air cooled, cyclone combustor. During the present quarterly reporting period ending September 30,1996, three tests in this project were implemented, bringing the total tests to 5. In addition, a total of 10 test days were completed during this quarter on the parallel project that utilizes the same 20 MMtu/hr combustor. The results of that project, especially those related to improved slagging performance, have a direct bearing on this project in assuring proper operation at the high slag flow rates that may be necessary to achieve high sulfur retention in slag.

Zauderer, B.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Article for thermal energy storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

471

THERMAL NEUTRON BACKSCATTER IMAGING.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objects of various shapes, with some appreciable hydrogen content, were exposed to fast neutrons from a pulsed D-T generator, resulting in a partially-moderated spectrum of backscattered neutrons. The thermal component of the backscatter was used to form images of the objects by means of a coded aperture thermal neutron imaging system. Timing signals from the neutron generator were used to gate the detection system so as to record only events consistent with thermal neutrons traveling the distance between the target and the detector. It was shown that this time-of-flight method provided a significant improvement in image contrast compared to counting all events detected by the position-sensitive {sup 3}He proportional chamber used in the imager. The technique may have application in the detection and shape-determination of land mines, particularly non-metallic types.

VANIER,P.; FORMAN,L.; HUNTER,S.; HARRIS,E.; SMITH,G.

2004-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

472

Thermal insulated glazing unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Thermal insulated glazing unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

474

Thermal trim for luminaire  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

475

Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

476

Super-KMS functionals for graded-local conformal nets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motivated by a few preceding papers and a question of R. Longo, we introduce super-KMS functionals for graded translation-covariant nets over R with superderivations, roughly speaking as a certain supersymmetric modification of classical KMS states on translation-covariant nets over R, fundamental objects in chiral algebraic quantum field theory. Although we are able to make a few statements concerning their general structure, most properties will be studied in the setting of specific graded-local (super-) conformal models. In particular, we provide a constructive existence and partial uniqueness proof of super-KMS functionals for the supersymmetric free field, for certain subnets, and for the super-Virasoro net with central charge c>= 3/2. Moreover, as a separate result, we classify bounded super-KMS functionals for graded-local conformal nets over S^1 with respect to rotations.

Robin Hillier

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

477

Thermal test options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Thermal ignition combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

479

Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

480

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal grade sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Systems analysis of thermal storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During FY 1981, analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. A study to evaluate thermal storage concepts for a liquid metal receiver was initiated. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts are being studied, including ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

Copeland, R.J.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

K. C. Kwon

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

484

Thermal Reactor Safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Thermal management of nanoelectronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-state thermoelectric on- spot cooling, requiring efficient thermoelectric materials that can be integrated with the IC are further complicated by the fact that the material's ability to conduct heat deteriorates when at the packaging level but also at the nanoscale materials and device levels. THERMAL CHALLENGES AT NANOSCALE One

486

Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to us, like reflective ("nearreflective ("near--" infrared (0.7" infrared (0.7 -- 3.03.0 µµm)m) andand near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrared refers to region o EM spectrum from ~3 - 14 µm.landscape. IMPORTANT: NEARIMPORTANT: NEAR--INFRARED is short enough wavelength toINFRARED is short enough wavelength

487

Low thermal conductivity skutterudites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Thermal barrier coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

firn and ice at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res. , 98,AL. : TRACE GASES IN GREENLAND ICE CORE ¨ . Andreae Kettle,and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin, 1 M. B.

Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 2: NO{sub x} Adsorber Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report discusses the results of the DECSE test program that demonstrates the potential of NOx adsorber catalyst technology across the range of diesel engine operation with a fuel economy penalty less than 4%.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

Refined understanding of sulfur amino acid nutrition in hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops (male symbol) x M. saxatilis (female symbol)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to methionine supported the lowest responses. Inclusion of MHA or AlimetTM did not affect TAN excretion of HSB. These findings will aid in refining diet formulations for HSB to ensure adequate sulfur amino acid nutrition....

Kelly, Mark Christopher

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

492

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

The development of autocatalytic structural materials for use in the sulfur-iodine process for the production of hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle for the thermochemical production of hydrogen offers many benefits to traditional methods of hydrogen production. As opposed to steam methane reforming - the most prevalent method of hydrogen ...

Miu, Kevin (Kevin K.)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Sodium/sulfur battery engineering for stationary energy storage. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of modular systems to distribute power using batteries to store off-peak energy and a state of the art power inverter is envisioned to offer important national benefits. A 4-year, cost- shared contract was performed to design and develop a modular, 300kVA/300-kWh system for utility and customer applications. Called Nas-P{sub AC}, this system uses advanced sodium/sulfur batteries and requires only about 20% of the space of a lead-acid-based system with a smaller energy content. Ten, 300-VDC, 40-kWh sodium/sulfur battery packs are accommodated behind a power conversion system envelope with integrated digital control. The resulting design facilities transportation, site selection, and deployment because the system is quiet and non-polluting, and can be located in proximity to the load. This report contains a detailed description of the design and supporting hardware development performed under this contract.

Koenig, A.; Rasmussen, J. [Silent Power, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

An In-Situ Photometric and Energy Analysis of a Sulfur LampLighting System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a photometric and energy analysis that was conducted on a new light guide and sulfur lamp system recently installed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Forrestal Building. This novel system couples two high lumen output, high efficiency sulfur lamps to a single 73 m (240 ft.) hollow light guide lined with a reflective prismatic film. The system lights a large roadway and plaza area that lies beneath a section of the building. It has been designed to completely replace the grid of 280 mercury vapor lamps formerly used to light the space. This paper details the results of a field study that characterizes the significant energy savings and increased illumination levels that have been achieved. Comparisons to modeled HID lighting scenarios are also included.

Crawford, Doug; Gould, Carl; Packer, Michael; Rubinstein,Francis; Siminovitch, Michael

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z