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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

A solar concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis discusses aspects of a novel solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector that has been designed to produce both electricity and hot water.… (more)

Coventry, Joseph S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Electrical and thermal finite element modeling of arc faults in photovoltaic bypass diodes.  

SciTech Connect

Arc faults in photovoltaic (PV) modules have caused multiple rooftop fires. The arc generates a high-temperature plasma that ignites surrounding materials and subsequently spreads the fire to the building structure. While there are many possible locations in PV systems and PV modules where arcs could initiate, bypass diodes have been suspected of triggering arc faults in some modules. In order to understand the electrical and thermal phenomena associated with these events, a finite element model of a busbar and diode was created. Thermoelectrical simulations found Joule and internal diode heating from normal operation would not normally cause bypass diode or solder failures. However, if corrosion increased the contact resistance in the solder connection between the busbar and the diode leads, enough voltage potentially would be established to arc across micron-scale electrode gaps. Lastly, an analytical arc radiation model based on observed data was employed to predicted polymer ignition times. The model predicted polymer materials in the adjacent area of the diode and junction box ignite in less than 0.1 seconds.

Bower, Ward Isaac; Quintana, Michael A.; Johnson, Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Photovoltaic-thermal collectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

4

SIMULATION OF THE THERMAL INTERACTION BETWEEN A BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC COLLECTOR AND AN AIR-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SIMULATION OF THE THERMAL INTERACTION BETWEEN A BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC COLLECTOR simultaneously equipped with air-source heat pumps and photovoltaic collectors is constantly increasing. In addition to electricity, the photovoltaic collector produces heat which can be used to increase

Boyer, Edmond

5

Comparison of Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Electricity Generation Using Experimental Data from the Iea SSPS Project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From February 1982 to April 1983, photovoltaic panels had been installed at the site of the IEA SSPS project in Almeria, Spain. The measurements performed at these panels have been used to calculate, by means ...

P. Toggweiler; R. Minder

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Solar Photovoltaic Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most solar photovoltaic systems use 12 V deep cycle ... voltage, or combined in parallel for greater capacity without changing the voltage. The batteries used...

Ramchandra Pode; Boucar Diouf

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California,”The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic ElectricityThe Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DISTRIBUTED SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING REGULATORY AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS ABSTRACT Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an...

9

NREL: Learning - Photovoltaics for Electricity Providers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaics for Electricity Providers Photovoltaics for Electricity Providers Photo of a photovoltaic system in Virginia. This 15-kilowatt photovoltaic system in Virginia feeds clean energy into the utility grid that supplies the Pentagon with electricity. Utility companies can use the resources on this page to find out more about how utilities are using solar photovoltaics (PV) as well as information about designing solar energy programs. Research, Development and Deployment Utility Technical Engagement A central resource for utilities interested in designing solar energy programs and networking with other utilities with existing solar programs from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Program. NREL Photovoltaics Research A central resource for our nation's capabilities in PV, uniting diverse R&D

10

A solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal collector J.S. Coventry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal collector J.S. Coventry Centre for Sustainable Energy solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal collector Coventry "Photovoltaic and Wind Power for Urban of both photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Some of the recent projects in Australia

11

A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector  

SciTech Connect

Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan [Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Maisonneuve W., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd Place Cixi, Zhejiang Province, China Zip 315322 Sector Solar Product Zhejiang-based product manufacturer for solar modules. References Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd is a company located in Cixi, Zhejiang Province, China . References ↑ "Cixi Renhe Photovoltaic Electrical Appliance Co Ltd" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Cixi_Renhe_Photovoltaic_Electrical_Appliance_Co_Ltd&oldid=343628

13

List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electric Incentives Electric Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 548 Solar Thermal Electric Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-548) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No APS - Net Metering (Arizona) Net Metering Arizona Commercial Industrial Residential Nonprofit Schools Local Government State Government Fed. Government Agricultural Institutional Solar Thermal Electric Photovoltaics Wind energy Biomass No Advanced Energy Fund (Ohio) Public Benefits Fund Ohio Commercial Industrial Institutional

14

Development of a Web-based Emissions Reduction Calculator for Solar Thermal and Solar Photovoltaic Installations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED EMISSIONS REDUCTION CALCULATOR FOR SOLAR THERMAL AND SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATIONS Juan-Carlos Baltazar Research Associate Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. Professor/Associate Director Don R. Gilman, P.E. Senior... the potential emission reductions due to the electricity savings from the application of some of the most common solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. The methodology to estimate the potential NOx emission reduction integrates legacy analysis tools...

Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Gilman, D.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Results of testing a development module of the second-generation E-Systems concentrating photovoltaic-thermal module  

SciTech Connect

An actively-cooled linear Fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic and thermal module, designed and built by E-Systems, was tested in the Photovoltaic Advanced Systems Test Facility. Physical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the module are presented. Module performance is characterized through the use of multiple linear regression techniques.

Harrison, T D

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Levelised cost of electricity for organic photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The success of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) as a future energy source is entirely dependent on the cost of the electricity produced by the modules. This study provides the first commercial scale levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) estimates for \\{OPVs\\} by integrating OPV-specific measured and calculated data into the estimates. The impacts of physical and financial variables are also investigated. The study shows that \\{OPVs\\} will become equivalently priced with current conventional solar technologies when efficiencies of 2% and lifetimes of three years are achieved. At efficiencies of 5% and lifetimes of 3–5 years the LCOE for \\{OPVs\\} will be competitive with that of current coal-based electricity generation.

Cara J. Mulligan; Chhinder Bilen; Xiaojing Zhou; Warwick J. Belcher; Paul C. Dastoor

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis The outermost layers of photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, are the electrical contacts and anti-reflective coating. These layers provide essential functions to the cell's operation. Electrical Contacts Electrical contacts are essential to PV cells because they bridge the connection between the semiconductor material and the external electrical load, such as a light bulb. The back contact of a cell-the side away from the incoming sunlight-is relatively simple. It usually consists of a layer of aluminum or molybdenum metal. Illustration of a cutaway of a typical solar cell. The layers, from top to bottom, include a cover glass, transparent adhesive, antireflection coating, front contact, n-type semiconductor, p-type seminconductor, and back contact.

18

Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis The outermost layers of photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, are the electrical contacts and anti-reflective coating. These layers provide essential functions to the cell's operation. Electrical Contacts Electrical contacts are essential to PV cells because they bridge the connection between the semiconductor material and the external electrical load, such as a light bulb. The back contact of a cell-the side away from the incoming sunlight-is relatively simple. It usually consists of a layer of aluminum or molybdenum metal. Illustration of a cutaway of a typical solar cell. The layers, from top to bottom, include a cover glass, transparent adhesive, antireflection coating, front contact, n-type semiconductor, p-type seminconductor, and back contact.

19

Electrical faults modeling of the photovoltaic generator Wail Rezgui1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The productivity of photovoltaic generators is based on two main factors [1-3]: solar radiation energy which is captured by the generator and direct electrical energy resulting from the conversion of the solar radiation energy by the photovoltaic phenomena. So, the degradation of these two factors means the presence

Boyer, Edmond

20

Cogenerating Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cell, 25% max ­ Steam power plant, 50% max · Data Centers in the U.S. ­ Demand increases as internet.2% of the nations electricity consumption · Load equivalent to 5 1000 MW power plants · Over 2.2 billion dollars applications #12;First Prototype Spring 2008 #12;#12;Experimental Results · Thermal power generated ­ 1.4 KW

Su, Xiao

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

photovoltaic panels (PV), solar thermal panels (ST), andphotovoltaic panels, solar thermal panels, and electricChiller, ST – solar thermal system, PV – photovoltaic. The

Cardoso, Goncalo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Review of combined photovoltaic/thermal collector: solar assisted heat pump system options  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of using photovoltaic (PV) and combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors in conjunction with residential heat pumps are examined. The thermal and electrical power requirements of similar residences in New York City and Fort Worth are the loads under consideration. The TRNSYS energy balance program is used to simulate the operations of parallel, series, and cascade solar assisted heat pump systems. Similar work involving exclusively thermal collectors is reviewed, and the distinctions between thermal and PV/T systems are emphasized. Provided the defrost problem can be satisfactorily controlled, lifecycle cost analyses show that at both locations the optimum collector area is less than 50 m/sup 2/ and that the parallel system is preferred.

Sheldon, D.B.; Russell, M.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Solitons in photovoltaic photorefractive media with an external electric field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use the classical Lie-group method for studying the evolution equation in photovoltaic photorefractive media with an external electric field, reducing it to some similarity equations firstly, and then obtain some exact analytical solutions including the soliton solution, the period solution and the oscillatory solution. We also obtain the bright soliton, dark soliton, gray soliton from these similarity equations with the numerical method. Furthermore, we investigate what factors contribute to the beamwidth of these solitons with the numerical method and know the beamwidth of these solitons are associated with the external electric field, the photovoltaic field and the intensity ratio of the incident soliton.

Hou Wang; Ji Lin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

PERFORMANCE OF A CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL SOLAR COLLECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increased solar energy conversion and potential cost benefits (Fujisawa and Tani, 1997, 2001, Huang et alPERFORMANCE OF A CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL SOLAR COLLECTOR Joe S Coventry Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200, Australia +612 6125 3976, +612

26

Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape030bennion2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management...

27

The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells”, Center for theconcerns is solar photovoltaic cells (PVs), which captureProduction of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Solar PV cells

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Volumeof Solar Photovoltaic Cells”, Center for the Study of EnergyPhotovoltaic Subsidies? ” Center for the Study of Energy

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermophotovoltaic devices are energy-conversion systems generating an electric current from the thermal photons radiated by a hot body. In far field, the efficiency of these systems is limited by the thermodynamic Schockley-Queisser limit corresponding to the case where the source is a black body. On the other hand, in near field, the heat flux which can be transferred to a photovoltaic cell can be several orders of magnitude larger because of the contribution of evanescent photons. This is particularly true when the source supports surface polaritons. Unfortunately, in the infrared where these systems operate, the mismatch between the surface-mode frequency and the semiconductor gap reduces drastically the potential of this technology. Here we show that graphene-based hybrid photovoltaic cells can significantly enhance the generated power paving the way to a promising technology for an intensive production of electricity from waste heat.

Riccardo Messina; Philippe Ben-Abdallah

2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

30

El Paso Electric photovoltaic-system analyses  

SciTech Connect

Four analyses were performed on the Newman Power Station PV system. Two were performed using the Photovoltaic Transient Analysis Program (PV-TAP) and two with the SOLCEL II code. The first was to determine the optimum tilt angle for the array and the sensitivity of the annual energy production to variation in tilt angle. The optimum tilt angle was found to be 28/sup 0/, and variations of 2/sup 0/ produce losses of only 0.06% in the annual energy production. The second analysis assesses the power loss due to cell-to-cell variations in short circuit current and the degree of improvement attainable by sorting cells and matching modules. Typical distributions on short circuit current can cause losses of about 9.5 to 11 percent in peak array power, and sorting cells into 4 bins prior to module assembly can reduce the losses to about 6 to 8 percent. Using modules from the same cell bins in building series strings can reduce the losses to about 4.5 to 6 percent. Results are nearly the same if the array is operated at a fixed votage. The third study quantifies the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of high cell temperatures due to reverse bias caused by shadowing, and it demonstrates that cell temperatures achieved in reverse bias are higher for cells with larger shunt resistance. The last study assesses the adequacy of transient protection devices on the dc power lines to transients produced by array switching and lightning. Large surge capacitors on the dc power line effectively limit voltage excursions at the array and at the control room due to lightning. Without insertion of series resistors, the current may be limited only by cable and switch impedances, and all elements could be severely stressed. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Avoided emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the United States Title Avoided emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the United States Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Zhai, Pei, Peter H. Larsen, Dev Millstein, Surabi Menon, and Eric R. Masanet Journal Energy Volume 47 Start Page 443 Date Published 2012 Abstract This study evaluates avoided emissions potential of CO2, SO2 and NOx assuming a 10% penetration level of photovoltaics (PV) in ten selected U.S. states. We estimate avoided emissions using an hourly energy system simulation model, EnergyPLAN. Avoided emissions vary significantly across the country-mainly due to three state-specific factors: the existing resource mix of power plants (power grid fuel mix), the emission intensity of existing fossil fuel power plants and the PV capacity factor within each state. The avoided emissions per solar PV capacity (g/W) - for ten U.S. states -ranged from 670 to 1500 for CO2, 0.01e7.80 for SO2 and 0.25e2.40 for NOx. In general, avoided emissions are likely to be higher in locations with 1) higher share of coal plants; 2) higher emission of existing fossil fuel plants; and 3) higher PV capacity factor. To further illustrate the quantitative relationship between avoided emissions and the three state-specific factors, we conducted a sensitivity analysis. Finally, we estimated the change in avoided emissions in a coal-intensive state by varying the operational constraints of fossil-fuel power plants. At the 10% penetration level avoided emissions were not constrained by the ramp rate limitations, but the minimum capacity requirement significantly affected the avoided emission estimates.

32

A dynamic model for air-based photovoltaic thermal systems working under real operating conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper a dynamic model suitable for simulating real operating conditions of air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems is presented. The performance of the model is validated by using the operational data collected from the building integrated photovoltaic (PVT) systems installed in two unique buildings. The modelled air outlet temperature and electrical power match very well with the experimental data. In Solar Decathlon house PVT, the average (RMS) error in air outlet temperatures was 4.2%. The average (RMS) error in electrical power was also 4.2%. In the Sustainable Buildings Research Centre PVT, the average errors (RMS) of PV and air temperatures were 3.8% and 2.2%, respectively. The performance of the PVT system under changing working condition is also analysed in this paper. The analysis includes the effect of ambient air temperature, air inlet temperature, air flow rate and solar irradiation on thermal, electrical, first law and second law efficiencies. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies almost linearly increased with the increase of the ambient temperature. However, the PVT electrical efficiency and the second law efficiency decreased with the increase of the ambient temperature. All efficiencies expect the second law efficiency decreased with increase of the PVT air inlet temperature. The second law efficiency first increased and then reduced. With increasing the air flow rate all the efficiencies increased. The electrical and second law efficiencies become less sensitive when the air flow rate exceeded 300 l/s. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies decreased while the electrical efficiency and the second law efficiency increased with the increase of the solar irradiation. The efficiencies found to be very sensitive for low level of solar irradiations. At about 400 W m?2 irradiation efficiencies became less sensitive.

M. Imroz Sohel; Zhenjun Ma; Paul Cooper; Jamie Adams; Robert Scott

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Peer Evaluation Meeting ape030bennion2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management Vehicle Technologies...

34

Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2.3.1 Electrical transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5 Controlling electrical conductivity and opticalthe variation of electrical and thermal con- ductivity and

Ravichandran, Jayakanth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Solar Power: Using Photovoltaics to Preserve California's Electricity Capacity Reserves  

SciTech Connect

The California Power Authority (CPA) is committed to increasing the use of renewable energy supplies--such as photovoltaics and wind--as a hedge against price fluctuations of electricity and natural gas. The CPA wants to own and operate an adequate supply of reserve generation that: - Can be deployed quickly in response to severe summer peak loads, unexpected loss of base and intermediate generation units, and failure of critical transmission facilities; - Will minimize the reliance on spot market purchases during periods when the State is most vulnerable to price gouging from private generators.

Herig, C..

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Design and Simulation for a Solar House with Building Integrated Photovoltaic-Thermal System and Thermal Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Building integrated photovoltaic-thermal systems (BIPV/T) that pre-heat ambient air may be used in combination with ventilated concrete slabs for thermal storage purposes. This is one of many feasible ways to ...

YuXiang Chen; A. K. Athienitis; K. E. Galal…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

None

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

38

Simulation of Photovoltaic Array-driven Electric Machines with Power Electronic Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power electronic interfaces between photovoltaic (PV) arrays and electric machines are necessary in order to match the drive characteristics with the characteristics of the array for efficient utilization of the resource. This paper proposes a model ... Keywords: MATLAB/SIMULINK modeling, electric machines, photovoltaic array, power electronics, simulation

S. Arul Daniel; N. Ammasai Gounden

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Electric thermal storage demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Electric thermal storage demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Electric thermal storage demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Electric thermal storage demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Opportunities for thin film photovoltaics in Building Integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)with a focus on Australia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) products can not only generate electricity but also provide structural stability, thermal insulation, shading, natural lighting, protection from water and other… (more)

Tominaga, Miwa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

2007 IEEE Canada Electrical Power Conference Solar Photovoltaic Array's Shadow Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007 IEEE Canada Electrical Power Conference Solar Photovoltaic Array's Shadow Evaluation Using whether the maximum output power of the solar photovoltaic arrays under the system is sufficiently cost to include the effects of shadowing on solar PV the multilayer perceptrons feed forward network and the back

Lehman, Brad

45

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

13 2.2.2. Solar Thermal Versus Photovoltaic ..…………..…………doi:10.1038/nmat2090. 17. Solar Thermal Technology on anFigure 2.5: An eSolar solar thermal system in Burbank,

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoporous Thermal-to-Electrical Energy Conversion System (of Wasted Energy : Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion AArticles: 1. “ Thermal to electrical energy conversion” , Yu

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Analyzing the efficiency of a photovoltaic-thermal solar collector based on heat pipes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structure of a photovoltaic/thermal solar collector based on aluminum heat pipes and ... , along with the results from analyzing its efficiency. Its optimum mode of operation is shown...

S. M. Khairnasov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrastructure Infrastructure Security National Solar Thermal Test Facility NSTTF photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar...

49

Integrating Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems in Whole Building Energy Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRATING SOLAR THERMAL AND PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS IN WHOLE BUILDING ENERGY SIMULATION Soolyeon Cho1 and Jeff S. Haberl2 1The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 2Texas A&M University, College Station, TX ABSTRACT... This paper introduces methodologies on how the renewable energy generated by the solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on site can be integrated in the whole building simulation analyses, which then can be available to analyze...

Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

50

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore : assessment of solar photovoltaic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To evaluate the feasibility of solar energy based Electric Vehicle Transportation System in Singapore, the state of the art Photovoltaic Systems have been reviewed in this report with a focus on solar cell technologies. ...

Sun, Li

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

New Hampshire Electric Co-Op- Residential Solar Photovoltaic Incentive Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New Hampshire Electric Co-op (NHEC) is offering rebates for residential, grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems up to one megawatt (MW) in capacity. The rebate is equal to 20% of the installed cost of...

52

The Potential for Avoided Emissions from Photovoltaic Electricity in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar  photovoltaics  (PV)  in  traditional  electric   power  systems.  Energ  Policy.  policy makers when considering the location of PV deployment not only focus their attention on locations which have relatively abundant solar

Zhai, Pei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shannon Moynahan, “The California Solar Initiative — TriumphRates Undermine California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies? ”to the fact that solar PV in California has not been focused

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States` Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV`s whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, the authors have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible they modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

Geis, J.; Arnold, J.H. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Technical and economical system comparison of photovoltaic and concentrating solar thermal power systems depending on annual global irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concentrating solar thermal power and photovoltaics are two major technologies for converting sunlight to electricity. Variations of the annual solar irradiation depending on the site influence their annual efficiency, specific output and electricity generation cost. Detailed technical and economical analyses performed with computer simulations point out differences of solar thermal parabolic trough power plants, non-tracked and two-axis-tracked PV systems. Therefore, 61 sites in Europe and North Africa covering a global annual irradiation range from 923 to 2438 kW h/m2 a have been examined. Simulation results are usable irradiation by the systems, specific annual system output and levelled electricity cost. Cost assumptions are made for today's cost and expected cost in 10 years considering different progress ratios. This will lead to a cost reduction by 50% for PV systems and by 40% for solar thermal power plants. The simulation results show where are optimal regions for installing solar thermal trough and tracked PV systems in comparison to non-tracked PV. For low irradiation values the annual output of solar thermal systems is much lower than of PV systems. On the other hand, for high irradiations solar thermal systems provide the best-cost solution even when considering higher cost reduction factors for PV in the next decade. Electricity generation cost much below 10 Eurocents per kW h for solar thermal systems and about 12 Eurocents/kW h for PV can be expected in 10 years in North Africa.

Volker Quaschning

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Electric Arc Locator in Photovoltaic Power Systems Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in detecting the partial discharges associated with the production of an electric arc in a high voltage power in fault detection and localization. In [1] we have shown that electric arc (or partial dischargeElectric Arc Locator in Photovoltaic Power Systems Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Interconnection of on-site photovoltaic generation to the electric utility. [Conference paper  

SciTech Connect

Electrical interconnection with the local electric utility of small, privately owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems will be necessary. Legal guidelines exist through PURPA, administered by FERC, to establish interconnection, but economic viability will be the deciding factor in constructing photovoltaic generating systems. Although nationally recognized technical standards do not yet exist for interconnecting photovoltaic generation with an electric utility, most utilities have considered the need for developing cogeneration standards, and a few have developed such standards independently. Additional costs incurred by utilities in providing service interconnections to customers with cogeneration will be passed along to those customers, either as a direct assessment or as part of the applicable rate schedule. An economic-analysis methodology has been developed to allow comparing various possible photovoltaic-generating-system configurations under different utility rate structures and varying economic climates on a consistent basis.

Eichler, C.H.; Kilar, L.A.; Stiller, P.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Seawater pumping as an electricity storage solution for photovoltaic energy systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The stochastic nature of several renewable energy sources has raised the problem of designing and building storage facilities, which can help the electricity grid to sustain larger and larger contribution of renewable energy. Seawater pumped electricity storage is proposed as a good option for PV (Photovoltaic) or solar thermal power plants, located in suitable places close to the coast line. Solar radiation has a natural daily cycle, and storage reservoirs of limited capacity can substantially reduce the load to the electricity grid. Different modes of pump operation (fixed or variable speed) are considered, the preliminary sizing of the PV field and seawater reservoir is performed, and the results are comparatively assessed over a year-long simulated operation. The results show that PV pumped storage, even if not profitable in the present situation of the renewable energy Italian electricity market, is effective in decreasing the load on the transmission grid, and would possibly be attractive in the future, also in the light of developing off-grid applications.

Giampaolo Manfrida; Riccardo Secchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Regulation of Building Integrated Photovoltaics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In outdoor deployed photovoltaics (PV), standard test conditions (STC) of 25 °C PV temperature, 1000 Wm-2 solar radiation intensity and 1.5 air-mass rarely prevail.… (more)

Hassan, Ahmad, (Thesis)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Use of Heat From, and Thermal Management of, Photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In flat plate PV/T collectors air or water are used for heat removal. Heat removal from concentrated photovoltaic systems has been accomplished using fluids such as air and water (Royne et al. 2003; Saki et al. 1...

Brian Norton

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A two dimensional thermal network model for a photovoltaic solar wall  

SciTech Connect

A two dimensional thermal network model is proposed to predict the temperature distribution for a section of photovoltaic solar wall installed in an outdoor room laboratory in Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. The photovoltaic solar wall is constructed with a pair of glass coated photovoltaic modules and a polystyrene filled plywood board as back panel. The active solar ventilation through a photovoltaic solar wall is achieved with an exhaust fan fixed in the outdoor room laboratory. The steady state thermal network nodal equations are developed for conjugate heat exchange and heat transport for a section of a photovoltaic solar wall. The matrix solution procedure is adopted for formulation of conductance and heat source matrices for obtaining numerical solution of one dimensional heat conduction and heat transport equations by performing two dimensional thermal network analyses. The temperature distribution is predicted by the model with measurement data obtained from the section of a photovoltaic solar wall. The effect of conduction heat flow and multi-node radiation heat exchange between composite surfaces is useful for predicting a ventilation rate through a solar ventilation system. (author)

Dehra, Himanshu [1-140 Avenue Windsor, Lachine, Quebec (Canada)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity storage, photovoltaic panels, solar thermalof storage technology k theoretical peak solar conversionenergy storage, AC – Absorption Chiller, ST – solar thermal

Cardoso, Goncalo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

64

Exergoeconomic analysis of high concentration photovoltaic thermal co-generation system for space cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper provides an exergetic analysis of a 10 MW high concentration photovoltaic thermal (HCPVT) power plant case study located in Hammam Bou Hadjar, Algeria. The novel HCPVT multi-energy carrier plant converts 25% of the direct normal irradiance (DNI) into electrical energy and 62.5% to low grade heat for a combined efficiency of 87.5%. The HCPVT system employs a point focus dish concentrator with a cooled PV receiver module. The novel “hot-water” cooling approach is used for energy reuse purposes and is enabled by our state-of-the-art substrate integrated micro-cooling technology. The high performance cooler of the receiver with a thermal resistance of <0.12 cm2 K/W enables the receiver module to handle concentrations of up to 5000 suns. In the present study, a concentration of 2000 suns allows using coolant fluid temperatures of up to 80 °C. This key innovation ensures reliable operation of the triple junction PV (3JPV) cells used and also allows heat recovery for utilization in other thermal applications such as space cooling, heating, and desalination. Within this context, an exergoeconomics analysis of photovoltaic thermal co-generation for space cooling is presented in this manuscript. The valuation method presented here for the HCPVT multi-energy carrier plant comprises both the technical and economic perspectives. The proposed model determines how the cost structure is evolving in four different scenarios by quantifying the potential thermal energy demand in Hammam Bou Hadjar. The model pins down the influence of technical details such as the exergetic efficiency to the economic value of the otherwise wasted heat. The thermal energy reuse boosts the power station?s overall yield, reduces total average costs and optimizes power supply as fixed capital is deployed more efficiently. It is observed that even though potential cooling demand can be substantial (19,490 MWh per household), prices for cooling should be 3 times lower than those of electricity in Algeria (18 USD/MWh) to be competitive. This implies a need to reach economies of scale in the production of individual key components of the HCPVT system. The net present value (NPV) is calculated taking growth rates and the system?s modular efficiencies into account, discounted over 25 years. Scenario 1 shows that even though Algeria currently has no market for thermal energy, a break-even quantity (49,728 MWh) can be deduced by taking into account the relation between fixed costs and the marginal profit. Scenario 2 focuses on the national growth rate needed to break even, i.e. +10.92%. Scenario 3 illustrates thermal price variations given an increase in the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of a thermally driven adsorption chiller after year 10. In this case, the price for cooling will decrease from 18 USD/MWh to 14 USD/MWh. Finally, scenario 4 depicts Hammam Bou Hadjar?s potential cooling demand per household and the growth rate needed to break even if a market for heat would exist.

Veronica Garcia-Heller; Stephan Paredes; Chin Lee Ong; Patrick Ruch; Bruno Michel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy,for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL WITH AND WITHOUT THERMAL SINK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The following paper presents concisely the operation principles of photovoltaic cells and their main parameters. The efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell drop as their operating temperature increases especially under high insolation levels. The aim of the paper is to improve the performance of PV cell by dissipating excess heat, there by maintaining effective temperature of the cell which will enhance performance of the system. The work also deals with the comparing of the performance of PV cell with and without heat sink. During the study an optimum performance temperature was determined and heat sink mechanisms are used to maintain the determined temperature in PV cell.

Rob Res; Pramod N; K S Shashishekar; Pramod N; K S Shashishekar

67

The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renew- ables”, The Electricity Journal, Volume 14 (2001),from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill VolatilityReal- Time Retail Electricity Pricing,” Energy Journal,28(

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Electric power production using new GaSb photovoltaic cells with extended infrared response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New GaSb photovoltaic cells with infrared response extended out to 1.8 microns are well matched to hydrocarbon combustion heated silicon carbide infrared emitters operating at 1600 C. Power densities of up to 10 Watts/cm2 promise to make thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity economical. These continuous combustion thermophotovoltaic units run quietly and cleanly. Applications include small scale distributed cogeneration of heat and electricity and power units for clean electric vehicles.

Lewis Fraas; Russell Ballantyne; John Samaras; Michael Seal

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Electrical characterization of electrophoretically coated aluminum samples for photovoltaic concentrator application  

SciTech Connect

The practicality of using a thin-film styrene/acrylate copolymer electrophoretic coating to isolate concentrator cells electrically from their surroundings in a photovoltaic concentrator module is assessed. Only the electrical isolation problem was investigated. The approach was to subject various types of EP-coated aluminum specimens to electrical stress testing and to aging tests while monitoring coating electrical resistivity properties. It was determined that, in general, longer processing times--i.e., thicker electrophoretic layers--resulted in better voltage-withstand properties. In particular, a two-minute processing time seemed sufficient to provide the electrical isolation required in photovoltaic concentrator application applications. Even though electrophoretic coatings did not seem to fill voids in porous-anodized aluminum substrates, breakdown voltages generally exceeded hi-pot pass-fail voltage levels with a comfortable margin. 6 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs.

Sugimura, R.S.; Mon, G.R.; Ross, R.G. Jr. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion Riccardo Messina-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex, France. Thermophotovoltaic devices are energy-conversion , IR sensing and spectroscopy11,12 and has paved the way to a new generation of NTPV energy-conversion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Understanding Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with the Electric Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with themodels and datasets. Photovoltaics fall under the broader

Mills, Andrew

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Automated Solar Tracking Photovoltaic Array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system to align a solar panel toward the sun throughout the day while capable of charging USB devices to manufacture a portable, lightweight solar panel which will maximize efficiency for outdoor enthusiastsPENNSTATE Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Automated Solar Tracking Photovoltaic

Demirel, Melik C.

75

Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature...

76

The Status of Solar Thermal Electric Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar thermal electric technology was evaluated as a future source of power for United States utilities. The technology status was developed using an ... configuration was selected for each of the major solar col...

Richard J. Holl; Edgar A. DeMeo

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

The potential for avoided emissions from photovoltaic electricity in the United States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

potential potential for avoided emissions from photovoltaic electricity in the United States Pei Zhai a, * , Peter Larsen a, b , Dev Millstein a , Surabi Menon a , Eric Masanet c a Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA b Management Science & Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA c McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 29 April 2012 Accepted 16 August 2012 Available online 29 September 2012 Keywords: Photovoltaics Emissions Energy model United States a b s t r a c t This study evaluates avoided emissions potential of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x assuming a 10% penetration level of photovoltaics (PV) in ten selected U.S. states. We estimate avoided emissions using an hourly energy system simulation model, EnergyPLAN. Avoided

79

Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electricity. Sandia photovoltaic work is centered on developing cost-effective, reliable photovoltaic energy systems produced by US industry and used worldwide. Learn More...

80

Simulations of the Energy Performance of a Solar Photovoltaic Residence and Hybrid Electric Automobile in Fresno, California  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

JSR Associates has designed an integrated system incorporating a solar photovoltaic residence and hybrid electric auto that (1) collects, converts, stores, and distributes incident solar energy on the residenc...

J. S. Reuyl; R. D. Schutt

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaluation of phase change materials for thermal regulation enhancement of building integrated photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regulating the temperature of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) using phase change materials (PCMs) reduces the loss of temperature dependent photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. Five \\{PCMs\\} were selected for evaluation all with melting temperatures ?25 ± 4 °C and heat of fusion between 140 and 213 kJ/kg. Experiments were conducted at three insolation intensities to evaluate the performance of each PCM in four different PV/PCM systems. The effect on thermal regulation of PV was determined by changing the (i) mass of PCM and (ii) thermal conductivities of the PCM and PV/PCM system. A maximum temperature reduction of 18 °C was achieved for 30 min while 10 °C temperature reduction was maintained for 5 h at ?1000 W/m2 insolation.

A. Hasan; S.J. McCormack; M.J. Huang; B. Norton

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Evaluation of phase change materials for thermal regulation enhancement of building integrated photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Regulating the temperature of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) using phase change materials (PCMs) reduces the loss of temperature dependent photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. Five PCMs were selected for evaluation all with melting temperatures {proportional_to}25 {+-} 4 C and heat of fusion between 140 and 213 kJ/kg. Experiments were conducted at three insolation intensities to evaluate the performance of each PCM in four different PV/PCM systems. The effect on thermal regulation of PV was determined by changing the (i) mass of PCM and (ii) thermal conductivities of the PCM and PV/PCM system. A maximum temperature reduction of 18 C was achieved for 30 min while 10 C temperature reduction was maintained for 5 h at -1000 W/m{sup 2} insolation. (author)

Hasan, A.; Norton, B. [Dublin Energy Lab., Focas Institute, School of Physics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin 8 (Ireland); McCormack, S.J. [Department of Civil, Structure and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 1 (Ireland); Huang, M.J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland, BT370QB (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

High Temperature InGaN Topping Cells for Hybrid Photovoltaic/Concentrating Solar Thermal Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid PV/CSP systems offer the potential of higher solar to grid efficiency, with the benefits of dispatchable electricity from thermal storage. Here we present an implementation...

Honsberg, Christiana; Gleckman, Philip; Doolittle, William A; Ponce, Fernando; Arena, Chantal; Vasileska, Dragica; Goodnick, Stephen M

84

Equilibrium thermal characteristics of a building integrated photovoltaic tiled roof  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) modules attain high temperatures when exposed to a combination of high radiation levels and elevated ambient temperatures. The temperature rise can be particularly problematic for fully building integrated PV (BIPV) roof tile systems if back ventilation is restricted. PV laminates could suffer yield degradation and accelerated aging in these conditions. This paper presents a laboratory based experimental investigation undertaken to determine the potential for high temperature operation in such a BIPV installation. This is achieved by ascertaining the dependence of the PV roof tile temperature on incident radiation and ambient temperature. A theory based correction was developed to account for the unrealistic sky temperature of the solar simulator used in the experiments. The particular PV roof tiles used are warranted up to an operational temperature of 85 C, anything above this temperature will void the warranty because of potential damage to the integrity of the encapsulation. As a guide for installers, a map of southern Europe has been generated indicating locations where excessive module temperatures might be expected and thus where installation is inadvisable. (author)

Mei, L.; Gottschalg, R.; Loveday, D.L. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, D.G. [Institute of Energy and Environment, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Davies, D.; Berry, M. [Solarcentury, 91-94 Lower Marsh Waterloo, London, SE1 7AB (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

The Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility tariff data from 25 cities to better understand the impacts of different commercial rate structures on the value of solar PV systems. By analyzing and comparing 55 unique rate structures across the United States, this study seeks to identify the rate components that have the greatest effect on the value of PV systems.

86

Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in wholesale energy markets. Progress in Photovoltaics:designs (e.g. , an energy market with a price cap, combinedmarket designs feature an energy market with a lower price

Darghouth, Naim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Photovoltaic ground fault and blind spot electrical simulations.  

SciTech Connect

Ground faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems pose a fire and shock hazard. To mitigate these risks, AC-isolated, DC grounded PV systems in the United States use Ground Fault Protection Devices (GFPDs), e.g., fuses, to de-energize the PV system when there is a ground fault. Recently the effectiveness of these protection devices has come under question because multiple fires have started when ground faults went undetected. In order to understand the limitations of fuse-based ground fault protection in PV systems, analytical and numerical simulations of different ground faults were performed. The numerical simulations were conducted with Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) using a circuit model of the PV system which included the modules, wiring, switchgear, grounded or ungrounded components, and the inverter. The derivation of the SPICE model and the results of parametric fault current studies are provided with varying array topologies, fuse sizes, and fault impedances. Closed-form analytical approximations for GFPD currents from faults to the grounded current carrying conductor-known as %E2%80%9Cblind spot%E2%80%9D ground faults-are derived to provide greater understanding of the influence of array impedances on fault currents. The behavior of the array during various ground faults is studied for a range of ground fault fuse sizes to determine if reducing the size of the fuse improves ground fault detection sensitivity. The results of the simulations show that reducing the amperage rating of the protective fuse does increase fault current detection sensitivity without increasing the likelihood of nuisance trips to a degree. Unfortunately, this benefit reaches a limit as fuses become smaller and their internal resistance increases to the point of becoming a major element in the fault current circuit.

Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Battery Powered Electric Car, Using Photovoltaic Cells Assistance Juan Dixon, Alberto Ziga, Angel Abusleme and Daniel Soto  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery Powered Electric Car, Using Photovoltaic Cells Assistance Juan Dixon, Alberto Zúñiga, Angel Vehicles (EVs) is the scarce capacity of conventional electrical energy storage systems. Although Abusleme and Daniel Soto Abstract One of the major problems for the massive applicability of Electric

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

90

Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation A. Der Minassians, K. H. Aschenbach and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed: Solar Thermal Collectors, Solar Thermal Electricity, Stirling Engine 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper, we

Sanders, Seth

91

Maximizing the Value of Photovoltaic Installations on Schools in California: Choosing the Best Electricity Rates  

SciTech Connect

Schools in California often have a choice between multiple electricity rate options. For schools with photovoltaic (PV) installations, choosing the right rate is essential to maximize the value of PV generation. The rate option that minimizes a school?s electricity expenses often does not remain the most economical choice after the school installs a PV system. The complex interaction between PV generation, building load, and rate structure makes determining the best rate a challenging task. This report evaluates 22 rate structures across three of California?s largest electric utilities--Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E)--in order to identify common rate structure attributes that are favorable to PV installations.

Ong, S.; Denholm, P.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Methodology for estimating building integrated photovoltaics electricity production under shadowing conditions and case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems are a relevant application of photovoltaics. In countries belonging to the International Energy Agency countries, 24% of total installed PV power corresponds to BIPV systems. Electricity losses caused by shadows over the PV generator have a significant impact on the performance of BIPV systems, being the major source of electricity losses. This paper presents a methodology to estimate electricity produced by BIPV systems which incorporates a model for shading losses. The proposed methodology has been validated on a one year study with real data from two similar PV systems placed on the south façade of a building belonging to the Technical University of Madrid. This study has covered all weather conditions: clear, partially overcast and fully overcast sky. Results of this study are shown at different time scales, resulting that the errors committed by the best performing model are below 1% and 3% in annual and daily electricity estimation. The use of models which account for the reduced performance at low irradiance levels also improves the estimation of generated electricity.

Daniel Masa-Bote; Estefanía Caamaño-Martín

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

94

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Solar Photovoltaic and solar  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Solar Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal Electric Technologies Solar Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal Electric Technologies International Energy Outlook 2009 Solar Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal Electric Technologies Solar power is one of the fastest-growing sources of renewable energy worldwide. Many nations, concerned about the environmental impacts of electricity generation from fossil fuels or from large-scale hydroelectric plants, have been turning to solar power as an environmentally benign alternative. The solar energy that reaches the earth can be harnessed to generate electric power, and the potential for large-scale applications of solar power has improved markedly in recent years. Two solar power technologies—solar photovoltaic and solar thermal—are widely employed today, and their use is likely to increase in the future.

95

Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

entail higher electricity costs than in the reference case,which yields lower electricity purchase costs for utilitiesand renewable electricity generation costs. This proportion

Darghouth, Naim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USA. CEC, 2012. Electricity Consumption by Planning http://beyond their electricity consumption within each hour. Overwith significant electricity consumption. The variation in

Darghouth, Naim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Understanding Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with the Electric Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

area of photovoltaic and other clean energy technologies.Energy recently hosted a day-long public workshop on the variability of photovoltaic (photovoltaic power plants into the utility system. Nicholas Miller is Director, Energy

Mills, Andrew

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Geographic Variation in Potential of Rooftop Residential Photovoltaic Electric Power Production in the United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This paper describes a geographic evaluation of Zero Energy Home (ZEH) potential, specifically an assessment of residential roof-top solar electric photovoltaic (PV) performance around the United States and how energy produced would match up with very-efficient and super-efficient home designs. We performed annual simulations for 236 TMY2 data locations throughout the United States on two highly-efficient one-story 3-bedroom homes with a generic grid-tied solar electric 2kW PV system. These annual simulations show how potential annual solar electric power generation (kWh) and potential energy savings from PV power vary geographically around the U.S. giving the user in a specific region an indication of their expected PV system performance.

99

California PRC 25120, Definition for Thermal Powerplant | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for the purposes of this division. 'Thermal powerplant' does not include any wind, hydroelectric, or solar photovoltaic electrical generating facility." Effective September 19,...

100

Understanding Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with the Electric Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

variability of photovoltaic (PV) plants to avoid unnecessaryhowever, occurs within PV plants. The degree of smoothingof photovoltaic (PV) plants. The workshop brought together

Mills, Andrew

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Definition: Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaics Photovoltaics Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Photovoltaics Pertaining to the direct conversion of light into electricity[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Due to the increased demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced

102

Solar thermal electric power information user study  

SciTech Connect

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Photovoltaic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kurtz, Sarah (Somerville, MA)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

104

Comparison of the influence of photovoltaic and wind power on the Spanish electricity prices by means of artificial intelligence techinques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper analyses and compares the merit order effects of photovoltaic and wind power on final electricity prices in the Spanish spot market and the cost of electricity tariffs. Artificial intelligence techniques are used to model the electricity auction clearing process. Several algorithms are studied before the M5P learning algorithm is finally applied to create a tree model of the spot market. Electricity tariffs for domestic consumers are also recalculated for fictional scenarios with no photovoltaic or wind power production. The conclusion is that the influence of photovoltaic and wind power is uneven. Wind power reduces final electricity prices by €9.10/MW h, generating an overall saving for the system of €364.0 million and for the average domestic consumer of €1.95 using 2012 figures; photovoltaic power reduces electricity prices by €2.18/MW h, generating an overall cost overrun for the system of €2034.1 million and for the average domestic consumer of €38.82.

D. Azofra; E. Martínez; E. Jiménez; J. Blanco; F. Azofra; J.C. Saenz-Díez

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

Alger, T.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

List of Photovoltaics Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaics Incentives Photovoltaics Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 2359 Photovoltaics Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-1000) CSV (rows 1001-1500) CSV (rows 1501-2000) CSV (rows 2001-2359) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No AEP Ohio - Renewable Energy Credit (REC) Purchase Program (Ohio) Performance-Based Incentive Ohio Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Photovoltaics Wind energy Yes AEP Ohio - Renewable Energy Technology Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Agricultural

107

Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaics Photovoltaics (Redirected from Photovoltaic) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)[1] Photovoltaic Panels Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect. The PV effect was discovered in 1954, when scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Today, thousands of people power their homes and businesses with individual

108

Energy modeling of photovoltaic thermal systems with corrugated unglazed transpired solar collectors – Part 1: Model development and validation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Building-integrated photovoltaic–thermal (BIPV/T) systems with unglazed transpired solar collectors (UTCs) can provide a key solution for on-site electricity and thermal energy generation. Although the energy saving potential of this technology is significant, no systematic thermal analysis model has been developed for optimal system design and integration with building operation. This paper is the first of two companion papers focused on modeling and performance analysis of BIPV/T systems with UTC. In Part 1, energy models are presented for two configurations: UTC only and UTC with PV panels, to predict the cavity exit air temperature and plate surface temperature with weather (incident solar radiation, ambient air temperature, dew point temperature and wind speed) and design (airflow rate or suction velocity and geometry) parameters used as inputs. Nusselt number and effectiveness correlations, representing both the exterior and interior convective heat transfer processes, have been obtained from experimentally validated, three-dimensional, Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, using high resolution grids and the ReNormalization Group Methods k–? (RNG k–?) turbulence closure model. The energy models were validated with measurements in an outdoor test-facility. Good agreement was observed between the model prediction and the experimental data, with the root mean square error (RMSE) being within 1 °C for the UTC-only model and within 2 °C for the model of UTC with PV modules. In the companion paper, Part 2, the effects of important parameters on system performance are demonstrated based on information from the literature and simulations using CFD and energy models. The optimal geometry is investigated for both configurations and the performance curves, under different levels of solar radiation, wind speed and suction velocity, are presented to provide guidelines for system design.

Siwei Li; Panagiota Karava; Sam Currie; William E. Lin; Eric Savory

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Comparative study of the thermal and power performances of a semi-transparent photovoltaic façade under different ventilation modes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper studied the thermal and power performances of a ventilated photovoltaic façade under different ventilation modes, and appropriate operation strategies for different weather conditions were proposed accordingly to maximize its energy conversion efficiency. This ventilated PV double-skin façade (PV-DSF) consists of an outside layer of semi-transparent amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV laminate, an inward-openable window and a 400 mm airflow cavity. Before installation, the electrical characteristics under standard testing conditions (STC) and the temperature coefficients of the semi-transparent PV module were tested and determined in the laboratory. Field measurements were carried out to investigate the impact of different ventilation modes, namely, ventilated, buoyancy-driven ventilated and non-ventilated, on the thermal and power performances of this PV-DSF. The results show that the ventilated PV-DSF provides the lowest average solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and the non-ventilated PV-DSF provides the best thermal insulation performance. In terms of power performance, the energy output of the ventilated PV-DSF is greater than those of the buoyancy-driven ventilated and non-ventilated PV-DSFs by 1.9% and 3%, respectively, due to its much lower operating temperature. Based on the experimental results, a conclusion was drawn that the ventilation design can not only reduce the heat gain of PV-DSF but also improve the energy conversion efficiency of PV modules by bringing down their operating temperature. In addition, an optimum operation strategy is recommended for this kind of PV-DSF to maximize its overall energy efficiency under different weather conditions.

Jinqing Peng; Lin Lu; Hongxing Yang; Tao Ma

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity inand Wind Penetration. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 27,of wind (50%), PV (35%), and concentrating solar power (CSP,

Darghouth, Naim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Security constrained generation scheduling for grids incorporating wind, photovoltaic and thermal power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, security constrained generation scheduling (SCGS) problem for a grid incorporating thermal, wind and photovoltaic (PV) units is formulated. The formulation takes into account the stochastic nature of both wind and PV power output and imbalance charges due to mismatch between the actual and scheduled wind and PV power outputs. A hybrid technique in which the basic elements are a genetic algorithm (GA) with artificial neural network (ANN) and a priority list (PL) is used to minimize the total operating costs while satisfying all operational constraints considering both conventional and renewable energy generators. Numerical results are reported and discussed based on the simulation performed on the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach to reduce the total production cost for real time operation. Moreover, the results verified that the proposed approach can be applied to different problem dimensions and can score more favorably compared with analytical techniques.

Azza A. ElDesouky

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Electric Power Plants (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet provides an overview of the potential for parabolic trough solar thermal electric power plants, especially in the Southwestern U.S.

Not Available

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A solar tracker and concentrator was designed and assembled for the purpose of cogeneration of thermal power and electrical power using thermoelectric technology. A BiTe… (more)

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Thermal bubble behaviour in liquid nitrogen under electric fields.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis describes thermally induced bubble behaviour changes in liquid nitrogen (LN2) under electric fields. Cryogenic liquids such as LN2 have been used not only… (more)

Wang, Ping

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

including geothermal, small hydro, and biogas, as well as noby biomass, 1.5% by small hydro, and 0.3% by PV. The pricebiomass, geothermal, and small hydro electricity generation

Darghouth, Naim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Life Cycle Assessment of solar energy systems: Comparison of photovoltaic and water thermal heater at domestic scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study is concerned with the results of a Life Cycle Assessment comparison between photovoltaic – silicon based modules and thin film modules – and solar thermal systems, as technologies which are usually installed for partially covering household energy demand. Several studies focused on energy and environmental performances of photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors, however they have been always analysed separately. This study proposes the comparison of different systems to exploit the solar energy, producing different energy types. The comparison was done referring to one square meter of roof surface occupied by the equipment. The environmental burdens were calculated according to the indicators proposed by Eco-indicator'95 method. The results showed that the system based on thermal solar collector obtained the major number of more favourable indicators: eight out of ten, in the case of no-recycling of materials after dismantling phase, and six out of ten in the case of recycling of materials after dismantling phase. The thin film modules and solar thermal collector showed the lowest values of energy payback time and \\{CO2eq\\} payback time. Results clearly show that photovoltaic and solar thermal collector can effectively provide comparable environmental and energy benefits as regard to domestic scale installation.

E. Carnevale; L. Lombardi; L. Zanchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Phase change materials for limiting temperature rise in building integrated photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Elevated operating temperatures reduce the solar to electrical conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of phase change materials for thermal management of photovoltaic devices. Two particular phase change materials were used to moderate the temperature rise of photovoltaics. The thermal performance of different internal fin arrangements for improving bulk PCM thermal conductivity are presented. Using RT25 with internal fins, the temperature rise of the PV/PCM system can be reduced by more than 30 °C when compared with the datum of a single flat aluminium plate during phase change. Phase change materials are shown to be an effective means of limiting temperature rise in photovoltaic devices.

M.J. Huang; P.C. Eames; B. Norton

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

An experimental study of the thermal performance of a novel photovoltaic double-skin facade in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ventilated building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) facades can not only generate electricity at the locations of buildings themselves but if designed optimally, such facades can also reduce the respective heat gains and heat losses in summer and winter via the building envelope. The development of a novel ventilated BIPV double-skin facade (DSF), constituted by a see-through amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module and an inward opening window, is reported in this paper. In order to enhance ventilation, an air-flow duct, 400 mm in depth is situated between the outside PV module and the inside window. This ventilation design can remove much of the waste heat generated by the PV module energy conversion processes, and thus bring down the operating temperature of the solar cells. Infrared thermal imaging was adopted in relation to the ventilated PV-DSF to visually demonstrate this ventilating effect. It was found that the air temperature at the outlet louver is higher than that at the inlet louver by 2.2–2.3 °C. The thermal performance of PV-DSFs operating in different modes was studied and compared. The results showed that the ventilated PV-DSF provides the lowest solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), while the non-ventilated PV-DSF better reduces heat loss. Based on the experimental results, the optimum operation strategy for the PV-DSF under different weather conditions has been determined and proposed. This novel PV-DSF is more suitable for sub-tropical climates because it results in a much lower SHGC than that of a low-e coating DSF.

Jinqing Peng; Lin Lu; Hongxing Yang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF AU-MEROCYANINE-TiO2 SANDWICH CELLS. I. DARK ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND TRANSIENT EFFECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used in making the photovoltaic cells. Figure 2. Diagram oforganic compounds in photovoltaic cells. It lies more in thecalled a dye-sensitized photovoltaic cell. Dye sensitization

Skotheim, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

Narumanchi, S.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

by by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory & Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 4, 2007 June 2007 * NREL/TP-550-41085 PNNL-16362 High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems Building America Best Practices Series Volume 6 High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems Building America Best Practices Series Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a DOE national laboratory Michael C. Baechler Theresa Gilbride, Kathi Ruiz, Heidi Steward and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a DOE national laboratory Pat M. Love June 4, 2007 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor Battelle Memorial Institute, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,

122

An analysis of the current costs and future prospects of solar photovoltaic electricity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The solar photovoltaic industry has many barriers to overcome before it can become a technically and economically competitive generation source including (1) lowering true generation… (more)

Wong, Alexander Tung-Qiang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The promotion of domestic grid-connected photovoltaic electricity production through social learning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An effective social learning process which enhances public understanding of photovoltaic installations in residential dwellings and the economic instruments used by governments to encourage investment in this ...

Greg Hampton; Simon Eckermann

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peakdemand Mitigation: A Solution in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peakdemand Mitigation: A Solution in Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peakdemand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike Title Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peakdemand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike Publication Type Conference Proceedings Refereed Designation Refereed LBNL Report Number LBNL-6308E Year of Publication 2013 Authors DeForest, Nicholas, Gonçalo Mendes, Michael Stadler, Wei Feng, Judy Lai, and Chris Marnay Conference Name ECEEE 2013 Summer Study 3-8 June 2013, Belambra Les Criques, France Date Published 06/2013 Conference Location Belambra Les Criques, France Keywords electricity, energy storage, Energy System Planning & Grid Integration, peakdemand mitigation, thermal Abstract In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity

126

Independent Manipulation of Electric and Thermal Fields with Bilayer Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the employment of transformation and metamaterial for manipulation of various physical fields, which requires complicated configuration and usually limits in single field. Here, for the first time, we propose and experimentally demonstrated bilayer structure to achieve simultaneously independent manipulation of multi-physics field (dc electric fields and thermal) by directly solving the dc electric/ thermal field equations. This structure is composed of two layers: the outer layer is made of isotropic and homogeneous material, while the inner layer is fan-shape layer. Since it is not based on TO, it can be readily experimentally fabricated with naturally occurring materials. Experimentally, we has designed, fabricated and characterized two structures simultaneously behaving as dc electric cloak/ thermal concentrator and dc electric concentrator/ thermal cloak, respectively. The simulation results agree well with the experiment ones, thus confirming the feasib...

Lan, Chuwen; Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric utilities are looking at thermal energy storage technology as a viable demand side management (DSM) option. In order for this DSM measure to be effective, it must be incorporated into a workable, well-structured utility program. This paper...

Niehus, T. L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter bench test module  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter Bench Test Module. The work presented in this document was conducted as a part of Heat Engine Task of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The objective of this task is the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies applicable to distributed receiver systems, in particular, dish electric systems.

Lukens, L.L.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Optical Waveguide Enhanced Photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enhanced light to electric power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells ?with a low absorbance was achieved using waveguide integration. We ?present a proof of concept using a...

Rühle, Sven; Greenwald, Shlomit; Koren, Elad; Zaban, Arie

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Solar Thermal Loans  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC), a Touchstone Energy Cooperative, covers 14 counties in northern Florida, including Gainesville, Keystone Heights, Lake City, Orange Park, Palatka, and Salt Springs....

131

Medium-term planning for thermal electricity production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present paper, we present a mid-term planning model for thermal power generation which is based on multistage stochastic optimization and involves stochastic electricity spot prices, a mixture of fuels with stochastic prices, the effect of CO Keywords: Electricity production, Modeling commodity spot prices, Multistage stochastic programming, Tree generation

Raimund M. Kovacevic; Florentina Paraschiv

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lead/acid battery, and thermal storage, capabilities, withhour electrical flow battery 8 thermal Not all constraintslifetime ( a) thermal storage 11 flow battery absorption

Stadler, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Storing unsteady energy, like photovoltaically generated electric energy, as potential energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A proposal to store unsteady energy in potential energy via lifting masses with a rough quantitative overview. Some applications and methods to harvest the potential energy are also given. A focus is put on photovoltaically generated energy.

Kutz, Nadja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Energy modeling of photovoltaic thermal systems with corrugated unglazed transpired solar collectors – Part 2: Performance analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper is the second of two companion papers focused on energy modeling and performance analysis of building-integrated photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) systems with corrugated unglazed transpired solar collectors (UTCs). In Part 1, energy models are presented for two configurations: UTC only and UTC with PV panels. The models predict the energy output of the system for different weather and system design conditions and are validated using measured data from an outdoor test facility. In this paper (Part 2), the system performance is evaluated based on data drawn from the literature and simulations with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and energy models. The analysis includes parameters that are unique for this system, such as the corrugation geometry and the collector orientation. Validated, high resolution CFD simulations are used to study the impact of plate orientation and incident turbulence intensity, based on the comparison of exterior and interior Nusselt (Nu) number and the cavity exit air temperature, as well as the PV surface temperature when \\{UTCs\\} are integrated with PV panels. It is found that for configurations with UTC only, both exterior and interior convective heat transfer is enhanced in the ‘vertical’ installation, while similar results were obtained for increased incident turbulence intensity levels. However, only minor influences from these two parameters are observed for \\{UTCs\\} with PV panels. The energy model is used to investigate the optimal geometry for both configurations. It is found that parameters such as slope length and corrugation wavelength have the most significant impact on UTC performance while the wavelength and PV panel height have the largest effect for \\{UTCs\\} with PV panels.

Siwei Li; Panagiota Karava

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Thermal, Electrical and Mechanical Response to a Quench in Nb3Sn Superconducting Coils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

53129 4A-a07 Thermal, Electrical and Mechanical Response tofocuses on thermal, electrical and mechanical conditions inevaluated by the thermo-electrical model is transferred to a

Ferracin, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaics Photovoltaics (Redirected from Solar Photovoltaics) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)[1] Photovoltaic Panels Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect. The PV effect was discovered in 1954, when scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Today, thousands of people power their homes and businesses with individual

137

Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity from photovoltaic cells to convert CO 2 intoSolar Energy Anode Photovoltaic Cell Cathode PP Mesh SpacerCoupling a Photovoltaic Solar Cell with a Homogeneous

Sathrum, Aaron John

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

Jennings, W.; Green, J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Statistical fluctuation of electric charge exists in all conductors, producing random variation of potential between the ends of the conductor. The effect of these fluctuations has been measured by a vacuum tube amplifier and thermocouple, and can be expressed by the formula I¯2=(2kT?)?0?R(?)|Y(?)|2d?. I is the observed current in the thermocouple, k is Boltzmann's gas constant, T is the absolute temperature of the conductor, R(?) is the real component of impedance of the conductor, Y(?) is the transfer impedance of the amplifier, and ?2?=f represents frequency. The value of Boltzmann's constant obtained from the measurements lie near the accepted value of this constant. The technical aspects of the disturbance are discussed. In an amplifier having a range of 5000 cycles and the input resistance R the power equivalent of the effect is V¯2R=0.8×10-16 watt, with corresponding power for other ranges of frequency. The least contribution of tube noise is equivalent to that of a resistance Rc=1.5×105ip?, where ip is the space current in milliamperes and ? is the effective amplification of the tube.

J. B. Johnson

1928-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Solar thermal power plants for the Spanish electricity market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar thermal power plants are at present the cheapest technology for solar electricity production. At good sites Levelised Electricity Costs (LEC) of 11 Ct/kWh have been achieved in commercially operated power plants. Economy of scale and further technical improvements will reduce the LEC for future projects. On the 27th of March 2004 in Spain the existing feed-in-law has been modified in order to support the erection of solar thermal power plants and thus make use of the huge solar potential of Spain. A payment of approx. 21 Ct/kWh, guaranteed for the first 25 years of operation, makes the erection and operation of solar thermal power plants very profitable for possible investors on the Spanish peninsula. This paper will present the present situation in Spain and the planned power plant projects. For one specific project the set-up is presented in more detail.

M. Eck; F. Rueda; S. Kronshage; C. Schillings; F. Trieb; E. Zarza

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Photovoltaic cell assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

Beavis, Leonard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and solar thermal collectors; electrical storage, flowis disallowed; 5. a low storage, PV, and solar thermal priceand heat storage; heat exchangers for application of solar

Stadler, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Photovoltaic solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

144

Thermal characterization of submicron polyacrylonitrile fibers based on optical heating and electrical thermal sensing  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the thermal diffusivity of single submicron ({approx}800 nm) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers is characterized using the recently developed optical heating and electrical thermal sensing technique. In the experiment, a thin Au film (approximately in the nanometer range) is coated on the surface of nonconductive PAN fibers. A periodically modulated laser beam is used to irradiate suspended individual fibers to achieve noncontact periodical heating. The periodical temperature response of the sample is monitored by measuring the electrical resistance variation of the thin Au coating. The experimental results for three different synthesized PAN fibers with varying Au coating thickness are presented and discussed.

Hou Jinbo; Wang Xinwei; Zhang Lijun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, N104 Walter Scott Engineering Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0656 (United States)

2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

145

Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaics Photovoltaics (Redirected from - Solar PV) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)[1] Photovoltaic Panels Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect. The PV effect was discovered in 1954, when scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Today, thousands of people power their homes and businesses with individual

146

Electrical and Thermal Experimental Characterization and Modeling of Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work investigates the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT) inclusions on the electrical and thermal conductivity of a thermoset epoxy resin. The characterization of electrical and thermal conductivity of CNT/epoxy composites is presented...

Gardea, Frank

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

147

Sandia National Laboratories: sustainable photovoltaics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

photovoltaics Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States Kick-Off On November 27, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, National Solar Thermal Test...

148

Photovoltaic solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

149

Photovoltaics information user study  

SciTech Connect

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Stirling Engines for Low-Temperature Solar-Thermal-Electric Power Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stirling Engines for Low-Temperature Solar-Thermal- Electric Power Generation Artin Der Minassians-Temperature Solar-Thermal-Electric Power Generation by Artin Der Minassians Karshenasi (Amirkabir University-Temperature Solar-Thermal-Electric Power Generation Copyright c 2007 by Artin Der Minassians #12;1 Abstract Stirling

Sanders, Seth

151

Monitoring SERC Technologies — Solar Photovoltaics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Market Transformation Center electrical engineer Peter McNutt about Solar Photovoltaics and how to properly monitor its installation.

152

Tunable Electrical and Thermal Transport in Ice-Templated MultiLayer Graphene Nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to electrical energy storage,1­3 thermal energy storage,4­13 and composite materials.14­21 Ice applications in thermal and electrical energy storage. Phase change thermal storage seeks to reduce building offsets in energy supply and demand.6 Thermal energy storage is also an appealing way to cool power

Maruyama, Shigeo

153

The Potential for Avoided Emissions from Photovoltaic Electricity in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mix of power plants (power grid fuel mix), the emissionsolar electricity into the power grid will generally reducefor generators in the power grid of California and Colorado.

Zhai, Pei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of electricity retail rates or on the private economics ofelectricity rates and hence the customer economics of residential, behind-the-meter PV. We calculate the private

Barbose, Galen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Coupled Thermal and Electrical Analysis of Obstructed RTGs  

SciTech Connect

A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) with an unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection path can have significant axial and circumferential variations in the temperatures, currents, and voltages of its thermoelectric couple network. The present paper describes a methodology for analyzing the thermal and electrical performance of such an RTG, and the development of a computer code for implementing that emthodology. The code derives coupled solutions of the RTG's thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical equations. It accounts for the Peltier effect, Ohmic heating, and the Thomson effect, and treats the electrical power produced in each couple as an effective heat sink. It satisfies the condition that all parallel couples produce the same voltage, and that all series-connected couple groups produce the same current. Finally, the paper illustrates the use of the code by applying it to the detailed analysis of the RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. In each of these, there are two adjacent RTGs which are obstructed by each other and by the nearby spacecraft. The results of the analysis will be used by the spacecraft designers in selecting the location, orientation, and spacing of the two RTGs. There are two copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred; Noravian, Heros; Or, Chuen T.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N ATIONAL L ABORATORY Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity20, 2012. I. Dincer, On thermal energy storage systems andin research on cold thermal energy storage, International

DeForest, Nicholas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

Loferski, J.J. (ed.)

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Thin film photovoltaic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits/DC converter; electric drives; electric vehicles; fuel cell; hybrid electric vehicles; power electronics, motor

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrated solar power (CSP), and wind penetrations in theis met by wind, solar PV, concentrating solar power with 6schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in

Barbose, Galen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic (The following text is derived from NREL's description of photovoltaic technology.)[1] Photovoltaic Panels Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect. The PV effect was discovered in 1954, when scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Today, thousands of people power their homes and businesses with individual solar PV systems. Utility companies are also using PV technology for large

163

Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

101: Solar Photovoltaics 101: Solar Photovoltaics Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaics February 10, 2011 - 5:29pm Addthis Learn more about photovoltaic systems that convert light energy into electricity. Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? The literal translation of the word photovoltaic is light-electricity. Photovoltaic systems generate power without pollution - and recent advancements have greatly increased their efficiency. Enough energy from the sun hits the earth every hour to power the planet for an entire year-and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are a clean, cost-effective way to harness that power for homes and businesses. The literal translation of the word photovoltaic is light-electricity-and this is exactly what photovoltaic materials and devices do-they convert

164

Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid Fe alloys at high P and T, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid Fe alloys at high P and T, and heat flux to crystallize (1, 4). Existing estimates of thermal conductivity (kel) and electrical resistivity (el) of Earth of electrical resistivity to temperature, its invariability along and across the Fe liquidus, and adherence

Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

165

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect

Published scientific literature contains many studies estimating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residential and utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PVs). Despite the volume of published work, variability in results hinders generalized conclusions. Most variance between studies can be attributed to differences in methods and assumptions. To clarify the published results for use in decision making and other analyses, we conduct a meta-analysis of existing studies, harmonizing key performance characteristics to produce more comparable and consistently derived results. Screening 397 life cycle assessments (LCAs) relevant to PVs yielded 13 studies on crystalline silicon (c-Si) that met minimum standards of quality, transparency, and relevance. Prior to harmonization, the median of 42 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from those 13 LCAs was 57 grams carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 44 to 73. After harmonizing key performance characteristics, irradiation of 1,700 kilowatt-hours per square meter per year (kWh/m{sup 2}/yr); system lifetime of 30 years; module efficiency of 13.2% or 14.0%, depending on module type; and a performance ratio of 0.75 or 0.80, depending on installation, the median estimate decreased to 45 and the IQR tightened to 39 to 49. The median estimate and variability were reduced compared to published estimates mainly because of higher average assumptions for irradiation and system lifetime. For the sample of studies evaluated, harmonization effectively reduced variability, providing a clearer synopsis of the life cycle GHG emissions from c-Si PVs. The literature used in this harmonization neither covers all possible c-Si installations nor represents the distribution of deployed or manufactured c-Si PVs.

Hsu, D. D.; O'Donoughue, P.; Fthenakis, V.; Heath, G. A.; Kim, H. C.; Sawyer, P.; Choi, J. K.; Turney, D. E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices  

SciTech Connect

The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent.

Rourke, Devin [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States); Ahn, Sungmo [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0425 (United States); Nardes, Alexandre M.; Lagemaat, Jao van de; Kopidakis, Nikos [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Park, Wounjhang, E-mail: won.park@colorado.edu [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0425 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

167

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

density, making direct thermal energy storage methods, e.g.reduced. Conventional thermal energy harvesting and storageharvesting, storage, and utilization of thermal energy has

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power plants, solar thermal energy, geothermal energy, oceanpower plants, distributed solar thermal energy, geo/ocean-power plants [59]. Other LGH sources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy, ocean

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Other LGH sources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermalThe heat source can be solar thermal energy, biologicalsources include the coolants in coal and nuclear power plants, solar thermal energy,

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Thermal Energy Storage: It's not Just for Electric Cost Savings Anymore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large cool Thermal Energy Storage (TES), typically ice TES or chilled water (CHW) TES, has traditionally been thought of, and used for, managing time-of-day electricity use to reduce the cost associated with electric energy and demand charges...

Andrepont, J. S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Recycling of Wasted Energy : ThermalOF THE DISSERTATION Recycling of Wasted Energy : Thermal to

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

photovoltaics | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

photovoltaics photovoltaics Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (5 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

173

Second law analysis of a liquid cooled battery thermal management system for hybrid and electric vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As hybrid and electric vehicles continue to evolve there is a need for better battery thermal management systems (BTMS), which maintain uniformity of operating temperature… (more)

Ramotar, Lokendra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Work on optimizing electrical and thermal transport properties of n-type skutterudites via a multiple-element-void-filling approach is presented.

175

Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

Not Available

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:47pm Addthis Text Version Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity. First used in about 1890, "photovoltaic" has two parts: photo, derived from the Greek word for light, and volt, relating to electricity pioneer Alessandro Volta. And this is what photovoltaic materials and devices do-they convert light energy into electrical energy, as French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered as early as 1839. Becquerel discovered the process of using sunlight to produce an electric current in a solid material. But it took more than another century to truly

177

National electrical code changes for 1996 and USA participation in International Energy Agency activities related to photovoltaics safety and grid interconnection  

SciTech Connect

As photovoltaic (PV) systems gain more acceptance in utility-interactive applications throughout the world, many organizations are placing increasingly higher priorities on writing guidelines, codes and standards. These guidelines and codes are being written to improve safety, installation, acceptance, listing or certification of the PV components or systems. Sandia National Laboratories` PV System Applications Department is working closely with the PV industry to address issues that are associated with fire and personnel safety and with National Electrical Code (NEC) requirements. Additionally, the United States has agreed to participate in two of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Annexes (topical tasks) of the Implementing Agreement for a Cooperative Programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems. This paper describes events and activities associated with the NEC and the IEA that are being led by Sandia National Laboratories with broad participation by the US PV industry.

Bower, W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Process Heat Incentives Process Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 204 Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 204) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas Other Distributed Generation Technologies Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Solar Pool Heating Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Process Heat

179

Multiple gap photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Optimization of angle of inclination of the hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar collector using particle swarm optimization algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper a mathematical model is used to determine the solar radiation incident on an inclined surface and the optimum slope angles for each month season and year are calculated for solar hybrid collectors. We recommend on how the collected energy can be increased by varying the tilt angle. First we esteem the global solar radiation on a horizontal surface of a thermal photovoltaic hybrid collector (PVT) for a clear sky. The data set of the solar radiation at Ghardaïa (Algeria) measured during 2013 was used to analyze the models of global solar radiation estimation. The models of performance are evaluated by using the coefficient of correlation (R2) the absolute average error skew (mean absolute error MABE) average quadratic error (mean square error RMSE) the percentage of the average error (MPE) and the percentage of average absolute error. Then the anisotropic and isotropic models that provide the most accurate estimation of the total solar radiation has been used to determine the optimum collector slope. Particle swarm optimization method was applied to obtain the tilt angle setting of the tilt angle of PVT collector. The objective was to improve the efficiency of PVT collector. The results show that these models used are very well designed. The coefficient of correlation (R2) varies from 0. 90 to 0. 99. For the percentage of errors of prediction (MABE and RMSE) lowered by 0.1 it is observed also that the angle of inclination of PVT collector takes different values during the year and that the collector received more solar energy compared to collector without optimal angle.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the ceramic wafers have a high thermal conductivity,easily altered ceramic blocks all had a thermal conductivityCeramics. Available Online: http://www.dynacer.com/thermal_

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Electrical Conductivity, Near-Infrared Absorption, and Thermal Lens Spectroscopic Studies of Percolation of Microemulsions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical Conductivity, Near-Infrared Absorption, and Thermal Lens Spectroscopic Studies studied below and above the percolation thresholds by electrical conductivity, near-infrared absorption. In this work the structure of microemulsions was investigated by using the near-IR absorption and thermal lens

Reid, Scott A.

183

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biological thermal energy, geothermal energy, wasted heatpower plants, solar thermal energy, geothermal energy, oceansolar radiation, and the geothermal energy. [16] Fig. 1.1.

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar radiation, and the geothermal energy. [16] Fig. 1.1.thermal energy, geothermal energy, wasted heat from athermal energy, geothermal energy, ocean thermal energy,

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Optimizing Carbon Nanotube Contacts for Use in Organic Photovoltaics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research on optimizing carbon nanotube networks for use as transparent electrical contacts (TCs) in organic photovoltaics (OPV).

Barnes, T. M.; Blackburn, J. L.; Tenent, R. C.; Morfa, A.; Heben, M.; Coutts, T. J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

The New 1999 National Electrical Code Coupled with New Standards Clarify Requirements for Installations of Photovoltaic Systems in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

The National Electrical Code@ (NEC@) focuses primarily on electrical system installation requirements in the U.S. The NEC addresses both fire and personnel safety. This paper will describe recent efforts of the PV industry in the U.S. and the resulting requirements in the 1999 National Electrical Code-- Article 690 --Solar Photovoltaic Systems. The Article 690 requirements spell out the PV-unique requirements for safe installations of PV systems in the U.S.A. This paper provides an overview of the most significant changes that appear in Article 690 of the 1999 edition of the NEC. The related and coordinated efforts of the other standards- making groups will also be briefly reviewed.

Bower, W.

1999-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

187

Solar Photovoltaic Technologies Available for Licensing - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Marketing Summaries (126) Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and...

188

EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University - Bozeman EELE408 Photovoltaics & Ventre: Photovoltaic Systems Engineering , 3E · Resources: ­ Green: Solar Cells: Operating Principles

Kaiser, Todd J.

189

Graphite-based photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

Lagally, Max (Madison, WI); Liu, Feng (Salt Lake City, UT)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

190

Electrical-Thermal Co-analysis for Power Delivery Networks in 3D System Integration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical-Thermal Co-analysis for Power Delivery Networks in 3D System Integration Jianyong Xie1 Rubin3 1 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 2 IBM Package Design, Development, and Electrical Services Group, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 12601 3 IBM T

Swaminathan, Madhavan

191

Electric Storage in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed photovoltaic generation and energy storageenergy management in buildings and microgrids with e.g. installed Photovoltaic (energy storage, TS – thermal storage, FB – Flow Battery, AC – Absorption Chiller, ST – solar thermal system, PV – photovoltaic.

Stadler, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory (PSEL) Sandia-Electric Power Research Institute Partnership Publishes Photovoltaic Reliability Report On January 21, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, Grid Integration,...

193

SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A presentation sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy about using solar photovoltaics (PV) systems to provide electricity for homes.

194

Solar Photovoltaics Technology: The Revolution Begins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The prospects of solar-photovoltaic (PV) technologies are envisioned, arguing this electricity source is at a tipping point in the complex, worldwide energy outlook. The emphasis of...

Kazmerski, Lawrence L

195

Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

can consistently perform over time, the DOE -in ... Second Annual Electric Power Research InstituteSandia Photovoltaic Systems Symposium On April 15, 2014, in...

196

Photovoltaic Geographical Information System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaic Geographical Information System Photovoltaic Geographical Information System Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Photovoltaic Geographical Information System Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Opportunity Assessment & Screening Website: re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/photovoltaic-geographical-information Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration & Implementation This tool provides a geographical inventory of solar energy resources and an assessment of the electricity generation from photovoltaic systems in Europe, Africa, and southwest Asia. The tools allows for analysis of the technical, environmental, and socio-economic factors of solar electricity generation. Users may access maps and posters generated using the tool, as

197

Rapid screening buffer layers in photovoltaics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method of testing electrical impedance of a multiplicity of regions of a photovoltaic surface includes providing a multi-tipped impedance sensor with a multiplicity of spaced apart impedance probes separated by an insulating material, wherein each impedance probe includes a first end adapted for contact with a photovoltaic surface and a second end in operable communication with an impedance measuring device. The multi-tipped impedance sensor is used to contact the photovoltaic surface and electrical impedance of the photovoltaic material is measured between individual first ends of the probes to characterize the quality of the photovoltaic surface.

List, III, Frederick Alyious; Tuncer, Enis

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

198

EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org DOI: 10.1051/epjpv/2011001 c Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2011 EPJ PhotovoltaicsEPJ Photovoltaics Geometrical optimization and electrical online: 1 April 2011 Abstract This article investigates the optimal efficiency of a photovoltaic system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the thermoelectric module, and the water cooling tubes. Tothermoelectric module, combined with the thermal power transferred by the water cooling

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

Not Available

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Novel materials, computational spectroscopy, and multiscale simulation in nanoscale photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells convert solar energy to electricity using combinations of semiconducting sunlight absorbers and metallic materials as electrical contacts. Novel nanoscale materials introduce new paradigms for ...

Bernardi, Marco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Design of Photovoltaics e-bikes charging station:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It is a project about designing a photovoltaics charging station for electrical bikes and scooters, which can facilitate electrical bike user and promote sustainable way… (more)

Zhao, Y.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS--  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

know that solar energy is environ- mentally attractive--and that photovoltaic or PV systems have made's electrical output matches well with patterns of energy use in commercial buildings, promoting effective convey tax advantages, such as accelerated depreciation and a federal income tax credit. M ost people

Perez, Richard R.

204

Nanostructures in photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reducing carbon dioxide emissions is solar photovoltaics, which uses sunlight...electricity needs from an array of solar panels of approximately 33km-smaller than...5 years. Since the early silicon solar cells in the 1950s, which had efficiencies...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel Make solar cells more efficient Theoretical energy conversion efficiency limit of single junction-bandgap photons are not absorbed: Carrier relaxation to band edges: Photon energy exceeding bandgap is lost

Glashausser, Charles

206

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, suchenergy production. It would require a substantial amount of land usage to install enough solar

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials has improved tremendously over the past decade. The intrinsic thermal and electrical properties of state-of-the-art TE materials demonstrate that the potential ...

James R. Salvador; Jung Y. Cho; Zuxin Ye…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Novel Latent Heat Storage Devices for Thermal Management of Electric Vehicle Battery Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A major aspect for safe and efficient operation of battery electric vehicles (BEV) is the thermal management of their battery systems. As temperature uniformity and level highly ... performance and the lifetime, ...

Ch. Huber; A. Jossen; R. Kuhn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Heat transfer and thermal management of electric vehicle batteries with phase change materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines a passive thermal management system for electric vehicle batteries, consisting of encapsulated phase change material ( ... process to absorb the heat generated by a battery. A new configuratio...

M. Y. Ramandi; I. Dincer; G. F. Naterer

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Quantum-coupled single-electron thermal to electric conversion scheme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal to electric energy conversion with thermophotovoltaics relies on radiation emitted by a hot body, which limits the power per unit area to that of a blackbody. Microgap thermophotovoltaics take advantage of evanescent ...

Wu, D. M.

211

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) mahines, Sterling engines,Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system or Sterling Engine (SE)an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system generates electricity

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity, such as steam engines or gas turbines. Typicalsystems, a sterling engine or steam turbine is typicallysuch as a steam turbine or sterling engine connected to an

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Photovoltaic Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Resources and Technologies Photovoltaic Resources and Technologies Photovoltaic Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 9:22am Addthis Graphic of the eTraining logo Training Available Selecting, Implementing, and Funding Photovoltaic Systems in Federal Facilities: Learn how to select, implement, and fund a photovoltaic system by taking this FEMP eTraining course. This page provides a brief overview of photovoltaic (PV) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply PV within the Federal sector. Overview Photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into electricity. Systems typically include a PV module or array made of individual PV cells installed on or near a building or other structure. A power inverter converts the direct current (DC) electricity produced by the PV cells to alternative current

214

Organic Photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Satisfying the world's growing demand for energy is an urgent societal challenge. Organic photovoltaics holds promise as a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly solution.

Kippelen, Bernard

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Solar electric systems  

SciTech Connect

Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

Warfield, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and permeability of saturated soils at various porosities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Ottawa Sand . 4. Thermal Conductivity Data Analysis 5. Thermal Conductivity of Reference Materials 6. DC Resistivity Data with Plate Electrode System for Kaolinite at Porosity of 49% PAGE 48 52 54 66 71 AC Resistivity Data for Kaolinite... THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY, AND PERMEABILITY OF SATURATED SOILS AT VARIOUS POROSITIES A Thesis by JAMES KEITH ENDERBY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement...

Enderby, James Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

217

Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Ge/Si Quantum Dot Superlattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Good carrier mobility and electric con- ductivity are important for thermoelectric materials where-Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, USA Recently proposed thermoelectric applications of quantum dot superlattices made of different material systems depend crucially on the values of the electrical and thermal

218

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exhaust (CO 2 ) Grid electricity Cogen Heat Natural gas Airutility grid, 2) re-use of thermal energy “waste heat” forGrid electricity Exhaust (CO 2 ) Recycled Reformate Natural gas Air Water H2 Purifier Source: Weinert, 2005 Cogen Heat

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Basics Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:47pm Addthis Text Version Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity. First used in about 1890, "photovoltaic" has two parts: photo, derived from the Greek word for light, and volt, relating to electricity pioneer Alessandro Volta. And this is what photovoltaic materials and devices do-they convert light energy into electrical energy, as French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered as early as 1839. Becquerel discovered the process of using sunlight to produce an electric current in a solid material. But it took more than another century to truly

220

FEMP--Photovoltaics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaics is a technology that converts radiant Photovoltaics is a technology that converts radiant light energy (photo) to electricity (voltaics). Photo- voltaic (PV) cells are the basic building blocks of this energy technology. PV cells (also called solar cells) are made of semicon- ductor materials, most typically silicon. The amount of electricity a PV cell produces depends on its size, its conversion efficiency (see box on reverse), and the intensity of the light source. Sunlight is the most common source of the energy used by PV cells to produce an electric current. It takes just a few PV cells to produce enough elec- tricity to power a small watch or solar calculator. For more power, cells are connected together to form larger units called modules. Modules, in turn, are connected to form arrays, and arrays can be

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of building integrated photovoltaics on microclimateof a building's integrated-photovoltaics on heating a n dgaps for building- integrated photovoltaics, Solar Energy

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guides New Photovoltaic Requirements On January 8, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar, Systems Analysis Sandia's Photovoltaic (PV)...

223

Canrom Photovoltaics Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Canrom Photovoltaics Inc Canrom Photovoltaics Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Canrom Photovoltaics Inc Place Niagara Falls, New York Zip 14305 Sector Solar Product Developer of a thin-film CdTe based solar electric module. References Canrom Photovoltaics Inc[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Canrom Photovoltaics Inc is a company located in Niagara Falls, New York . References ↑ "Canrom Photovoltaics Inc" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Canrom_Photovoltaics_Inc&oldid=343203" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties

224

NREL: Learning - Photovoltaics for Small Business  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaics for Small Business Photovoltaics for Small Business Photo of a factory with a photovoltaic system. This furniture factory in Massachusetts uses a photovoltaic system to generate its own electricity. The following resources will help your small business install a photovoltaic (PV) system. If you are unfamiliar with PV systems, see the introduction to PV. Resources American Solar Energy Society Provides consumers with information about solar energy and resources. Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency Provides information on state, local, utility, and selected federal incentives that promote renewable energy. Florida Solar Energy Center The Florida Solar Energy Center provides basic information on photovoltaics for consumers. Own Your Power! A Consumer Guide to Solar Electricity

225

Multi-scale electrical and thermal properties of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a potential new component to be incorporated into existing aerospace structural composites for multi-functional (mechanical, electrical, thermal, etc.) property enhancement and tailoring. ...

Yamamoto, Namiko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

High electric field effects on the thermal generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the electric field dependence of the electron-hole thermal generation process in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. A model was developed which takes into account the Poole-Frenkel effect and the thermally assisted tunneling. In order to explain the experimental results it was necessary to consider a strong electron-lattice interaction describing the carrier tunneling mechanism. Deep defects relaxation is also discussed.

Ilie, A.; Equer, B.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Analysis of combined cooling, heating, and power systems under a compromised electric–thermal load strategy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Following the electric load (FE) and following the thermal load (FT) strategies both have advantages and disadvantages for combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems. In this paper, the performance of different strategies is evaluated under operation cost (OC), carbon dioxide emission (CDE) and exergy efficiency (EE). Analysis of different loads in one hour is conducted under the assumption that the additional electricity is not allowed to be sold back to the grid. The results show that FE produces less OC, less CDE, and FT produces higher EE when the electric load is larger. However, FE produces less OC, less CDE and higher EE when the thermal load is larger. Based on a hybrid electric–thermal load (HET) strategy, compromised electric–thermal (CET) strategies are innovatively proposed using the efficacy coefficient method. Additional, the CCHP system of a hotel in Tianjin is analyzed for all of the strategies. The results for an entire year indicate the first CET strategy is the optimal one when dealing with OC, CDE and EE. And the second CET is the optimal one when dealing with OC and EE. Moreover, the laws are strictly correct for different buildings in qualitative terms.

Gang Han; Shijun You; Tianzhen Ye; Peng Sun; Huan Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microelectronic Photovoltaics On June 13, 2012, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Sandia National Laboratories semiconductor engineer...

229

Analysis of the Potential Applications of Solar Termal and Photovoltaic Systems for Northwest Vista College  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the following RE technologies as viable: ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems, closed loop solar thermal system and photovoltaic (PV)....

Ugursal, A.; Martinez, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Zilbershtein, G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Potential Impact of ZT = 4 Thermoelectric Materials on Solar Thermal Energy Conversion Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photovoltaic and solar-thermal are two conversion technologies receiving a great deal of attention. ... Solar-thermal conversion uses the full solar spectrum and generates electricity by conventional electromagnetic induction methods. ... Resource and environmental impact considerations will play an increasingly important role in reaching decisions concerning the practicality of thermoelectric power generation systems. ...

Ming Xie; Dieter M. Gruen

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

231

Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in wholesale energy markets. Progress in Photovoltaics:The Economics of Energy Market Transformation Programs. TheCalifornia's current energy market, for example, allows

Darghouth, Naim Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CA. Itron, Inc, 2012. CPUC California Solar Initiative; 2010The Solar Alliance, The California Solar Energy IndustriesRates Undermine California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies? (

Darghouth, Naim Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on Electricity Bill Savings From Residential Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrated solar power (CSP), and wind penetrations in theis met by wind, solar PV, concentrating solar power with 6schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in

Barbose, Galen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Photovoltaic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Photovoltaic solar system connected to the electric power grid operating as active power generator and reactive power compensator  

SciTech Connect

In the case of photovoltaic (PV) systems acting as distributed generation (DG) systems, the DC energy that is produced is fed to the grid through the power-conditioning unit (inverter). The majority of contemporary inverters used in DG systems are current source inverters (CSI) operating at unity power factor. If, however, we assume that voltage source inverters (VSI) can replace CSIs, we can generate reactive power proportionally to the remaining unused capacity at any given time. According to the theory of instantaneous power, the inverter reactive power can be regulated by changing the amplitude of its output voltage. In addition, the inverter active power can be adjusted by modifying the phase angle of its output voltage. Based on such theory, both the active power supply and the reactive power compensation (RPC) can be carried out simultaneously. When the insolation is weak or the PV modules are inoperative at night, the RPC feature of a PV system can still be used to improve the inverter utilisation factor. Some MATLAB simulation results are included here to show the feasibility of the method. (author)

Albuquerque, Fabio L.; Moraes, Adelio J.; Guimaraes, Geraldo C.; Sanhueza, Sergio M.R.; Vaz, Alexandre R. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia-MG, CEP 38400-902 (Brazil)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Electrical Bias as an Alternate Method for Reproducible Measurement of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Light-to-dark metastable changes in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can introduce uncertainty when measuring module performance on indoor flash testing equipment. This study describes a method to stabilize module performance through forward-bias current injection rather than light exposure. Measurements of five pairs of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) PV modules indicate that forward-bias exposure maintained the PV modules at a stable condition (within 1%) while the unbiased modules degraded in performance by up to 12%. It was additionally found that modules exposed to forward bias exhibited stable performance within about 3% of their long-term outdoor exposed performance. This carrier-injection method provides a way to reduce uncertainty arising from fast transients in thin-film module performance between the time a module is removed from light exposure and when it is measured indoors, effectively simulating continuous light exposure by injecting minority carriers that behave much as photocarriers do. This investigation also provides insight into the initial light-induced transients of thin-film modules upon outdoor deployment.

Deline, C.; Stokes, A.; Silverman, T. J.; Rummel, S.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovoltaic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual...

238

Thermal and electrical properties of porphyrin derivatives and their relevance for molecule interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of thermal and electrical properties for two porphyrin derivatives. They determine their sublimation enthalpy in physics and chemistry.1 They are of interest because of their numerous potential applications from of the molecules at 650 K. II. MOLECULAR SUBLIMATION ENTHALPIES In order to determine the sublimation properties

239

Experimental investigation of battery thermal management system for electric vehicle based on paraffin/copper foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To enhance the heat transfer of phase change material in battery thermal management system for electric vehicle, a battery thermal management system by using paraffin/copper foam was designed and experimentally investigated in this paper. The thermal performances of the system such as temperature reduction and distribution are discussed in detail. The results showed that the local temperature difference in both a single cell and battery module were increased with the increase of discharge current, and obvious fluctuations of local temperature difference can be observed when the electric vehicle is in road operating state. When the battery is discharging at constant current, the maximum temperature and local temperature difference of the battery module with paraffin/copper foam was lower than 45 °C and 5 °C, respectively. After the battery thermal management system was assembled in electric vehicle, the maximum temperature and local temperature difference in road operating state was lower than 40 °C and 3 °C, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that paraffin/copper foam coupled battery thermal management presented an excellent cooling performance.

Zhonghao Rao; Yutao Huo; Xinjian Liu; Guoqing Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

SunShot Initiative: Photovoltaics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaics Photovoltaics The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aggressively supports development of low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) technologies through the SunShot Initiative, which seeks to make solar electricity cost-competitive with other sources of energy by 2020. Get the Adobe Flash Player to see this video. Text Alternative The DOE SunShot Program advances PV efforts by: Funding research and development in multiple photovoltaic technologies Awarding funds to PV projects with industry partners like solar companies, universities, and national laboratories through a competitive process. Learn more about ways DOE is advancing concentrating solar power R&D, reducing grid integration costs and technology risks, and reducing soft costs associated with solar installations.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Feature extraction and classification for detecting the thermal faults in electrical installations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper proposed an effort to investigate the suitability of input features and classifier for identifying thermal faults within electrical installations. The features are extracted from the thermal images of electrical equipment and classified using a multilayered perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM). In the experiments, the classification performances from various input features are evaluated. The commonly used classification performance indices, including sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, area under curve (AUC), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and F-score are employed to identify the most suitable input feature as well as the best configuration of classifiers. The experimental results demonstrate that the combination of features set Tmax, Tdelta and \\{DTbg\\} produce the best input feature for thermal fault detection. In addition, the implementation of SVM using radial basis kernel function (RBF) produces slightly better performance than the MLP artificial neural network.

Mohd Shawal Jadin; Soib Taib; Kamarul Hawari Ghazali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Techno-economic analysis of a small size short range EES (electric energy storage) system for a PV (photovoltaic) plant serving a SME (small and medium enterprise) in a given regulatory context  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Considering the case of small-medium size plants based on PV (photovoltaic), an analysis was developed in order to model, simulate and optimize an electricity storage system to be coupled to a small photovoltaic plant applied to an industry load, to calculate its profitability in a given regulatory context. The case study is the current Italian electricity market. The analysis was done on a small industrial plant in the area of Torino (North-West Italy), with its own photovoltaic plant connected to the public electrical grid. After an analysis of the present situation, the aim of the analysis is to understand the behaviour, from an economic point of view, of the self-consumption of renewable energy in case of a sudden deregulation of the market (switch off of feed in tariffs or RES (renewable energy system) kWh). The study includes a sensitivity analysis of the main technical and economic parameters in order to identify which of them have the greatest influence on economic performance, and therefore which parameters have to be considered with special care by the producers (technical and economic parameters) and the regulatory authorities (regulations) to decide and optimize the adoption of storage systems as a way to sustain the massive introduction of RES in the energy arena.

R. Scozzari; M. Santarelli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Innovative approaches to improve bulk heterojuction organic photovoltaic device performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis we studied the electrical properties of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices fabricated using a variety of conjugated polymers, including regioregular P3HT,… (more)

Zhang, Ye

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of poly(thiophene)s.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The utilisation of conducting polymers for photovoltaic applications represents the possibility of low-cost production of solar electricity. The chemical modification of the precursors used to… (more)

Tsekouras, George

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

Mosher, D.M.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

246

Spin-dependent thermal and electrical transport in a spin-valve system  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of Bu{close_quotes}ttiker{close_quote}s gauge invariant and charge conservation dc transport theory, the spin-dependent thermal and electrical transport in a ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junction is investigated at finite bias voltage and finite temperature. It is observed that the relative orientations of magnetizations in the two ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes as well as temperature have remarkable effects on the differential conductance, thermopower, Peltier effect, and thermal conductivity. At low temperature the quantum resonant tunneling is predominant, leading to the deviation of classical transport theory, while the transport of electrons are crucially governed by thermal processes at high temperature. The so-called spin-valve phenomenon is clearly uncovered for both the differential conductance and the thermal conductivity at low temperature. The Wiedemann-Franz law is examined, and the inelastic tunneling spectroscopy is also discussed. Our findings are expected to be measured in the near future.

Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Su, Gang; Gao, Song

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Comparing solar PV (photovoltaic) with coal-fired electricity production in the centralized network of South Africa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract South Africa has a highly centralized network, in which almost all electricity is produced in Mpumalanga and transmitted throughout South Africa. In the case of the Western Cape, electricity has to be transmitted over 800–1370 km. This generates losses and entails high transmission costs. Investments in additional production and transmission capacity are needed to cope with the growing demand. Although there is a large potential for solar energy in South Africa, investments are lacking while large investments in new coal-fired power plants are being executed. These coal power plants do not only increase the need for heavier transmission infrastructure, but also have a higher CO2 emission level and a higher pressure on water reserves. This paper performs a more comprehensive cost-analysis between solar energy production and coal production facilities, to make a more elaborate picture of which technologies are more plausible to foresee in the growing demand of electricity. The current centralized electricity infrastructure makes the investment in large production facilities more likely. However, it should be questioned if the investment in large centralized solar parks will be more beneficial than the investments by consumers in smaller solar PV facilities on site.

R.A.F. de Groot; V.G. van der Veen; A.B. Sebitosi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Evaluation of the Effects of Thermal Management on Battery Life in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Tugce Yuksel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of the Effects of Thermal Management on Battery Life in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles a simulation model that aims to evaluate the effect of thermal management on battery life. The model consists of two sub- models: a thermal model and a battery degradation model. The temperature rise in the battery

Michalek, Jeremy J.

249

Spin-dependent thermal and electrical transport in a spin-valve system Zheng-Chuan Wang,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spin-dependent thermal and electrical transport in a spin-valve system Zheng-Chuan Wang,1 Gang Su,1 governed by thermal processes at high temperature. The so-called spin-valve phenomenon is clearly uncovered, the quantum size effect on the thermal conduc- tance and the Peltier coefficient,2 the diffusive thermopower

Gao, Song

250

Qualitative thermal characterization and cooling of lithium batteries for electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper deals with the cooling of batteries. The first step was the thermal characterization of a single cell of the module, which consists in the detection of the thermal field by means of thermographic tests during electric charging and discharging. The purpose was to identify possible critical hot points and to evaluate the cooling demand during the normal operation of an electric car. After that, a study on the optimal configuration to obtain the flattening of the temperature profile and to avoid hot points was executed. An experimental plant for cooling capacity evaluation of the batteries, using air as cooling fluid, was realized in our laboratory in ENEA Casaccia. The plant is designed to allow testing at different flow rate and temperatures of the cooling air, useful for the assessment of operative thermal limits in different working conditions. Another experimental facility was built to evaluate the thermal behaviour changes with water as cooling fluid. Experimental tests were carried out on the LiFePO4 batteries, under different electric working conditions using the two loops. In the future, different type of batteries will be tested and the influence of various parameters on the heat transfer will be assessed for possible optimal operative solutions.

A Mariani; F D'Annibale; G Boccardi; G P Celata; C Menale; R Bubbico; F Vellucci

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Advanced battery thermal management for electrical-drive vehicles using reciprocating cooling flow and spatial-resolution, lumped-capacitance thermal model.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The thermal management of traction battery systems for electrical-drive vehicles directly affects vehicle dynamic performance, long-term durability and cost of the battery systems. The… (more)

Mahamud, Rajib

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Utility Aspects of Photovoltaics in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First of all, mention is made of the interest that electric utilities might have in using photovoltaic systems, in the not-to-distant future, to supply isolated houses and small communities that, for technical...

G. P. Pacati; A. Taschini

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Photovoltaic module start-up for the International Space Station  

SciTech Connect

The International Space Station (ISS) US On-Orbit Segment Electric Power System (EPS) uses four photovoltaic modules (PVMs). Each PVM consists of solar array wings (SAW) for converting solar flux to electric power, nickel-hydrogen batteries for electric energy storage, electronic boxes for electric voltage control and power switching, and a thermal control system (TCS) for maintaining selected PVM components within their normal operating temperature ranges. Each PVM consists of two independent power channels, which are started sequentially. The start-up consists of deploying the SAW and photovoltaic radiator (PVR), initialization and check out of all hardware, thermally conditioning batteries, and charging batteries. After start-up, each PVM power channel is able to generate, store, and distribute electric power to ISS loads. Electric power to support start-up of the first PVM is provided by the NSTS via two auxiliary power converter units (APCUs), one per channel. During sunlit periods, the SAW provides power for the battery heaters (for thermal conditioning, as needed) and battery charging. During eclipse periods, the APCU maintains the channel in a standby mode. After start-up is complete, the APCU is disconnected and the PVM operates independently. The process used to start-up the first PVM on the ISS is described in this paper. Procedures used to bring dormant batteries to their normal operating temperature range and then to charge them to 100% state of charge (SOC) are also described. Total time required to complete start-up and the APCU power required during start-up are computed and compared to the requirements.

Hajela, G.P.; Hague, L.M. [Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

NREL Center for Photovoltaics  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%?about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

256

CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION FOR INSTALLING A PHOTOVOLTAIC  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

-PNSO-0657 -PNSO-0657 CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION FOR INSTALLING A PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER GENERATION ARRAY AND ELECTRIC CAR CHARGING STATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL MOLECULAR SCIENCES LABORATORY, PACIFIC NORTHWEST SITE OFFICE, RICHLAND, WASHINGTON Proposed Action The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) proposes to install a photovoltaic power generation array and electric car charging stations. Location of Action The proposed action would occur in a landscaped infiltration swale located immediately

257

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Electricity Generation. J. Ind...costs of photovoltaic systems...2005) Environmental Impact of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Module Production...electricity generation technologies...concentrating solar power plants...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS INTO PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE CONTRACTS IN DELAWARE FINAL for Energy and Environmental Policy University of Delaware February 2006 #12;INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC..................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Photovoltaics in Performance Contracts: An Overview

Delaware, University of

259

Thermal–electrical analogy for simulations of superconducting fault current limiters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In spite of the recent advances achieved with superconducting fault current limiters (SCFCL’s), modeling and simulation of such devices are still important issues. There are different approaches for modeling SCFCL’s, whereas computational simulations provide a better understanding of the behavior of SCFCL devices. In addition, results of hard experimental access may be achieved by means of computational simulation. The aim of this paper is to present a simple computational model to predict both the electrical and thermal behaviors of SCFCL devices. The main contribution of the present work is the use of a thermal–electrical analogy to solve the heat transfer equations inside SCFCL sub-components, which enables one to handle with relative easy the strong and nonlinear coupling between thermal and electrical phenomena. The limitation and quenching behavior of a resistive SCFCL assembly was investigated for overcurrents up to 67 kArms (Vo = 1 kVrms). Simulation results were compared to overcurrent experimental tests. A good agreement between simulations and tests has been found in the present work. Moreover, the results of the developed model were also compared with finite element results reported in the literature.

W.T.B. de Sousa; A. Polasek; R. Dias; C.F.T. Matt; R. de Andrade Jr.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Evaluation of distributed building thermal energy storage in conjunction with wind and solar electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Energy storage is often seen as necessary for the electric utility systems with large amounts of solar or wind power generation to compensate for the inability to schedule these facilities to match power demand. This study looks at the potential to use building thermal energy storage as a load shifting technology rather than traditional electric energy storage. Analyses are conducted using hourly electric load, temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation data for a 5-state central U.S. region in conjunction with simple computer simulations and economic models to evaluate the economic benefit of distributed building thermal energy storage (TES). The value of the TES is investigated as wind and solar power generation penetration increases. In addition, building side and smart grid enabled utility side storage management strategies are explored and compared. For a relative point of comparison, batteries are simulated and compared to TES. It is found that cooling TES value remains approximately constant as wind penetration increases, but generally decreases with increasing solar penetration. It is also clearly shown that the storage management strategy is vitally important to the economic value of TES; utility side operating methods perform with at least 75% greater value as compared to building side management strategies. In addition, TES compares fairly well against batteries, obtaining nearly 90% of the battery value in the base case; this result is significant considering TES can only impact building thermal loads, whereas batteries can impact any electrical load. Surprisingly, the value of energy storage does not increase substantially with increased wind and solar penetration and in some cases it decreases. This result is true for both TES and batteries and suggests that the tie between load shifting energy storage and renewable electric power generation may not be nearly as strong as typically thought.

Byron W. Jones; Robert Powell

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Development of a commercial photovoltaic concentrator module  

SciTech Connect

The ojective of this work was to develop the design and prototype of a commercial high-concentration photovoltaic (PV) module. The design is for a 282-sun point-focus concentrating module. Most of the components, subassemblies, and design features incorporate simplifications and ease of manufacturing. The Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) module is designed to incorporate high-efficiency, single-crystal silicon PV cells. The housing is made with aluminum laminated for voltage stand-off and simultaneously providing high thermal conductivity. The Fresnel lens injection molded by American Optical (AO) as singles. The cell assembly consists of a copper heat spreader, a photovoltaic cell soldered, a top and bottom contact, and a reflective secondary optical element (SOE). The cell assemblies passed all of the initial electrical characterization and high-potential tests. Under environmental cycling, the only bond that failed was the PV cell-to-heat spreader interface. The other components (top contact, bottom contact, SOE) passed all the environmental cycling tests. The cell assemblies were designed to be mounted onto the receiver section with a thermally conductive RTV. This geometry was subjected to environmental testing. There was no delamination of this bond nor was there electrical breakdown when the assemblies were subjected to the hi-pot test. A mock module was fabricated for environmental evaluation. This module was subjected to the humidity/freeze cycling to assess the performance of the lens mounting design. This module was also subjected to the rain test after the humidity/freeze cycling and checked for water leaks. The lens showed small displacement from its original position after the environmental cycling. One tablespoon of water did collect inside the module.

Saifee, S.T.; Hutchison, G. [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Maximum wind energy contribution in autonomous electrical grids based on thermal power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greek islands cover their continuously increasing electricity demand on the basis of small autonomous thermal power stations. This electrification solution is related with increased operational cost and power insufficiency, especially during summer. On the other hand, the stochastic behaviour of the wind and the important fluctuations of daily and seasonal electricity load in almost all Greek islands pose a substantial penetration limit for the exploitation of the high wind potential of the area. In this context, the present study is concentrated on developing an integrated methodology which can estimate the maximum wind energy contribution to the existing autonomous electrical grids, using the appropriate stochastic analysis. For this purpose one takes into account the electrical demand probability density profile of every island under investigation as well as the operational characteristics of the corresponding thermal power stations. Special attention is paid in order to protect the existing internal combustion engines from unsafe operation below their technical minima as well as to preserve the local system active power reserve and the corresponding dynamic stability. In order to increase the reliability of the results obtained, one may use extensive information for several years. Finally, the proposed study is integrated with an appropriate parametrical analysis, investigating the impact of the main parameters variation on the expected maximum wind energy contribution.

J.K. Kaldellis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sandia's solar photovoltaic (PV) work is focused on developing cost-effective, reliable photovoltaic energy systems and accelerating the integration of PV technology in the...

264

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

success. The following events and meetings are of interest to partners of NREL Photovoltaics (PV) Research and the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV). Printable Version...

265

NREL: Learning - Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player This video provides an overview of NREL's research in solar photovoltaic technology. Text Version Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect. The PV effect was discovered in 1954, when scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Today, thousands of people power their homes and businesses with individual

266

Thin film photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

267

Thin film photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Basic photovoltaic principles and methods  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Electrical-Thermal-Structural Coupled Finite Element Model of High Temperature Superconductor for Resistive Type Fault Current Limiters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multi-physics finite element model of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) will be presented in this article. The electrical-thermal model is mainly based on Maxwell’s equation and basic heat transfer equa...

J. Sheng; Y. Chen; B. Lin; L. Ying; Z. Jin…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Transient modeling and validation of lithium ion battery pack with air cooled thermal management system for electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A transient numerical model of a lithium ion battery (LiB) pack with air cooled thermal management system is developed and validated for electric vehicle applications. In the battery model, the open circuit volta...

G. Y. Cho; J. W. Choi; J. H. Park; S. W. Cha

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Photovoltaic Potential and Insolation Maps (Canada) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaic Potential and Insolation Maps (Canada) Photovoltaic Potential and Insolation Maps (Canada) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Photovoltaic Potential and Insolation Maps (Canada) Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: glfc.cfsnet.nfis.org/mapserver/pv/pvmapper.phtml?LAYERS=2700,2701,2057 Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/photovoltaic-potential-and-insolation Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: Net Metering & Interconnection These interactive maps give estimates of the electricity that can be generated by grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) arrays without batteries and of the mean daily global insolation for any location in Canada. Insolation data was provided by the Data Analysis and Archive Division, Meteorological

272

Photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

SciTech Connect

This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

Chiang, C.J.

1991-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

273

List of Ocean Thermal Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Incentives Thermal Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 96 Ocean Thermal Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 96) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Business Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Agricultural Commercial Industrial Utility Anaerobic Digestion Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Ocean Thermal Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Small Wind Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Tidal Energy Wave Energy Wind energy Yes CCEF - Project 150 Initiative (Connecticut) State Grant Program Connecticut Commercial Solar Thermal Electric

274

2014 Electricity Form Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electricity data collection in 2014 via the following survey forms: Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report" Form EIA-411, "Coordinated Bulk Power Supply...

275

Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity derived from solar thermal energy is limited byto the generation of thermal energy (solar thermal).

Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Solar photovoltaic residence in Carlisle, Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

The first solar photovoltaic house designed and constructed under the US Department of Energy's Solar Photovoltaic Residential Project has been completed. The house, which is powered by a 7-kWp PV system, will be used to assess the occupants' acceptance of and reactions to residential photovoltaic systems and to familiarize utilities, builders, developers, town building officials and others with issues concerning photovoltaic installations. The house is located on a two-acre lot in Carlisle, approximately twenty miles northwest of Boston. Built by a local architect/developer team, the house includes energy conservation and passive solar features. It utilizes a roof-mounted, flat-plate PV array which operates in a two-way energy exchange mode with the electric utility. The energy conservation and passive solar features of this house are described and a detailed description of the utility-interactive photovoltaic system is presented, along with initial performance data.

Strong, S. J.; Nichols, B. E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

NREL: Learning - Photovoltaics for Homes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Homes Homes Photo of solar panels on the roof of a traditional looking home in Colorado. Photovoltaic solar panels installed on the roof of a home in Boulder, Colorado. The following resources will help you install a photovoltaic (PV) system on your home. If you are unfamiliar with PV systems, see the introduction to PV. Resources American Solar Energy Society Provides consumers with information about solar energy and resources. Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency Provides information on state, local, utility, and selected federal incentives that promote renewable energy. Florida Solar Energy Center Provides basic information on photovoltaics for consumers. Own Your Power! A Consumer Guide to Solar Electricity The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) answers consumer questions about PV and

278

Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and gas-turbines, fuel cells, heat exchangers, absorption chillers, stationary electricity storage, photovoltaic panels, solar

Cardoso, Goncalo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

List of Geothermal Electric Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electric Incentives Electric Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 1258 Geothermal Electric Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-1000) CSV (rows 1001-1258) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 401 Certification (Vermont) Environmental Regulations Vermont Utility Industrial Biomass/Biogas Coal with CCS Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy Small Hydroelectric Nuclear Yes APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas Other Distributed Generation Technologies Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Solar Pool Heating Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Process Heat

280

Nanostructured photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III–V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the III–V quantum well superlattice and quantum dot solar cells, Si quantum dot tandem cells, nanostructure-enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells and nanopatterned organic solar cells. We thank all the authors and reviewers for their contribution to this special issue. Special thanks are due to the journal's Publisher, Dr Olivia Roche and the editorial and publishing staff for their help and support.

Lan Fu; H Hoe Tan; Chennupati Jagadish

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The resource of biomethane, produced via biological, thermal and electrical routes, as a transport biofuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomethane is an energy vector suitable for renewable transport fuel which may derive energy through three different methodologies: thermal gasification; biological anaerobic digestion; and conversion of electricity to hydrogen (via electrolysis) and on to methane as described by the Sabatier Equation. Thermal gasification to produce methane (based on “hard” feed stock) tends to require significant scale, of the order of 400 MW. Biological anaerobic digestion (based on “soft” feed stock) is typically of scale less than 1 MW. Systems based on the Sabatier Equation convert hydrogen to methane exothermically and sequester carbon. The resource is assessed at 19% of energy in transport in Ireland. Adopting the approach of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (for example double credit for biofuels from residues and lignocellulosic feed stock) biomethane can supply 40% renewable energy supply in transport (RES-T). The resource is sufficient to supply 30% of the private transport fleet with indigenous sustainable gaseous biofuel.

Jerry D. Murphy; James Browne; Eoin Allen; Cathal Gallagher

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Theory of interparticle correlations in dense, high-temperature plasmas. V. Electric and thermal conductivities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the basis of the quantum-statistical formulation of electronic transport, we calculate the electric and thermal conductivities of plasmas in a wide range of densities and temperatures where it is essential to take into account the varied degrees of electron degeneracy and local-field corrections describing the strong Coulomb-coupling effects. The physical implications of the results are investigated through comparison with other theories and experiments. For utility in the practical applications, we derive the analytic formulas parametrizing the computed results accurately for the generalized Coulomb logarithms appearing in those conductivities.

Setsuo Ichimaru and Shigenori Tanaka

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Photovoltaic solar concentrator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

284

Future contingencies and photovoltaic system worth  

SciTech Connect

The value of dispersed photovoltaic systems connected to the utility grid has been calculated using the General Electric Optimized Generation Planning program. The 1986 to 2001 time period was used for this study. Photovoltaic systems were dynamically integrated, up to 5% total capacity, into 9 NERC based regions under a range of future fuel and economic contingencies. Value was determined by the change in revenue requirements due to the photovoltaic additions. Displacement of high cost fuel was paramount to value, while capacity displacement was highly variable and dependent upon regional fuel mix.

Jones, G. J.; Thomas, M. G.; Bonk, G. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Extended use of photovoltaic solar panels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of photovoltaic solar panels (and related generation of electric power) can be extended to a 24 hours per day under any environmental condition by equipping them with an artificial source of light with emitting wavelengths matched to the photovoltaic solar panels to be turned on in the absence of sunlight. This source of light can be obtained by heating a mantle to an incandescent temperature via the efficient low polluting combustion of Natural Gas Butane Propane or other gaseous Hydrocarbon fuel.

Guido E. Guazzoni; M. Frank Rose

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Optimal Dispatch of Residential Photovoltaic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Optimal Dispatch of Residential Photovoltaic Inverters Under of existing low- voltage distribution systems with high photovoltaic (PV) gen- eration have focused relaxation techniques. Index Terms--Distribution networks, microgrids, photovoltaic systems, inverter control

Giannakis, Georgios

287

Impact of a 1,000-foot thermal mixing zone on the steam electric power industry  

SciTech Connect

Thermal discharge requirements for power plants using once-through cooling systems are based on state water quality standards for temperatures that must be met outside of designated mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones to no more than 1,000 feet from the discharge point. Data were collected from 79 steam electric plants. Of the plants currently using once-through cooling systems, 74% could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone. Of this total, 68% would retrofit cooling towers, and 6% would retrofit diffusers. The estimated nationwide capital cost for retrofitting plants that could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone is $21.4 billion. Conversion of a plant from once-through cooling to cooling towers or addition of diffusers would result in a lower energy output from that plant. For the affected plants, the total estimated replacement cost would be $370 to $590 million per year. Some power companies would have to construct new generating capacity to meet the increased energy demand. The estimated nationwide cost of this additional capacity would be $1.2 to $4.8 billion. In addition to the direct costs associated with compliance with a 1,000-foot mixing zone limit, other secondary environmental impacts would also occur. Generation of the additional power needed would increase carbon dioxide emissions by an estimated 8.3 million tons per year. In addition, conversion from once-through cooling systems to cooling towers at affected plants would result in increased evaporation of about 2.7 million gallons of water per minute nationwide.

Veil, J.A.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Performance analysis of an integrated CHP system with thermal and Electric Energy Storage for residential application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is the evaluation of the profitability of micro-CHP systems for residential application. An integrated CHP system composed of a prime mover, an Electric Energy Storage system, a thermal storage system and an auxiliary boiler has been considered. The study has been carried out taking into account a particular electrochemical storage system which requires also thermal energy, during its operation, for a better exploitation of the residual heat discharged by the prime mover. The prime mover could be a conventional Internal Combustion Engine or also an innovative system, such as fuel cell or organic Rankine cycle. An investigation of this integrated CHP system has been carried out, by means of an in-house developed calculation code, performing a thermo-economic analysis. This paper provides useful results, in order to define the optimum sizing of components of the integrated CHP system under investigation; the developed code allows also to evaluate the profitability and the primary energy saving with respect to the separate production of electricity and heat.

M. Bianchi; A. De Pascale; F. Melino

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Photovoltaics performance and reliability workshop  

SciTech Connect

This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

Mrig, L. (ed.) [ed.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Photovoltaic waste assessment in Italy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract At present, photovoltaics is, after hydro and wind power, the third most important renewable energy source in terms of its capacity to be globally installed; furthermore, for two years in a row, it was the number one new source of electricity generation installed in the European Union. Italy became the second country in the European Union concerning the cumulative installed power of PV (in 2013, the Italian PV cumulative power reached over 17,620 MW), which was also the result of the very attractive support policy. In connection with this development, the issue has emerged about the treatment and disposal of photovoltaic waste when the operative time (approximately twenty-thirty years) of the photovoltaic systems ended. The European Union, to address this environmental impact, passed the Directive 2012/19/EU to increase the amount of waste of electrical and electronic equipment in the form of photovoltaic panels that have been appropriately collected and treated to reduce the volume that become disposed. This paper aims to provide an assessment of the potential waste arising in Italy from the use and end-of-life phases of these renewable energy systems in the coming years and their disposal and/or recycling. Based on the lifetime of 25 years of photovoltaic panels, the estimate has been referred to two periods of waste generation (2012–2038 and 2039–2050). The importance of managing this flow of waste to enhance the correct disposal of the hazardous substances as well as the importance of the recovery and recycling of valuable resources has also been underlined.

Annarita Paiano

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A Multivariate Moving Average Control Chart for Photovoltaic Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—For the electrical metrics that describe photovoltaic cell performance are inherently multivariate in nature, use of a univariate, or one variable, statistical process control chart can have important limitations. Development of a comprehensive process control strategy is known to be significantly beneficial to reducing process variability that ultimately drives up the manufacturing cost photovoltaic cells. The multivariate moving average or MMA chart, is applied to the electrical metrics of photovoltaic cells to illustrate the improved sensitivity on process variability this method of control charting offers. The result show the ability of the MMA chart to expand to as any variables as needed, suggests an application with multiple photovoltaic electrical metrics being used in concert to determine the processes state of control. Keywords—The multivariate moving average control chart, Photovoltaic processes control, Multivariate system. I.

Chunchom Pongchavalit

292

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and Electricity: Public-Private Partnershipand electricity demands. • Foster Public-Private Partnershipand electricity demands. • Foster Public-Private Partnership

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On September 17, 2012, in MEPV Wins 2012 R&D100 Award On June 20, 2012, in Energy, News, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaics, also...

294

Status of Solar Photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Before our discussions on the technical aspects of solar photovoltaics, we will first review the status of solar photovoltaics. This chapter begins with a review on ... known barrier to large-scale deployment of ...

Meng Tao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Development of a thermal and electrical energy management in residential building micro-grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Global warming and pressing concern about CO2 emission along with increasing fuel and oil cost have brought about great challenges for energy companies and homeowners. In this regard a potential candidate solution is widely used for Distributed Energy Resources which are capable of providing high quality low-cost heat and power to off-grid or remote facilities. To appropriately manage thermal and electrical energy a Smart Energy Management System (SEMS) with hierarchical control scheme has been presented. The developed SEMS model results in mixed integer non-linear programming optimization problem with the objective function of minimizing the operation cost as well as considering emissions. Moreover the optimization problem has been solved for deterministic and stochastic scheduling algorithms. The novelty of this work is basically reliant on using data mining approach to reduce forecasting error. Several case studies have been carried out to evaluate the performance of proposed data mining method on both energy cost and expected cost.

B. Vahidi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

High-performance Si microwire photovoltaics Michael D. Kelzenberg,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-performance Si microwire photovoltaics Michael D. Kelzenberg,a Daniel B. Turner-Evans,a Morgan for low- cost, thin-film photovoltaics. Here, we demonstrate VLS-grown Si microwires that have suitable electrical properties for high-perfor- mance photovoltaic applications, including long minority

Atwater, Harry

297

Thermal and Electrical Analysis of MARS Rover RTG, and Performance Comparison of Alternative Design Options.  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the thermal, thermoelectric and electrical analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the MARS Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The work described was part of an RTG design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company for the U.S. Department of Energy, in support of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's MRSR Project.; A companion paper presented at this conference described a reference mission scenario, al illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, its power system requirements and environmental constraints, a design approach enabling RTG operation in the Martian atmosphere, and the design and the structural and mass analysis of a conservative baseline RTG employing safety-qualified heat source modules and reliability-proven thermoelectric converter elements.; The present paper presents a detailed description of the baseline RTG's thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. It examines the effect of different operating conditions (beginning versus end of mission, water-cooled versus radiation-cooled, summer day versus winter night) on the RTG's performance. Finally, the paper describes and analyzes a number of alternative RTG designs, to determine the effect of different power levels (250W versus 125W), different thermoelectric element designs (standard versus short unicouples versus multicouples) and different thermoelectric figures of merit (0.00058K(superscript -1) to 0.000140K (superscript -1) on the RTG's specific power.; The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost.; There is a duplicate copy and also a duplicate copy in the ESD files.

Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A

1989-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

298

Health and Safety Concerns of Photovoltaic Solar Panels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The generation of electricity from photovoltaic (PV) solar panels is safe and effective. Because PV systems do not burn fossil fuels they do not produce the toxic air or greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil fuel fired generation technologies. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, few power-generating technologies have as little environmental impact as photovoltaic solar

unknown authors

299

A computational analysis of the evaporator/artery of an alkali metal thermal to electric conversion (AMTEC) PX series cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, while minimizing mass. Current technology, such as Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's) are reliable, but do not supply the power conversion efficiencies desired for future space missions. That leads to Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric...-series cells to generate electricity for the deep space vehicle. The higher efficiency of AMTEC compared to other conversion technologies, such as Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's), results in less energy source material being launched...

Pyrtle, Frank

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

Not Available

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PV Facilities On November 10, 2010, in Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory Microsystems and Engineering Sciences Applications...

303

High-performance Si microwire photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline Si wires, grown by the vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) process, have emerged as promising candidate materials for low-cost, thin-film photovoltaics. Here, we demonstrate VLS-grown Si microwires that have suitable electrical properties for high-performance photovoltaic applications, including long minority-carrier diffusion lengths (L{sub n} ? 30 µm) and low surface recombination velocities (S ? 70 cm·s{sup ?1}). Single-wire radial p–n junction solar cells were fabricated with amorphous silicon and silicon nitride surface coatings, achieving up to 9.0% apparent photovoltaic efficiency, and exhibiting up to ~600 mV open-circuit voltage with over 80% fill factor. Projective single-wire measurements and optoelectronic simulations suggest that large-area Si wire-array solar cells have the potential to exceed 17% energy-conversion efficiency, offering a promising route toward cost-effective crystalline Si photovoltaics.

Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Putnam, Morgan C.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Baek, Jae Y; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Multiple-Filled Skutterudites: High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit through Separately Optimizing Electrical and Thermal Transports  

SciTech Connect

Skutterudites CoSb{sub 3} with multiple cofillers Ba, La, and Yb were synthesized and very high thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = 1.7 at 850 K was realized. X-ray diffraction of the densified multiple-filled bulk samples reveals all samples are phase pure. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirm that multiple guest fillers occupy the nanoscale-cages in the skutterudites. The fillers are further shown to be uniformly distributed and the Co-Sb skutterudite framework is virtually unperturbed from atomic scale to a few micrometers. Our results firmly show that high power factors can be realized by adjusting the total filling fraction of fillers with different charge states to reach the optimum carrier density, at the same time, lattice thermal conductivity can also be significantly reduced, to values near the glass limit of these materials, through combining filler species of different rattling frequencies to achieve broad-frequency phonon scattering. Therefore, partially filled skutterudites with multiple fillers of different chemical nature render unique structural characteristics for optimizing electrical and thermal transports in a relatively independent way, leading to continually enhanced ZT values from single- to double-, and finally to multiple-filled skutterudites. The idea of combining multiple fillers with different charge states and rattling frequencies for performance optimization is also expected to be valid for other caged TE compounds.

Zhang, Weiqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yang, Jiong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yang, Jihui [General Motors Corporation; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Shi, Xun [General Motors Corporation-R& D; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Cho, Jung Y [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Modeling of passive thermal management for electric vehicle battery packs with PCM between cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A passive thermal management system is examined for an electric vehicle battery pack. Phase change material (PCM) is infused in foam layers separating the lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells. Known operating conditions lead to selecting a suitable PCM for the application, n-octadecane wax. Suitable porous foam for infusion is decided on through experimentation. Finite volume based simulations are conducted to study the thermal behavior of a 4 cell sub-module. The effect of different discharge rates are compared for this sub-module, with and without the PCM's presence. The results show that the maximum temperature in the system is decreased up to 7.3 K by replacing dry foam with PCM-soaked “wet foam”. The addition of PCM also makes the temperature distribution more uniform across the cells. The modeling results give indication of the quantity of PCM required, show the influence of the transient melt behavior under dynamic operating conditions, and examine design constraints associated with this approach.

N. Javani; I. Dincer; G.F. Naterer; G.L. Rohrauer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Outdoor testing of advanced optical materials for solar thermal electric applications  

SciTech Connect

The development of low-cost, durable advanced optical materials is an important element in making solar energy viable for electricity production. It is important to determine the expected lifetime of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions. The demonstration of the optical durability of such materials in outdoor environments is critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal electric technologies. For many years optical performance data have been collected and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for candidate reflector materials subjected to simulated outdoor exposure conditions. Much of this testing is accelerated in order to predict service durability. Some outdoor testing has occurred but not in a systematic manner. To date, simulated/accelerated testing has been limited correlation with actual outdoor exposure testing. Such a correlation is desirable to provide confidence in lifetime predictions based upon accelerated weathering methods. To obtain outdoor exposure data for realistic environments and to establish a data base for correlating simulated/accelerated outdoor exposure data with actual outdoor exposure data, the development of an expanded outdoor testing program has recently been initiated by NREL. Several outdoor test sites will be selected based on the solar climate, potential for solar energy utilization by industry, and cost of installation. Test results are site dependent because exposure conditions vary with geographical location. The importance of this program to optical materials development is outlined, and the process used to determine and establish the outdoor test sites is described. Candidate material identification and selection is also discussed. 10 refs.

Wendelin, T.J.; Jorgensen, G.; Goggin, R.M.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Photovoltaic applications for remote-island needs  

SciTech Connect

Electric power supply options available to many of the central and south Pacific island governments are severely constrained by remoteness, limited infrastructures, a corrosive natural environment, and the high delivered costs of many conventional energy sources. Photovoltaic energy systems offer a currently available, practical, and cost-effective source of electricity for many stand-alone applications in remote areas of the Pacific. Photovoltaic system definitions and cost analyses are provided for selected applications in the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Territory of American Samoa.

Schaller, D.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Minimum Cost of Photovoltaic Energy for a Utility Grid and General Features of a Generating Plant Using Costless Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the minimum long term cost of electricity produced by future photovoltaic plants connected to a utility grid. As the cost of photovoltaic cells is supposed to drop drama...

Daniel Madet

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

Hebert, Peter H. (Glendale, CA); Brandt, Randolph J. (Palmdale, CA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

310

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Company Partners in Photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Company Partners in Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D Company Partners in Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D More than 40 private-sector companies partnered with NREL on successful efforts within the PV Manufacturing R&D Project. They included manufacturers of crystalline silicon, thin-film, and concentrator solar technologies. The companies are listed below. Advanced Energy Systems Alpha Solarco ASE Americas AstroPower/GE Energy Boeing Aerospace BP Solar Cronar Crystal Systems Dow Corning Energy Conversion Devices Energy Photovoltaics ENTECH Evergreen Solar First Solar Glasstech Solar Global Photovoltaic Specialists Global Solar Energy Golden Photon Iowa Thin Film Technologies ITN Energy Systems Kopin Mobil Solar Energy Omnion Power Engineering Photon Energy Photovoltaics International PowerLight RWE Schott Solar/Schott Solar

311

Electrical, optical, and thermal properties of Sn-doped phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, effect of Sn on the electrical, optical, and thermal properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 is studied. Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1.55Sb2Te5Sn0.45, and Ge1.1Sb2Te5Sn0.9...alloys are prepared by melt quenching technique and ...

Gurinder Singh; Aman Kaura; Monika Mukul; S. K. Tripathi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels.

Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Dugan, Larry M. (Boulder, CO)

1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

313

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Research Staff  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Staff Research Staff Our silicon group members have backgrounds in physics, chemistry, mathematics, materials science, and electrical engineering. Russell Bauer Howard Branz Sachit Grover Vincenzo LaSalvia Benjamin Lee William Nemeth Matt Page Lorenzo Roybal Pauls Stradins, (Acting Group Manager) Charles Teplin Qi Wang David Young Hao-Chih Yuan Photo of 21 people standing in front of a building with a silver, cylinder-shaped structure on one side. Photo of Pauls Stradins Pauls Stradins Senior Scientist II Group Manager Primary Research Interests High-efficiency silicon photovoltaics: advanced passivation techniques and industrially-relevant processes Interfacing Si cell with other materials for high-efficiency tandem Nanostructured semiconductor materials for photovoltaics: Si quantum

314

Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Energy Consumption Patterns of the Rural Photovoltaic Market In Spain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of the energy consumption of photovoltaic-powered rural dwellings in a representative region of Spain. We have measured the actual consumed electrical energy in several dwelling...

A. Krenzinger; M. Montero

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

System Basics System Basics Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis A photovoltaic (PV), or solar electric system, is made up of several photovoltaic solar cells. An individual PV cell is usually small, typically producing about 1 or 2 watts of power. To boost the power output of PV cells, they are connected together to form larger units called modules. Modules, in turn, can be connected to form even larger units called arrays, which can be interconnected to produce more power, and so on. In this way, PV systems can be built to meet almost any electric power need, small or large. Illustration of solar cells combined to make a module and modules combined to make an array. The basic PV or solar cell produces only a small amount of power. To produce more power, cells can be interconnected to

317

Enhancing the performance of building integrated photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent research in Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) is reviewed with the emphases on a range of key systems whose improvement would be likely to lead to improved solar energy conversion efficiency and/or economic viability. These include invertors, concentrators and thermal management systems. Advances in techniques for specific aspects of systems design, installation and operation are also discussed.

Brian Norton; Philip C. Eames; Tapas K. Mallick; Ming Jun Huang; Sarah J. McCormack; Jayanta D. Mondol; Yigzaw G. Yohanis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - High-Performance Photovoltaics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Performance Photovoltaics In an ideal multijunction cell, the top layer produces most of the total power, so the top layer should be of the highest quality. However, in...

319

Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Local Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the re...

Turitsyn, Konstantin S; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Volume 8, Number 1, June 2010 Simplified Thermal Model of PM Motors in Hybrid Vehicle Applications Taking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to develop a complete and representative model of the heat processes in the electric motors. In this paper in Ansoft ePhysics soft- ware. Keywords hybrid electric vehicle, surface permanent magnet synchronous motors needs to be thor- oughly understood. The optimal design of electrical motors with solid thermal

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

322

Performance of a concentrated photovoltaic energy system with static linear Fresnel lenses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new type of greenhouse with linear Fresnel lenses in the cover performing as a concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system is presented. The CPV system retains all direct solar radiation, while diffuse solar radiation passes through and enters into the greenhouse cultivation system. The removal of all direct radiation will block up to 77% of the solar energy from entering the greenhouse in summer, reducing the required cooling capacity by about a factor 4. This drastically reduce the need for cooling in the summer and reduce the use of screens or lime coating to reflect or block radiation. All of the direct radiation is concentrated by a factor of 25 on a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) module and converted to electrical and thermal (hot water) energy. The PV/T module is kept in position by a tracking system based on two electric motors and steel cables. The energy consumption of the tracking system, ca. 0.51 W m?2, is less than 2% of the generated electric power yield. A peak power of 38 W m?2 electrical output was measured at 792 W m?2 incoming radiation and a peak power of 170 W m?2 thermal output was measured at 630 W m?2 incoming radiation of. Incoming direct radiation resulted in a thermal yield of 56% and an electric yield of 11%: a combined efficiency of 67%. The annual electrical energy production of the prototype system is estimated to be 29 kW h m?2 and the thermal yield at 518 MJ m?2. The collected thermal energy can be stored and used for winter heating. The generated electrical energy can be supplied to the grid, extra cooling with a pad and fan system and/or a desalination system. The obtained results show a promising system for the lighting and temperature control of a greenhouse system and building roofs, providing simultaneous electricity and heat. It is shown that the energy contribution is sufficient for the heating demand of well-isolated greenhouses located in north European countries.

P.J. Sonneveld; G.L.A.M. Swinkels; B.A.J. van Tuijl; H.J.J. Janssen; J. Campen; G.P.A. Bot

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Photovoltaic Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cell Basics Cell Basics Photovoltaic Cell Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:53pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV cells are the building blocks of all PV systems because they are the devices that convert sunlight to electricity. Commonly known as solar cells, individual PV cells are electricity-producing devices made of semiconductor materials. PV cells come in many sizes and shapes, from smaller than a postage stamp to several inches across. They are often connected together to form PV modules that may be up to several feet long and a few feet wide. Modules, in turn, can be combined and connected to form PV arrays of different sizes and power output. The modules of the array make up the major part of a PV system, which can also include electrical connections,

324

Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer.

Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer. 5 figures.

Branz, H.M.; Crandall, R.S.; Tracy, C.E.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

326

Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mechanisms to support wind power development. Renewablesuch as solar or wind power, interact with wholesaleschemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in

Darghouth, Naim Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by biomass, 1.5% by small hydro, and 0.3% by PV. The pricebiomass, geothermal, and small hydro electricity generation

Darghouth, Naim Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Photovoltaic effects in  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory and quantitative analysis of photovoltaic effects in an inhomogeneous semiconductor with a position-dependent energy gap in the presence of a temperature gradient are presented. Transport equations based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are used to develop the theory. The transformation of the initial equations and suitable assumption led to a formula revealing and arranging all photovoltaic effects occurring in a semiconductor. Four effects: the bulk photovoltaic Tauc effect; the mobility position-dependence photovoltaic effect; the thermophotovoltaic effect; and the classical Seebeck thermoelectric effect are revealed. Quantitative relations between particular effects and factors determining their significance are shown by means of numerical analysis and suitable diagrams.

T Piotrowski; S Sikorski

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Photovoltaics Business Models  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to better understand the structure of future photovoltaics business models and the research, development, and demonstration required to support their deployment.

Frantzis, L.; Graham, S.; Katofsky, R.; Sawyer, H.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaic Regional Test Center (RTC). The RTC will enable research on integrating solar panels into the statewide smart grid and help reduce the cost of solar power. The...

331

Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

outfitted with photovoltaic (PV) installations are a real challenge for the nation's real estate industry, but a new tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories and Solar Power...

332

Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Event On December 4, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar During the TEDxABQ event, Sandia's Vipin Gupta (in the Material, Devices,...

333

Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July 31, 2014, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, Grid Integration, Infrastructure Security, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable...

334

Photovoltaic Resources and Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This page provides a brief overview of photovoltaic (PV) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply PV within the Federal sector.

335

Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instruments: Solar Glitter On March 21, 2013, in Capabilities, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, SunShot Sandia scientists...

336

Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE SunShot Program On November 27, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering On October...

337

Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Systems On February 6, 2012, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Consistent appraisals of homes and businesses...

338

National Laboratory Photovoltaics Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE supports photovoltaic (PV) research and development and facilities at its national laboratories to accelerate progress toward achieving the SunShot Initiative's technological and economic...

339

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

For archived editions of the NCPV Hotline. See also PV events. Printable Version Photovoltaics Research Home Silicon Polycrystalline Thin Films Multijunctions New Materials,...

340

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Webmaster  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reply. Your name: Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version Photovoltaics Research Home Silicon Polycrystalline Thin Films Multijunctions New Materials,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Central Georgia EMC - Photovoltaic Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Central Georgia EMC - Photovoltaic Rebate Program Central Georgia EMC - Photovoltaic Rebate Program Central Georgia EMC - Photovoltaic Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate $4,500 Program Info State Georgia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $450/kW installed capacity Provider Central Georgia Electric Membership Corporation In June 2008, Central Georgia Electric Membership Corporation (CGEMC) began offering a rebate of $450 per kilowatt (kW) to residential members who install photovoltaic (PV) systems that are interconnected and net-metered. To qualify, PV systems must have a warranty of five or more years and must be installed by a licensed contractor. In addition, PV systems are limited to 10 kW in capacity and must be installed in accordance with all

342

Photovoltaic Cell And Manufacturing Process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Provided is a method for controlling electrical properties and morphology of a p-type material of a photovoltaic device. The p-type material, such as p-type cadmium telluride, is first subjected to heat treatment in an oxidizing environment, followed by recrystallization in an environment substantially free of oxidants. In one embodiment, the heat treatment step comprises first subjecting the p-type material to an oxidizing atmosphere at a first temperature to getter impurities, followed by second subjecting the p-type material to an oxidizing atmosphere at a second temperature, higher than the first temperature, to develop a desired oxidation gradient through the p-type material.

Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX)

1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

343

Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

re-use of thermal energy “waste heat” for building heating/and thermal energy “waste heat,” as well as purifiedare used to capture waste heat for productive purposes. Use

Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Nellis AFB 'Sun Park' Photovoltaic Power Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Briefing is: Briefing is: UNCLASSIFIED Headquarters Air Combat Command Nellis AFB 'Sun Park' Photovoltaic Power Project *Capt Frank Hollifield *AFLOA/JACLULT Overview *Objective * Provide renewable utility service from a Contractor owned Photovoltaic (Solar Power) Array to Nellis AFB electrical distribution system * Successful offeror owns and operates the PV Array for length of lease *Legal Instruments * Nellis AFB enters into an indefinite term utility service contract with successful offeror * May cancel with one year notification * 20 year land lease * Provides land for PV array via a land lease ( land treated as"Gov't furnished equipment" in utility contract) Why PV - Why Nellis * Support renewable energy goals

345

2014 Electricity Form Proposals  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Electricity and Renewable (Photovoltaic) Survey Form Changes Proposed for Electricity and Renewable (Photovoltaic) Survey Form Changes Proposed for 2014 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is proposing changes to its electricity data collection in 2014. These changes involve the following surveys: Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report," Form EIA-411, "Coordinated Bulk Power Supply Program Report," Form EIA-826, "Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions," Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," Form EIA-860M, "Monthly Update to the Annual Electric Generator Report," Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report," Form EIA-861S, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report (Short Form)," and

346

Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

Chiang, C.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency requirements - Maximum emission limits Investment constraints: - Payback period is constrained Storage constraints: - Electricity stored is limited by battery

Stadler, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

Yong Seok Choi; Dal Mo Kang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Direct thermal to electrical energy conversion using very low bandgap TPV cells in a gas-fired furnace system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, electricity generation using very low bandgap InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells whose bandgap is 0.53 eV was investigated in a gas-fired furnace system where thermal radiation was emitted from a metal alloy emitter. The electric output of the InGaAsSb TPV cells was characterized under various operating conditions. The cell short circuit density was measured to be 3.01 A/cm2 at an emitter temperature of 1197 °C. At this emitter temperature, an electric power density of 0.65 W/cm2 was produced by the TPV cells. Experimental results show that direct thermal to electrical energy conversion was achieved in a gas-fired heating furnace system. Such a system could be employed to form a micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) process where exhaust heat is utilized for home heating needs. The TPV integrated energy system provides an effective means for primary energy savings.

K. Qiu; A.C.S. Hayden

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

351

Photovoltaics industry profile  

SciTech Connect

A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

None

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Investigation of the effects of LIFT printing with a KrF-excimer laser on thermally sensitive electrically conductive adhesives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser induced forward transfer is an emerging material deposition technology. We investigated the feasibility of this technique for printing thermally sensitive, electrically conductive adhesives with and without using an intermediate dynamic release layer. A 248 nm KrF-excimer laser was used to print the epoxy-based conductive adhesives containing silver flakes down to 75 ?m dot size. The process is particularly relevant for realizing electrical connections to surface mount devices in the microelectronics industry. Characterization of the printed materials was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, four-point electrical measurements, die-shear testing and temperature shock testing, to establish that the properties of the adhesive were not affected by direct or indirect laser irradiation. The lack of degradation by the laser onto the adhesives confirms the potential of this technique for interconnection applications.

S M Perinchery; E C P Smits; A Sridhar; P Albert; J van den Brand; R Mandamparambil; I Yakimets; H F M Schoo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

NREL: Learning - Photovoltaics for Farms and Ranches  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Farms and Ranches Farms and Ranches Photo of cows and a photovoltaic powered water pump. Photovoltaic power can be used to pump water for livestock. The following resources will provide you with more information on the uses of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems on farms and ranches, as well as guides to buying and installing a solar energy system. If you are unfamiliar with this technology, see the introduction to PV systems. General Information Energy Savers: Solar Energy Applications for Farms and Ranches Basic information about using solar energy on farms and ranches from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Own Your Power! A Consumer Guide to Solar Electricity This 16-page booklet from the U.S. Department of Energy provides information about how you can use solar energy at home.

354

Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

355

Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Private and Public Economies of Renewable Electricityprivate sector, began to push for deregulation in the electricityprivate customer value of behind-the-meter PV generation, as potential customers most often will consider the value of avoided electricity

Darghouth, Naim Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods Validation Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods Validation The Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering group at NREL validates energy ratings methods by standards committees to establish an energy rating methodology. We are evaluating techniques to account for the impact on PV performance from variations in the spectral distribution of solar radiation. Two types of methods were evaluated for correcting the short-circuit current of PV modules for variations in the solar spectrum under clear skies: (1) empirical relationships based on air mass, and (2) use of spectral irradiance models and PV module spectral response data. Methods of the first type were the Sandia National Laboratories absolute air-mass function, or f(AMa), and the CREST air-mass function, or f(AM). The second

357

Predicting the Effects of Short-Term Photovoltaic Variability on Power System Frequency for Systems with Integrated Energy Storage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The percentage of electricity supplied by photovoltaic (PV) generators is steadily rising in power systems worldwide. This rise in PV penetration may lead to… (more)

Traube, Joshua White

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics SEMICONDUCTORS Our goal is to provide industry with test structures and models of next-generation photovoltaics, with an initial focus on cadmium telluride (Cd (nanostructured) photovoltaic devices. Objective Impact and Customers · The U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Roadmap

359

Lab Trials of an Electricity Transmission Line Voltage Sensor Based on Thermally Poled Silica Fibre  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Voltage sensing using helically coiled lengths of thermally poled twin-hole silica optical fibre is presented. Lab accuracy test results showing good linearity and signal to noise...

Michie, Andrew M; Hambley, Philip; Bassett, Ian M; Haywood, John H; Henry, Peter; Ingram, John

360

Design of battery pack and internal combustion engine thermal models for hybrid electric vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis focuses on the design of computational models, capable of simulating the thermal behaviour of a battery pack and internal combustion engine equipping… (more)

Catacchio, Gabriele

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation gives an overview of NREL's Thermal Stress and Reliability Project work from October 2007 to March 2009 with an emphasis on activity during 2008/2009.

O'Keefe, M. P.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Chiller Start/Stop Optimization for a Campus-wide Chilled Water System with a Thermal Storage Tank Under a Four-Period Electricity Rate Schedule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of a 1.4-million-gallon chilled water thermal storage tank greatly increases the operational flexibility of a campuswide chilled water system under a four-part electricity rate structure. While significant operational savings can...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.; Contreras, O.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Sandia National Laboratories: Federal Electric Regulatory Commission  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, SMART Grid, Solar, SunShot, Systems Analysis After two years of industry consultation, the Federal Electric...

364

Sandia National Laboratories: Federal Electric Regulatory Commission...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, SMART Grid, Solar, SunShot, Systems Analysis After two years of industry consultation, the Federal Electric...

365

Electricity Monthly Update - Energy Information Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gigawatthours largely because of the recent, rapid growth in photovoltaic capacity. Solar electricity output in June is a good indicator of the recent growth of the solar...

366

Electric District No. 3- Solar Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Electric District No. 3 of Pinal County (ED3) provides incentives for their residential and business customers to invest in photovoltaics (PV). Residential and commercial customers installing PV...

367

Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

high-efficiency low- cost photovoltaic devices has been thehigh-efficiency low-cost photovoltaic devices has been theoverall per unit cost of photovoltaic modules. Module costs

Derkacs, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Sandia National Laboratories: Vermont Photovoltaic Regional Test...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaic Regional Test Center Launch of Solar Testing Site in Vermont On November 27, 2013, in Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic...

369

Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2nd World Conf. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Vienna, p.the 12th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, p.12th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf. , p. 1481 (

Derkacs, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Submitted by Russell M Reserved #12;ABSTRACT DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Thin-film photovoltaics

Sites, James R.

371

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electric PCM Assisted Thermal Heating System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Delphi Automotive at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electric PCM assisted...

372

Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate < Back Eligibility Utility Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Colorado Program Type Line Extension Analysis Provider Colorado Public Utilities Commission At the request of a customer or a potential customer, Colorado electric utilities are required to conduct a cost comparison of a photovoltaic (PV) system to any proposed distribution line extension if the customer or potential customer provides the utility with load data (estimated monthly kilowatt-hour usage) requested by the utility to conduct the comparison, and if the customer's or potential customer's peak demand is estimated to be less than 25 kilowatts (kW). In performing the comparison analysis, the

373

Modesto Irrigation District - Photovoltaic Rebate Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Modesto Irrigation District - Photovoltaic Rebate Program Modesto Irrigation District - Photovoltaic Rebate Program Modesto Irrigation District - Photovoltaic Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Local Government Nonprofit Residential State Government Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate 50% of total project costs. Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Systems >1 kW to 30 kW: $1.00/W AC. Systems >30 kW to 1 MW: performance-based incentive of $0.10/kWh for 5 years. Provider PV Program Coordinator Modesto Irrigation District offers a photovoltaic rebate program for all of their electric customers. The peak output capacity of a system must be 1 kW or greater to participate. Systems up to 30 kilowatts (kW) in capacity can

374

Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators  

SciTech Connect

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

Schulz, Stephen C. (Tewksbury, MA); Michalski, Lech A. (Pennington, NJ); Volltrauer, Hermann N. (Englishtown, NJ); Van Dine, John E. (Faribault, MN)

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

376

Operational results from the Saudi Solar Village Photovoltaic power system  

SciTech Connect

The world's largest photovoltaic power system was carried into the operation phase a few months ago. This system was developed and fabricated in the United States and it is providing electrical energy to three remote villages in Saudi Arabia. The facility includes a 350 kW photovoltaic array, 1-MW diesel powered generator, 1100 kWH lead acid batteries, a 300 KVA inverter and a solar weather data monitoring station. The photovoltaic power system is capable of completely automatic operation. It is designed to operate in stand-alone and cogeneration modes of operation.

Huraib, F.; Al-Sani, A.; Khoshami, B.H.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaic Engineering Photovoltaic Engineering Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering at NREL supports commercial and emerging PV technology development. Our support covers the following three areas: Engineering Testing and Evaluation. We provide engineering testing and evaluation of PV products developed by companies during work sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). We determine if products meet performance criteria established by DOE for a company's contractual obligations. Standards Development. We support the development of national and international standards. Current work includes investigating methods of preconditioning cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium diselenide PV modules so that when they are tested for reporting conditions, the results are correlated with subsequent field measurements.

378

Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Boulder, CO); Deb, Satyendra K. (Boulder, CO); Stone, Jack L. (Lakewood, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

380

High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

Basso, T. S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2014: February 25-26, 2014  

SciTech Connect

NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

Kurtz, S.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013: February 26-27, 2013  

SciTech Connect

NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

Kurtz, S.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Predicting Battery Pack Thermal and Electrical Performance in a Vehicle Using Realistic Drive Cycle Power Profiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The heat generated during battery charge and discharge cycles is a major ... issue, particularly since the performance of a battery depends on its operating temperature. As a consequence, robust thermal managemen...

Allen Curran; Scott Peck

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

Wares, Brian S.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

385

Photovoltaic versus optical tweezers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The operation of photovoltaic (PV) tweezers, using the evanescent light-induced PV fields to trap and pattern nano- and micro-meter particles on a LiNbO3 crystal surface,...

Villarroel, Javier; Burgos, Héctor; García-Cabañes, Ángel; Carrascosa, Mercedes; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Agulló-López, Fernando

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Photovoltaic spatial solitons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze self-trapping of one-dimensional optical beams in photorefractive, photovoltaic media for open- and closed-circuit realizations. We show that a passive load (resistor) in...

Segev, Mordechai; Valley, George C; Bashaw, Matthew C; Taya, Minoru; Fejer, Martin M

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Photovoltaic Research Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) at its national laboratory facilities located throughout the country. To encourage further innovation,...

388

Photovoltaic Source Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nowadays, the more and more growing interest in applications of photovoltaic (PV) generation, with all the related problems of optimal exploitation, environmental impact, and grid stability, has determined a...

Maria Carmela Di Piazza; Gianpaolo Vitale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Sustainability of Large Photovoltaic Deployment: Environmental Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustainability of Large Photovoltaic Deployment: Environmental Research Sustainability of Large Photovoltaic Deployment: Environmental ResearchEnvironmental ResearchEnvironmental Research Vasilis Fthenakis and Te from Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Manufacturing Scrap, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research

Homes, Christopher C.

390

ELECTRIC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

391

Dependence of thermal destabilization of electric-arc plasma in an air flow on discharge conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of the conditions of electric-arc burning in an air flow on the ... processes in the development of instability in an arc-discharge column is shown.

V. N. Borisyuk; S. V. Goncharik…

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment This report presents the information that homeowners and...

393

Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

394

Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

395

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Accomplishments in Photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accomplishments in Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D Accomplishments in Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D Successful efforts within the PV Manufacturing R&D Project were recognized by the solar industry. Key highlights from the project are summarized below. Overall, the project resulted in a more than 50% reduction in manufacturing costs and a substantial return on investment for both the U.S. government and the industries involved. A number of companies participating in the project were able to make technological advances that helped them attract millions of dollars in private investment capital. The project focused on four primary areas of solar manufacturing: Solar cells and modules Manufacturing processes Systems integration System components. Solar Cells and Modules Advances in solar cells and modules were made that significantly reduced

396

Thermal performance of oil spray cooling system for in-wheel motor in electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The cooling of the motor in an in-wheel system is critical to its performance and durability. In the present study, the shape of the channel in the hollow shaft for the oil spray cooling of a high-capacity 35 kW in-wheel motor was optimized, and the thermal performance of the motor was evaluated by numerical analysis and experiments. The thermal flow was analyzed by evaluating the thermal performance of two conventional cooling models of in-wheel motors under conditions of continuous rating base speed. For conventional model #1, in which the cooling oil is stagnant in the lower end of the motor, the maximum temperature of the coil was 221.7 °C. For conventional model #2, in which the cooling oil circulates through the exit and entrance of the housing and jig, the maximum temperature of the coil was 155.4 °C. Both models thus proved to be unsuitable for in-wheel motors because the motor control specifications limit the maximum temperature to 150 °C. We designed and manufactured an enhanced model for in-wheel motors, which we equipped with an optimized channel for the oil spray cooling mode, and evaluated its thermal performance under continuous rating conditions. The maximum temperatures of the coil at the base and maximum speeds, which were set as the design points, were below the motor temperature limit, being 138.1 and 137.8 °C, respectively.

Dong Hyun Lim; Sung Chul Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

The USDOE Forrestal Lighting Retrofit: Analysis of Electricity and Thermal Savings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,705 or 76% of the total monetary savings. The measured energy savings performed within 90% of the estimated savings. Quite surprisingly, the thermal savings which were not included in initial estimates by the USDOE accounted for $102,824 or 24...

Haberl, J. S.; Bou-Saada, T. E.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversionas photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversionblock for solar photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy

Dasgupta, Neil

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Photovoltaics Manufacturing in Developing Countries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The need for energy sources in the developing countries might be partially satisfied by using photovoltaic power systems in addition to conventional means. A review of photovoltaic manufacturing in developing ...

G. Darkazalli; S. Hogan

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THERMAL-ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA IN SPARK PLASMA SINTERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

should allow their cost-effective introduction in aero-engines, in which these low density materials have. The comparison is carried out for two different materials (conductive and non conductive): TiAl and 32OAl in the conducting materials. As a consequence, the electrical potential and the temperature are strongly dependent

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Electrical and thermal properties of neutron-transmutation-doped Ge at 20 mK  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on hot-electron effects in neutron-transmutation-doped Ge (NTD Ge) near 20 mK. Both static and dynamic electrical properties were measured and compared with a model including both variable-range-hopping conduction and hot-electron effects.

Ning Wang; F. C. Wellstood; B. Sadoulet; E. E. Haller; J. Beeman

1990-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

HeatProbe: A Thermal-based Power Meter for Accounting Disaggregated Electricity Usage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on promoting energy consumption awareness [2, 3, 4]. Since utility bills aggregate electricity usage, it is diffi- cult to determine disaggregated energy consumption. If individuals can be made aware}@citi.sinica.edu.tw ABSTRACT To promote energy-saving behavior, disaggregating elec- tricity usage is critical for increasing

Ouhyoung, Ming

403

Photovoltaic energy conversion The objective of this laboratory is for you to explore the science and engineering of the conversion of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photovoltaic energy conversion Objective The objective of this laboratory is for you to explore the photovoltaic energy conversion process is optimal only for photons with energies above, but not too far the science and engineering of the conversion of light to electricity by photovoltaic devices. Preparation

Braun, Paul

404

Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

Phillips, James E. (Newark, DE); Lasswell, Patrick G. (Newark, DE)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

A Novel Approach to Build a Generic Model of Photovoltaic Solar System Using Sound Biometric Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents the proposed model of combination between Photovoltaic solar system resources and sound biometric techniques, to generate power energy from the sunlight using the PVS controlled by a sound biometric technique. This work contributes ... Keywords: Electricity Consumption, Energy Conversion, Energy Storage Device, Photovoltaic Solar System (PVS), Sound Recognition Techniques

Khalid T. Al-Sarayreh, Kenza Meridji, Ebaa Fayyoumi, Sahar Idwan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Thermionic-photovoltaic energy converter  

SciTech Connect

A thermionic-photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or galium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

Chubb, D. L.

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

407

Progress Energy Florida - SunSense Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Progress Energy Florida - SunSense Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Progress Energy Florida - SunSense Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program (Florida) Progress Energy Florida - SunSense Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program (Florida) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate $20,000 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies '''''All funds for Progress Energy Florida's SunSense Solar PV Rebate program have been committed at this time.''''' Progress Energy Florida (PEF) has allocated $1.9 million per year towards residential photovoltaic (PV) incentives. PEF will accept applications annually from residential customers both wishing to install a PV system and qualifying for a rebate. Reservations for a rebate will be issued on a first-come basis, however a reservation does not guarantee that a rebate

408

Alameda Municipal Power - Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program Alameda Municipal Power - Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info Expiration Date December 31, 2017 State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Program is closed Provider Alameda Power and Telecom '''''Note: Alameda Municipal Power had a budget of $4.2 million to support this program. The utility has allocated the full budget and is no longer accepting applications. The information below is provided for historical purposes. ''''' Alameda Municipal Power offers an incentive program to customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Rebates will be provided to commercial and residential customers on a per-watt AC basis, which, in

409

Poudre Valley REA - Photovoltaic Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Poudre Valley REA - Photovoltaic Rebate Program Poudre Valley REA - Photovoltaic Rebate Program Poudre Valley REA - Photovoltaic Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate $4,500 Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1.50 per watt Provider Poudre Valley REA Poudre Valley REC is providing rebates to their residential customers who install photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes. This rebate program was timed to coincide with the Colorado Governor's Energy Office's (GEO) state-wide rebate program, and Poudre Valley REC customers are permitted to receive both rebates. Before receiving a rebate, applicants must have an energy audit of their home that includes a blower door test. The audit must

410

Hudson Light and Power - Photovoltaic Incentive Program (Massachusetts) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hudson Light and Power - Photovoltaic Incentive Program Hudson Light and Power - Photovoltaic Incentive Program (Massachusetts) Hudson Light and Power - Photovoltaic Incentive Program (Massachusetts) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate Residential: $5,000 Non-residential: $10,000 Program Info Start Date 03/2011 State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1.00 per watt Provider Hudson Light and Power Starting in 2011, Hudson Light and Power Department, the municipal utility for the Town of Hudson, started offering a limited number of photovoltaic rebates for residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal customers. The maximum incentive is $5,000 for residential customers per installation

411

Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved adhesion and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic device suitable for directly mounting on a structure. The device includes an active portion including a photovoltaic cell assembly having a top surface portion that allows transmission of light energy to a photoactive portion of the photovoltaic device for conversion into electrical energy and a bottom surface having a bottom bonding zone; and an inactive portion immediately adjacent to and connected to the active portion, the inactive portion having a region for receiving a fastener to connect the device to the structure and having on a top surface, a top bonding zone; wherein one of the top and bottom bonding zones comprises a first bonding element and the other comprises a second bonding element, the second bonding element designed to interact with the first bonding element on a vertically overlapped adjacent photovoltaic device to bond the device to such adjacent device or to the structure.

Boven, Michelle L; Keenihan, James R; Lickly, Stan; Brown, Jr., Claude; Cleereman, Robert J; Plum, Timothy C

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

412

Effect of building integrated photovoltaics on microclimate of urban canopy layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) has potential of becoming the mainstream of renewable energy in the urban environment. BIPV has significant influence on the thermal performance of building envelope and changes radiation energy balance by adding or replacing conventional building elements in urban areas. PTEBU model was developed to evaluate the effect of photovoltaic (PV) system on the microclimate of urban canopy layer. PTEBU model consists of four sub-models: PV thermal model, PV electrical performance model, building energy consumption model, and urban canyon energy budget model. PTEBU model is forced with temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation above the roof level and incorporates detailed data of PV system and urban canyon in Tianjin, China. The simulation results show that PV roof and PV façade with ventilated air gap significantly change the building surface temperature and sensible heat flux density, but the air temperature of urban canyon with PV module varies little compared with the urban canyon of no PV. The PV module also changes the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of the storage heat flux and the net radiation for the urban canyon with PV increase slightly. The increase in the PV conversion efficiency not only improves the PV power output, but also reduces the urban canyon air temperature.

Wei Tian; Yiping Wang; Yiyang Xie; Danzhu Wu; Li Zhu; Jianbo Ren

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Simulation and simplified design studies of photovoltaic systems  

SciTech Connect

Results of TRNSYS simulations of photovoltaic systems with electrical storage are described. Studies of the sensitivity of system performance, in terms of the fraction of the electrical load supplied by the solar energy system, to variables such as array size, battery size, location, time of year, and load shape are reported. An accurate simplified method for predicting array output of max-power photovoltaic systems is presented. A second simplified method, which estimates the overall performance of max-power systems, is developed. Finally, a preliminary technique for predicting clamped-voltage system performance is discussed.

Evans, D.L.; Facinelli, W.A.; Koehler, L.P.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

ELECTRIC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ELECTRIC ELECTRIC cdrtrokArJclaeT 3 I+ &i, y$ \I &OF I*- j< t j,fci..- ir )(yiT !E-li, ( \-,v? Cl -p/4.4 RESEARCH LABORATORIES EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. 8ay 22, 1947 Mr. J. Carrel Vrilson General ?!!mager Atomic Qxzgy Commission 1901 Constitution Avenue Kashington, D. C. Dear Sir: In the course of OUT nuclenr research we are planning to study the enc:ri;y threshold anti cross section for fission. For thib program we require a s<>piAroted sample of metallic Uranium 258 of high purity. A quantity of at lezst 5 grams would probably be sufficient for our purpose, and this was included in our 3@icntion for license to the Atonic Energy Coskqission.. This license has been approved, 2nd rre would Llp!Jreciate informztion as to how to ?r*oceed to obtain thit: m2teria.l.

415

Spectroscopy peculiarities of thermal plasma of electric arc discharge between electrodes with Zn admixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Plasma of the free burning electric arc between Ag–SnO2–ZnO composite electrodes as well as brass electrodes were investigated. The plasma temperature distributions were obtained by Boltzmann plot method involving Cu I, Ag I or Zn I spectral line emissions. The electron density distributions were obtained from the width and from absolute intensity of spectral lines. The laser absorption spectroscopy was used for measurement of copper atom concentration in plasma. Plasma equilibrium composition was calculated using two independent groups of experimental values (temperature and copper atom concentration, temperature and electron density). It was found that plasma of the free burning electric arc between brass electrodes is in local thermodynamical equilibrium. The experimental verification of the spectroscopic data of Zn I spectral lines was carried out.

R.V. Semenyshyn; A.N. Veklich; I.L. Babich; V.F. Boretskij

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

photovoltaic | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

photovoltaic photovoltaic Dataset Summary Description Global PV grid parity and market potential. Data is courtesy of Sean Ong. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords grid Parity Payback photovoltaic price PV Residential Data text/csv icon globalgridparity.csv (csv, 4.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Creative Commons CCZero Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating Average vote Your vote Comments Login or register to post comments If you rate this dataset, your published comment will include your rating.

417

Chapter 2 - Photovoltaic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter discusses solar radiation characteristics: solar constant, direct and diffuse sunlight, air mass, irradiance, insolation, peak sun hours, and the solar window. Moreover, it considers photovoltaic (PV) conversion, the photovoltaic cell, and the performance evaluation of PV cells, module, panels and arrays that include: current?voltage (I–V) characteristics, power–voltage (P–V) characteristics. The chapter also studies the effect of irradiance on a PV cell voltage and current, the equivalent circuit of a solar cell, and the connection of the PV devices (parallel and series). The chapter explores ways of optimization PV arrays: maximum power point trackers, sun trackers, batteries' use, and proper matching with loads and solar concentration. It talks about photovoltaic systems: stand-alone and interactive, PV sizing of a stand-alone PV systems, PV applications, and utility interconnection issues and requirements.

Ziyad Salameh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ?5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A., E-mail: alois.lugstein@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Birner, S. [nextnano GmbH, Südmährenstr. 21, 85586 Poing (Germany)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

419

Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Rancho Cordoba, CA More Documents & Publications High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series Zero...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sandia Wins Three R&D100 Awards On July 24, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic,...

422

Dynamic simulation of the thermal and electrical behavior of a thermionic converter coupled to a solar concentrator  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical simulation for the dynamic thermal and electrical behavior of a thermionic converter coupled to a solar concentrator, is presented. The thermionic device is a Cesium-filled thermionic diode operating in the ignited mode. The emitter of the device is made of polycrystalline Rhenium and the collector of the device of Molybdenum. The solar concentrator is a parabolic dish. The designed emitter and collector temperatures are 1,850 K and 928 K, respectively. However, due to changes in ambient conditions, the collector efficiency varies and so does the system efficiency. This fact makes it necessary to evaluate the design of the system not just for one hour with constant conditions but also for a whole operating day. The paper presents plots for the emitter and collector thermionic device temperatures and power and voltage for a constant resistance load as a function of time.

Perez, G. [CUAP-UAP, Puebla (Mexico). Centro de Investigaciones en Dispositivos Semiconductores; Estrada, C.A.; Cervantes, J.G. [UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Solar Energy Research Lab.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar thermal utilization photovoltaic solar thermal electric storage heatDER technologies as PV, solar thermal, electric and heat

Stadler, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Comparative analysis of concentrating solar power and photovoltaic technologies: Technical and environmental evaluations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy is an important alternative energy source to fossil fuels and theoretically the most available energy source on the earth. Solar energy can be converted into electric energy by using two different processes: by means of thermodynamic cycles and the photovoltaic conversion. Solar thermal technologies, sometimes called thermodynamic solar technologies, operating at medium (about 500 °C) and high temperatures (about 1000 °C), have recently attracted a renewed interest and have become one of the most promising alternatives in the field of solar energy utilization. Photovoltaic conversion is very interesting, although still quite expensive, because of the absence of moving components and the reduced operating and management costs. The main objectives of the present work are: • to carry out comparative technical evaluations on the amount of electricity produced by two hypothetical plants, located on the same site, for which a preliminary design was made: a solar thermal power plant with parabolic trough collectors and a photovoltaic plant with a single-axis tracking system; • to carry out a comparative analysis of the environmental impact derived from the processes of electricity generation during the whole life cycle of the two hypothetical power plants. First a technical comparison between the two plants was made assuming that they have the same nominal electric power and then the same total covered surface. The methodology chosen to evaluate the environmental impact associated with the power plants is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It allows to analyze all the phases of the life cycle of the plants, from the extraction of raw materials until their disposal, following the “from cradle to grave” perspective. The environmental impact of the two power plants was simulated by using the software SimaPro 7.1, elaborated by PRé Consultants and using the Eco-Indicator 99 methodology. Finally, the results of the analysis of the environmental impact are used to calculate the following parameters associated to the power plants: EPBT (Energy Pay-Back Time), CO2 emissions and GWP100 (Global Warming Potential over a 100 year time horizon).

U. Desideri; F. Zepparelli; V. Morettini; E. Garroni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:00pm Addthis To separate electrical charges, crystalline silicon cells must have a built-in electric field. Light shining on crystalline silicon may free electrons within the crystal lattice, but for these electrons to do useful work-such as provide electricity to a light bulb-they must be separated and directed into an electrical circuit. PV Semiconductors To create an electric field within a crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell, two silicon semiconductor layers are sandwiched together. P-type (or positive) semiconductors have an abundance of positively charged holes, and n-type (or negative) semiconductors have an abundance of negatively charged electrons. When n- and p-type silicon layers contact, excess electrons move

426

Impacts of high penetration level of fully electric vehicles charging loads on the thermal ageing of power transformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper develops a methodology to determine the impacts of high penetration level of fully electric vehicles (FEVs) charging loads on the thermal ageing of power distribution transformers. The method proposed in this paper is stochastically formulated by modelling the transformer life consumption due to \\{FEVs\\} charging loads as a function of ambient temperature, start time of \\{FEVs\\} charging, initial state-of-charge and charging modes. \\{FEVs\\} loads are modelled using the results from an analytical solution that predicts a cluster of \\{FEVs\\} chargers. A UK generic LV distribution network model and real load demand data are used to simulate FEVs’ impacts on the thermal ageing of LV power distribution transformers. Results show that the ambient temperature, \\{FEVs\\} penetration level, and start time of charging are the main factors that affect the transformer life expectancy. It was concluded that the smart charging scenario generally shows the best outcome from the loss of life reduction perspective. Meanwhile, public charging which shifts a large percentage of charging load to commercial and industrial areas can significantly alleviate the residential transformer loading thus has little impact on the loss of life of transformers. The proposed method in this paper can be easily applied to the determination of the optimum charging time as a function of existing loads, and ambient temperature.

Kejun Qian; Chengke Zhou; Yue Yuan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Solar Cells and Photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The most common method for producing a-Si:H for photovoltaics is by plasma-enhanced CVD from SiH4 mixtures. The films are deposited onto a textured conducting oxide such as indium–tin oxide (ITO) which provide...

Stuart Irvine Prof.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV) domestically. The SunShot Initiative aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Photovoltaics for Bulk Power Applications: Cost/Performance Targets and Technology Prospects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) power technology has shown steady progress over the past ten years toward its ultimate use in bulk — i.e., energy-significant — electric power applications, including demonstration of highly ...

Edgar A. DeMeo

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

photovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, and energy storagesolar electric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic ElectricityCosts Capacities, Global Perspectives through 2012”, Bernreuter Research, Photovoltaicto the cost of solar power. 5 European Photovoltaic Industry

Deshmukh, Ranjit

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic Jump to: navigation, search Name Tianda Photovoltaic Co Ltd (Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic) Place Kunming, Yunnan Province, China Zip 650033 Sector Solar Product Crystalline solar cell and module manufacturer. Coordinates 25.051001°, 102.702011° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":25.051001,"lon":102.702011,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

433

1 000 000 "C/s thin film electrical heater: ln situ resistivity measurements of Al and Ti/Si thin films during ultra rapid thermal annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

introduce a new technique for rapidly heating (10' "C/s) thin films using an electrical thermal annealing- ently, most commercial RTA systems use radiation-heating techniques via tungsten-halogen lamps. These systems typi- cally have a maximum heating rate of 100-300 "C/s. We introduce an alternative methodfor

Allen, Leslie H.

434

Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

94720, USA Keywords: Nanowire, Photovoltaics, Artificialresearch. 2. Nanowire Photovoltaics PV cells convert light

Dasgupta, Neil

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Photovoltaics in the Czech Republic: example of a distorted market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysing the development of "sustainable energy" incentives in the Czech Republic over the last five years and drawing on experience from other countries, the study discovers that the "environmental friendliness" of the so-called "renewable sources", ... Keywords: electricity, energy industry, energy security, environment, investment bubble, photovoltaics, political decisions, renewable sources, wind turbines

Luboš Smr?ka

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The Path to the Building Integrated Photovoltaics of Tomorrow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems may represent a powerful and versatile tool for achieving the ever increasing demand for zero energy and zero emission buildings of the near future, offering an aesthetical, economical and technical solution to integrate solar cells producing electricity within the climate envelopes of buildings. This work addresses possible research opportunities and pathways for the \\{BIPVs\\} of tomorrow.

Bjørn Petter Jelle; Christer Breivik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOVOLTAICS IN AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1. ABSTRACT The direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity is one of the promissing techniques of energy supply in remote areas. But also in industrialized regions like in Central Europe with a well developed electricity grid one could find a lot of econimic applications of photovoltaics even for a price of 5 ? 8 US Y/Wp. The German Ministry of Research and Technology has initiated a series of demonstration projects of photovoltaics. Our institute is responsible for some of them for agricultural and horticultural applications. At the moment several plants with an electric power in the range 35 W ? 150 W for irrigation of an experimental ecological garden, a series of allotments and a field for growing vegetables are planned. Further installations will provide drinking water for sheep, cattle and deer on the pasture. Within this program two projects for ventilation and lighting of fish ponds with a peak power of 1 kW will be built. Very interesting is the application of solar panels as power supply for remote stables. There is a power demand for milking machine, water pumping, freezing protection, lighting, electric tools, ventilation of pig stables and for small drying installations for hay and grain. Preliminary experiments on water pumping were performed but have to be extended to provide better design data. 2. KEYWORDS Photovoltaics in agriculture, solar water pumping, irrigation, photovoltaics for ventilation, power supply of remote stables, ventilation of fish ponds.

M. REUSS; H. SCHUERZINGER; H. SCHULZ

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arya, D. Carlson, Prog. Photovoltaics 10, p. 69 (2002). K.and J. Bailat, Prog. in Photovoltaics 12 , 113 (2004). M.and A. Mart?´, Progress in Photovoltaics 9, p. 73 (2001). S.

Derkacs, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Facilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilities Facilities NREL's world-class research facilities provide the venue for innovative advances in photovoltaic technologies and applications. These facilities within the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) serve both multi-use and dedicated-use functions. We encourage our research colleagues in industry, universities, and other laboratories to pursue opportunities in working with our staff in these facilities. Dedicated-Use Facilities Photo of a red-hot coil glowing inside a round machine. Research within these facilities focuses on targeted areas of interest that require specific tools, techniques, or unique capabilities. Our two main dedicated-use facilities are the following: Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) OTF researchers study and evaluate advanced or emerging PV technologies

440

Photovoltaics: Reality and Prospects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaics: Reality and Prospects Photovoltaics: Reality and Prospects Speaker(s): David Faiman Date: August 7, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Donald Grether David Faiman is on the faculty of Ben-Gurion University and also in the Department of Energy and Environmental Physics at the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research. The Department is an interdisciplinary research group that includes scientists with training in geography, meteorology, mechanical engineering, applied mathematics, physics and chemistry. Research work at the department covers various aspects of the physical environment. These include solar energy utilization and applied optics, the desert climate, remote sensing and modeling of desertification, and basic aspects of nonlinear dynamics and thermodynamics as related to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Department of Energy: Photovoltaics program - FY 1996  

SciTech Connect

The National Photovoltaic Program supports efforts to make PV an important part of the US economy through three main program elements: Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. (1) Research and Development activities generate new ideas, test the latest scientific theories, and push the limits of PV efficiencies in laboratory and prototype materials and devices. (2) Technology Development activities apply laboratory innovations to products to improve PV technology and the manufacturing techniques used to produce PV systems for the market. (3) Systems Engineering and Applications activities help improve PV systems and validate these improvements through tests, measurements, and deployment of prototypes. In addition, applications research validates, sales, maintenance, and financing mechanisms worldwide. (4) Environmental, Health, Safety and Resource Characterization activities help to define environmental, health and safety issues for those facilities engaged in the manufacture of PV products and organizations engaged in PV research and development. All PV Program activities are planned and executed in close collaboration and partnership with the U.S. PV industry. The overall PV Program is planned to be a balanced effort of research, manufacturing development, and market development. Critical to the success of this strategy is the National Photovoltaic Program`s effort to reduce the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaic. The program is doing this in three primary ways: by making devices more efficient, by making PV systems less expensive, and by validating the technology through measurements, tests, and prototypes.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Sandia National Laboratories: concentrating photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Systems Engineering MODE...

443

EROI of crystalline silicon photovoltaics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Installed photovoltaic nameplate power have been growing rapidly around the worldin the last few years. But how much energy is returned to society (i.e.… (more)

Lundin, Johan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - NCPV Hotline  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| April-June | July-September | October-December Annual Index Printable Version Photovoltaics Research Home Silicon Polycrystalline Thin Films Multijunctions New Materials,...

445

Residential photovoltaic systems costs  

SciTech Connect

A study of costs associated with the installation and operation of a residential photovoltaic system has been conducted to determine present and projected (1986) status. As a basis for the study, a residential photovoltaic system design projected for 1986 was assumed, consisting of two principal components: a roof-mounted array and a utility-interactive inverter. The scope of the study encompassed both silicon and cadmium sulfide photovoltaic modules. Cost estimates were obtained by a survey and study of reports generated by companies and agencies presently active in each of the subsystem area. Where necessary, supplemental estimates were established as part of this study. The range of estimates for silicon-based systems strongly suggest that such systems will be competitive for new installations and reasonably competitive for retrofit applications. The cadmium-sulfide-based system cost estimates, which are less certain than those for silicon, indicate that these systems will be marginally competitive with silicon-based systems for new construction, but not competitive for retrofit applications. Significant variations from the DOE system price sub-goals were found, however, particularly in the areas of array mounting, wiring and cleaning. Additional development work appears needed in these areas.

Cox, C.H. III

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic (PV) Regional Test...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyPhotovoltaic (PV) Regional Test Center (RTC) Website Goes Live Photovoltaic (PV) Regional Test Center (RTC) Website Goes Live Hope Michelsen named to Alameda County...

447

Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reductions in costs for installed photovoltaic systems. Thisreductions in costs for installed photovoltaic systems. Thisphotovoltaic technologies that improve upon current solutions by being lower cost,

Schriver, Maria Christine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Frequencies Studies Applied to Photovoltaic Modules.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This master thesis proposes to study applications of frequencies studies to the case of photovoltaic modules and photovoltaic plants. Such studies are little used… (more)

Miquel, Clément

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The Prospects for Photovoltaics in Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prospects for photovoltaics in Mexico are reviewed in relation to the activities in R & V, commercial and demonstration photovoltaic systems, commerce and industry.

E. J. Perez; J. L. Del Valle

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Photovoltaics Competitive Awards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaics Competitive Awards Photovoltaics Competitive Awards In support of the SunShot goals, DOE issues competitive solicitations to fund targeted research projects along...

451

Earth-abundant semiconductors for photovoltaic applications ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earth-abundant semiconductors for photovoltaic applications Thin film photovoltaics (solar cells) has the potential to revolutionize our energy landscape by producing clean,...

452

Solar Photovoltaics Programme in India — an Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solar photovoltaics programme constitutes an important component of the ... renewable sources of energy (NRSE). Solar photovoltaics technology is one of the most promising...

J. Gururaja

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Solar Concentrators: Using Optics to Boost Photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of solar energy requires optimizing each part of a photovoltaic system: collection optics, the photovoltaic array, switches, controllers, current inverters, storage devices...

Coffey, Valerie C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Maximally concentrating optics for photovoltaic solar energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

Use of a two-stage concentrator with a fresnel lens primary and a nonimaging dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary, has unique advantages for photovoltaic concentration. Some preliminary ray trace studies have shown that with planar lenses, an increase in angular acceptance for a given geometric concentration to about 2/3 of the maximum theoretical limit can be achieved. To demonstrate this, two preprototype concentrators, each having a geometric concentration of 248:1 for a 0.635cm (0.25 inch) diameter cell, have been designed, built, and tested. Measurements of the angular response show an acceptance of 8[degrees] (full angle) which is drastically better than the 1[degrees]--2[degrees] achievable without a secondary, and is in excellent agreement with the ray trace predictions. For these preprototypes, passive cooling was sufficient to prevent any thermal problems for both the cell and secondary. No problems associated with nouuniform cell illumination were found, as evidenced by the fill factor of 71%--73% measured under concentration. Initial measurements of the system electrical efficiency lie in the range 7.5%--9.9% for a variety of individual cells.

O'Gallagher, J.J.

1985-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

455

Utilizing Photovoltaic Cells and Systems (9 Activities)  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

These nine projects allow students to set up their own investigations and manipulate the variables that influence photovoltaic cells. The projects can be easily integrated into a normal science classroom curriculum, or can be completed by students individually for science fair projects. All of the projects will fit easily into classroom lessons surrounding scientific inquiry and the scientific method. They will also help illustrate concepts in electricity, light and color, velocity and gravity, chemistry and polarity, and could even lead to social studies or social action projects.

456

Integral energy performance characterization of semi-transparent photovoltaic elements for building integration under real operation conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, a methodology for the integral energy performance characterization (thermal, daylighting and electrical behavior) of semi-transparent photovoltaic modules (STPV) under real operation conditions is presented. An outdoor testing facility to analyze simultaneously thermal, luminous and electrical performance of the devices has been designed, constructed and validated. The system, composed of three independent measurement subsystems, has been operated in Madrid with four prototypes of a-Si STPV modules, each one corresponding to a specific degree of transparency. The extensive experimental campaign, continued for a whole year rotating the modules under test, has validated the reliability of the testing facility under varying environmental conditions. The thermal analyses show that both the solar protection and insulating properties of the laminated prototypes are lower than those achieved by a reference glazing whose characteristics are in accordance with the Spanish Technical Building Code. Daylighting analysis shows that STPV elements have an important lighting energy saving potential that could be exploited through their integration with strategies focused to reduce illuminance values in sunny conditions. Finally, the electrical tests show that the degree of transparency is not the most determining factor that affects the conversion efficiency.

L. Olivieri; E. Caamaño-Martin; F .Olivieri; J. Neila

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Start-up capabilities of photovoltaic module for the International Space Station  

SciTech Connect

The International Space Station (ISS) uses four photovoltaic modules (PVMs) to supply electric power for the US On-Orbit Segment (USOS). The ISS is assembled on orbit over a period of about 5 years and over 40 stages. PVMs are launched and integrated with the ISS at different times during the ISS assembly. During early stages, the electric power is provided by the integrated truss segment (ITS) P6; subsequently, ITS P4, S4, and S6 are launched. PVMs are launched into space in the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) cargo bay. Each PVM consists of two independent power channels. The NSTS docks with the ISS, the PVM is removed from the cargo bay and installed on the ISS. At this stage the PVM is in stowed configuration and its batteries are in fully discharged state. The start-up consists of initialization and checkout of all hardware, deployment of SAW and photovoltaic radiator (PVR), thermal conditioning batteries, and charging batteries; not necessarily in the same order for all PVMs. PVMs are designed to be capable of on-orbit start-up, within a specified time period, when external power is applied to a specified electrical interface. This paper describes the essential steps required for PVM start-up and how these operations are performed for various PVMs. The integrated operations scenarios (IOS) prepared by the NASA, Johnson Space Center, details specific procedures and timelines for start-up of each PVM. The paper describes how dormant batteries are brought to their normal operating temperature range and then charged to 100% state of charge (SOC). Total time required to complete start-up is computed and compared to the IOS timelines. External power required during start-up is computed and compared to the requirements and/or available power on ISS. Also described is how these start-up procedures can be adopted for restart of PVMs when required.

Hajela, G.; Hague, L. [Boeing North American, Inc., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

458

SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organic Photovoltaics Research to Organic Photovoltaics Research to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Organic Photovoltaics Research on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Research & Development Crystalline Silicon Thin Films Multijunctions Organic Photovoltaics Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Competitive Awards Systems Integration Balance of Systems Organic Photovoltaics Research Graphic showing the seven layers of an organic PV cell: electrode, donor, acceptor, active layer, PEDOT:PSS, transparent conductive oxide, and glass.

459

"YEAR","MONTH","STATE","UTILITY CODE","UTILITY NAME","RESIDENTIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","COMMERCIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TOTAL PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","RESIDENTIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","COMMERCIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","INDUSTRIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TRANSPORTATION PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TOTAL PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","RESIDENTIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","COMMERCIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","INDUSTRIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TRANSPORTATIONPHOTOVOLTAIC NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TOTAL PHOTOVOLTAIC NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","RESIDENTIAL WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","COMMERCIAL WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TOTAL WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","RESIDENTIAL WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","COMMERCIAL WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","INDUSTRIAL WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TRANSPORTATION WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TOTAL WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","RESIDENTIAL WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","COMMERCIAL WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","INDUSTRIAL WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TRANSPORTATION WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TOTAL WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","RESIDENTIAL OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","COMMERCIAL OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TOTAL OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","RESIDENTIAL OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","COMMERCIAL OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","INDUSTRIAL OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TRANSPORTATION OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TOTAL OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","RESIDENTIAL OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","COMMERCIAL OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","INDUSTRIAL OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TRANSPORTATION OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TOTAL OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","RESIDENTIAL TOTAL ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY (MWh)","COMMERCIAL TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","RESIDENTIAL TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","COMMERCIAL TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","INDUSTRIAL TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TRANSPORTATION TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","RESIDENTIAL TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","COMMERCIAL TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","INDUSTRIAL TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TRANSPORTATION TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","INDUSTRIAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","TRANSPORTATION ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITYFOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","RESIDENTIAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","COMMERCIAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","INDUSTRIAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","TRANSPORTATION INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","RESIDENTIAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED","COMMERCIAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED","INDUSTRIAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED","TRANSPORTATION NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED","NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

TRANSPORTATIONPHOTOVOLTAIC NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TOTAL PHOTOVOLTAIC NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","RESIDENTIAL WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","COMMERCIAL WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TOTAL WIND ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","RESIDENTIAL WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","COMMERCIAL WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","INDUSTRIAL WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TRANSPORTATION WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TOTAL WIND INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","RESIDENTIAL WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","COMMERCIAL WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","INDUSTRIAL WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TRANSPORTATION WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TOTAL WIND NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","RESIDENTIAL OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","COMMERCIAL OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TOTAL OTHER ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","RESIDENTIAL OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","COMMERCIAL OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","INDUSTRIAL OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TRANSPORTATION OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TOTAL OTHER INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","RESIDENTIAL OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","COMMERCIAL OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","INDUSTRIAL OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TRANSPORTATION OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TOTAL OTHER NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","RESIDENTIAL TOTAL ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY (MWh)","COMMERCIAL TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","INDUSTRIAL TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TRANSPORTATION TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK (MWh)","RESIDENTIAL TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","COMMERCIAL TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","INDUSTRIAL TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TRANSPORTATION TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","TOTAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY (MW)","RESIDENTIAL TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","COMMERCIAL TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","INDUSTRIAL TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TRANSPORTATION TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","TOTAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT","RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","INDUSTRIAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","TRANSPORTATION ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY SOLD BACK TO THE UTILITYFOR ALL STATES SERVED(MWh)","RESIDENTIAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","COMMERCIAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","INDUSTRIAL INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","TRANSPORTATION INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","INSTALLED NET METERING CAPACITY FOR ALL STATES SERVED(MW)","RESIDENTIAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED","COMMERCIAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED","INDUSTRIAL NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED","TRANSPORTATION NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED","NET METERING CUSTOMER COUNT FOR ALL STATES SERVED"

460

Demand-Driven Algorithm for Sharing and Distribution of Photovoltaic Power in a Small Local Area Grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of installing a residential photovoltaic system is to cut the cost of the monthly electric bill. However, many homeowners, especially those with low-income, finds it difficult to invest in such systems because require substantial upfront ... Keywords: Demand Driven, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Jordan, Photovoltaic, Power Distribution, Power Sharing, Renewable Energy

Mohammad Abu-Arqoub, Ghassan F. Issa, Ahmad F. Shubita, Abed Alkarim Banna

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Truckee Donner PUD - Photovoltaic Buy Down Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PUD - Photovoltaic Buy Down Program PUD - Photovoltaic Buy Down Program Truckee Donner PUD - Photovoltaic Buy Down Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate 2012: Residential: $8,850 Commercial: $14,750 Program Info Expiration Date 12/31/2016 State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 2013 level: $2.95/W AC, adjusted based on expected performance Provider Truckee Donner Public Utility District As required by Senate Bill 1 of 2006, Truckee Donner PUD incentive levels will step down annually during the 10 year program. For program year 2013 the incentive level is $2.95 per watt AC, adjusted based on expected-performance. 2013 incentives are capped $8,850 for residential systems and $14,750 for commercial. Systems up to 1 MW may be installed,

462

New York City - Property Tax Abatement for Photovoltaic (PV) Equipment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Property Tax Abatement for Photovoltaic (PV) Property Tax Abatement for Photovoltaic (PV) Equipment Expenditures New York City - Property Tax Abatement for Photovoltaic (PV) Equipment Expenditures < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate $62,500 annually or the amount of real property taxes owed during a year Program Info Start Date 08/05/2008 State New York Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Installed from August 5, 2008 to December 31, 2010: 8.75% of system expenditures per year for 4 years (total of 35%); Installed from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012: 5% of system expenditures per year for 4 years (total of 20%); Installed from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014: 2.5% of system

463

A stochastic method for stand-alone photovoltaic system sizing  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic systems utilize solar energy to generate electrical energy to meet load demands. Optimal sizing of these systems includes the characterization of solar radiation. Solar radiation at the Earth's surface has random characteristics and has been the focus of various academic studies. The objective of this study was to stochastically analyze parameters involved in the sizing of photovoltaic generators and develop a methodology for sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. Energy storage for isolated systems and solar radiation were analyzed stochastically due to their random behavior. For the development of the methodology proposed stochastic analysis were studied including the Markov chain and beta probability density function. The obtained results were compared with those for sizing of stand-alone using from the Sandia method (deterministic), in which the stochastic model presented more reliable values. Both models present advantages and disadvantages; however, the stochastic one is more complex and provides more reliable and realistic results. (author)

Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Jose Helvecio; Toledo, Olga Moraes [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, Av. P. H. Rolfs, s/n. 36570-000 Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Diniz, Antonia Sonia Alves C.; Machado Neto, Lauro de Vilhena B. [Group of Studies in Energy - GREEN Solar, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais - PUC Minas, Rua Dom Jose Gaspar no. 500, Predio 03, Sala 218 - Coracao Eucaristico 30535-610 Belo Horizonte - Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

Chaffin, Roger J. (Albuquerque, NM); Osbourn, Gordon C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Electrical Renovations | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electrical Renovations Electrical Renovations Electrical Renovations October 16, 2013 - 4:51pm Addthis Renewable Energy Options for Electrical Renovations Daylighting Photovoltaics (PV) Renovations to the electric wiring and system in a Federal facility offer several renewable energy options. The primary renewable energy technologies related to electrical design are daylighting and photovoltaics (PV) as well as the overall design of the electrical system to allow for renewable energy integration. However, energy efficiency measures can also play an important role in electrical renovations. Daylighting If electrical upgrades allow for more advanced controls in the facility, daylighting may become a feasible option in the renovation. Particularly, the ability to control artificial lighting based on ambient light

467

Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conversion Efficiency Basics Conversion Efficiency Basics Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:58pm Addthis The conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, is the percentage of the solar energy shining on a PV device that is converted into electrical energy, or electricity. Improving this conversion efficiency is a key goal of research and helps make PV technologies cost-competitive with more traditional sources of energy. Factors Affecting Conversion Efficiency Much of the energy from sunlight reaching a PV cell is lost before it can be converted into electricity. But certain characteristics of solar cell materials also limit a cell's efficiency to convert the sunlight it receives. Wavelength of Light Light is composed of photons-or packets of energy-that range in

468

Bracket for photovoltaic modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

469

Solar Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE Renewable Energy Ready Home Renewable Energy Ready Home SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE i Table of Contents About the Renewable Energy Ready Home Specifications Assumptions of the RERH Solar Photovoltaic Specification .............................................................................. 1 Builder and Specification Limitations ............................................................................................................. 2

470

Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Solar Photovoltaic Specification, Checklist and Guide, from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

471

Fluid flow in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera: implications from thermal data and deep electrical sounding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperatures of 100°C are measured at 3 km depth in a well located on the resurgent dome in the center of Long Valley Caldera, California, despite an assumed >800°C magma chamber at 6–8 km depth. Local downflow of cold meteoric water as a process for cooling the resurgent dome is ruled out by a Peclét-number analysis of temperature logs. These analyses reveal zones with fluid circulation at the upper and lower boundaries of the Bishop Tuff, and an upflow zone in the metasedimentary rocks. Vertical Darcy velocities range from 10 to 70 cm a?1. A 21-km-long geoelectrical profile across the caldera provides resistivity values to the order of 100 to >103 ?m down to a depth of 6 km, as well as variations of self-potential. Interpretation of the electrical data with respect to hydrothermal fluid movement confirms that there is no downflow beneath the resurgent dome. To explain the unexpectedly low temperatures in the resurgent dome, we challenge the common view that the caldera as a whole is a regime of high temperatures and the resurgent dome is a local cold anomaly. Instead, we suggest that the caldera was cooled to normal thermal conditions by vigorous hydrothermal activity in the past, and that a present-day hot water flow system is responsible for local hot anomalies, such as Hot Creek and the area of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. The source of hot water has been associated with recent shallow intrusions into the West Moat. The focus of planning for future power plants should be to locate this present-day flow system instead of relying on heat from the old magma chamber.

Daniel F.C Pribnow; Claudia Schütze; Suzanne J Hurter; Christina Flechsig; John H Sass

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Electric Motor Thermal Management  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

473

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Research & Development Competitive Awards Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. Past Incubator awardee, Innovalight, is creating high-efficiency, low-cost

474

Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Underwriters Laboratories has conducted a study to identify and develop safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. This discussion of safety systems recognizes that there is little history on which to base the expected safety related performance of a photovoltaic system. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the Proposed UL Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit grounding, and the type of circuit ground are covered. The development of the Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels has continued, and with both industry comment and a product submittal and listing, the Standard has been refined to a viable document allowing an objective safety review of photovoltaic modules and panels. How this document, and other UL documents would cover investigations of certain other photovoltaic system components is described.

Levins, A.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Thin film photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar cell has as its transparent electrical contact a grid made from a non-noble metal by providing a layer of copper oxide between the transparent electrical contact and the absorber-generator.

Rothwarf, Allen (Philadelphia, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaic cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circuit diagram for a photovoltaic cell under illumination.Polymer Composite Photovoltaic Cells Wendy U. Huynh ‡ ,devices such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting-

Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photovoltaic Cell .the materials, all photovoltaic cells operate on the basicEquation 1.2) For photovoltaic cells of all kinds and from

Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling method for photovoltaic cells. ” in Proc. IEEE 35thlosses in solar photovoltaic cell networks. ” Energy 32:Cell Variability Photovoltaic (PV) cells manufactured with

Zeng, Dekong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and their influence on photovoltaic cells, Solar EnergyPhotodiodes, and Photovoltaic Cells, Applied Physics LettersHeeger, Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies

Guvenc, Ali Bilge

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEEProgress of photovoltaic solar energy development in Europe,in organic photovoltaic devices, Solar Energy Materials and

Guvenc, Ali Bilge

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal electric photovoltaics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-chargePolymers for Organic Photovoltaics By David Fredric JoelPolymers for Organic Photovoltaics by David Fredric Joel

Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics | Center for Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics This Task Group focuses on novel approaches to InGaN and multijunction photovoltaics for unprecedented high photovoltaic energy conversion...

483

Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4.4 Photovoltaics in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . .milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is in the bottom-rightIN QUANTUM DOT PHOTOVOLTAICS A dissertation submitted in

Padilla, Derek

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

F. C. ; Norrman, K. Prog. Photovoltaics 2007, 15, 697–712.Processed Organic Photovoltaics that Generate Chargepolymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted

Douglas, Jessica D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Optically Functional Nanomaterials: Optothermally Responsive Composites and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics by David Christopher OkawaPart II: Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics Chapter 6:Carbon Nanotube – Polymer Photovoltaics 6.1 Polymer-Nanotube

Okawa, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Learning by doing: The evolution of state support for photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of State Support for Photovoltaics Mark Bolinger and Ryantarget the installation of photovoltaics (PV) in one way orwidespread popularity of photovoltaics (PV), along with its

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

NREL: Awards and Honors - PowerView Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Module  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PowerView(tm) Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Module PowerView(tm) Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Module Developers: Harrin Ullal, Ken Zweibel, and Bolko von Roedern, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Robert S. Oswald and Frank Liu, BP Solar The PowerView(tm) module - a BP Solar commercial product - represents the coming of a new era in photovoltaics for buildings. Because it is semi-transparent, it can be used in lieu of architectural glass for many applications, particularly for those that call for sloped glazing, such as awnings, canopies, or slanted roofs. And because it is photovoltaics, the module uses sunlight to generate clean electricity to power a building's electrical needs. As testimony to the PowerView's utility BP Solar has already installed it on canopies of hundreds of its Connect stores -

489

Design of the Experimental Procedures for Analysis of Thermal and Electrical Properties of a Prismatic LiFeYPO4 Battery in a Modified Electric Car  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric vehicle has become one of the alternatives for replacing the fossil-fuel vehicle due to the rapid decrease in the energy source and increase in the automobile utilization. Also, with the zero pipe-tail e...

Chayangkun Sanguanwatana…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

491

Photovoltaic Cell Having A P-Type Polycrystalline Layer With Large Crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cell has an n-type polycrystalline layer and a p-type polycrystalline layer adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer to form a photovoltaic junction. The p-type polycrystalline layer comprises a substantially planar layer portion having relatively large crystals adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer. The planar layer portion includes oxidized impurities which contribute to obtainment of p-type electrical properties in the planar layer portion.

Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX)

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

492

Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device. 10 figs.

Phillips, J.E.; Lasswell, P.G.

1987-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

493

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermal control...

494

Chicopee Electric Light- Residential Solar Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Chicopee Electric Light offered rebates to residential customers who install solar photovoltaic systems on their homes. Customer rebates are $0.50 per watt for a maximum of $2,500 per installation.

495

electric | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

electric electric Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (5 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

496

Next Generation Photovoltaics 3  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

SunShot's next generation PV projects investigate transformational photovoltaic (PV) technologies with the potential to meet SunShot cost targets. The projects' goals are to: Increase efficiency Reduce costs Improve reliability Create more secure and sustainable supply chains. On October 22, 2014, SunShot awarded more than $14 million to 10 research institutions to meet or exceed SunShot targets by improving performance, efficiency, and durability of solar PV devices. The R&D projects will explore a spectrum of leading-edge solutions, from new high-performance materials like perovskites to novel techniques for creating solar cells with high efficiency and lower manufacturing cost. Learn more about the second round of SunShot's Next Generations Photolvoltaics funding program, or find other PV competitive award programs.

497

Photovoltaic module mounting system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

498

Photovoltaic module mounting system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

Miros, Robert H. J. (Fairfax, CA); Mittan, Margaret Birmingham (Oakland, CA); Seery, Martin N. (San Rafael, CA); Holland, Rodney H. (Novato, CA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

499

Rooftop Photovoltaics Market Penetration Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to model the market penetration of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) in the United States under a variety of scenarios, on a state-by-state basis, from 2007 to 2015.

Paidipati, J.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Kurrasch, A.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $21 million in funding for the Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems Integration efforts, the following projects were...