National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal electric photovoltaics

  1. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-06-14

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  2. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  3. Electrical and thermal finite element modeling of arc faults in photovoltaic bypass diodes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, Ward Isaac; Quintana, Michael A.; Johnson, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Arc faults in photovoltaic (PV) modules have caused multiple rooftop fires. The arc generates a high-temperature plasma that ignites surrounding materials and subsequently spreads the fire to the building structure. While there are many possible locations in PV systems and PV modules where arcs could initiate, bypass diodes have been suspected of triggering arc faults in some modules. In order to understand the electrical and thermal phenomena associated with these events, a finite element model of a busbar and diode was created. Thermoelectrical simulations found Joule and internal diode heating from normal operation would not normally cause bypass diode or solder failures. However, if corrosion increased the contact resistance in the solder connection between the busbar and the diode leads, enough voltage potentially would be established to arc across micron-scale electrode gaps. Lastly, an analytical arc radiation model based on observed data was employed to predicted polymer ignition times. The model predicted polymer materials in the adjacent area of the diode and junction box ignite in less than 0.1 seconds.

  4. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  5. Salem Electric- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric offers a rebate to residential customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The rebate offered is $600 for the first three kilowatts (kWs) installed and $300/kW for any...

  6. Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Jesse; McNutt, Peter; Lisell, Lars; Burch, Jay; Jones, Dennis; Heinicke, David

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

  7. Ashland Electric Utility - Photovoltaic Rebate Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers electric customers installing photovoltaic systems a rebate of either 0.50 per watt (residential) or 0.75 per watt...

  8. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 ...

  9. Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System This presentation summarizes the information given ...

  10. Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis The outermost layers of photovoltaic (PV) cell, ...

  11. Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd Place: Cixi, Zhejiang Province, China Zip:...

  12. Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Imminent' - News Releases | NREL Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called 'Imminent' July 13, 2005 Golden, Colo. - Solar concentrators using highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells will reduce the cost of electricity from sunlight to competitive levels soon, attendees were told at a recent international conference on the subject. Herb Hayden of Arizona Public Service (APS) and Robert McConnell and Martha Symko-Davies of the U.S. Department of Energy's National

  13. Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-02-01

    The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

  14. A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan

    2011-01-15

    Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

  15. Photovoltaics and Electricity - Energy Explained, Your Guide To

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Understanding Energy - Energy Information Administration Photovoltaics and Electricity Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where

  16. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal &...

  17. Analytical predictions of liquid and air photovoltaic/thermal flat-plate collector performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghuraman, P.; Hendrie, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Two separate one-dimensional analyses have been developed for the prediction of the thermal and electrical performance of both liquid and air flat-plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. The analyses account for the temperature difference between the primary insolation absorber (the photovoltaic cells) and the secondary absorber (a thermal absorber flat plate). The results of the analyses are compared with test measurements, and therefrom, design recommendations are made to maximize the total energy extracted from the collectors.

  18. New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashima, Takumi; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Doi, Takuya ); Kamoshida, Junji ); Tani, Tatsuo ); Horigome, Takashi )

    1994-03-01

    One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature of solar cell increases up to the prescribed temperature of thermal energy use, although it is lower than the cell temperature when using only solar cell panel. For maintaining cell conversion efficiency at the standard conditions, it is necessary to keep the cell at lower temperature. In this paper, electric and thermal energy obtained form a PV/T panel is evaluated in terms of energy. BAsed on this evaluation, the method of not to decrease cell conversion efficiency with collecting solar thermal energy was proposed.

  19. Development of an Innovative Plug and Play Photovoltaic Electric System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Development of an Innovative Plug and Play Photovoltaic Electric System Development of an Innovative Plug and Play Photovoltaic Electric System logo_freedm.jpg North Carolina State University FREEDM Systems Engineering Center and its partners, under the Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics FOA, are performing analysis, design, and innovation to address each stage in the value chain of grid-interactive residential photovoltaic (PV) systems, while taking a broader systems

  20. Oncor Electric Delivery - Solar Photovoltaic Standard Offer Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Summary Oncor Electric Delivery offers rebates to its customers that install photovoltaic (PV) systems on homes or other buildings.* Oncor customers of all rate classes...

  1. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  2. Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps3_nrel_zhang.pdf (530.07 KB) More Documents & Publications US TG 4 Activities of QA Forum US & Japan TG 4 Activities of QA Forum High Temperature Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures

  3. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series | Department of Energy Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific

  4. New Hampshire Electric Co-op- Solar Photovoltaic Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire Electric Co-op (NHEC) is offering rebates for residential and commercial/government grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) systems up to one megawatt (MW) in capacity. The rebate is equal...

  5. Two earth sheltered passive solar residences with photovoltaic electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strong, S.J.; Osten, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The design and construction of two earth sheltered passive solar residence with photovoltaic electricity are described. The sizing and design of the P.V. system as well as the module fabrication and array integration are also discussed.

  6. Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System This presentation summarizes the information given during the DOE SunShot Grand Challenge: Summit and Technology Forum, June 13-14, 2012. ssgrandchallenge_finance_schrag.pdf (63.07 KB) More Documents & Publications The SunShot Vision Study SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

  7. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  8. Design of solar cells for use in photovoltaic/thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, C.H. III

    1980-01-01

    A promising design development for combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is one in which the photovoltaic cell is both the conversion device for electrical energy and the absorber of thermal energy. To accomplish this, the PV cell design is modified to use the approximately 25 percent of the air mass 1 spectrum at lambda > 1.1 ..mu..m that is currently rejected by the cell. The parameters investigated are: cell back metallization, back surface field, texture etching and anti-reflective coating. A model indicating the increase in absorptance as a function of these parameters is presented, together with the results of experimental measurements. Discussion closes with the presentation of a PV/T collector design that incorporates the improved cells, has 10 percent greater thermal output than current PV/T collectors, and exhibits no degradation in electrical output.

  9. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  10. Solar Thermal Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Electric Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarThermalEl...

  11. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  12. Thermoelectrics and Photovoltaics - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion Thermoelectrics and Photovoltaics Thermoelectrics A significant amount of heat is wasted from industrial processes, home heating and vehicle exhausts that could otherwise be converted to electricity through the use of thermoelectric devices. The interconversion between heat and electricity, through the use of thermoelectrics, is environmentally friendly and highly reliable. With improved efficiency, thermoelectrics could have a significant impact on the energy consumption

  13. Proposed Changes to Electricity and Renewable (Photovoltaic)...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | 2017 Proposed Solar & Electricity Survey Form ... Fuel receipts and costs EIA-923: Natural gas receipts would no longer be reported by ...

  14. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lonergan, Mark

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  15. Sandia-Electric Power Research Institute Partnership Publishes Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reliability Report Electric Power Research Institute Partnership Publishes Photovoltaic Reliability Report - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid

  16. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  17. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  18. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Motor Thermal Management A photo of a piece of laboratory testing equipment. NREL ... motors is helping to improve the performance and reliability of electric-drive vehicles. ...

  20. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors

  1. Photovoltaics for municipal planners. Cost-effective municipal applications of photovoltaics for electric power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  2. Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  3. Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  4. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  5. Lincoln Electric System - Renewable Generation Rate (Nebraska...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Applicable Sector Commercial, Industrial Eligible Technologies Solar Thermal Electric, Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Anaerobic Digestion, Small...

  6. Organic Photovoltaic Cells with an Electric Field Integrally-Formed at the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heterojunction Interface - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Organic Photovoltaic Cells with an Electric Field Integrally-Formed at the Heterojunction Interface National Renewable Energy Laboratory Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Figure 4 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 6 Technology Marketing SummaryStandard solar cells made from inorganic semiconductors, such as silicon cells, have dominated the

  7. CNEEC - Photovoltaics Tutorial by Prof. Clemens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaics

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  9. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geis, J.; Arnold, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States` Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV`s whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, the authors have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible they modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  10. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  11. The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Electric Program is managed by the Solar thermal and biomass Power division which is part of the Office of utility Technologies. The focus of the Program is to commercialize solar electric technologies. In this regard, three major projects are currently being pursued in trough, central receiver, and dish/Stirling electric power generation. This paper describes these three projects and the activities at the National laboratories that support them.

  12. Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebisch, R.

    1981-07-01

    Applications of photovoltaics to non-residential buildings are discussed. Most of the projects underway represent a joint effort by DOE and fifteen manufacturing companies now offering or developing photovoltaics. The systems are either flat-plate arrays, in which the sunlight is received directly on the photocells, or concentrating systems, in which the sunlight is focused on the photocells by mirrors or lenses. The DOE price goal for 1986 is to have photovoltaic systems capable of supplying shopping centers, apartment complexes, and industries with modules costing 70 cents/W and systems costing $1.60 to $2.60/W with the price of power to the user at 7 cents to 11 cents/kWh. New technologies discussed include the use of silicon with no crystal structure and the use of ribbons of silicon. (MJF)

  13. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  14. Performance Modeling of an Air-Based Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, R. D.; Brandemuehl, M. J.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a collector design that utilizes unglazed photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors preheating air for glazed air heating modules. The performance modeling of these collectors is examined both individually and in series. For each collector type, a dynamic, finite difference, first-law model has been created using literature correlations for friction. The models were compared to performance data, calibrating the models by scaling of friction terms for best fit. The calibrated models generally agree well with the experimental data; even during sudden changes to ambient conditions. The root mean square error between the unglazed PV/T model and experiment results for the useful thermal energy gain and the outlet air temperature are 7.12 W/m{sup 2} and 1.07 C, respectively. The annual source energy performance of the building-integrated PV/T (BIPV/T) array is then simulated for residential applications in seven climate zones of the United States of America. The performance of the BIPV/T array is characterized by the amount of net electrical energy and useful thermal energy produced. The useful thermal energy is defined as the amount of energy offset by the BIPV/T system for water heating and space conditioning. A BIPV/T system composed 87.5% of PV modules, and 12.5% of glazed air heating modules, offsets the same amount of source energy as a roof-mounted PV system of the same area. This array composition increases the thermal energy gain by 47% over a BIPV/T array composed solely of PV modules.

  15. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on ...

  16. Electrical and thermal transport properties of iron and iron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrical and thermal transport properties of iron and iron-silicon alloy at high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrical and thermal transport properties ...

  17. Effect of molecular electrical doping on polyfuran based photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Shuwen; Opitz, Andreas; Salzmann, Ingo; Frisch, Johannes; Cohen, Erez; Bendikov, Michael; Koch, Norbert

    2015-05-18

    The electronic, optical, and morphological properties of molecularly p-doped polyfuran (PF) films were investigated over a wide range of doping ratio in order to explore the impact of doping in photovoltaic applications. We find evidence for integer-charge transfer between PF and the prototypical molecular p-dopant tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) and employed the doped polymer in bilayer organic solar cells using fullerene as acceptor. The conductivity increase in the PF films at dopant loadings ?2% significantly enhances the short-circuit current of photovoltaic devices. For higher doping ratios, however, F4TCNQ is found to precipitate at the heterojunction between the doped donor polymer and the fullerene acceptor. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that its presence acts beneficial to the energy-level alignment by doubling the open-circuit voltage of solar cells from 0.2?V to ca. 0.4?V, as compared to pristine PF.

  18. Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

    2012-12-01

    To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

  19. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  20. Photovoltaic device having light transmitting electrically conductive stacked films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Michael F.; Tran, Nang T.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Gilbert, James R.; Aspen, Frank E.

    1990-07-10

    A light transmitting electrically conductive stacked film, useful as a light transmitting electrode, including a first light transmitting electrically conductive layer, having a first optical thickness, a second light transmitting layer, having a second optical thickness different from the optical thickness of the first layer, and an electrically conductive metallic layer interposed between and in initimate contact with the first and second layers.

  1. Effects of Active Layer Thickness and Thermal Annealing on Polythiophene: Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, L.; Tang, C.W.; Chen, S.H.

    2010-08-10

    The effect of thermal annealing on photovoltaic devices comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) with thicknesses up to 1200 nm was investigated. Without thermal annealing, the efficiency of the as-prepared devices decreased with increasing active layer thickness, reflecting largely a reduction in the short-circuit current density and an inverse photocurrent spectral response. Thermal annealing of the full devices was found to substantially recover thick-film device efficiencies while reducing the thin-film device efficiencies. The profound variations in photovoltaic characteristics were interpreted in terms of vertical phase separation in the P3HT:PCBM blend film and Li+ diffusion from the LiF/Al contact.

  2. Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the result of high-temperature durability and thermal cycling testing and analysis for the selected diodes to study the detail of the thermal design and relative long-term reliability of the bypass diodes used to limit the detrimental effects of module hot-spot susceptibility.

  3. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  4. Second Annual Electric Power Research Institute/Sandia Photovoltaic Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chu Travels to Houston Sec. Chu Travels to Houston February 2, 2012 - 5:19pm Addthis The Houston Medical Center Thermal Energy Corporation Control Room. | Photo Courtesy of the Texas Medical Center The Houston Medical Center Thermal Energy Corporation Control Room. | Photo Courtesy of the Texas Medical Center Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs Secretary Chu traveled to Houston, Texas, today to meet with executives from various oil and gas

  5. Evaluation of phase change materials for thermal regulation enhancement of building integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, A.; Norton, B.; McCormack, S.J.; Huang, M.J.

    2010-09-15

    Regulating the temperature of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) using phase change materials (PCMs) reduces the loss of temperature dependent photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. Five PCMs were selected for evaluation all with melting temperatures {proportional_to}25 {+-} 4 C and heat of fusion between 140 and 213 kJ/kg. Experiments were conducted at three insolation intensities to evaluate the performance of each PCM in four different PV/PCM systems. The effect on thermal regulation of PV was determined by changing the (i) mass of PCM and (ii) thermal conductivities of the PCM and PV/PCM system. A maximum temperature reduction of 18 C was achieved for 30 min while 10 C temperature reduction was maintained for 5 h at -1000 W/m{sup 2} insolation. (author)

  6. Residential photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  7. List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 562 Solar Thermal Electric Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-562)...

  8. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  9. Maximizing the Value of Photovoltaic Installations on Schools in California: Choosing the Best Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.

    2011-07-01

    Schools in California often have a choice between multiple electricity rate options. For schools with photovoltaic (PV) installations, choosing the right rate is essential to maximize the value of PV generation. The rate option that minimizes a school?s electricity expenses often does not remain the most economical choice after the school installs a PV system. The complex interaction between PV generation, building load, and rate structure makes determining the best rate a challenging task. This report evaluates 22 rate structures across three of California?s largest electric utilities--Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E)--in order to identify common rate structure attributes that are favorable to PV installations.

  10. Delaware Electric Cooperative- Green Energy Program Incentives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Delaware Electric Cooperative (DEC) provides incentives for solar photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, wind, fuel cells, and geothermal installed by DEC member-owners. Eligibility is limited to ...

  11. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2013-11-27

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  12. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  13. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  14. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  15. Geographic Variation in Potential of Rooftop Residential Photovoltaic Electric Power Production in the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper describes a geographic evaluation of Zero Energy Home (ZEH) potential, specifically an assessment of residential roof-top solar electric photovoltaic (PV) performance around the United States and how energy produced would match up with very-efficient and super-efficient home designs. We performed annual simulations for 236 TMY2 data locations throughout the United States on two highly-efficient one-story 3-bedroom homes with a generic grid-tied solar electric 2kW PV system. These annual simulations show how potential annual solar electric power generation (kWh) and potential energy savings from PV power vary geographically around the U.S. giving the user in a specific region an indication of their expected PV system performance.

  16. Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaics Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaics February 10, 2011 - 5:29pm Addthis Learn more about photovoltaic systems that convert light energy into electricity. Andy Oare ...

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics August ... Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy. A single ...

  18. List of Ocean Thermal Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydrogen Landfill Gas Methanol Ocean Thermal Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric...

  19. Electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of MoS{sub 2}/Si p-n junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Lanzhong Liu, Yunjie Gao, Wei; Han, Zhide; Xue, Qingzhong; Zeng, Huizhong; Wu, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Wanli

    2015-03-21

    Bulk-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on the surface of p-type Si substrates using dc magnetron sputtering technique and MoS{sub 2}/Si p-n junctions were formed. The vibrating modes of E{sup 1}{sub 2g} and A{sub 1g} were observed from the Raman spectrum of the MoS{sub 2} films. The current density versus voltage (J-V) characteristics of the junction were investigated. A typical J-V rectifying effect with a turn-on voltage of 0.2 V was shown. In different voltage range, the electrical transporting of the junction was dominated by diffusion current and recombination current, respectively. Under the light illumination of 15 mW cm{sup −2}, the p-n junction exhibited obvious photovoltaic characteristics with a short-circuit current density of 3.2 mA cm{sup −2} and open-circuit voltage of 0.14 V. The fill factor and energy conversion efficiency were 42.4% and 1.3%, respectively. According to the determination of the Fermi-energy level (∼4.65 eV) and energy-band gap (∼1.45 eV) of the MoS{sub 2} films by capacitance-voltage curve and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectra, the mechanisms of the electrical and photovoltaic characteristics were discussed in terms of the energy-band structure of the MoS{sub 2}/Si p-n junctions. The results hold the promise for the integration of MoS{sub 2} thin films with commercially available Si-based electronics in high-efficient photovoltaic devices.

  20. What Changed in Article 690-Solar Photovoltaic Systems- of the 1999 National Electrical Code?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, W.; Wiles, J.

    1999-01-12

    Article 690, Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems, has been in the National Electrical Code (NEC) since 1984. An NFPA-appointed Task Group for Article 690 proposed changes to Article 690 for both the 1996 and 1999 codes. The Task Group, supported by more than 50 professionals from throughout the photovoltaic (PV) industry, met seven times during the 1999 code cycle to integrate the needs of the industry with the needs of electrical inspectors and end users to ensure the safety of PV systems. The Task Group proposed 57 changes to Article 690, and all the changes were accepted in the review process. The performance and cost of PV installations were always a consideration as these changes were formed but safety was the number-one priority. All of the proposals were well substantiated and coordinated throughout the PV industry and with representatives of Underwriters Laboratories, Inc (UL). The most significant changes that were made in Article 690 for the 1999 NEC along with some of the rationale are discussed in the remainder of this article.

  1. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Discusses ...

  2. Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Electric Power Plants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-07-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the potential for parabolic trough solar thermal electric power plants, especially in the Southwestern U.S.

  3. Electrical and thermal conductivity of low temperature CVD graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature CVD graphene: the effect of disorder Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrical and thermal conductivity of low temperature CVD graphene: the effect of ...

  4. Sandia Energy Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    feed 0 Sandian Contributes to Western Electricity Coordinating Council Photovoltaic Power Plant Model Validation Guideline http:energy.sandia.gov...

  5. Photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  6. High thermal conductivity connector having high electrical isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nieman, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    A method and article for providing a low-thermal-resistance, high-electrical-isolation heat intercept connection. The connection method involves clamping, by thermal interference fit, an electrically isolating cylinder between an outer metallic ring and an inner metallic disk. The connection provides durable coupling of a heat sink and a heat source.

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process ...

  8. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  9. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV. We investigate the impact of a range of electricity market scenarios on retail electricity prices and rate structures, and the resulting effects on the value of bill savings from PV. The scenarios include various levels of renewable and solar energy deployment, high and low natural gas prices, the possible introduction of carbon pricing, and greater or lesser reliance on utility-scale storage and demand response. We examine the bill savings from PV with time-invariant, flat residential retail rates, as well as with time-varying retail rates, including time-of-use (TOU) rates and real-time pricing (RTP). In addition, we explore a flat rate with increasing-block pricing (IBP). We evaluate the bill savings from PV with net metering, as currently allowed in many states, as well as scenarios with hourly netting, a partial form of net metering. This scoping study is the first known effort to evaluate these types of interactions in a reasonably comprehensive fashion, though by no means have we considered every possible change to electricity market conditions, retail rate structures, or PV compensation mechanisms. It focuses solely on the private value of bill savings for residential PV and does not seek to quantify the broader social or economic cost or value of solar electricity. Our analysis applies assumptions based loosely on California’s electricity market in a future year (2030); however, it is neither intended to forecast California’s future

  10. Thermally conductive alumina/organic composites for photovoltaic concentrator cell isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, L.C.; Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretically deposited styrene-acrylate films were studied. These yield marginally useful thermal conductivities of 0.1--0.2 watts/meter-Kelvin, but have useful dielectric strengths over 2500 volts for 40 micrometer thick coatings. Thin, 25 micrometer, coatings of anodically grown Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films were also investigated. These films have thermal conductivities of approximately 6--8 watts/meter-Kelvin. Although these Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films have greater thermal conductivity than the polymer films, they exhibit porosity which typically limits their dielectric strength to less than 1000 volts. In the current study we have determined that styrene-acrylate can be electrophoretically deposited in porous anodic aluminum oxide films to form an alumina-organic composite with improved electrical breakdown strengths as well as higher thermal conductivity than styrene-acrylate films. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Light absorption and electrical transport in Si:O alloys for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirabella, S.; Crupi, I.; Miritello, M.; Simone, F.; Di Martino, G.; Di Stefano, M. A.; Di Marco, S.; Priolo, F.

    2010-11-15

    Thin films (100-500 nm) of the Si:O alloy have been systematically characterized in the optical absorption and electrical transport behavior, by varying the Si content from 43 up to 100 at. %. Magnetron sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition have been used for the Si:O alloy deposition, followed by annealing up to 1250 deg. C. Boron implantation (30 keV, 3-30x10{sup 14} B/cm{sup 2}) on selected samples was performed to vary the electrical sheet resistance measured by the four-point collinear probe method. Transmittance and reflectance spectra have been extracted and combined to estimate the absorption spectra and the optical band gap, by means of the Tauc analysis. Raman spectroscopy was also employed to follow the amorphous-crystalline (a-c) transition of the Si domains contained in the Si:O films. The optical absorption and the electrical transport of Si:O films can be continuously and independently modulated by acting on different parameters. The light absorption increases (by one decade) with the Si content in the 43-100 at. % range, determining an optical band gap which can be continuously modulated into the 2.6-1.6 eV range, respectively. The a-c phase transition in Si:O films, causing a significant reduction in the absorption coefficient, occurs at increasing temperatures (from 600 to 1100 deg. C) as the Si content decreases. The electrical resistivity of Si:O films can be varied among five decades, being essentially dominated by the number of Si grains and by the doping. Si:O alloys with Si content in the 60-90 at. % range (named oxygen rich silicon films), are proved to join an appealing optical gap with a viable conductivity, being a good candidate for increasing the conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cell.

  12. High density photovoltaic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  13. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Solar Thermal Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC), a Touchstone Energy Cooperative, covers 14 counties in northern Florida, including Gainesville, Keystone Heights, Lake City, Orange Park, Palatka, and Salt Springs....

  14. Generators for Small Electrical and Thermal Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    build and test improved electric-power generators for use in residential Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, which capture the generator's heat output for space and water...

  15. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D: Annual Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NREL Technical Report NRELTP- 5400-63887, June 2015. 5 K. Bennion. "Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D." 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review, June ...

  16. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules | Department of Energy Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Discusses progress toward the fabrication of a skutterudite-based TE module and provides module performance data under operating conditions similar to those for automotive applications deer11_salvador.pdf (2.68

  17. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  18. Electric characteristics of germanium Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells under high intensity illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unishkov, V.A.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation of Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) germanium (Ge) photovoltaic (PV) cells. Vertical Multijunction Germanium Photovoltaic cells offer several advantages for Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications such as high intensity light conversion, low series resistance, more efficient coupling to lower temperature sources, high output voltage, simplified heat rejection system as well as potentially simple fabrication technology and low cost photovoltaic converter device. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Machines | Department of Energy 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. ape_14_okeefe.pdf (969.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces

  20. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process: A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process: A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric Kristen Ardani and Robert Margolis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-65066 September 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  1. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System Paul Denholm, Robert Margolis, Bryan Palmintier, Clayton Barrows, Eduardo Ibanez, and Lori Bird National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jarett Zuboy Independent Consultant Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-62447 September 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable

  2. 2015,"AK","Total Electric Power Industry","All Sources",18,8...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Industry","All Sources",1,1,12,12 2015,"AR","Total Electric Power Industry","Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic",1,1,12,12 2015,"AZ","Total Electric Power ...

  3. Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Doris, E.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility tariff data from 25 cities to understand better the impacts of different commercial rate structures on the value of solar PV systems. By analyzing and comparing 55 unique rate structures across the United States, this study seeks to identify the rate components that have the greatest effect on the value of PV systems. Understanding the beneficial components of utility tariffs can both assist decision makers in choosing appropriate rate structures and influence the development of rates that favor the deployment of PV systems. Results from this analysis show that a PV system's value decreases with increasing demand charges. Findings also indicate that time-of-use rate structures with peaks coincident with PV production and wide ranges between on- and off-peak prices most benefit the types of buildings and PV systems simulated. By analyzing a broad set of rate structures from across the United States, this analysis provides an insight into the range of impacts that current U.S. rate structures have on PV systems.

  4. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

  5. Photovoltaic device and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  6. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  7. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  8. Solar Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing Summaries Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Marketing Summaries (132) Success Stories (5) Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Browse

  9. Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Basics Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:55pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells use the energy in sunlight to produce electricity. ...

  10. Thermal and Electrical Analysis of Mars Rover RTGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A

    2012-01-19

    The RTG designs described in the preceding paper in these proceedings were analyzed for their thermal and electrical performance. Each analysis consisted of coupled thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analyses, using Fairchild-generated specialized computer codes. These were supplemented with preliminary structural and mass analyses. For each design, various cases representing different operating conditions (water-cooled/radiation-cooled, BOM/EOM, summer/winter, day/night) and different thermoelectric performance assumptions (from conservative to optimistic) were analyzed; and for every case, the heat flow rates, temperatures and electrical performance of each layer of thermoelectric elements and of the overall RTG were determined. The analyses were performed in great detail, to obtain accurate answers permitting meaningful comparisons between different designs. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments.

  11. Understanding Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with the Electric Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Ahlstrom, Mark; Brower, Michael; Ellis, Abraham; George, Ray; Hoff, Tom; Kroposki, Benjamin; Lenox, Carl; Miller, Nicholas; Stein, Joshua; Wan, Yih-huei

    2009-12-07

    Data and analysis are needed to understand the variability of photovoltaic (PV) plants to avoid unnecessary barriers to the interconnection of PV. Several datasets show clouds can cause rapid changes in solar insolation. Smoothing of rapid ramps, however, occurs within PV plants. The degree of smoothing depends on plant size. Smoothing occurs on even longer time-scales between separate plants.

  12. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Camino, Fernando E.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T.; Hoy, Jessica; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2014-05-15

    Here we present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100 μm using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1 mm2). Lastly, this allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use asmore » transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer.« less

  13. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  14. Solar Photovoltaic Technologies Available for Licensing - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Photovoltaic Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Marketing Summaries (132) Success Stories (5) Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Browse Solar

  15. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  16. Thermal Systems Group; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-11-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Thermal Systems Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  17. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Panitz, Janda K. G.; Sharp, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  18. Coupled Thermal and Electrical Analysis of Obstructed RTGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Noravian, Heros; Or, Chuen T.

    1990-01-01

    A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) with an unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection path can have significant axial and circumferential variations in the temperatures, currents, and voltages of its thermoelectric couple network. The present paper describes a methodology for analyzing the thermal and electrical performance of such an RTG, and the development of a computer code for implementing that emthodology. The code derives coupled solutions of the RTG's thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical equations. It accounts for the Peltier effect, Ohmic heating, and the Thomson effect, and treats the electrical power produced in each couple as an effective heat sink. It satisfies the condition that all parallel couples produce the same voltage, and that all series-connected couple groups produce the same current. Finally, the paper illustrates the use of the code by applying it to the detailed analysis of the RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. In each of these, there are two adjacent RTGs which are obstructed by each other and by the nearby spacecraft. The results of the analysis will be used by the spacecraft designers in selecting the location, orientation, and spacing of the two RTGs. There are two copies in the file.

  19. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  20. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1996-01-01

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

  1. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance Bragg reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, K.L.

    1996-10-22

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method are disclosed. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors. 16 figs.

  2. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  3. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  4. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  5. Utility-scale photovoltaic concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics concentrators section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  6. High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles ... High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem photovoltaic energy converters United ...

  7. Sandia Energy - Photovoltaic (PV) Regional Test Center (RTC)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic (PV) Regional Test Center (RTC) Website Goes Live Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership News SunShot News & Events Photovoltaic Solar National Solar Thermal Test...

  8. Low-cost, Modular, Building-integrated Photovoltaic-Thermal Collector -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About the Geothermal Technologies Office » Low-Temperature and Coproduced Low-Temperature and Coproduced A new high efficiency expander design at the Beowawe Flash plant utilizes optimizes low temperature geothermal fluids to generate an additional 2.5 MW of electric power. A new high efficiency expander design at the Beowawe Flash plant utilizes optimizes low temperature geothermal fluids to generate an additional 2.5 MW of electric power. What are Low-Temperature and Coproduced Resources?

  9. Grid-Interactive Electric Vehicle DC-Link Photovoltaic Charging System -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems When connecting a home energy system to the electric grid, research and consider equipment required as well as your power provider’s requirements and agreements. | Photo courtesy of Solar Design Associates, Inc. When connecting a home energy system to the electric grid, research and consider equipment required as well as your power provider's requirements and agreements. | Photo courtesy of Solar Design

  10. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loferski, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  11. Residential Photovoltaic Solar Panels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This b-roll footage shows exteriors of two Colorado residences that use photovoltaic panels to collect renewable solar energy, thereby reducing their dependence on external electric power. Net...

  12. Thermal/Electrical Modeling for Abuse-Tolerant Design of Li-Ion Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2008-11-01

    To help design safe, high-performing batteries, NREL and NASA created and verified a new multicell math model capturing electrical-thermal interactions of cells with PTC devices during thermal abuse.

  13. Solar electric thermal hydronic (SETH) product development project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Sindelar, A.

    2000-10-01

    Positive Energy, Inc. received a second Technology Maturation and Commercialization Project Subcontract during the 1999 round of awards. This Subcontract is for the purpose of further aiding Positive Energy, Inc. in preparing its Solar Electric Thermal Hydronic (SETH) control and distribution package for market introduction. All items of this subcontracted project have been successfully completed. This Project Report contains a summary of the progress made during the SETH Development Project (the Project) over the duration of the 1999 Subcontract. It includes a description of the effort performed and the results obtained in the pursuit of intellectual property protection and development of product documentation for the end users. This report also summarizes additional efforts taken by and for the SETH project outside of the Subcontract. It presents a chronology of activities over the duration of the Subcontract, and includes a few selected sample copies of documents offered as evidence of their success.

  14. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuppero, Anthony C.; Krawetz, Barton; Barklund, C. Rodger; Seifert, Gary D.

    1997-01-14

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  15. Composition and Manufacturing Effects on Electrical Properties of Li/FeS2 Thermal Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinholz, Emilee Lolita

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to better understand the relationship between processing, microstructure, and electrical conductivity of LiFeS2 thermal battery cathodes.

  16. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Work on optimizing electrical and thermal transport properties of n-type skutterudites via a multiple-element-void-filling approach is presented.

  17. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  18. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rourke, Devin; Ahn, Sungmo; Nardes, Alexandre M.; Lagemaat, Jao van de; Kopidakis, Nikos; Park, Wounjhang

    2014-09-21

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent.

  19. Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kush, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    An outline of possibilities for effective use of PV/T collectors with a Solar Assisted Heat Pump is given. A quantitative analysis of the performance and cost of the various configurations as a function of regional climates, using up-to-date results from solar heat pump and PV/T collector studies, will be required for more definitive assessment; and it is recommended that these be undertaken in the PV/T Program. Particular attention should be paid to development of high performance PV/T collectors, matching of heat pump electrical system to PV array and power conditioning characteristics, and optimization of storage options for cost effectiveness and utility impact.

  20. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  1. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  2. The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program Concentrator Technology Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The project comprises the development of concentrating solar collectors, heliostats and dishes, and the development of optical materials. Because the solar concentrator represents from 40 to 60% of the cost of a solar thermal electric system, the continued development of high-performance concentrators is very important to the commercial viability of these systems. The project is currently testing two large area heliostats, the SPECO 200 m{sup 2} heliostat and the ATS 150 m{sup 2} heliostat and also trying to reduce the cost of the heliostats through the development of stretched-membrane heliostats. Stretched-membrane heliostats are made by attaching thin metal membranes to the two sides of a circular, metal ring. A slight vacuum in the plenum between the two membranes is used to focus the heliostat. The optical surface is provided by a silver-acrylic film, ECP 305. A prototype 100 m{sup 2} commercial unit has been built and is currently being tested. Parabolic dish concentrators are under development for use on dish-Stirling electric systems. The state-of-the-art dish is the McDAC/SCE faceted glass concentrator. Because of the success of stretched-membrane technology for heliostats, the project applied the technology to parabolic dish development and is currently designing a near-term, faceted, stretched-membrane dish. The current thrust of the program in optical materials development is the development of a low-cost, high-performance, silver-acrylic film. 3M's ECP 305 has demonstrated substantial improvement over previous films in its resistance to corrosion, longer life. An experimental film, developed at SERI, has promise for further improving the lifetime of the ECP 305. The project is currently investigating solutions to the problem of separation between the silver and acrylic layers of the film in the presence of water.

  3. Characterization of Contact and Bulk Thermal Resistance of Laminations for Electric Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousineau, J. Emily; Bennion, Kevin; DeVoto, Doug; Mihalic, Mark; Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2015-06-30

    The ability to remove heat from an electric machine depends on the passive stack thermal resistances within the machine and the convective cooling performance of the selected cooling technology. This report focuses on the passive thermal design, specifically properties of the stator and rotor lamination stacks. Orthotropic thermal conductivity, specific heat, and density are reported. Four materials commonly used in electric machines were tested, including M19 (29 and 26 gauge), HF10, and Arnon 7 materials.

  4. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, Kevin

    2015-06-09

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, work is being performed to measure motor material thermal properties and thermal contact resistances. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets is also being measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings.

  5. Photovoltaic Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Basics Photovoltaic Cell Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:53pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV ...

  6. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rourke, D; Ahn, S; Nardes, AM; van de Lagemaat, J; Kopidakis, N; Park, W

    2014-09-21

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  7. Polymer Hybrid Photovoltaics for Inexpensive Electricity Generation: Final Technical Report, 1 September 2001--30 April 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, S. A.

    2006-07-01

    The project goal is to understand the operating mechanisms underlying the performance of polymer hybrid photovoltaics to enable the development of a photovoltaic with a maximum power conversion efficiency over cost ratio that is significantly greater than current PV technologies. Plastic or polymer-based photovoltaics can have significant cost advantages over conventional technologies in that they are compatible with liquid-based plastic processing and can be assembled onto plastic under atmospheric conditions (ambient temperature and pressure) using standard printing technologies, such as reel-to-reel and screen printing. Moreover, polymer-based PVs are lightweight, flexible, and largely unbreakable, which make shipping, installation, and maintenance simpler. Furthermore, a numerical simulation program was developed (in collaboration with IBM) to fully simulate the performance of multicomponent polymer photovoltaic devices, and a manufacturing method was developed (in collaboration with Add-vision) to inexpensively manufacture larger-area devices.

  8. Photovoltaics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Photovoltaics The SunShot Initiative supports the research and development of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to improve efficiency and reliability and to lower manufacturing costs in order to make solar electricity cost-competitive with other sources of energy by 2020. As of November 2015, four years into the decade-long SunShot Initiative, the solar industry is about 70% of the way to achieving SunShot's cost target of $0.06 per kilowatt-hour for utility-scale PV (based on 2010

  9. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  10. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Verde National Park in Colorado is the home of this PV array, where it provides energy for the visitor center. Photo Courtesy: Department of Energy Photovoltaics The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV), which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot

  11. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  12. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, B.; Albright, S.P.; Jordan, J.F.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes an improved stability photovoltaic panel. It comprises photovoltaic cells each having polycrystalline thin film layers, each of the thin film layers respectively deposited on a common vitreous substrate for allowing light to pass therethrough to reach a photovoltaic heterojunction formed by at least two of the thin film layers, at least one of the film layers forming the photovoltaic heterojunction for each of the photovoltaic cells, each of the photovoltaic cells lying within a plane substantially parallel to an interior planar surface of the vitreous substrate, each of the photovoltaic cells being connected electrically in series to pass electrical current from the photovoltaic panel, a pliable sheet material backcap opposite the vitreous substrate with respect to the photovoltaic cells and spaced from the photovoltaic cells so as to form a substantially planar spacing between the photovoltaic cells and an interior surface of the sheet material backcap, a perimeter portion of the sheet material backcap having a bend for positioning an edge strip of the sheet material backcap spaced from the interior surface of the backcap to form the planar spacing, the edge strip forming a planar surface parallel with a sealingly engaging the vitreous substrate for forming a fluid-tight seal with the vitreous substrate about the perimeter of the photovoltaic cells for protecting the photovoltaic cells from elements exterior of the photovoltaic panel, and a selected desiccant filling substantially the planar spacing for preventing water vapor within the planar spacing from adversely affecting the photovoltaic cells.

  13. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  14. Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-05-27

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  15. Optimizing Carbon Nanotube Contacts for Use in Organic Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, T. M.; Blackburn, J. L.; Tenent, R. C.; Morfa, A.; Heben, M.; Coutts, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    This report describes research on optimizing carbon nanotube networks for use as transparent electrical contacts (TCs) in organic photovoltaics (OPV).

  16. Characterization of Contact and Bulk Thermal Resistance of Laminations for Electric Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousineau, Emily; Bennion, Kevin; Devoto, Douglas; Naramanchi, Sreekant

    2015-07-06

    Thermal management for electric motors is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric-drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. As thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off among motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. During the development of thermal finite element analysis models and computational fluid dynamics models for electric motors, it was found that there was a lack of open literature detailing the thermal properties of key materials common in electric motors that are significant in terms of heat removal. The lack of available literature, coupled with the strong interest from industry in the passive-stack thermal measurement results, led to experiments to characterize the thermal contact resistance between motor laminations. We examined four lamination materials, including the commonly used 26 gauge and 29 gauge M19 materials, the HF10 and Arnon 7 materials. These latter two materials are thinner and reduce eddy currents responsible for core losses. We measured the thermal conductivity of the lamination materials and the thermal contact resistance between laminations in a stack, as well as investigated factors affecting contact resistance between laminations such as the contact pressure and surface finish. Lamination property data will be provided and we also develop a model to estimate the through-stack thermal conductivity for materials beyond those that were directly tested in this work. For example, at a clamping pressure of 138 kPa, the 29 gauge M19 material has a through-stack thermal conductivity of 1.68 W/m-K, and the contact resistance between laminations was measured to be 193 mm^2-K/W. The measured bulk

  17. Photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  18. Photovoltaic device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  19. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  20. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  1. Multiband semiconductor compositions for photovoltaic devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual...

  2. Electric Drive Vehicle Level Control Development Under Various Thermal

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conditions | Department of Energy vss070_kim_2012_o.pdf (1.63 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Vehicle Level Model and Control Development and Validation Under Various Thermal Conditions Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Displacement Potential of Advanced Technologies under Different Thermal Conditions Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth)

  3. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics (Redirected from Solar Photovoltaics) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)1 Photovoltaic...

  4. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics (Redirected from Photovoltaic) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)1 Photovoltaic Panels...

  5. Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:00pm Addthis To separate electrical charges, crystalline silicon cells must have a ...

  6. Inverted, semitransparent small molecule photovoltaic cells ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    small molecule photovoltaic cells Authors: Xiao, Xin 1 ; Lee, Kyusang 1 ; Forrest, Stephen R. 2 + Show Author Affiliations Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer...

  7. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - News Release Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including renewable electricity generation, renewable energy development, clean energy ... that currently cannot host on-site photovoltaic (PV) systems shared solar ...

  8. Composition and Manufacturing Effects on Electrical Conductivity of Li/FeS 2 Thermal Battery Cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reinholz, Emilee L.; Roberts, Scott A.; Apblett, Christopher A.; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Schunk, P. Randall

    2016-06-11

    The electrical conductivity is key to the performance of thermal battery cathodes. In this work we present the effects of manufacturing and processing conditions on the electrical conductivity of Li/FeS2 thermal battery cathodes. Finite element simulations were used to compute the conductivity of three-dimensional microcomputed tomography cathode microstructures and compare results to experimental impedance spectroscopy measurements. A regression analysis reveals a predictive relationship between composition, processing conditions, and electrical conductivity; a trend which is largely erased after thermally-induced deformation. Moreover, the trend applies to both experimental and simulation results, although is not as apparent in simulations. This research is amore » step toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of processing and composition on thermal battery component microstructure, properties, and performance.« less

  9. Small Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electricity & Fuel Buying & Making Electricity Small Solar Electric Systems Small Solar Electric Systems A small solar electric or photovoltaic system can be a reliable and ...

  10. Rapid screening buffer layers in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    List, III, Frederick Alyious; Tuncer, Enis

    2014-09-09

    An apparatus and method of testing electrical impedance of a multiplicity of regions of a photovoltaic surface includes providing a multi-tipped impedance sensor with a multiplicity of spaced apart impedance probes separated by an insulating material, wherein each impedance probe includes a first end adapted for contact with a photovoltaic surface and a second end in operable communication with an impedance measuring device. The multi-tipped impedance sensor is used to contact the photovoltaic surface and electrical impedance of the photovoltaic material is measured between individual first ends of the probes to characterize the quality of the photovoltaic surface.

  11. EA-341 Photovoltaic Technologies, LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Photovoltaic Technologies, LLC EA-341 Photovoltaic Technologies, LLC Order authorizing Photovoltaic Technologies, LLC to export electric energy to Mexico EA- 341 Photovoltaic Technologies, LLC (2.39 MB) More Documents & Publications EA-324 Emera Energy Services Subsidiary No. 4 LLC EA-344 Twin Cities Power-Canada, LLC EA-353 Boralex Ashland

  12. The Third Way of Thermal-Electric Conversion beyond Seebeck and Pyroelectric Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Jie

    2014-02-14

    Thermal-electric conversion is crucial for smart energy control and harvesting, such as thermal sensing and waste heat recovering. So far, people are aware of only two ways of direct thermal-electric conversion, Seebeck and pyroelectric effects, each with distinct working conditions and limitations. Here, we report the third way of thermal-electric conversion beyond Seebeck and pyroelectric effects. In contrast to Seebeck effect that requires spatial temperature difference, the-third-way converts the time-dependent ambient temperature fluctuation into electricity, similar to the behavior of pyroelectricity. However, the-third-way is also distinct from pyroelectric effect in the sense that it does not require polar materials but applies to general conducting systems. We demonstrate that the-third-way results from the temperature-fluctuation-induced dynamical charge redistribution. It is a consequence of the fundamental nonequilibrium thermodynamics and has a deep connection to the topological phase in quantum mechanics. Our findings expand our knowledge and provide new means of thermal-electric energy harvesting.

  13. Computer modeling of electrical and thermal performance during bipolar pulsed radiofrequency for pain relief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pérez, Juan J.; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan J.; Muñoz, Víctor; Berjano, Enrique

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Pulsed RF (PRF) is a nonablative technique for treating neuropathic pain. Bipolar PRF application is currently aimed at creating a “strip lesion” to connect the electrode tips; however, the electrical and thermal performance during bipolar PRF is currently unknown. The objective of this paper was to study the temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF. Methods: The authors developed computer models to study temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF and to assess the possible ablative thermal effect caused by the accumulated temperature spikes, along with any possible electroporation effects caused by the electrical field. The authors also modeled the bipolar ablative mode, known as bipolar Continuous Radiofrequency (CRF), in order to compare both techniques. Results: There were important differences between CRF and PRF in terms of electrical and thermal performance. In bipolar CRF: (1) the initial temperature of the tissue impacts on temperature progress and hence on the thermal lesion dimension; and (2) at 37 °C, 6-min of bipolar CRF creates a strip thermal lesion between the electrodes when these are separated by a distance of up to 20 mm. In bipolar PRF: (1) an interelectrode distance shorter than 5 mm produces thermal damage (i.e., ablative effect) in the intervening tissue after 6 min of bipolar RF; and (2) the possible electroporation effect (electric fields higher than 150 kV m{sup −1}) would be exclusively circumscribed to a very small zone of tissue around the electrode tip. Conclusions: The results suggest that (1) the clinical parameters considered to be suitable for bipolar CRF should not necessarily be considered valid for bipolar PRF, and vice versa; and (2) the ablative effect of the CRF mode is mainly due to its much greater level of delivered energy than is the case in PRF, and therefore at same applied energy levels, CRF, and PRF are expected to result in same outcomes in terms of

  14. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  15. Customer-Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Impact of High Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings with Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. There is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. This article uses a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under a reference scenario and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, the article develops retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV are estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. The article finds that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  16. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  17. EWEB- Solar Electric Program (Rebate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eugene Water & Electric Board's (EWEB) Solar Electric Program offers financial incentives for residential, nonprofit, and government customers that generate electricity solar photovoltaic...

  18. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 μm, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.

  19. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  20. Asymptotic regimes for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.

    2015-04-15

    We study the asymptotic regimes for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas obtained by combining the Chester–Thellung–Kubo–Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation [Faussurier et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 092706 (2014)]. Non-degenerate and degenerate situations are considered. The Wiedemann–Franz law is obtained in the degenerate case.

  1. Analysis of Off-Board Powered Thermal Preconditioning in Electric Drive Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.; Rugh , J.; Smith, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Following a hot or cold thermal soak, vehicle climate control systems (air conditioning or heat) are required to quickly attain a cabin temperature comfortable to the vehicle occupants. In a plug-in hybrid electric or electric vehicle (PEV) equipped with electric climate control systems, the traction battery is the sole on-board power source. Depleting the battery for immediate climate control results in reduced charge-depleting (CD) range and additional battery wear. PEV cabin and battery thermal preconditioning using off-board power supplied by the grid or a building can mitigate the impacts of climate control. This analysis shows that climate control loads can reduce CD range up to 35%. However, cabin thermal preconditioning can increase CD range up to 19% when compared to no thermal preconditioning. In addition, this analysis shows that while battery capacity loss over time is driven by ambient temperature rather than climate control loads, concurrent battery thermal preconditioning can reduce capacity loss up to 7% by reducing pack temperature in a high ambient temperature scenario.

  2. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)1 Photovoltaic Panels Solar cells, also called...

  3. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)1 Photovoltaic Panels Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV)...

  4. Electrical and thermal properties of polycrystalline Si thin films with phononic crystal nanopatterning for thermoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Masahiro; Kage, Yuta; Mller, David; Moser, Dominik; Paul, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Electrical and thermal properties of polycrystalline Si thin films with two-dimensional phononic patterning were investigated at room temperature. Electrical and thermal conductivities for the phononic crystal nanostructures with a variety of radii of the circular holes were measured to systematically investigate the impact of the nanopatterning. The concept of phonon-glass and electron-crystal is valid in the investigated electron and phonon transport systems with the neck size of 80?nm. The thermal conductivity is more sensitive than the electrical conductivity to the nanopatterning due to the longer mean free path of the thermal phonons than that of the charge carriers. The values of the figure of merit ZT were 0.065 and 0.035, and the enhancement factors were 2 and 4 for the p-doped and n-doped phononic crystals compared to the unpatterned thin films, respectively, when the characteristic size of the phononic crystal nanostructure is below 100?nm. The greater enhancement factor of ZT for the n-doped sample seems to result from the strong phonon scattering by heavy phosphorus atoms at the grain boundaries.

  5. Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Mingyu; WolfeIV, Edward; Craig, Timothy; LaClair, Tim J; Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.

  6. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  7. Calcium/calcium chromate thermal battery and thermal battery assignment at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neale, J.B.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-10-10

    A nontechnical overview of thermal battery design and fabrication methods is given, along with a description of the role of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) in the Department of Energy's battery program. A thermal battery is a primary, reserve electrochemical power source; that is, it can be used only once and then for a relatively short period, measured in minutes. To energize the battery, an external electrical signal ignites a heat source in the battery to melt the electrolyte and initiate an electrochemical reaction. The battery is made up of several series-connected cells, each with an anode, a cathode, and a current collector. A cell's anode is calcium; its cathode is hexavalent chromium. The electrochemical reaction takes place when the electrolyte is melted by heat supplied from ignition of an iron-potassium perchlorate disk. Since no reaction occurs while the electrolyte is in the solid state, the battery does not deteriorate with time and has a shelf life exceeding 20 years. Presented are such critical battery operating characteristics as temperature, rise time, active life, current capacity, etc. Design factors described include size and shape, pellet density, ignition methods, anode construction, etc. These batteries are designed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. GEND acts as a procurement agency and provides engineering support to suppliers. 18 figures.

  8. Thermophotovoltaics | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermophotovoltaics Solar Thermophotovoltaics (STPVs) are solar driven heat engines which extract electrical power from thermal radiation. The overall goal is to absorb and convert the broadband solar radiation spectrum into a narrowband thermal emission spectrum tuned to the spectral response of a photovoltaic cell (PV) [1]. STPVs are of significant interest as they have the potential to overcome the well-known Shockley-Queisser limit for single junction PV given sufficient spectral control.

  9. SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript A presentation sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy about using solar photovoltaics (PV) systems to provide electricity for homes. 20110125_pv_webinar.pdf (109.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water Solar Webinar Text Version TAP Webcast Transcript July-29, 2009

  10. Photovoltaics Research and Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Development Photovoltaics Research and Development PV-Activity areas-final-01.png The Photovoltaics (PV) program supports research and development projects that lower manufacturing costs, increase efficiency and performance, and improve reliability of PV technologies, in order to support the widespread deployment of electricity produced directly from sunlight ("photovoltaics"). The PV portfolio includes research directed toward the SunShot Initiative goals as well as

  11. Fact Sheet: Photovoltaics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Fact Sheet: Photovoltaics The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV), which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering

  12. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Will; Walker, Iain; Roux, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  13. Solar Thermal Technologies Available for Licensing - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Thermal Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Marketing Summaries (40) Success Stories (1) Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Browse Solar Thermal

  14. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process. A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    As of the end of 2014, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) had connected over 130,000 DG PV systems in its service territory, more than any other utility in the U.S. In this case study, we examine how PG&E achieved a faster, more efficient interconnection approval process despite rising application volumes.

  15. Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating Component and System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J; Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Mingyu; WolfeIV, Edward; Craig, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Cabin heating of current electric vehicle (EV) designs is typically provided using electrical energy from the traction battery, since waste heat is not available from an engine as in the case of a conventional automobile. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required for space heating of an EV can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, its driving range can be reduced very significantly during the winter season, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage from an advanced phase change material (PCM) has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The present paper focuses on the modeling and analysis of this electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) and is a companion to the paper Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating. A detailed heat transfer model was developed to simulate the PCM heat exchanger that is at the heart of the ePATHS and was subsequently used to analyze and optimize its design. The results from this analysis were integrated into a MATLAB Simulink system model to simulate the fluid flow, pressure drop and heat transfer in all components of the ePATHS. The system model was then used to predict the performance of the climate control system in the vehicle and to evaluate control strategies needed to achieve the desired temperature control in the cabin. The analysis performed to design the ePATHS is described in detail and the system s predicted performance in a vehicle HVAC system is presented.

  16. Thermo-optically tuned photonic resonators with concurrent electrical connection and thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Zortman, William A.; Savignon, Daniel J.

    2016-06-14

    A photonic resonator system is designed to use thermal tuning to adjust the resonant wavelength of each resonator in the system, with a separate tuning circuit associated with each resonator so that individual adjustments may be made. The common electrical ground connection between the tuning circuits is particularly formed to provide thermal isolation between adjacent resonators by including a capacitor along each return path to ground, where the presence of the capacitor's dielectric material provides the thermal isolation. The use of capacitively coupling necessarily requires the use of an AC current as an input to the heater element (conductor/resistor) of each resonator, where the RMS value of the AC signal is indicative of the amount of heat that is generated along the element and the degree of wavelength tuning that is obtained.

  17. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  18. Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd (Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic) Place: Kunming, Yunnan Province,...

  19. Photovoltaics Program: utility interface southwest regional workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-04-01

    This was the first of a series of regional workshops that will focus on the photovoltaic and utility interface, and the use of photovoltaics as a cogeneration option by utilities. The needs and constraints of the utilities are defined and an understanding is established of the capabilities and limitations of photovoltaic systems as an alternative electricity generation option by utilities. Utilities' viewpoints regarding large-scale central systems and small-scale, interconnected, distributed systems are given. The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act and other economic, legislative, and regulatory factors affecting photovoltaic systems are discussed. Current status of photovoltaic systems with respect to the Department of Energy Photovoltaic Program is given. (LEW)

  20. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  1. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  2. Utility-scale flat-plate thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The thin-film photovoltaics section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  3. City of San Jose - Photovoltaic Permit Requirements | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    panels is required when applying for a building permit. Electrical Plan Review for photovoltaic systems is required for all multi-family, commercial and industrial installations....

  4. Project Profile: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motivation Photovoltaic technologies, including silicon and thin film solar cells, have experienced unprecedented cost reductions among electricity-conversion technologies. A ...

  5. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  6. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  7. Mechanical and Electrical Performance of Thermally Stable Au-ZnO films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schoeppner, Rachel L.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Moody, Neville R.; Bahr, David F.

    2015-03-28

    The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical performance of Au–ZnO composite thin films are determined in this work. The co-deposition of ZnO with Au via physical vapor deposition leads to grain refinement over that of pure Au; the addition of 0.1 vol.% ZnO reduces the as-grown grain size by over 30%. The hardness of the as-grown films doubles with 2% ZnO, from 1.8 to 3.6 GPa as measured by nanoindentation. Films with ZnO additions greater than 0.5% show no significant grain growth after annealing at 350 °C, while pure gold and smaller additions do exhibit grain growth and subsequent mechanicalmore » softening. Films with 1% and 2% ZnO show a decrease of approximately 50% in electrical resistivity and no change in hardness after annealing. A model accounting for both changes in the interface structure between dispersed ZnO particles and the Au matrix captures the changes in mechanical and electrical resistivity. Furthermore, the addition of 1–2% ZnO co-deposited with Au provides a method to create mechanically hard and thermally stable films with a resistivity less than 80 nΩ-m. Our results complement previous studies of other alloying systems, suggesting oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) gold shows a desirable hardness–resistivity relationship that is relatively independent of the particular ODS chemistry.« less

  8. Mechanical and Electrical Performance of Thermally Stable Au-ZnO films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoeppner, Rachel L.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Moody, Neville R.; Bahr, David F.

    2015-03-28

    The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical performance of AuZnO composite thin films are determined in this work. The co-deposition of ZnO with Au via physical vapor deposition leads to grain refinement over that of pure Au; the addition of 0.1 vol.% ZnO reduces the as-grown grain size by over 30%. The hardness of the as-grown films doubles with 2% ZnO, from 1.8 to 3.6 GPa as measured by nanoindentation. Films with ZnO additions greater than 0.5% show no significant grain growth after annealing at 350 C, while pure gold and smaller additions do exhibit grain growth and subsequent mechanical softening. Films with 1% and 2% ZnO show a decrease of approximately 50% in electrical resistivity and no change in hardness after annealing. A model accounting for both changes in the interface structure between dispersed ZnO particles and the Au matrix captures the changes in mechanical and electrical resistivity. Furthermore, the addition of 12% ZnO co-deposited with Au provides a method to create mechanically hard and thermally stable films with a resistivity less than 80 n?-m. Our results complement previous studies of other alloying systems, suggesting oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) gold shows a desirable hardnessresistivity relationship that is relatively independent of the particular ODS chemistry.

  9. Mechanical and Electrical Performance of Thermally Stable Au-ZnO films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoeppner, Rachel L.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Moody, Neville R.; Bahr, David F.

    2015-03-28

    The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical performance of Au–ZnO composite thin films are determined in this work. The co-deposition of ZnO with Au via physical vapor deposition leads to grain refinement over that of pure Au; the addition of 0.1 vol.% ZnO reduces the as-grown grain size by over 30%. The hardness of the as-grown films doubles with 2% ZnO, from 1.8 to 3.6 GPa as measured by nanoindentation. Films with ZnO additions greater than 0.5% show no significant grain growth after annealing at 350 °C, while pure gold and smaller additions do exhibit grain growth and subsequent mechanical softening. Films with 1% and 2% ZnO show a decrease of approximately 50% in electrical resistivity and no change in hardness after annealing. A model accounting for both changes in the interface structure between dispersed ZnO particles and the Au matrix captures the changes in mechanical and electrical resistivity. Furthermore, the addition of 1–2% ZnO co-deposited with Au provides a method to create mechanically hard and thermally stable films with a resistivity less than 80 nΩ-m. Our results complement previous studies of other alloying systems, suggesting oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) gold shows a desirable hardness–resistivity relationship that is relatively independent of the particular ODS chemistry.

  10. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  11. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%?about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  12. Central Georgia EMC- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2008, Central Georgia Electric Membership Corporation (CGEMC) began offering a rebate of $450 per kilowatt (kW) to residential members who install photovoltaic (PV) systems that are...

  13. GreyStone Power- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative in Georgia, offers a rebate for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to members. The one-time rebate is offered for PV installations that are interconnected...

  14. Status report on a solar photovoltaic concentrating energy system for a hospital in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, A.; Curtis, G.; Yuen, P.

    1983-06-01

    The largest parabolic concentrating photovoltaic/solar thermal system in the U.S. began producing electricity and hot water for a hospital on the island of Kauai, Hawaii in November 1981. Each of the 80 parabolic collectors is 6 feet by 10 feet and concentrates incident sunlight on photovoltaic cells mounted on two faces of the receiver at the focus. Although the 35 kilowatt system has been designed to produce 22,000 net kilowatt-hours per year of electricity and 620,000 gallons of 180 F water, electrical output (12 to 15 kilowatt-hours per day) is only 20 percent of that expected, primarily because insolation at the site has been only 40 percent of predicted values. A second problem with fungal attack on the receivers has been solved by better sealing. The system has also withstood a hurricane with negligible damage.

  15. The influence of surface functionalisation on the electrical properties and thermal stability of nanodiamonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, Joseph O; Li, Pei; Chaudhary, Aysha; Edgington, Robert; Jackman, Richard B.

    2014-10-07

    Detonation nanodiamond (ND) has recently emerged as a useful new class of diamond material. However, to date there has been little investigation of the electrical properties of this material. Due to the nanoscale dimensions, the surface functionalisation of the individual ND is of particular importance to the characteristics of ND films. Here, hydrogen and oxygen termination of ND, verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are shown to strongly influence the electronic properties of NDs. Hydrogen terminated ND exhibiting a far greater resilience to thermal decomposition when compared to the oxygen terminated NDs. Moreover, H-NDs also displayed so-called “surface conductivity,” a property displayed by hydrogen-terminated bulk diamond films, whilst O-NDs display properties high resistivity. These results indicate that under the correct conditions ND layers can display similar electrical properties to “bulk” diamond thin films.

  16. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  17. Design, construction, and startup of a concentrating photovoltaic solar energy system in Hawaii: Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, R.; Harper, R.; Maberry, G.; Bedard, R.; Rafinejad, D.

    1982-10-01

    Acurex Corporation has designed, constructed, and is now operating a 35-kWp concentrating photovoltaic solar system located at the G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Lihue, Kauai, Hawaii. The facility consists of 446 m/sup 2/ (4800 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough photovoltaic collectors, an electrical power generation system which converts the direct current field output into grid-compatible alternating current power, and a thermal power subsystem for heating the hospital potable water. This report summarizes the design, construction, startup, and performance of this solar facility.

  18. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  19. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  20. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Burch, G.; Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies. The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun{center_dot}Lab (the cooperative Sandia National laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capability by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to: support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  1. Synthesis and Magnetic, Thermal, and Electrical Measurements on Complex non-Cuprate Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, Laurence L

    2006-02-27

    The project investigated superconductivity in non-cuprate materials with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, in excess of 20 K in order to understand the thermodynamics of several of these materials. The project is a cooperative effort between investigators at Southern University (SU), Louisiana State University (LSU), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It involved synthesis of high quality samples, and subsequent detailed magnetic, thermal and electrical measurements on them. The project provided a PhD Thesis research experience and training for a graduate student, Ms. Robin Macaluso. High quality, single crystal samples were synthesized by Ms. Macaluso under the direction of one of the CO-PIS, John Sarao, during the summer while she was a visitor at LANL being supported by this grant. On these samples magnetic measurements were performed at SU, thermal and electrical measurements were made in the LSU Physics and Astronomy Department. The crystallographic properties were determined in the LSU Chemistry Department by Ms. Macaluso under the direction of her dissertation advisor, Dr. Julia Chan. Additional high field magnetic measurements on other samples were performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) both in Tallahassee and at LANL. These measurements involved another graduate student, Umit Alver, who used some of the measurements as part of his PhD dissertation in Physics at LSU.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  3. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  4. Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvador, James R.; Cho, Jung Y; Ye, Zuxin; Moczygemba, Joshua E.; Thompson, Alan; Sharp, Jeff W.; Konig, Jan; Maloney, Ryan; Thompson, Travis; Sakamoto, Jeff; Wang, Hsin; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Meisner, G P

    2013-01-01

    The performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials has improved tremendously over the past decade. The intrinsic thermal and electrical properties of state-of-the-art TE materials demonstrate that the potential for widespread practical TE applications is very large and includes TE generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. TE materials for automotive TEG applications must have good intrinsic performance, be thermomechanically compatible, and be chemically stable in the 400 K to 850 K temperature range. Both n-type and p-type varieties must be available at low cost, easily fabricated, and durable. They must also form robust junctions and develop good interfaces with other materials to permit efficient flows of electrical and thermal energy. Among the TE materials of interest for automotive waste heat recovery systems are the skutterudite compounds, which are the antimony-based transition-metal compounds RTE4Sb12, where R can be an alkali metal (e.g., Na, K), alkaline earth (e.g., Ba), or rare earth (e.g., La, Ce, Yb), and TE can be a transition metal (e.g., Co, Fe). We synthesized a considerable quantity of n-type and p-type skutterudites, fabricated TE modules, incorporated these modules into a prototype TEG, and tested the TEG on a production General Motors (GM) vehicle. We discuss our progress on skutterudite TE module fabrication and present module performance data for electrical power output under simulated operating conditions for automotive waste heat recovery systems. We also present preliminary durability results on our skutterudite modules.

  5. Post-deposition control of ferroelastic stripe domains and internal electric field by thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feigl, L.; Iwanowska, M.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N.; Janolin, P.-E.; Yamada, T.

    2015-01-19

    The dependence of the formation of ferroelastic stripe domain patterns on the thermal history is investigated by detailed piezoresponse force microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments after and during annealing of tensile strained tetragonal Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. In particular, the ferroelastic pattern is reversibly interchanged between a cross-hatched and a stripe domain pattern if the films are cooled at different rates after annealing above the formation temperature of a-domains. Different types of 180 and non-180 patterns can be created, depending on the thermal treatment. The changes in the 180 domain structure and lattice parameters are attributed to a change of oxygen vacancy concentration, which results in a modification of the internal electric field and unit cell size, causing also a shift of T{sub C}. Thermal treatment is done on rhombohedral La:BiFeO{sub 3} thin films as well. It is observed that also in these films, appropriate heat treatment modifies the domain pattern and films with a stripe domain pattern can be created, confirming the general validity of the developed model.

  6. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    success. The following events and meetings are of interest to partners of NREL Photovoltaics (PV) Research and the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV). Printable Version...

  7. An assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion as an advanced electric generation methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heydt, G.T. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process that employs the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean water to alternately evaporate and condense a working fluid. In the open-cycle OTEC configuration, the working fluid is seawater. In the closed-cycle configuration, a working fluid such as propane is used. In this paper, OTEC is assessed for its practical merits for electric power generation. The process is not new--and its history is reviewed. Because the OTEC principle operates under a small net temperature difference regime, rather large amounts of seawater and working fluid are required. The energy requirements for pumping these fluids may be greater than the energy recovered from the OTEC engine itself. The concept of net power production is discussed. The components of a typical OTEC plant are discussed with emphasis on the evaporator heat exchanger. Operation of an OTEC electric generating station is discussed, including transient operation. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of OTEC is the recent experiments and efforts at the Natural Energy Laboratory--Hawaii (NELH). The NELH work is summarized in the paper. Remarks are made on bottlenecks and the future of OTEC as an advanced electric generation methodology.

  8. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  9. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  10. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.; Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  11. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  12. Photovoltaic building sheathing element with anti-slide features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2015-09-08

    The present invention is premised` upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic building sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the photovoltaic building sheathing element. The element including a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; and at feast a first and a second connector assembly capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to one or more adjoining devices; wherein the body portion includes one or more geometric features adapted to engage a vertically adjoining device before installation.

  13. Simulation of spacecraft fuelcell systems including thermal control and electrical interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothmeyer, M.; Simon, R.; Benz, U.

    1987-01-01

    Fuel cell systems will be applied as non-regenerative power source in HERMES and as regenerative power supply in future space stations. To support project development and engineering tasks flexible software is needed for simulation and analysis of such systems. A simulation program, called SANFU (System Analyzer for Fuel cells) for low temperature fuel cells has been developed, which supports a modular model construction. The current configuration of the program includes simulation of transient thermal boundary conditions, transient electrical interface data, several operating options and different control logics. For HERMES fuel cell system simulation three standard fuel cell configurations are currently being simulated: immobile electrolyte fuel cells, mobile electrolyte (KOH) fuel cells and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Test results for different load cases and transient boundary conditions are quoted. The general design, input and output capabilities, future extensions and applications are discussed.

  14. Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B.; Estrada, C.

    1995-11-01

    Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

  15. Lenard-Balescu calculations and classical molecular dynamics simulations of electrical and thermal conductivities of hydrogen plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Whitley, Heather D.; Scullard, Christian R.; Benedict, Lorin X.; Castor, John I.; Randles, Amanda; Glosli, James N.; Richards, David F.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Graziani, Frank R.

    2015-12-04

    Here, we present a discussion of kinetic theory treatments of linear electrical and thermal transport in hydrogen plasmas, for a regime of interest to inertial confinement fusion applications. In order to assess the accuracy of one of the more involved of these approaches, classical Lenard-Balescu theory, we perform classical molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen plasmas using 2-body quantum statistical potentials and compute both electrical and thermal conductivity from out particle trajectories using the Kubo approach. Our classical Lenard-Balescu results employing the identical statistical potentials agree well with the simulations.

  16. Thermal and Electrical Analysis of MARS Rover RTG, and Performance Comparison of Alternative Design Options.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A

    1989-09-29

    The paper describes the thermal, thermoelectric and electrical analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the MARS Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The work described was part of an RTG design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company for the U.S. Department of Energy, in support of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's MRSR Project.; A companion paper presented at this conference described a reference mission scenario, al illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, its power system requirements and environmental constraints, a design approach enabling RTG operation in the Martian atmosphere, and the design and the structural and mass analysis of a conservative baseline RTG employing safety-qualified heat source modules and reliability-proven thermoelectric converter elements.; The present paper presents a detailed description of the baseline RTG's thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. It examines the effect of different operating conditions (beginning versus end of mission, water-cooled versus radiation-cooled, summer day versus winter night) on the RTG's performance. Finally, the paper describes and analyzes a number of alternative RTG designs, to determine the effect of different power levels (250W versus 125W), different thermoelectric element designs (standard versus short unicouples versus multicouples) and different thermoelectric figures of merit (0.00058K(superscript -1) to 0.000140K (superscript -1) on the RTG's specific power.; The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost.; There is a duplicate copy and also a duplicate copy in the ESD files.

  17. Photovoltaic solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  18. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  19. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  20. Electricity Transmission and Distribution Technologies - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Technology Marketing Summaries Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Marketing Summaries (74) Success Stories (2) Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success

  1. China Solar Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic Power Co Ltd or China Solar PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar Photovoltaic Group (CNPV, aka Dongying Photovoltaic Power Co Ltd...

  2. Multiple-Filled Skutterudites: High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit through Separately Optimizing Electrical and Thermal Transports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Weiqing; Yang, Jiong; Yang, Jihui; Wang, Hsin; Salvador, James R.; Shi, Xun; Chi, Miaofang; Cho, Jung Y; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong

    2011-01-01

    Skutterudites CoSb{sub 3} with multiple cofillers Ba, La, and Yb were synthesized and very high thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = 1.7 at 850 K was realized. X-ray diffraction of the densified multiple-filled bulk samples reveals all samples are phase pure. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirm that multiple guest fillers occupy the nanoscale-cages in the skutterudites. The fillers are further shown to be uniformly distributed and the Co-Sb skutterudite framework is virtually unperturbed from atomic scale to a few micrometers. Our results firmly show that high power factors can be realized by adjusting the total filling fraction of fillers with different charge states to reach the optimum carrier density, at the same time, lattice thermal conductivity can also be significantly reduced, to values near the glass limit of these materials, through combining filler species of different rattling frequencies to achieve broad-frequency phonon scattering. Therefore, partially filled skutterudites with multiple fillers of different chemical nature render unique structural characteristics for optimizing electrical and thermal transports in a relatively independent way, leading to continually enhanced ZT values from single- to double-, and finally to multiple-filled skutterudites. The idea of combining multiple fillers with different charge states and rattling frequencies for performance optimization is also expected to be valid for other caged TE compounds.

  3. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  4. American Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics Jump to: navigation, search Logo: American Photovoltaics Name: American Photovoltaics Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77002 Region: Texas Area Sector: Solar Product: Will...

  5. Nanostructured Photovoltaics: - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Photovoltaics: Atomic Layer Deposition Thin Film Technology Enables Cost Effective Solar ...

  6. Interdigitated Electrical Contacts for Low Electronic Mobility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Semiconductor Photovoltaic Devices - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Interdigitated Electrical Contacts for Low Electronic Mobility Semiconductor Photovoltaic Devices Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Structures useful for forming contacts to materials having low charge carrier mobility are described. Methods for their formation and use are also described. These

  7. Basic Research Opportunities in Photovoltaics Workshop: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benner, J.; Deb, S.; McConnell, R. D.

    1999-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology for conversion of sunlight to electricity is the most cost-effective method for meeting the electric power needs of many consumers around the world today. This document is the preface and executive summary from the workshop to be held in May 1999 in Seattle, Washington.

  8. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E.; Wojtczuk, Steve; Jacobson, Gerard F.; Hagans, Karla G.

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  9. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard; Taylor, Roger W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load.

  10. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1998-05-05

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load. 20 figs.