National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal grade sulfur

  1. Sodium-sulfur thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, F.A.

    1990-12-11

    This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid sulfur and fluid sodium polysulfides therethrough during operation of the thermal battery to form a mixed polysulfides electrolyte gradient within the separator.

  2. Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Wind Energy Wind Energy Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (825 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia has developed a method and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine

  3. Combining automatic titration of total iron and sulfur in thermal battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marley, N.A.

    1986-05-28

    Optimal thermal battery performance requires careful control of the iron disulfide content in the catholyte mixture. Previously, the iron and sulfur content of battery materials was determined separately, each requiring a lengthy sample preparation and clean up procedure. A new method has been developed which allows both determinations to be made on the same sample following a simple dissolution procedure. Sample preparation requires oxidation and dissolution with nitric acid followed by dissolution in hydrochloric acid. Iron and sulfur are then determined on sample aliquots by automatic titration. The implementation of this combined procedure for the determination of iron and sulfur by automatic titration has resulted in a substantial reduction in the analysis time. Since sample aliquots are used for each determination, the need to repeat a sample for analysis is rare, improving both the analytical efficiency and sample throughput. Results obtained for sulfur show an improved precision.

  4. Process for the hydroformylation of sulfur-containing thermally cracked petroleum residue and novel products thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oswald, A.A.; Bhatia, R.N.; Mozeleski, E.J.; Glivicky, A.P.; Brueggeman, B.G.; Hooten, J.R.; Smith, C.M.; Hsu, C.S.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a hydroformylation-hydrogenation process comprising reacting an olefinic cracked petroleum distillate feed, produced from petroleum residue by high temperature thermal cracking, and containing C{sub 5} to C{sub 35}-1-n-alkyl olefins as the major type of olefin components, and organic sulfur compounds in concentrations exceeding 0.1% sulfur. It comprises at first with carbon monoxide and hydrogen at temperatures between about 50 and 250{degrees} C and pressures in the range of 50 to 6000 psi; in the presence of a Group VIII transition metal carbonyl complex catalyst in effective amounts to produce aldehydes of a semilinear character having an average of less than one alkyl branch per molecule and 20% by weight or more linear isomers, then with molecular hydrogen at temperatures between 100 and 250{degrees} C and pressures between 200 psi and 5000 psi (13.6 and 340 atm) in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst in effective amounts the catalyst being sulfur resistant cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, or tungsten or a sulfide thereof to produce the corresponding alcohols of a semilinear character having an average of less than one alkyl branch per molecule and 20% by weight or more linear isomers, then with molecular hydrogen at temperatures between 100 and 250{degrees} C and pressures between 200 psi and 5000 psi (13.6 and 340 atm) in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst in effective amounts the catalyst being sulfur resistant cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, or tungsten or a sulfide thereof to produce the corresponding alcohols of a semilinear character having an average of less than one alkyl branch per molecule.

  5. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYZER CONFIGURATION AND PERFORMANCE ON HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2007-03-16

    Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

  6. Sulfur polymer cement as a low-level waste glass matrix encapsulant. Part 1: Thermal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliva, P.; Peng, Y.B.; Bunnell, L.R.; Peeler, D.K.; Feng, X.; Martin, P.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a candidate material to encapsulate low-level waste (LLW) glass. Molten SPC will be poured into a LLW glass cullet-filled canister, surrounding the glass to act as an additional barrier to groundwater intrusion. This paper covers the first part of a study performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory concerned with the fundamental aspects of embedding LLW glass in SPC. Part one is a study of the SPC itself. Variations in SPC properties are discussed, especially in relation to long-term stability and controlling crystallization in a cooling canister.

  7. Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents the reliationship between Pt particle size and NOx storage performance over model catalysts. Novel reaction protocol designed to decouple effects of thermal deactivation and incomplete desulfation.

  8. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  9. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per

  10. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur ...

  11. Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based ... General Atomics is seeking a better thermal energy storage approach using ...

  12. Uses of lunar sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  14. Sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hise, R.E.; Cook, W.J.

    1991-06-04

    This paper describes a method for recovering sulfur from a process feed stream mixture of gases comprising sulfur-containing compounds including hydrogen sulfide using the Claus reaction to convert sulfur-containing compounds to elemental sulfur and crystallization to separate sulfur-containing compounds from a tail gas of the Claus reaction for further processing as a recycle stream. It comprises: providing a Claus feed stream containing a stoichiometric excess of hydrogen sulfide, the Claus feed stream including the process feed stream and the recycles stream; introducing the Claus feed stream and an oxidizing agent into a sulfur recovery unit for converting sulfur-containing compounds in the Claus feed stream to elemental sulfur; withdrawing the tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit; separating water from the tail gas to producing a dehydrated tail gas; separating sulfur-containing compounds including carbonyl sulfide from the dehydrated tail gas as an excluded material by crystallization and withdrawing an excluded material-enriched output from the crystallization to produce the recycle stream; and combining the recycle stream with the process feed stream to produce the Claus feed stream.

  15. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  16. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  17. Accuracy of real time noninvasive temperature measurements using magnetic resonance thermal imaging in patients treated for high grade extremity soft tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craciunescu, Oana I.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Soher, Brian J.; Wyatt, Cory R.; Arabe, Omar; Maccarini, Paolo; Das, Shiva K.; Cheng, Kung-Shan; Wong, Terence Z.; Jones, Ellen L.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; MacFall, James R.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To establish accuracy of real time noninvasive temperature measurements using magnetic resonance thermal imaging in patients treated for high grade extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Methods: Protocol patients with advanced extremity sarcomas were treated with external beam radiation therapy and hyperthermia. Invasive temperature measures were compared to noninvasive magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI) at 1.5 T performed during hyperthermia. Volumetric temperature rise images were obtained using the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) technique during heating in a 140 MHz miniannular phased array applicator. MRTI temperature changes were compared to invasive measurements of temperature with a multisensor fiber optic probe inside a no. 15 g catheter in the tumor. Since the PRFS technique is sensitive to drifts in the primary imaging magnetic field, temperature change distributions were corrected automatically during treatment using temperature-stable reference materials to characterize field changes in 3D. The authors analyzed MRT images and compared, in evaluable treatments, MR-derived temperatures to invasive temperatures measured in extremity sarcomas. Small regions of interest (ROIs) were specified near each invasive sensor identified on MR images. Temperature changes in the interstitial sensors were compared to the corresponding ROI PRFS-based temperature changes over the entire treatment and over the steady-state period. Nonevaluable treatments (motion/imaging artifacts, noncorrectable drifts) were not included in the analysis. Results: The mean difference between MRTI and interstitial probe measurements was 0.91 deg. C for the entire heating time and 0.85 deg. C for the time at steady state. These values were obtained from both tumor and normal tissue ROIs. When the analysis is done on just the tumor ROIs, the mean difference for the whole power on time was 0.74 deg. C and during the period of steady state was 0.62 deg. C. Conclusions: The

  18. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  19. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  20. Biogenic sulfur source strengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.; Bamesberger, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Conclusions are presented from a 4-yr field measurement study of biogenic sulfur gas emissions from soils, and some water and vegetated surfaces, at 35 locales in the eastern and southeastern United States. More than one soil order was examined whenever possible to increase the data base obtained from the 11 major soil orders comprising the study area. Data analysis and emission model development were based upon an (80 x 80)-km/sup 2/ grid system. The measured sulfur fluxes, adjusted for the annual mean temperature for each sampling locale, weigted by the percentage of each soil order within each grid, and averaged for each of the east-west grid tiers from 47/sup 0/N to 25/sup 0/N latitude, showed an exponential north-to-south increase in total sulfur gas flux. Our model predits an additional increase of nearly 25-fold in sulfur flux between 25/sup 0/N and the equator.

  1. Bacterial Sulfur Storage Globules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prominent among these are the sulfide-oxidizing bacteria that oxidize sulfide (S2-) to sulfate (SO42-). Many of these organisms can store elemental sulfur (S0) in "globules" for...

  2. Separation of sulfur isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWitt, Robert; Jepson, Bernhart E.; Schwind, Roger A.

    1976-06-22

    Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

  3. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  4. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  5. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  6. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  7. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.

    2001-08-22

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  8. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  9. Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  10. Evaluation of Sulfur in Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-04-01

    This project will define the options and costs at different scales of technology that can be used to remove sulfur from syngas.

  11. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  12. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Jozewicz, Wojciech

    1989-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accorda The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531.

  13. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  14. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  15. An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    globally distributed sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the deep sea carry bacterial genes for the oxidation of elemental sulfur. Although such observations are common in...

  16. Adsorbed sulfur-gas methods for both near-surface exploration and downhole logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Barinaga, C.J.; Dolenc, M.R.; Farwell, G.H.

    1986-08-01

    The use of sulfur-containing gases in petroleum exploration is supported by (1) the idea that sulfur may play a role in petroleum genesis, (2) the corresponding existence of sulfur-containing compounds in petroleum and the potential for vertical migration of the low-molecular-weight sulfur species from these reservoirs, (3) the production of H/sub 2/S by anaerobic microorganism populations that develop in the subsurface areas overlying petroleum reservoirs due to the concomitant supply of hydrocarbon nutrients, (4) the recent discovery of near-surface accumulations of pyrite and marcasite as the source of induction potential anomalies over certain fields, and (5) the strong adsorptive affinities of sulfur gases to solid surfaces, which enhance both the concentration and localization of such sulfur-expressed anomalies. During the past 3 years, numerous near-surface soil samples and well cuttings from the Utah-Wyoming Overthrust belt have been analyzed for adsorbed sulfur-gas content by two novel analytical techniques: thermal desorption/metal foil collection/flash desorption/sulfur-selective detection (TD/MFC/FD/SSD) and thermal desorption/cryogenic preconcentration/high-resolution-gas chromatography/optimized-flame photometry (TD/CP/HRGC/OFP).

  17. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  18. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  19. Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur ...

  20. Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid...

  1. Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and FeS Ratios. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In ...

  2. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is

  3. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  4. HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT FY09 SECOND QUARTER REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D; David Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Timothy Steeper, T; John Steimke, J; Mark Elvington, M

    2009-04-15

    The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis that can be powered by heat from high temperature gas reactors. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. This report documents work during the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, for the period between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2009. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that is part of the 'Sulfur Family' of cycles. As a sulfur cycle, it uses high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and to regenerate the sulfur dioxide reactant. The second step of the process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen by electrochemically reacting sulfur dioxide with H{sub 2}O. The SDE produces sulfuric acid, which is then sent to the acid decomposer to complete the cycle. The DOE NHI program is developing the acid decomposer at Sandia National Laboratory for application to both the HyS Process and the Sulfur Iodine Cycle. The SDE is being developed at SRNL. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency, small footprint and potential for low capital cost, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test with a 60-cm{sup 2} single cell electrolyzer, and

  5. Recovery of sulfur from native ores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, J.T.; Wiewiorowski, T.K.; Astley, V.C.; Perez, J.W.; Headington, T.A.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a process for removing elemental sulfur from ores containing elemental sulfur. It comprises crushing a sulfur-containing ore to a coarse particle size wherein ore particles produced during crushing enable substantially all of the sulfur to be liberated during a heating step and to produce an ore gangue that is substantially not susceptible to flotation: forming an aqueous ore slurry containing about 50-80% by weight of solids from the crushed ore and adjusting the pH to at least a pH of about 8.0; heating the aqueous ore slurry formed in step (b) under elevated pressure to a temperature of about 240{degrees} - 315{degrees} F. for sufficient time to melt and liberate elemental sulfur contained in the ore to produce liberated molten sulfur and ore gangue, wherein the slurry is heated while agitating the slurry at sufficient velocity to substantially maintain the ore, ore gangue and liberated molten sulfur in suspension; cooling the heated slurry sufficiently to resolidify the liberated molten sulfur; conditioning the aqueous slurry of step (d) with a flotation aid; separating the condition aqueous slurry of ore gangue and resolidified sulfur in a flotation unit to produce a sulfur-rich flotation concentrate overstream; and recovering the sulfur-rich flotation concentrate and separating the sulfur therefrom.

  6. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, William E.

    1992-01-01

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  7. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P.; Lynn, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  8. Catalytic conversion of sulfur dioxide and trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solov'eva, E.L.; Shenfel'd, B.E.; Kuznetsova, S.M.; Khludenev, A.G.

    1987-11-10

    The reclamation and utilization of sulfur-containing wastes from the flue gas of fossil-fuel power plants and the subsequent reduction in sulfur emission is addressed in this paper. The authors approach this problem from the standpoint of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on solid poison-resistant catalysts with subsequent sorption of the sulfur trioxide and its incorporation into the manufacture of sulfuric acid. The catalyst they propose is a polymetallic dust-like waste from the copper-smelting industry comprised mainly of iron and copper oxides. Experiments with this catalyst were carried out using multifactorial experiment planning.

  9. Process for reducing sulfur in coal char

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gasior, Stanley J.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.; Kenny, Richard F.

    1976-07-20

    Coal is gasified in the presence of a small but effective amount of alkaline earth oxide, hydroxide or carbonate to yield a char fraction depleted in sulfur. Gases produced during the reaction are enriched in sulfur compounds and the alkaline earth compound remains in the char fraction as an alkaline earth oxide. The char is suitable for fuel use, as in a power plant, and during combustion of the char the alkaline earth oxide reacts with at least a portion of the sulfur oxides produced from the residual sulfur contained in the char to further lower the sulfur content of the combustion gases.

  10. ALL GRADE 5 AND GRADE 8 FASTENERS ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GRADE 8 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING MANUFACTURERS' HEADMARKS: MARK KS MARK J (CA TW JP YU... KS KEY: CA-Canada, JP-Japan, TW-Taiwan, YU-Yugoslavia Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 ...

  11. Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicted road grade may be used to estimate the power required to propel the vehicle through the upcoming terrain so that the engine controller can deliver the necessary power. p-09_nuszkowski.pdf (208.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Thermal Simulation of Advanced Powertrain Systems Impact of Vehicle Efficiency Improvements on Powertrain

  12. Biogenic sulfur emissions in the SURE region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of biogenic sulfur emissions from the northeastern United States - defined as the EPRI Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) study area. Initial laboratory efforts developed and validated a portable sulfur sampling system and a sensitive, gas chromatographic analytical detection system. Twenty-one separate sites were visited in 1977 to obtain a representative sulfur emission sampling of soil orders, suborders, and wetlands. The procedure determined the quantity of sulfur added to sulfur-free sweep air by the soil flux as the clean air was blown through the dynamic enclosure set over the selected sampling area. This study represents the first systematic sampling for biogenic sulfur over such a wide range of soils and such a large land area. The major impacts upon the measured sulfur flux were found to include soil orders, temperature, sunlight intensity, tidal effects along coastal areas. A mathematical model was developed for biogenic sulfur emissions which related these field variables to the mean seasonal and annual ambient temperatures regimes for each SURE grid and the percentage of each soil order within each grid. This model showed that at least 53,500 metric tons (MT) of biogenic sulfur are emitted from the SURE land surfaces and approximately 10,000 MT are emitted from the oceanic fraction of the SURE grids. This equates to a land sulfur flux of nearly 0.02 gram of sulfur per square meter per yr, or about 0.6% of the reported anthropogenic emissions withn the SURE study area. Based upon these data and the summertime Bermuda high clockwise circulation of maritime air across Florida and the Gulf Coast states northward through the SURE area, the total land biogenic sulfur emission contribution to the SURE area atmospheric sulfur burden might approach 1 to 2.5% of the anthropogenic.

  13. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in Li–S battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfurmore » were the S42– and S52– species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82– and S62– for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.« less

  14. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in Li–S battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfur were the S42– and S52– species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82– and S62– for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.

  15. Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    They are produced using simple chemical deposition techniques and a relatively low-temperature (155 C) thermal treatment process. Graphene oxide transforms insulating graphene ...

  16. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  17. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I.

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  18. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y

    2015-05-05

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  19. Stabilized sulfur binding using activated fillers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D.; Vagin, Vyacheslav P.; Vagin, Sergey P.

    2015-07-21

    A method of making a stable, sulfur binding composite comprising impregnating a solid aggregate with an organic modifier comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one double or triple covalent bond between adjacent carbon atoms to create a modifier-impregnated aggregate; heating and drying the modifier-impregnated aggregate to activate the surface of the modifier-impregnated aggregate for reaction with sulfur.

  20. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  1. Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G.; Mohan, Thyagarajan; Angelici, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

  2. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 ...

  3. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  4. Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2012, Videos Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising technology that could some day power electric vehicles. Scientists ...

  5. Understanding Lithium-Sulfur Batteries at the Molecular Level...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 17, 2015, Accomplishments Understanding Lithium-Sulfur Batteries at the Molecular Level Conceived some 40 years ago, the lithium-sulfur battery can store, in theory, ...

  6. Sulfur Poisoning of Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Sulfur Poisoning of Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sulfur Poisoning of Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation ...

  7. CLOSEOUT REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR PRESSURIZED BUTTON CELL TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeper, T.

    2010-09-15

    This document is the Close-Out Report for design and partial fabrication of the Pressurized Button Cell Test Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This facility was planned to help develop the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) that is a key component of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for generating hydrogen. The purpose of this report is to provide as much information as possible in case the decision is made to resume research. This report satisfies DOE Milestone M3GSR10VH030107.0. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by watersplitting. The HyS Cycle utilizes the high temperature (>800 C) thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both high thermodynamic efficiency and low hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. Sulfur dioxide from the decomposer is cycled back to electrolyzers. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. Anode and cathode are formed by spraying a catalyst, typically platinized carbon, on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). SRNL has been testing SDEs for several years including an atmospheric pressure Button Cell electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2} active area) and an elevated temperature/pressure Single Cell electrolyzer (54.8 cm{sup 2} active area). SRNL tested 37 MEAs in the Single Cell electrolyzer facility from June 2005 until June 2009, when funding was discontinued. An important result of the final months of testing was the development of a method that

  8. Commercial Grade Dedication RM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this Standard Review Plan (SRP) on Commercial Grade Dedication (CGD) is to provide guidance for a uniform review of the CGD activities for office of Environmental Management...

  9. Grades K-4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Build a Tower Grades K-4 Learning objective: Students will develop teamwork skills as they work together to design and construct a tower, problem-solving along the way. These are...

  10. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  11. A new, safer method of sulfur degassing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schico, C.M.; Clem, K.R.; Hartley, D.; Watson, E.A.

    1985-10-01

    The Exxon system for degassing liquid sulfur is presented, and it can reduce total H2S in liquid sulfur to levels as low as 10-15 wppm under the commercial conditions tested. Because Exxon found commercially available mechanical degassing systems to be inadequate, the Claus plant initiated an RandD program to develop the new degassing process. Hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen polysulfide are inherent to the Claus process. The major concerns associated with this H2S in the Claus liquid sulfur include: toxic levels of H2S are possible while loading/unloading liquid sulfur; the H2S lower explosive limit in air can be exceeded in unvented pit/tank vapor space; nuisance odors/environmental concerns; and potential government regulations/ customer restrictions. Results are presented in this article of successful commercial tests using the process at five sites.

  12. Definition of Non-Conventional Sulfur Utilization in Western Kazakhstan for Sulfur Concrete (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, Paul

    2007-05-31

    Battelle received a contract from Agip-KCO, on behalf a consortium of international oil and gas companies with exploration rights in the North Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. The objective of the work was to identify and help develop new techniques for sulfur concrete products from waste, by-product sulfur that will be generated in large quantitites as drilling operations begin in the near future. BNL has significant expertise in the development and use of sulfur concrete products and has direct experience collaborating with the Russian and Kazakh partners that participated. Feasibility testing was successfully conducted for a new process to produce cost-effective sulfur polymer cement that has broad commerical applications.

  13. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  14. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  15. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  16. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, Tetsuo; Squires, Thomas G.; Venier, Clifford G.

    1985-02-05

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  17. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. World copper smelter sulfur balance-1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towle, S.W. )

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. The 37 US and foreign smelters represented roughly 73.2% of world and 89.3% of market economy primary copper production in 1988. The 29 non-US smelters attained 55.3% control of their input sulfur in 1988. Combined with the 90.4% control of US smelters, an aggregate 63.4% sulfur control existed. Roughly 1,951,100 mt of sulfur was emitted from the 37 market economy smelters in 1988. Identifiable SO[sub 2] control regulations covered 72.4% of the 29 foreign smelters, representing 65.5% of smelting capacity. Including US smelters, 78.4% of the major market economy smelters were regulated, representing 73.1% of smelting capacity. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

  19. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; et al

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-Smore » cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.« less

  20. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  1. Electrostatic self-assembly of graphene oxide wrapped sulfur particles for lithium–sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Haiwei; Huang, Ying Zong, Meng; Ding, Xiao; Ding, Juan; Sun, Xu

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Researched graphene oxide wrapped sulfur particles for lithium–sulfur batteries. • New approach for core–shell GO/S composites by electrostatic self-assembly method. • Both core–shell structure and the GO support help to retard the diffusion of polysulfides during the electrochemical cycling process of GO/S cathode. - Abstract: A novel graphene oxide (GO)/sulfur (S) composite is developed by electrostatic self-assembly method. Remarkably, the core–shell structure of the composite and the GO support helps to retard the diffusion of polysulfides during the electrochemical cycling process. The GO/sulfur cathode presents enhanced cycling ability. Specific discharge capacities up to 494.7 mAh g{sup −1} over 200 cycles at 0.1 C is achieved with enhanced columbic efficiency around 95%, representing a good cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries.

  2. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric D.; Pan, Huilin; Lu, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Zhiqun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge process follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driven each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new insights to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  3. Effect of sulfur content in a sulfur-activated carbon composite on the electrochemical properties of a lithium/sulfur battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Changhyeon; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Wang, Guoxiu; Ahn, Jae-Pyeung; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The content of sulfur in activated carbon was controlled by solution process. • The sulfur electrode with low sulfur content shows the best performance. • The Li/S battery has capacity of 1360 mAh/g at 1 C and 702 mAh/g at 10 C. - Abstract: The content of sulfur in sulfur/activated carbon composite is controlled from 32.37 wt.% to 55.33 wt.% by a one-step solution-based process. When the sulfur content is limited to 41.21 wt.%, it can be loaded into the pores of an activated carbon matrix in a highly dispersed state. On the contrary, when the sulfur content is 55.33 wt.%, crystalline sulfur can be detected on the surface of the activated carbon matrix. The best electrochemical performance can be obtained for a sulfur electrode with the lowest sulfur content. The sulfur/activated carbon composite with 32.37 wt.% sulfur afforded the highest first discharge capacity of 1360 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C rate and a large reversible capacity of 702 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 C (16.75 A/g)

  4. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Vehicle Technologies ...

  5. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Protection of Li Anodes ...

  6. Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji-lu Chen

    1993-12-31

    Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

  7. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  8. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  9. Effect of Sulfur on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effect of Sulfur on SOFC Performance Using Diesel Reformate R. Kerr March 6-7, 2014 Workshop on Gas Cleanup for Fuel Cell Applications, ANL, March 6-7, 2014 Sulfur Poisoning Effect ...

  10. EPA Diesel Rule and the Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-08

    The VT program collaborated with industry stakeholders and the EPA (in an effort initiated in 1998 called Diesel Emission Control – Sulfur Effects study, otherwise known as DECSE) to quantify the effects of fuel sulfur on emission control technologies.

  11. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  12. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  13. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Chang, John C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  14. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damon, D.A.; Siwajek, L.A.; Klint, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

  15. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confi ning Sulfur in LithiumSulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Quiglin; Abruna, Hector D.; He, Yang; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott X.; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-08-19

    Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

  16. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  17. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  18. Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

  19. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Liu, Wei

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  20. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Corbeels, Roger J.; Kokturk, Uygur

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  1. Sulfur control in ion-conducting membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Richards, Robin Edward; Brengel, David Douglas; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2003-08-05

    A method for controlling the sulfur dioxide partial pressure in a pressurized, heated, oxygen-containing gas mixture which is contacted with an ion-conducting metallic oxide membrane which permeates oxygen ions. The sulfur dioxide partial pressure in the oxygen-depleted non-permeate gas from the membrane module is maintained below a critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure, p.sub.SO2 *, to protect the membrane material from reacting with sulfur dioxide and reducing the oxygen flux of the membrane. Each ion-conducting metallic oxide material has a characteristic critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure which is useful in determining the required level of sulfur removal from the feed gas and/or from the fuel gas used in a direct-fired feed gas heater.

  2. Sulfur-impurity Induced Amorphization of Nickel | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility Sulfur-impurity Induced Amorphization of Nickel Authors: Yuan, Z., Chen, H.P, Wang, W., Nomura, K., Kalia, R.K., Nakano, A., Vashishta, P. Recent experimental and theoretical studies have shown an essential role of sulfur segregation-induced amorphization of crystalline nickel leading to its embrittlement at a critical sulfur concentration of ∼14%, but the atomistic mechanism of the amorphization remains unexplained. Here, molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the

  3. Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Dah Y.

    1982-01-01

    A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

  4. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research August 24, 2016, Videos Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries As JCESR scientists work to develop lighter and less expensive chemistries than those used in current lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur shows tremendous promise. However, current lithium-sulfur batteries require an excessive amount of electrolyte to achieve moderate cycle life. This perspective presents an alternate approach of

  5. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  6. Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Heat Storage | Department of Energy Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage General Atomics logo General Atomics, under the Baseload CSP FOA, demonstrated the engineering feasibility of using a sulfur-based thermochemical cycle to store heat from a CSP plant and support baseload power generation. Approach Graphic of a diagram of squares and

  7. Thermal Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Sciences NETL's Thermal Sciences competency provides the scientific, engineering, and technology development community with innovative and efficient approaches to measure, harness, and convert thermal energy. Research includes sensors, advanced energy concepts, and thermodynamic optimization, specifically: Sensors and Diagnostics Advanced sensor and diagnostic technology to develop and evaluate advanced methods for non-intrusive measurement and measurement in extreme environments.

  8. Commercial Grade Dedication Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Resource List Commercial Grade Dedication at NRC Commercial-Grade Dedication of Software, June 12, 2014 NRC Vendor Workshop Software Dedication Using the ASME NQA-1 Approach Plant Engineering: Guideline for the Acceptance of Commercial-Grade Design and Analysis Computer Programs Used in Nuclear Safety-Related Applications: EPRI report # 1025243 NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Requirements Subpart 2.14, NQA-1a-2009, and

  9. Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Authors: Mayer, B P ; Williams, ...

  10. Microsoft Word - Updated Air Dispersion Modeling Table _sulfur...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DIVINE STRAKE AIR DISPERSION MODELING RESULTS for SULFUR DIOXIDE The attached table is ... within the Nevada Ambient Air Quality Standards at the boundary of the Nevada Test Site. ...

  11. Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of doped mesoporous carbon and elemental sulfur at a temperature inside a stainless steel vessel, which was used in lithiumsulfur batteries that were tested in ...

  12. Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using an In Situ Nuclear ... cell electrochemical reactions in Li-S batteries using a microbattery design Interphase ...

  13. EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... This decision is based on engineering judgment. It is ... Items intended for use in nuclear safety applications should ... Grade Procurement Fundamentals Commercial Grade Item...

  14. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Implementation and Nuclear Services Task 3.1: ... Five of 7 responders cite Engineering as the principal ... Grade Procurement Fundamentals Commercial Grade Item...

  15. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2010-01-23

    It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

  16. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, Nand K.; Ruether, John A.; Smith, Dennis N.

    1988-01-01

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  17. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  18. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  19. Nonflame, source-induced sulfur fluorescence detector for sulfur-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gage, D.R.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    Results of some preliminary investigations of the fluorescence spectra of S/sub 2/ and the non-flame production of S/sub 2/ from sulfur-containing molecules are reported. Passage of the gas to be analyzed through a catalyst-oven containing a plug of NiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst containing 10 wt% NiO/sub 2/ and heated to 400/sup 0/C resulted in conversion of H/sub 2/S to S/sub 2/ and elemental sulfur. The S/sub 2/ was detected by measurement of its fluorescence bands at 260 and 310nm, and elemental sulfur condensed on the cool parts of the apparatus. However, determination of sulfur-content of gas mixtures with the apparatus described herein were not as repeatable as desired, and the work is being continued on various facets of the non-flame system with work being directed toward the evaluation of different catalysts, catalyst temperature, design of a smaller detector geometry utilizing a pulsed-light excitation source, a windowless cell, and optical filters instead of monochromators to select the S/sub 2/ excitation and emission wavelengths. (BLM)

  20. Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters The efficient conversion of waste thermal energy into electrical energy is of considerable interest due to the huge sources of low-grade thermal energy available in technologically advanced societies. Our group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a new type

  1. Sodium sulfur container with chromium/chromium oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.; Higley, Lin R.

    1981-01-01

    A coating of chromium/chromium oxide is disclosed for coating the surfaces of electrically conducting components of a sodium sulfur battery. This chromium/chromium oxide coating is placed on the surfaces of the electrically conducting components of the battery which are in contact with molten polysulfide and sulfur reactants during battery operation.

  2. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  3. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda; Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  4. Sulfur Speciation of Different Kerogens using XANES Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltfong,R.; Mitra-Kirtley, S.; Mullins, O.; Andrews, B.; Fujisawa, G.; Larsen, J.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) methodology has been employed to quantify the different sulfur structures present in three Type I and three Type II kerogens. Kerogens from the Green River (3), Bakken (1), Woodford (1), and Indiana limestone (1) formations were studied. Both aliphatic (sulfide) and aromatic (thiophene) forms of sulfur exist in all these kerogen samples. Except for Woodford, all of the kerogens contain oxidized functional groups. Sulfur in Types I and II kerogens mimics the carbon chemistry in that the sulfur structures are more aromatic in Type II than in Type I. It was impossible to differentiate elemental sulfur from pyrite in these samples by using K-edge XANES.

  5. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dejonghe, Lutgard C.; Visco, Steven J.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; Armand, Michel B.

    1989-01-01

    An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

  6. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, L.C.; Visco, S.J.; Mailhe, C.C.; Armand, M.B.

    1988-03-31

    A novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200/degree/C or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S)/sub y/)n wherein y = 1 to 6; n = 2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprises one or more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon. 4 figs.

  7. Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R.; Sederquist, R.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plants are being developed for transit bus and passenger car applications that use methanol as the on-board fuel. Commodity methanol by itself contains very little sulfur; however, it may occasionally be contaminated with up to about 1% diesel fuel or gasoline in current liquid-fuel distribution systems, leading to the presence of sulfur in the methanol fuel. This sulfur must be removed because of its deleterious effect on the reforming catalysts. International Fuel Cells has set the allowable sulfur limit in the methanol fuel at less than 1 ppm. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess the feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon adsorber for the removal of sulfur from transportation fuel cell systems.

  8. Evaluation of metallic foils for preconcentration of sulfur-containing gases with subsequent flash desorption/flame photometric detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagel, R.A.; Farwell, S.O.

    1986-05-01

    Ag, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, and W foils were examined for their collective efficiencies toward seven sulfur-containing gases, i.e., H/sub 2/S, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH/sub 3/, CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, CS/sub 2/, COS, and SO/sub 2/. Low- and sub-part-per-billion (v/v) concentrations of these individual sulfur gases in air were drawn through a fluorocarbon resin cell containing a mounted 30-mm x 7-mm x 0.025-mm metal foil. The preconcentrated species were then thermally desorbed by a controlled pulse of current through the foil. The desorbed sample plug was swept in precleaned zero air from the fluorocarbon resin cell to a flame photometric detector. Sampling flow rate, ambient temperature, sample humidity, and common oxidants were examined for their effects on the collection efficiencies of these sulfur compounds on platinum and palladium foils. Analytical characteristics of this metal foil collection/flash desorption/flame photometric detector (MFC/FD/FPD) technique include a sulfur gas detectability of less than 50 pptr (parts per trillion) (v/v), a response repeatability of at least 95%, and field portable collection cells and instrumentation. The results are discussed both in terms of potential analytical applications of MFC/FD/FPD and in terms of their relationship to characterized models of gas adsorption on solid surfaces. 33 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  10. Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  11. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery: Task 2. Topical report, September 30, 1992--August 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, W.J.; Neyman, M.; Brown, W.; Klint, B.W.; Kuehn, L.; O`Connell, J.; Paskall, H.; Dale, P.

    1993-08-01

    The primary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to present conceptual designs developed to treat a large portion of proven domestic natural gas reserves which are low quality. The conceptual designs separate hydrogen sulfide and large amounts of carbon dioxide (>20%) from methane, convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, produce a substantial portion of the carbon dioxide as EOR or food grade CO{sub 2}, and vent residual CO{sub 2} virtually free of contaminating sulfur containing compounds. A secondary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to review existing gas treatment technology and identify existing commercial technologies currently used to treat large volumes of low quality natural gas with high acid content. Section II of this report defines low quality gas and describes the motivation for seeking technology to develop low quality gas reserves. The target low quality gas to be treated with the proposed technology is identified, and barriers to the production of this gas are reviewed. Section III provides a description of the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFG)-CNG technologies, their features, and perceived advantages. The three conceptual process designs prepared under Task 2 are presented in Section IV along with the design basis and process economics. Section V presents an overview of existing gas treatment technologies, organized into acid gas removal technology and sulfur recovery technology.

  12. Membranes for the Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Laboratory Scale Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick F. Stewart

    2007-08-01

    INL has developed polymeric membrane-based chemical separations to enable the thermochemical production of hydrogen. Major activities included studies of sulfuric acid concentration membranes, hydriodic acid concentration membranes, SO2/O2 separation membranes, potential applications of a catalyst reactor system for the decomposition of HI, and evaluation of the chemical separation needs for alternate thermochemical cycles. Membranes for the concentration of sulfuric acid were studied using pervaporation. The goal of this task was to offer the sulfur-iodine (S-I) and the hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycles a method to concentrate the sulfuric acid containing effluent from the decomposer without boiling. In this work, sulfuric acid decomposer effluent needs to be concentrated from ~50 % acid to 80 %. This task continued FY 2006 efforts to characterize water selective membranes for use in sulfuric acid concentration. In FY 2007, experiments were conducted to provide specific information, including transmembrane fluxes, separation factors, and membrane durability, necessary for proper decision making on the potential inclusion of this process into the S-I or HyS Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration.

  13. Role of Nuclear Grade Graphite in Oxidation in Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willaim Windes; G. Strydom; J. Kane; R. Smith

    2014-11-01

    The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940’s and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

  14. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  15. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  16. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 | Department of Energy Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing highly stable, sulfur-tolerant oxidation catalysts that use less Pt via surface modification of silica supports

  17. Effects of sulfur loading on the corrosion behaviors of metal lithium anode in lithium–sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Yamiao; Duan, Xiaobo; Li, Yanbing; Huang, Liwu; Zhu, Ding; Chen, Yungui

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The effects of sulfur loading on the corrosion behaviors were investigated systematically. • The corrosion became severer with increasing sulfur loading or cycle times. • The corrosion films are porous and loose and cannot prevent further reaction between lithium and polysulfides. - Abstract: The corrosion behaviors in rechargeable lithium–sulfur batteries come from the reactions between polysulfides and metal lithium anode, and they are significantly influenced by the sulfur loading. While there are limited papers reported on the effects of sulfur loading on the corrosion behaviors. In this paper, the effects have been investigated systematically. The corrosion films consisted of insulating lithium ion conductors are loose and porous, so that the corrosive reactions cannot be hindered. The thickness of the corrosion layers, consequently, increased along with increasing sulfur loading or cycle times. For instance, the thickness of corrosion layers after 50 cycles was 98 μm in the cell with 5 mg sulfur while it reached up to 518 μm when the loading increased to 15 mg. The continuous deposition of corrosion products gave rise to low active materials utilization and poor cycling performance.

  18. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  19. Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific Energy Lawrence Berkeley ... Song, M-K., Zhang, Y., Cairns, E.J., "A long-life, high-rate lithiumsulfur cell: a ...

  20. Sulfur Resistant Electrodes for Zirconia Oxygen Sensors - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide (Tb-YSZ) electrode have tested in a high-sulfur-coal fired power plant side by side against Zirconia-based O2 sensors with a standard platinum electrode. ...

  1. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  2. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  3. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  4. Evaluation of Sulfur Spinel Compounds for Multivalent Battery Cathode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research August 17, 2016, Research Highlights Evaluation of Sulfur Spinel Compounds for Multivalent Battery Cathode Applications A group of 3d transition-metal sulfur-spinel compounds were systematically assessed for MV cathode applications, based on their electrochemical and thermodynamic properties . Cr2S4, Ti2S4 and Mn2S4 spinel compounds exhibit superior Mg2+ mobility, and hence, emerge as the top three candidates. Scientific Achievement

  5. METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

    2009-06-22

    HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

  6. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  7. In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into MDCK Cells In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine into MDCK Cells Sulfur is essential for life. It plays important roles in the amino acids methionine and cysteine, and has a structural function in disulfide bonds. As a component of iron-sulfur clusters it takes part in electron and sulfur transfer reactions.1 Glutathione, a sulfur-containing tripeptide, is an important part of biological antioxidant systems.2 Another example for the biological

  8. Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop Document offers the standard agenda for the investment-grade audit review workshop. ...

  9. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key partsa positive and negative electrode and an electrolytethat exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a batterys chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  10. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  11. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  12. Thioozonide decomposition: sulfur and oxygen atom transfer. Evidence for the formation of a carbonyl O-sulfide intermediate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matturro, M.G.; Reynolds, R.P.; Kastrup, R.V.; Pictroski, C.F.

    1986-05-14

    The chemistry of ozonides is of considerable interest from a practical and theoretical viewpoint. Thioozonide 1, formally the monosulfur-substituted ozonide of dimethylcyclobutadiene, has been proposed as an intermediate in the room temperature photooxidation of 2,5-dimethylthiophene. Subsequent low-temperature studies confirmed this structural assignment. When 1 is allowed to warm to room temperature, it rearranges to a mixture of sulfine 2 and cis- and trans-3-hexene-2,5-diones (3c and 3t). Recent examination of the thermal decomposition of 1 has led to a proposed mechanism involving a carbonyl sulfide 4 as an intermediate along the sulfur expulsion pathway to 3c; however, no experimental support for this hypothesis was given. Carbonyl O-sulfides have also been implicated as intermediates from the photolysis of oxathiiranes. The authors report evidence for the formation of 4 during the decomposition of 1 and that elemental sulfur (S/sub 8/) is formed during the reaction by concatenation of sulfur atoms or fragments (S/sub 2/, S/sub 3/, etc.).

  13. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The

  14. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  15. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H.; Stegen, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  16. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  17. Insight into Sulfur Reactions in Li–S Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Rui; Belharouak, Ilias; Zhang, Xiaofeng; chamoun, rita; Yu, Cun; Ren, Yang; Nie, Anmin; Reza, Shahbazian-Yassar; Lu, Jun; Li, James C.M.; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-09

    Understanding and controlling the sulfur reduction species (Li2Sx, 1 ≤ x ≤ 8) under realistic battery conditions are essential for the development of advanced practical Li–S cells that can reach their full theoretical capacity. However, it has been a great challenge to probe the sulfur reduction intermediates and products because of the lack of methods. This work employed various ex situ and in situ methods to study the mechanism of the Li–S redox reactions and the properties of Li2Sx and Li2S. Synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis used to characterize dry powder deposits from lithium polysulfide solution suggests that the new crystallite phase may be lithium polysulfides. The formation of Li2S crystallites with a polyhedral structure was observed in cells with both the conventional (LiTFSI) electrolyte and polysulfide-based electrolyte. In addition, an in situ transmission electron microscopy experiment observed that the lithium diffusion to sulfur during discharge preferentially occurred at the sulfur surface and formed a solid Li2S crust. This may be the reason for the capacity fade in Li–S cells (as also suggested by EIS experiment in Supporting Information). The results can be a guide for future studies and control of the sulfur species and meanwhile a baseline for approaching the theoretical capacity of the Li–S battery.

  18. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha; Meyer, Howard S.; Lynn, Scott; Leppin, Dennis; Wangerow, James R.

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  19. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  20. Analytical method for the evaluation of sulfur functionalities in American coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attar, A.

    1983-05-01

    This investigation consisted of the following 6 tasks: (1) improve the instrumentation for the sulfur functional groups analysis and make it more reliable. (2) create a set of reference standards of sulfur-containing compounds. (3) examine the sulfur groups distribution in untreated and desulfurized coals. (4) examine the sulfur functionalities in raw and processed coals, i.e., liquefied coals. (5) determine the distribution of sulfur functionalities in modified coals. (6) prepare computer programs for calculations related to the distribution of sulfur functional groups in coal. Each task is discussed and results are presented. Appendix A contains the computer program used to interpret the data. 31 references, 56 figures, 17 tables.

  1. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  2. Graphene-wrapped sulfur/metal organic framework-derived microporous carbon composite for lithium sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Renjie E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Zhao, Teng; Tian, Tian; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Cao, Shuai; Coxon, Paul R.; Xi, Kai E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Vasant Kumar, R.; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2014-12-01

    A three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type graphene sheet-sulfur/carbon (GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite for use in a cathode for a lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been prepared by an ultrasonic method. The microporous carbon host was prepared by a one-step pyrolysis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8), a typical zinc-containing metal organic framework (MOF), which offers a tunable porous structure into which electro-active sulfur can be diffused. The thin graphene sheet, wrapped around the sulfur/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 derived carbon (S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite, has excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility, thus facilitating rapid electron transport and accommodating the changes in volume of the sulfur electrode. Compared with the S/C{sub ZIF8-D} sample, Li-S batteries with the GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D} composite cathode showed enhanced capacity, improved electrochemical stability, and relatively high columbic efficiency by taking advantage of the synergistic effects of the microporous carbon from ZIF-8 and a highly interconnected graphene network. Our results demonstrate that a porous MOF-derived scaffold with a wrapped graphene conductive network structure is a potentially efficient design for a battery electrode that can meet the challenge arising from low conductivity and volume change.

  3. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  4. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  5. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage - FY13 Q1 | Department of Energy Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this General Atomics project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013. progress_report_baseload_generalatomics_fy13_q1.pdf (196.13 KB) More Documents & Publications Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with

  6. Method for removing sulfur oxides from a hot gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.P.; Hurst, T.B.

    1984-06-05

    An improved method for removing sulfur oxides from a hot gas by introducing the gas into a first compartment of a spray drying reactor chamber for settleable particulate removal, by then directing the gas to a second compartment of the reactor chamber wherein the gas is contacted with an atomized alkali slurry for sulfur oxide removal by formation of a dry mixture of sulfite and sulfate compounds, by removing a portion of the dry mixture from the gas in the second compartment and by passing the gas from the second compartment to a dry particle collection zone for removal of substantially all of the remaining gas entrained dry mixture.

  7. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey and Training Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training The following is a sample plan to perform a CGD survey. The checklist items are included. In addition to,...

  8. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and ... and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form ...

  9. Solvent Tuning of Properties of Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Proteins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Proteins Figure 1. Schematic repre-sentation of the common active-site iron-sulfur cluster structural motif. Proteins containing Fe4S4 iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous in...

  10. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G.

    2012-03-06

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  11. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus

  12. Catalyst Activity and Post-operation Analyses of Pt/TiO2 (Rutile) Catalysts Used in the Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; Harry W. Rollins; Kyle C. Burch; Patrick J. Pinhero; Helen H. Farrell

    2007-06-01

    Production of hydrogen by splitting of water at lower temperatures than by direct thermal decomposition can be achieved by a series of particular chemical reactions that establish a thermochemical cycle [1]. Among the high number of thermochemical water-splitting cycles proposed in the literature [2], the sulfur-based group is of considerable interest. All the sulfur-based cycles employ the catalytic decomposition of sulfuric acid into SO2 and O2. The produced O2 corresponds to the O2 generated from water in the overall cycle. Research performed at the Idaho National Laboratory [3] has found that even one of the most stables catalysts, Pt supported on low surface area titania, deactivates with time on stream (TOS). To develop an understanding of the factors that cause catalyst deactivation, samples of 1% Pt supported on titania (rutile) catalyst were submitted to flowing concentrated sulfuric acid at 1123 K and atmospheric pressure for different TOSs between 0 and 548 h and a number of chemical and spectroscopic analyses applied to the spent samples.

  13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHASTAN: USING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY-PRODUCT SULFUR FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SECONDARY END-USE PRODUCTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.D.; VAGIN, S.; BEALL, P.W.; LEVINTOV, B.L.

    2004-09-25

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for by-product sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a low-value industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg

  14. Bioenergetic studies of coal sulfur oxidation by extremely thermophilic bacteria. Final report, September 15, 1992--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, R.M.; Han, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    Thermoacidophilic microorganisms have been considered for inorganic sulfur removal from coal because of expected improvements in rates of both biotic and abiotic sulfur oxidation reactions with increasing temperature. In this study, the bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, to environmental changes have been examined in relation to its capacity to catalyze pyrite oxidation in coal. Given an appropriate bioenergetic challenge, the metabolic response was to utilize additional amounts of energy sources (i.e., pyrite) to survive. Of particular interest were the consequences of exposing the organism to various forms of stress (chemical, nutritional, thermal, pH) in the presence of coal pyrite. Several approaches to take advantage of stress response to accelerate pyrite oxidation by this organism were examined, including attempts to promote acquired thermal tolerance to extend its functional range, exposure to chemical uncouplers and decouplers, and manipulation of heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic tendencies to optimize biomass concentration and biocatalytic activity. Promising strategies were investigated in a continuous culture system. This study identified environmental conditions that promote better coupling of biotic and abiotic oxidation reactions to improve biosulfurization rates of thermoacidophilic microorganisms.

  15. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of sulfur in gasoline (Tier 2 standards). Separate standards were set for different entities, such as large refiners, small refiners, importers, downstream wholesalers, etc. In March 2014, Tier 3 standards were finalized by

  16. Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application | Department of Energy Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application deer09_cheng.pdf (564.79 KB) More Documents & Publications Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF +

  17. Chromium modified nickel-iron aluminide useful in sulfur bearing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cathcart, John V.; Liu, Chain T.

    1989-06-13

    An improved nickel-iron aluminide containing chromium and molybdenum additions to improve resistance to sulfur attack.

  18. Hydroprocessing key issue in low-sulfur' era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-26

    Refiners gave heavy attention to hydroprocessing operations at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. Among the topics covered were diesel color, blending to meet diesel sulfur specs, and ammonia injection in hydrocracking units. The panelists also related their experiences with increasing vacuum gas oil conversion in hydrocracking operations. These discussions are reproduced here.

  19. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study ...

  20. Sulfur isotope ratios in petroleum research and exploration: Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thode, H.G.

    1981-09-01

    The three major types of crude oil in the Williston basin - the type I oils of the Winnipeg-Red River system, the type II oils of the Bakken-Madison system, and the type III oils of the Tyler-Pennsylvanian system - can be distinguished by their sulfur isotope compositions. They have characteristic delta/sup 34/S values of 5.8 +- 1.2 parts per thousand (ppt), 2.8 +- 0.8 ppt, and -4.0 +- 0.7 ppt respectively. Highly mature oils have less typical values. Type II oils which have migrated over a distance of some 150 km beyond the region of generation have maintained their characteristic delta/sup 34/S values even though sulfur may have been lost. This indicates little or no interaction with reservoir sulfates under normal circumstances. On the periphery of the basin, type II oils altered by water washing and biodegradation have altered delta/sup 34/S values which increase from +2.9 to +9.4 ppt with the increasing degree of crude oil degradation. The Bakken shales, source of the type II oils, have delta/sup 34/S distribution patterns in the reduced sulfur typical of marine sediments. The delta/sup 34/S values for the type II oils match most closely the delta/sup 34/S value of organic sulfur in the black bituminous shales of the lower Bakken.

  1. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  2. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  4. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  5. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  6. Doped carbon-sulfur species nanocomposite cathode for Li--S batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Donghai; Xu, Tianren; Song, Jiangxuan

    2015-12-29

    We report a heteroatom-doped carbon framework that acts both as conductive network and polysulfide immobilizer for lithium-sulfur cathodes. The doped carbon forms chemical bonding with elemental sulfur and/or sulfur compound. This can significantly inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte, leading to high capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency.

  7. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  8. FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

    2008-09-01

    This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced

  9. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  10. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  11. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  12. Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

    2012-06-20

    Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

  13. Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicted road grade may be used to estimate the power ...

  14. Behavior of trace and companion elements of ULC-IF steel grades during RH-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungreithmeier, A.; Viertauer, A.; Presslinger, H.

    1996-12-31

    A large number of metallurgical reactions are caused by lowering the partial pressure during vacuum treatment. One of these reactions is the volatilization of elements with high vapor pressure. The concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment mostly changes because of cooling scrap, deoxidation agents and ferro-alloy additions, slag/metal reactions, vaporization and also because of reactions with the RH-vessel lining. These changes in the concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment are exemplified for ULC-IF (ultra low carbon--interstitial free) steel grades. The elements which are considered are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, vanadium, tin, zinc, lead, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. Calculations of the theoretical equilibrium solubility using thermodynamic data--in dependence of pressure and temperature--correspond well with the values obtained during steel production operations. 67 refs.

  15. INITIAL COMPARISON OF BASELINE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR THE VHTR CANDIDATE GRAPHITE GRADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration that is capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered candidate grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades

  16. EM Commercial Grade Dedication Class Slides | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Program Management » Quality Assurance » EM Commercial Grade Dedication Class Slides EM Commercial Grade Dedication Class Slides PowerPoint presentation used in the EM sponsored commercial grade dedication (CGD) class. This class is designed to provide an understanding of the process for CGD. EM Commercial Grade Dedication Class Slides (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and

  17. Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

  18. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method Title: Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method An active electrode material for electrochemical ...

  19. Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Below is information about the student activitylesson plan from your search. Grades K-4 Subject Energy ...

  20. Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Record (ANL-746 Revised) Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) A sample of a process to recorddocument CGD activities. Forms are included. Commercial Grade...

  1. Model Investment Grade Audit and Project Proposal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information and documents for conducting an investment grade audit to evaluate potential measures and presenting a project proposal for a set of bundled measures that deliver savings to pay for the project over the finance term.

  2. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurizing agent, but under the right conditions of oxygen potential and after combination with sulfur, the reaction products of coal gases with iron oxide can act as a flux to produce a fluid phase. The thermodynamic conditions for determining the most effective operating conditions of the first stage of a combustor are calculated for several Illinois coals. These conditions include contact of the gas with the phase combinations: CaO/CaSO{sub 4}, CaO/CaS, and Fe/FeO/liquid for the temperature range 950{degree} to 1300{degree}C. In the latter system, the minimum dosage of iron required at equilibrium and the calculated maximum percent sulfur removal are reported. Also given are the expected pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu of heat evolution calculated for complete combustion. The calculations indicate that for the Fe-O-S system, higher temperatures give better results approaching 96 percent sulfur removal from a coal containing 4.2% sulfur. For this example, the stack gas emerging from the second stage of combustion under stoichiometric conditions would contain 0.36 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU's of heat generated. The temperature limits of the sulfate and sulfide forming reactions are defined.

  3. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research July 11, 2016, Research Highlights Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Precipitation-dissolution Li-S chemistry achieved by sparingly solvating electrolyte and various electrolyte design concepts Scientific Achievement This work presents the promising new concepts of using sparingly solvating electrolyte to enable Li-S battery operation at lean electrolyte condition, as well as the design rules

  4. Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Jun Liu and Dongping Lu Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Review June 6-10, 2016 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project ID #ES282 1 1 2 Overview Timeline * Start date: Oct. 2012 * End date: Sept. 2017 * Percent complete: 80% Budget * Total project funding - DOE share 100% * Funding received in FY15: $400k * Funding for FY16: $400k Barriers *

  5. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  6. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This ...

  7. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  8. Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance This Guide provides an acceptable process (Commercial Grade Dedication [CGD]) for EM facilities and projects to dedicate an item or service that performs a nuclear safety function that was not manufactured, developed, or performed under a qualified American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) NQA-1 Quality Assurance program. This Guide also provides guidance for the development of the associated documentation supporting the dedication activity.

  9. Utilizing the market to control sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeher, C.F. III

    1995-12-01

    Environmental policy in the United States is evolving; command and control approaches are being slowly replaced with market-based incentives. Market-based regulation is favorable because it provides the regulated community with flexibility in choosing between pollution control options. A recent application of a market-based approach is Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This paper evaluates the advantages of utilizing market-based incentives to control sulfur dioxide emissions. The evaluation embodies an extensive methodology, which provides an overview of the policy governing air quality, discusses pollution control philosophies and analyzes their associated advantages and limitations. Further, it describes the development and operation of a market for emissions trading, impediments to the market, and recommends strategies to improve the market. The evaluation concludes by analyzing the results of five empirical simulations demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of employing market-based incentives versus command-and-control regulation for controlling sulfur dioxide emissions. The results of the evaluation indicate that regulatory barriers and market impediments have inhibited allowance trading. However, many of these obstacles have been or are being eliminated through Federal and state regulations, and through enhancement of the market. Results also demonstrate that sulfur dioxide allowance trading can obtain identical levels of environmental protection as command-and-control approaches while realizing cost savings to government and industry.

  10. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  11. Low-sulfur coal usage alters transportation strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, H.

    1995-07-01

    As electricity production has grown, so has the amount of coal burned by US utilities. In order to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many utilities have changed from high-sulfur coal to lower-sulfur coal to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. The primary mode of transporting coal to utilities remains the railroad, and coal represents the largest freight tonnage shipped - two out of every five tons. Since coal is so important to the railroads, it is logical that as utilities have changed their coal-buying strategies, the railroads` strategies have also changed. The increased demand for Western coal has caused rail lines some capacity problems which they are attempting to meet head-on by buying new railcars and locomotives and expanding track capacities. The new railcars typically have aluminum bodies to reduce empty weight, enabling them to carry larger loads of coal. Train locomotives are also undergoing upgrade changes. Most new locomotives have as motors to drive the wheels which deliver more motive power (traction) to the wheel trucks. In fact the motors are up to 30% more efficient at getting the traction to the trucks. Trackage is also being expanded to alleviate serious congestion on the tracks when moving Western coal.

  12. Method for preparing a sodium/sulfur cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Steven A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for preparing a sodium/sulfur cell comprising (A) inserting a solid sodium slug, adapted to be connected to an external circuit, into the anodic reaction zone of a cell subassembly maintained within an inert atmosphere, said cell subassembly comprising a cell container and a tubular cation-permeable barrier disposed within said container such that a first reaction zone is located within cation-permeable barrier and a second reaction zone is located between the outer surface of said cation-permeable barrier and the inner surface of said container, one of said reaction zones being said anodic reaction zone and the other of said reaction zone being a cathodic reaction zone containing a precast composite cathodic reactant comprising a sulfur impregnated porous conductive material connected to said cation permeable barrier and adapted to be connected to said external circuit; and (B) providing closure means for said subassembly and sealing the same to said subassembly at a temperature less than about 100.degree. C. The method of the invention overcomes deficiencies of the prior art methods by allowing preparation of a sodium/sulfur cell without the use of molten reactants and the fill spouts which are required when the cell is filled with molten reactants.

  13. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-11-11

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and themore » electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.« less

  14. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  15. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  16. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-11-11

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  17. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore » the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  18. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  19. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  20. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  1. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  3. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  4. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances ...

  5. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  6. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  7. American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsreleasesamerican-made-srf-cavity-makes-grade Submitted: Thursday, September 17, 2009 - 12...

  8. Investment-Grade Audit: Review Checklist | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit: Review Checklist Investment-Grade Audit: Review Checklist Document serves as a checklist to use when reviewing an investment-grade audit. Download the checklist. (70.6 KB) More Documents & Publications Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop FEMP Comprehensive ESPC Workshop Presentations

  9. DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distillate | Department of Energy Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate February 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve will be converted to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate to comply with new, more stringent fuel standards by some Northeastern states, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) said

  10. Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System | Department of Energy Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR System Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR System effect and performance recovery studies at system level with typical diesel emission control consisting of diesel oxidation catalyst, catalyzed soot filter, and selective catalytic reduction deer11_tang.pdf (504.68 KB) More Documents & Publications Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi

  12. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for

  13. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter

  14. Status of Initial Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Graphite Grades for NGNP Appkications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strizak, Joe P; Burchell, Timothy D; Windes, Will

    2011-12-01

    Current candidate graphite grades for the core structures of NGNP include grades NBG-17, NBG-18, PCEA and IG-430. Both NBG-17 and NBG-18 are manufactured using pitch coke, and are vibrationally molded. These medium grain products are produced by SGL Carbon SAS (France). Tayo Tanso (Japan) produces IG-430 which is a petroleum coke, isostatically molded, nuclear grade graphite. And PCEA is a medium grain, extruded graphite produced by UCAR Carbon Co. (USA) from petroleum coke. An experimental program has been initiated to develop physical and mechanical properties data for these current candidate graphites. The results will be judged against the requirements for nuclear grade graphites set forth in ASTM standard D 7219-05 "Standard Specification for Isotropic and Near-isotropic Nuclear Graphites". Physical properties data including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion, and mechanical properties data including tensile, compressive and flexural strengths will be obtained using the established test methods covered in D-7219 and ASTM C 781-02 "Standard Practice for Testing Graphite and Boronated Graphite Components for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors". Various factors known to effect the properties of graphites will be investigated. These include specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation (ag and wg) within a billet, and billet-to-billet variations. The current status of the materials characterization program is reported herein. To date billets of the four graphite grades have been procured, and detailed cut up plans for obtaining the various specimens have been prepared. Particular attention has been given to the traceability of each specimen to its spatial location and orientation within a billet.

  15. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey and Training Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training This survey was conducted to obtain input from EM contractors on processes used to perform Commercial Grade Item (CGI) dedication. The intended use of this information is to form the basis for providing a recommendation to EM for a standard process for CGI dedication. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training (1.17 MB) More Documents & Publications Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training EM Commercial Grade

  16. Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Standard agenda for investment-grade audit midpoint review meeting. Download the Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Agenda. (58.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda: Preliminary Assessment Kickoff Meeting Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda FEMP ESPC Project Development Resource Guide

  17. Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

  18. Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Sverdrup

    1999-06-07

    DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

  19. Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Christensen, Del Scot

    2009-12-15

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

  20. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  1. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  2. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  3. A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Life, High-Rate LithiumSulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance Min-Kyu Song, , Yuegang Zhang,* ,, and Elton J. Cairns* ,, The...

  4. CE IGCC Repowering plant sulfuric acid plant. Topical report, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chester, A.M.

    1993-12-01

    A goal of the CE IGCC Repowering project is to demonstrate a hot gas clean-up system (HGCU), for the removal of sulfur from the product gas stream exiting the gasifier island. Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) intends to use a HGCU developed by General Electric Environmental Services (GEESI). The original design of this system called for the installation of the HGCU, with a conventional cold gas clean-up system included as a full-load operational back-up. Each of these systems removes sulfur compounds and converts them into an acid off-gas. This report deals with the investigation of equipment to treat this off-gas, recovering these sulfur compounds as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or some other form. ABB CE contracted ABB Lummus Crest Inc. (ABB LCI) to perform an engineering evaluation to compare several such process options. This study concluded that the installation of a sulfuric acid plant represented the best option from both a technical and economic point of view. Based on this evaluation, ABB CE specified that a sulfuric acid plant be installed to remove sulfur from off-gas exiling the gas clean-up system. ABB LCI prepared a request for quotation (RFQ) for the construction of a sulfuric acid production plant. Monsanto Enviro-Chem Inc. presented the only proposal, and was eventually selected as the EPC contractor for this system.

  5. HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE FLOWSHEETS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.

    2011-07-06

    Two hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process flowsheets intended for use with high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are presented. The flowsheets were developed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, and couple a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer for the SO2-depolarized electrolysis step with a silicon carbide bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step. One presumes an HTGR reactor outlet temperature (ROT) of 950 C, the other 750 C. Performance was improved (over earlier flowsheets) by assuming that use of a more acid-tolerant PEM, like acid-doped poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI), instead of Nafion{reg_sign}, would allow higher anolyte acid concentrations. Lower ROT was accommodated by adding a direct contact exchange/quench column upstream from the bayonet reactor and dropping the decomposition pressure. Aspen Plus was used to develop material and energy balances. A net thermal efficiency of 44.0% to 47.6%, higher heating value basis is projected for the 950 C case, dropping to 39.9% for the 750 C case.

  6. A solvent system to provide selective removal of sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, R.L.; Bacon, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Energy costs and SRU inefficiencies resulting from utilization of low strength MEA technology induced a large refinery to convert to MDEA. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide in the treated product. This required careful consideration in making the decision to convert. However, the conclusions were that the advantages outweighed the disadvantages. When the initial converted operations verified a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation at acceptable COS specification, lower energy utilization, reduced solvent losses, and improved sulfur recovery unit operation.

  7. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  8. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  9. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi

  10. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two