National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal electric photovoltaics

  1. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  2. Electrical and thermal finite element modeling of arc faults in photovoltaic bypass diodes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, Ward Isaac; Quintana, Michael A.; Johnson, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Arc faults in photovoltaic (PV) modules have caused multiple rooftop fires. The arc generates a high-temperature plasma that ignites surrounding materials and subsequently spreads the fire to the building structure. While there are many possible locations in PV systems and PV modules where arcs could initiate, bypass diodes have been suspected of triggering arc faults in some modules. In order to understand the electrical and thermal phenomena associated with these events, a finite element model of a busbar and diode was created. Thermoelectrical simulations found Joule and internal diode heating from normal operation would not normally cause bypass diode or solder failures. However, if corrosion increased the contact resistance in the solder connection between the busbar and the diode leads, enough voltage potentially would be established to arc across micron-scale electrode gaps. Lastly, an analytical arc radiation model based on observed data was employed to predicted polymer ignition times. The model predicted polymer materials in the adjacent area of the diode and junction box ignite in less than 0.1 seconds.

  3. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  4. Photon management in thermal and solar photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lu

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is a technology that directly converts photon energy into electrical energy. Depending on the photon source, photovoltaic systems can be categorized into two groups: solar photovoltaics (PV) and thermophotovoltaics ...

  5. Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Jesse; McNutt, Peter; Lisell, Lars; Burch, Jay; Jones, Dennis; Heinicke, David

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

  6. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors; electricalelectricity) solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electricelectricity) solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electric

  7. A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan

    2011-01-15

    Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

  8. Cogenerating Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    Cogenerating Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector Jinny Rhee and Jim Mokri COE Faculty peak load and irradiance hours of the day #12;Design · Parabolic solar collector · GaAs PV cells · Solar Energy and Alternative Energy can contribute to the energy supply ­ Renewable, doesn't emit

  9. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal &...

  10. New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashima, Takumi; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Doi, Takuya ); Kamoshida, Junji ); Tani, Tatsuo ); Horigome, Takashi )

    1994-03-01

    One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature of solar cell increases up to the prescribed temperature of thermal energy use, although it is lower than the cell temperature when using only solar cell panel. For maintaining cell conversion efficiency at the standard conditions, it is necessary to keep the cell at lower temperature. In this paper, electric and thermal energy obtained form a PV/T panel is evaluated in terms of energy. BAsed on this evaluation, the method of not to decrease cell conversion efficiency with collecting solar thermal energy was proposed.

  11. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of On-Board Photovoltaic Modules Options forthe Temperature Dependence of Photovoltaic Module ElectricalChow, T. T. , "A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar

  12. Dynamic Reconfiguration of Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Dynamic Reconfiguration of Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Yanzhi, xuelin, pedram}@usc.edu, 2 {naehyuck}@elpl.snu.ac.kr ABSTRACT Photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting system. Keywords Photovoltaic System, Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Photovoltaic Array Reconfiguration, Dynamic

  13. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    absorption chiller solar thermal photovoltaics Resultsand fuel cells; photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors;

  14. A Thermal-Photovoltaic Device Based on Thermally Enhanced Photoluminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manor, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Single-junction photovoltaic cells are considered to be efficient solar energy converters, but even ideal cells cannot exceed the their fundamental thermodynamic efficiency limit, first analysed by Shockley and Queisser (SQ). For moderated irradiation levels, the efficiency limit ranges between 30%-40%. The efficiency loss is, to a great extent, due to the inherent heat-dissipation accompanying the process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics (STPV) and thermo-photonics4 aim to harness this dissipated heat, yet exceeding the SQ limit has not been achieved, mainly due to the very high operating temperatures needed. Recently, we demonstrated that in high-temperature endothermic-photoluminescence (PL), the photon rate is conserved with temperature increase, while each photon is blue shifted. We also demonstrated how endothermic-PL generates orders of magnitude more energetic-photons than thermal emission at similar temperatures. These new findings show that endoth...

  15. Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report IEA-PVPS T12-03:2011 #12;IEA-PVPS-TASK 12 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity #12;IEA-PVPS-TASK 12 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment Guidelines on Life-Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity IEA PVPS Task 12, Subtask 20, LCA

  16. A solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal collector J.S. Coventry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal collector Coventry "Photovoltaic and Wind Power for Urban in this area are summarised. The Combined Heat and Power Solar (CHAPS) collector, under development collector. Some of the technical challenges in the design of the CHAPS collector are discussed

  17. Thermal response of photovoltaic cell to laser beam irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Yu-Chen

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly presents the concept of using dual laser beam to irradiate the photovoltaic cell, so as to investigate the temperature dependency of the efficiency of long distance energy transmission. Next, the model on the multiple reflection and absorption of any monochromatic light in multilayer structure has been established, and the heat generation in photovoltaic cell has been interpreted in this work. Then, the finite element model has been set up to calculate the temperature of photovoltaic cell subjected to laser irradiation. Finally, the effect of temperature elevation on the efficiency and reliability of photovoltaic cell has been discussed to provide theoretical references for designing the light-electricity conversion system.

  18. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  19. Photovoltaics and Artificial Photosynthesis = Solar Electricity and Solar Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    .4 TW US Electricity Consumption Electricity from the Sun is an ideal source of energy (fullyPhotovoltaics and Artificial Photosynthesis = Solar Electricity and Solar Fuel F.J. Himpsel, University of Wisconsin Madison #12;100100 km2 of solar cells could produce all the electricity for the US. 0

  20. Valuing the Time-Varying Electricity Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01

    photovoltaic cells remain a relatively expensive way to generate electricity, but with increasing natural gas prices

  1. New Hampshire Electric Co-Op- Solar Photovoltaic Incentive Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New Hampshire Electric Co-op (NHEC) is offering rebates for residential and commercial, grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems up to one megawatt (MW) in capacity. The rebate is equal to $0.25 per DC...

  2. Two earth sheltered passive solar residences with photovoltaic electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strong, S.J.; Osten, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The design and construction of two earth sheltered passive solar residence with photovoltaic electricity are described. The sizing and design of the P.V. system as well as the module fabrication and array integration are also discussed.

  3. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  4. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  5. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  6. Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal 21st August - 2nd September 2011 on the principles of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be complemented with practical workshops of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be comple- mented with practical workshops

  7. Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion Riccardo Messina to a photovoltaic cell can be largely enhanced because of the contribution of evanescent photons, in particular important source of energy. By approaching a photovoltaic (PV) cell3 in proximity of a thermal emitter

  8. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    Large Grid- Connected Photovoltaic Systems in California andEconomics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California,”

  9. Operation o Solar Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) Hybrid System in KIER 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naveed, A.T.; Lee, E. J.; Kang, E. C.

    2006-01-01

    The details of the Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) hybrid air heating system, UTC air heating system and its effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV) module and room temperature in KIER are explained in this paper. Two identical test rooms were...

  10. Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Messina; Philippe Ben-Abdallah

    2012-07-05

    Thermophotovoltaic devices are energy-conversion systems generating an electric current from the thermal photons radiated by a hot body. In far field, the efficiency of these systems is limited by the thermodynamic Schockley-Queisser limit corresponding to the case where the source is a black body. On the other hand, in near field, the heat flux which can be transferred to a photovoltaic cell can be several orders of magnitude larger because of the contribution of evanescent photons. This is particularly true when the source supports surface polaritons. Unfortunately, in the infrared where these systems operate, the mismatch between the surface-mode frequency and the semiconductor gap reduces drastically the potential of this technology. Here we show that graphene-based hybrid photovoltaic cells can significantly enhance the generated power paving the way to a promising technology for an intensive production of electricity from waste heat.

  11. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells”, Center for theconcerns is solar photovoltaic cells (PVs), which captureProduction of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Solar PV cells

  12. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    2011-01-01

    2.3.1 Electrical transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5 Controlling electrical conductivity and opticalthe variation of electrical and thermal con- ductivity and

  13. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors; electricalfor application of solar thermal and recovered heat to end-absorption chiller solar thermal photovoltaics Results

  14. Thermal and electrical performance of a concentrating PV/Thermal collector: results from the ANU CHAPS collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , is a concentrating parabolic trough system that combines photovoltaic (PV) cells to produce electricity with thermal system, suitable for hot water and electricity generation for a home. Recently a second CHAPS system by an aluminium channel bonded to the cell tray rather than a copper pipe. The second and third CHAPS prototypes

  15. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  16. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors and perform reasonably well. The Simulink modeling platform has been mainly used worldwide on simulation of control systems, digital signal processing and electric circuits, but there are very few examples of application to solar energy systems modeling. This work uses the modular environment of Simulink/Matlab to model individual PV/T system components, and to assemble the entire installation layout. The results show that the modular approach strategy provided by Matlab/Simulink environment is applicable to solar systems modeling, providing good code scalability, faster developing time, and simpler integration with external computational tools, when compared with traditional imperative-oriented programming languages. (author)

  17. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  18. The economic impact of state ordered avoided cost rates for photovoltaic generated electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bottaro, Drew

    1981-01-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 requires that electric utilities purchase electricity generated by small power producers (QFs) such as photovoltaic systems at rates that will encourage the ...

  19. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    13 2.2.2. Solar Thermal Versus Photovoltaic ..…………..…………doi:10.1038/nmat2090. 17. Solar Thermal Technology on anFigure 2.5: An eSolar solar thermal system in Burbank,

  20. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim

    2014-01-01

    Margolis, R. , 2004. Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toeconomics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California.a grid-connected photovoltaic system. Renewable Energy 32,

  1. Where solar thermal meets photovoltaic for high-efficiency power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierman, David M. (David Matthew)

    2014-01-01

    To develop disruptive techniques which generate power from the Sun, one must understand the aspects of existing technologies that limit performance. Solar thermal and solar photovoltaic schemes dominate today's solar market ...

  2. Integrating Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems in Whole Building Energy Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces methodologies on how the renewable energy generated by the solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on site can be integrated in the whole building simulation analyses, which ...

  3. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  4. SIMULATION OF THE THERMAL INTERACTION BETWEEN A BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC COLLECTOR AND AN AIR-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    enables to take into account the thermal interaction between each physical object (heat pump, PV collector of the heat pump is installed in the attic just beneath the PV collector, which preheats the incoming air the thermal interaction between a Photovoltaic ­ Thermal (PV-T) collector and an air-source heat pump

  5. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of Wasted Energy : Thermal to Electrical EnergyRecycling of Wasted Energy : Thermal to Electrical Energyelectric energy generation and thermal energy conduction

  6. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    and Electrical Cogeneration ……………………. …………… 16 2.4.OptimalELECTRICAL AND THERMAL COGENERATION A thesis submitted inFOR ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL COGENERATION A solar tracker and

  7. New Hampshire Electric Co-Op- Residential Solar Photovoltaic Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire Electric Co-op (NHEC) is offering rebates for residential, grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems up to one megawatt (MW) in capacity. The rebate is equal to 20% of the installed cost of...

  8. Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore : assessment of solar photovoltaic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Li

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of solar energy based Electric Vehicle Transportation System in Singapore, the state of the art Photovoltaic Systems have been reviewed in this report with a focus on solar cell technologies. ...

  9. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geis, J.; Arnold, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States` Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV`s whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, the authors have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible they modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  10. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  11. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy, andfor efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  12. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy,for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  13. The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Electric Program is managed by the Solar thermal and biomass Power division which is part of the Office of utility Technologies. The focus of the Program is to commercialize solar electric technologies. In this regard, three major projects are currently being pursued in trough, central receiver, and dish/Stirling electric power generation. This paper describes these three projects and the activities at the National laboratories that support them.

  14. Performance Modeling of an Air-Based Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, R. D.; Brandemuehl, M. J.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a collector design that utilizes unglazed photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors preheating air for glazed air heating modules. The performance modeling of these collectors is examined both individually and in series. For each collector type, a dynamic, finite difference, first-law model has been created using literature correlations for friction. The models were compared to performance data, calibrating the models by scaling of friction terms for best fit. The calibrated models generally agree well with the experimental data; even during sudden changes to ambient conditions. The root mean square error between the unglazed PV/T model and experiment results for the useful thermal energy gain and the outlet air temperature are 7.12 W/m{sup 2} and 1.07 C, respectively. The annual source energy performance of the building-integrated PV/T (BIPV/T) array is then simulated for residential applications in seven climate zones of the United States of America. The performance of the BIPV/T array is characterized by the amount of net electrical energy and useful thermal energy produced. The useful thermal energy is defined as the amount of energy offset by the BIPV/T system for water heating and space conditioning. A BIPV/T system composed 87.5% of PV modules, and 12.5% of glazed air heating modules, offsets the same amount of source energy as a roof-mounted PV system of the same area. This array composition increases the thermal energy gain by 47% over a BIPV/T array composed solely of PV modules.

  15. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  16. Development of an Innovative Plug and Play Photovoltaic Electric System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    North Carolina State University FREEDM Systems Engineering Center and its partners, under the Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics FOA, are performing analysis, design, and innovation to address each stage...

  17. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on...

  18. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature...

  19. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    Renew- ables”, The Electricity Journal, Volume 14 (2001),from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill VolatilityReal- Time Retail Electricity Pricing,” Energy Journal,28(

  20. Photovoltaics Special Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    1999 Photovoltaics Special Research Centre UUNNSSWW 1999 Photovoltaics Special Research Centre The University of New South Wales Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering Electrical Engineering Building contains three sections which are colour coded as follows: Red: Photovoltaics Special Research Centre End

  1. Photovoltaic Technology Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity.

  2. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    electrode surfaces, and electric energy is stored as surfacetemperature end and electric energy is generated, thermalbeing the generated electric energy and the consumed thermal

  3. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    hours, since electricity storage is rather inefficient.efficient than electricity storage, solar thermal becomes ato generate electricity. Since heat storage is more

  4. Thermal analysis and air flow modelling of electrical machines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Yew Chuan

    2015-06-29

    Thermal analysis is an important topic that can affect the electrical machine performance, reliability, lifetime and efficiency. In order to predict the electrical machine thermal performance accurately, thermal analysis ...

  5. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    a wholesale electricity market in which capacity costs arecapacity would have helped to undermine market power during the California electricityCapacity shortages and the exercise of market power that occurred during the 2000-2001 California electricity

  6. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    dissipation during electricity transmission and distributionelectricity, and also ignores the potential savings in transmissionin an electricity grid re?ect the incremental transmission

  7. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  8. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi [Japan Aerospace Exploration and Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  9. Viability study of photo-voltaic systems added to terrestrial electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rippel, W.E.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of the following computer study is to determine the set of necessary conditions under which the addition of photo-voltaic (PV) cells to electric vehicles provides a net utility or economic benefit. Economic benefits are given the primary focus and are evaluated in terms of a payback period.

  10. Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Automated Solar Tracking Photovoltaic Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    to manufacture a portable, lightweight solar panel which will maximize efficiency for outdoor enthusiasts system to align a solar panel toward the sun throughout the day while capable of charging USB devicesPENNSTATE Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Automated Solar Tracking Photovoltaic

  11. Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

    2012-12-01

    To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

  12. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  13. Understanding Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with the Electric Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with themodels and datasets. Photovoltaics fall under the broader

  14. Photovoltaic device having light transmitting electrically conductive stacked films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Michael F. (St. Paul, MN); Tran, Nang T. (St. Paul, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN); Aspen, Frank E. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-07-10

    A light transmitting electrically conductive stacked film, useful as a light transmitting electrode, including a first light transmitting electrically conductive layer, having a first optical thickness, a second light transmitting layer, having a second optical thickness different from the optical thickness of the first layer, and an electrically conductive metallic layer interposed between and in initimate contact with the first and second layers.

  15. Equilibrium thermal characteristics of a building integrated photovoltaic tiled roof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, L.; Gottschalg, R.; Loveday, D.L. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, D.G. [Institute of Energy and Environment, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Davies, D.; Berry, M. [Solarcentury, 91-94 Lower Marsh Waterloo, London, SE1 7AB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules attain high temperatures when exposed to a combination of high radiation levels and elevated ambient temperatures. The temperature rise can be particularly problematic for fully building integrated PV (BIPV) roof tile systems if back ventilation is restricted. PV laminates could suffer yield degradation and accelerated aging in these conditions. This paper presents a laboratory based experimental investigation undertaken to determine the potential for high temperature operation in such a BIPV installation. This is achieved by ascertaining the dependence of the PV roof tile temperature on incident radiation and ambient temperature. A theory based correction was developed to account for the unrealistic sky temperature of the solar simulator used in the experiments. The particular PV roof tiles used are warranted up to an operational temperature of 85 C, anything above this temperature will void the warranty because of potential damage to the integrity of the encapsulation. As a guide for installers, a map of southern Europe has been generated indicating locations where excessive module temperatures might be expected and thus where installation is inadvisable. (author)

  16. Residential photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  17. Valuing the Time-Varying Electricity Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Severin BorensteinProduction of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Severin Borenstein 1concerns is so- lar photovoltaic cells (PVs), which capture

  18. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01

    California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies? Center for thefrom Residential Photovoltaic Systems Naïm R. Darghouth,FROM RESIDENTIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS Naïm R. Darghouth

  19. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01

    from Residential Photovoltaic Systems Naïm R. Darghouth,FROM RESIDENTIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS Naïm R. DarghouthABSTRACT Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are

  20. Delaware Electric Cooperative- Green Energy Program Incentives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Delaware Electric Cooperative (DEC) provides incentives for solar photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, wind, fuel cells, and geothermal installed by DEC member-owners. Eligibility is limited to ...

  1. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    the premium value of solar PV power to 0%-20% again. Whilepower to that location. While few dispute that the direct cost of electricity from the currently available solar

  2. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    behind table 2 if one is evaluating solar PV production overthan one to two percentage points in solar PV valuation. Areplaced by one unit of electricity from on-site solar PV is

  3. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy Timothy E. LipmanElectricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy Timothy E. Lipmanof electricity, hydrogen, and thermal energy; 2) a survey of

  4. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies Michaelwith Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies 1 Michael2006). Electrical and thermal storage is added as an option

  5. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    2011-01-01

    of thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4 Thermal transport in2.3.2 Thermal transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  6. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    of electrical and thermal energy, and the software used forincident 384 watts of thermal energy from the sun via thethe system can extract thermal energy from the receiver, but

  7. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  8. Maximizing the Value of Photovoltaic Installations on Schools in California: Choosing the Best Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.

    2011-07-01

    Schools in California often have a choice between multiple electricity rate options. For schools with photovoltaic (PV) installations, choosing the right rate is essential to maximize the value of PV generation. The rate option that minimizes a school?s electricity expenses often does not remain the most economical choice after the school installs a PV system. The complex interaction between PV generation, building load, and rate structure makes determining the best rate a challenging task. This report evaluates 22 rate structures across three of California?s largest electric utilities--Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E)--in order to identify common rate structure attributes that are favorable to PV installations.

  9. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  10. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim

    2014-01-01

    adequacy in competitive electricity markets. Electricityadequacy in the competitive electricity market environment.payments in imperfect electricity markets: Need and design.

  11. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of real-time electricity pricing. Energy JournalTime-varying retail electricity prices: Theory and practice.Electricity Deregulation: Choices and Challenges.

  12. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

  13. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  14. Geographic Variation in Potential of Rooftop Residential Photovoltaic Electric Power Production in the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper describes a geographic evaluation of Zero Energy Home (ZEH) potential, specifically an assessment of residential roof-top solar electric photovoltaic (PV) performance around the United States and how energy produced would match up with very-efficient and super-efficient home designs. We performed annual simulations for 236 TMY2 data locations throughout the United States on two highly-efficient one-story 3-bedroom homes with a generic grid-tied solar electric 2kW PV system. These annual simulations show how potential annual solar electric power generation (kWh) and potential energy savings from PV power vary geographically around the U.S. giving the user in a specific region an indication of their expected PV system performance.

  15. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    the consumed thermal energy, and this process can be greatlythermal energy to electric energy must be based on processesprocess of an indirect energy conversion system consists of multiple steps to convert thermal

  16. Standard Test Methods for Electrical Performance of Nonconcentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Arrays Using Reference Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays under natural or simulated sunlight using a calibrated reference cell. 1.1.1 These test methods allow a reference module to be used instead of a reference cell provided the reference module has been calibrated using these test methods against a calibrated reference cell. 1.2 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of reporting conditions (RC) to facilitate comparison of results. 1.3 These test methods apply only to nonconcentrator terrestrial modules and arrays. 1.4 The performance parameters determined by these test methods apply only at the time of the test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 These test methods apply to photovoltaic modules and arrays that do not contain series-connected photovoltaic multijunction devices; such module and arrays should be tested according to Test Methods E 2236. 1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  17. The Theory of Thermal, Thermoelectric and Electrical Transport Properties of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugarte, Vincent Ike

    2010-01-01

    In Boltzmann theory of transport the electrical conductivityThe Theory of Thermal, Thermoelectric and ElectricalThe Theory of Thermal, Thermoelectric and Electrical

  18. Thermal-reliable 3D Clock-tree Synthesis Considering Nonlinear Electrical-thermal-coupled TSV Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Thermal-reliable 3D Clock-tree Synthesis Considering Nonlinear Electrical-thermal-coupled TSV Model, physics-based electrical-thermal model is introduced for both signal and dummy thermal TSVs with the consider- ation of nonlinear electrical-thermal dependence. Taking thermal-reliable 3D clock-tree synthesis

  19. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    -piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator- collector design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only: Solar Thermal Collectors, Solar Thermal Electricity, Stirling Engine 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper, we

  20. PHOTOVOLTAICS SPECIAL RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    PHOTOVOLTAICS SPECIAL RESEARCH CENTRE UNSW ANNUAL REPORT 1997 #12;PHOTOVOLTAICS SPECIAL RESEARCH CENTRE UNSW ANNUAL REPORT 1997 Photovoltaics Special Research Centre School of Electrical Engineering.labs@unsw.edu.au WWW: http://www.pv.unsw.edu.au THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES The Photovoltaics Special Research

  1. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  2. Cover: PNNL's Photovoltaic array produces electricity for our super-computing facility and adjacent car charging stations. IN THIS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Cover: PNNL's Photovoltaic array produces electricity for our super-computing facility. And we will not rest with the milestones in sustainability that you are about to read in this, our third environment Transferring technology that makes a difference Fostering the next generation of scientists

  3. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim

    2014-01-01

    the amount of future renewable energy (RE) deployment is notFuture Electricity Market Conditions Prepared for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewablefuture changes. For example, higher penetrations of renewable energy

  4. Oscar Wilkie BE in Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    Oscar Wilkie BE in Photovoltaics and solar EnErgy EnginEEring What dO PhOtOvOltaics engineers dO? Photovoltaics engineering focuses on the manufacture and use of photovoltaic solar cells to generate electricity with an increased need for specialised photovoltaics engineers and there are constantly new opportunities arising

  5. Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niehus, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utilities are looking at thermal energy storage technology as a viable demand side management (DSM) option. In order for this DSM measure to be effective, it must be incorporated into a workable, well-structured utility program. This paper...

  6. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV. We investigate the impact of a range of electricity market scenarios on retail electricity prices and rate structures, and the resulting effects on the value of bill savings from PV. The scenarios include various levels of renewable and solar energy deployment, high and low natural gas prices, the possible introduction of carbon pricing, and greater or lesser reliance on utility-scale storage and demand response. We examine the bill savings from PV with time-invariant, flat residential retail rates, as well as with time-varying retail rates, including time-of-use (TOU) rates and real-time pricing (RTP). In addition, we explore a flat rate with increasing-block pricing (IBP). We evaluate the bill savings from PV with net metering, as currently allowed in many states, as well as scenarios with hourly netting, a partial form of net metering. This scoping study is the first known effort to evaluate these types of interactions in a reasonably comprehensive fashion, though by no means have we considered every possible change to electricity market conditions, retail rate structures, or PV compensation mechanisms. It focuses solely on the private value of bill savings for residential PV and does not seek to quantify the broader social or economic cost or value of solar electricity. Our analysis applies assumptions based loosely on California’s electricity market in a future year (2030); however, it is neither intended to forecast California’s future market, nor are our conclusions intended to have implications specific only to the California market. That said, some of the findings are unique to our underlying assumptions, as described further within the main body of the report, along with other key limitations.

  7. Effects of solar photovoltaic panels on roof heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    the energy performance of  photovoltaic roofs, ASHRAE Trans A thermal model for photovoltaic systems, Solar Energy, Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer 

  8. Soiling losses for solar photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejia, Felipe A; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Large Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in California andin design of photovoltaic systems. In: Markvart T. andA thermal model for photovoltaic systems. Solar Energy 2001;

  9. Effects of solar photovoltaic panels on roof heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    thermal model for photovoltaic systems, Solar Energy, Vol.  benefits of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems for building 

  10. Sri M., Huld T., Dunlop E.D., Albuisson M., Lefvre M., Wald L., 2007. Uncertainties in photovoltaic electricity yield prediction from fluctuation of solar radiation. Proceedings of the 22nd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in photovoltaic electricity yield prediction from fluctuation of solar radiation. Proceedings of the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milano, Italy 3-7.9.2007 (preprint). UNCERTAINTIES IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRICITY YIELD PREDICTION FROM FLUCTUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION Marcel Súri1 , Thomas Huld1 , Ewan D. Dunlop1

  11. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Solar Thermal Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC), a Touchstone Energy Cooperative, covers 14 counties in northern Florida, including Gainesville, Keystone Heights, Lake City, Orange Park, Palatka, and Salt Springs....

  12. Generators for Small Electrical and Thermal Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    build and test improved electric-power generators for use in residential Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, which capture the generator's heat output for space and water...

  13. PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF AU-MEROCYANINE-TiO2 SANDWICH CELLS. I. DARK ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND TRANSIENT EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.

    2010-01-01

    used in making the photovoltaic cells. Figure 2. Diagram oforganic compounds in photovoltaic cells. It lies more in thecalled a dye-sensitized photovoltaic cell. Dye sensitization

  14. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on Electricity Bill Savings From Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim

    2014-01-01

    From Residential Photovoltaic Systems Naïm R. Darghouth,from Residential Photovoltaic Systems Naïm R. DarghouthAbstract Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are

  15. EA-341 Photovoltaic Technologies, LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-341 Photovoltaic Technologies, LLC EA-341 Photovoltaic Technologies, LLC Order authorizing Photovoltaic Technologies, LLC to export electric energy to Mexico EA- 341...

  16. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    into the day-ahead market, using solar production forecasts.Impact of Solar PV on Electricity Markets in Texas (PreparedS. , 2008. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic

  17. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  18. Electric characteristics of germanium Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells under high intensity illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unishkov, V.A.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation of Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) germanium (Ge) photovoltaic (PV) cells. Vertical Multijunction Germanium Photovoltaic cells offer several advantages for Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications such as high intensity light conversion, low series resistance, more efficient coupling to lower temperature sources, high output voltage, simplified heat rejection system as well as potentially simple fabrication technology and low cost photovoltaic converter device. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Thermal, Electrical and Mechanical Response to a Quench in Nb3Sn Superconducting Coils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferracin, P.

    2011-01-01

    53129 4A-a07 Thermal, Electrical and Mechanical Response tofocuses on thermal, electrical and mechanical conditions inevaluated by the thermo-electrical model is transferred to a

  20. Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Doris, E.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility tariff data from 25 cities to understand better the impacts of different commercial rate structures on the value of solar PV systems. By analyzing and comparing 55 unique rate structures across the United States, this study seeks to identify the rate components that have the greatest effect on the value of PV systems. Understanding the beneficial components of utility tariffs can both assist decision makers in choosing appropriate rate structures and influence the development of rates that favor the deployment of PV systems. Results from this analysis show that a PV system's value decreases with increasing demand charges. Findings also indicate that time-of-use rate structures with peaks coincident with PV production and wide ranges between on- and off-peak prices most benefit the types of buildings and PV systems simulated. By analyzing a broad set of rate structures from across the United States, this analysis provides an insight into the range of impacts that current U.S. rate structures have on PV systems.

  1. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

  2. Electrical and thermal properties of graphite/polyaniline composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourdo, Shawn E., E-mail: sxbourdo@ualr.edu [Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Warford, Brock A.; Viswanathan, Tito [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    A composite of a carbon allotrope (graphite) and an inherently conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI), has been prepared that exhibits an electrical conductivity greater than either of the two components. An almost 2-fold increase in the bulk conductivity occurs when only a small mass fraction of polyaniline exists in the composite (91% graphite/ 9% polyaniline, by mass). This increase in dc electrical conductivity is curious since in most cases a composite material will exhibit a conductivity somewhere between the two individual components, unless a modification to the electronic nature of the material occurs. In order to elucidate the fundamental electrical properties of the composite we have performed variable temperature conductivity measurements to better understand the nature of conduction in these materials. The results from these studies suggest a change in the mechanism of conduction as the amount of polyaniline is increased in the composite. Along with superior electrical properties, the composites exhibit an increase in thermal stability as compared to the graphite. - Graphical abstract: (Left) Room temperature electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at different mass ratios. (Right) Electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at temperatures from 5 K to 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composites of graphite and polyaniline have been synthesized with unique electrical and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Certain G-PANI composites are more conductive and more thermally stable than graphite alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-PANI composites exhibit a larger conductivity ratio with respect to temperature than graphite alone.

  3. The design and control of a thermal management system for a photovoltaic reverse osmosis system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Leah C. (Leah Camille)

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a well-known process for desalinating seawater and brackish groundwater. Desalination is energy-intensive, so using photovoltaic (PV) panels to power the process is an attractive environmentally ...

  4. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability onThermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak- demandemployer. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of pumped thermal electricity storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Alexander; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Markides, Christos N.

    2012-03-24

    Energy Storage (CAES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in its various forms. A review of many of these technologies is given by Chen et al. [3]. Some (e.g., flywheels and super capacitors) have very high... and frequency support during rapid supply or demand swings. For energy management applications – e.g., levelling daily demand fluctuations and smoothing the output from intermittent renewable sources – CAES is probably the leading competitor to Pumped Hydro...

  6. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  7. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  8. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  9. Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence The Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence #12;The Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence is a Centre;#12;Photovoltaics involve the direct conversion of light, normally sunlight, into electricity when falling upon to its leading role in microelectronics. The Australian Research Council (ARC) Photovoltaics Centre

  10. Storing unsteady energy, like photovoltaically generated electric energy, as potential energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadja Kutz

    2012-02-13

    A proposal to store unsteady energy in potential energy via lifting masses with a rough quantitative overview. Some applications and methods to harvest the potential energy are also given. A focus is put on photovoltaically generated energy.

  11. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    and solar thermal collectors; electrical storage, flowis disallowed; 5. a low storage, PV, and solar thermal priceand heat storage; heat exchangers for application of solar

  12. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    lost per hour electrical flow battery 8 thermal Not alland energy ratings of a flow battery are independent of eacha) thermal storage 11 flow battery absorption chiller solar

  13. PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF AU-MEROCYANINE-TiO2 SANDWICH CELLS. I. DARK ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND TRANSIENT EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Chemical Physics PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF AU-W-7405-ENG-48 j'\\:::) Photovoltaic Properties of Au-dye used in making the photovoltaic cells. Figure 2. Diagram

  14. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01

    1) Borenstein, S. , Electricity Rate Structures and thes underlying retail electricity rate through net metering.turn impact retail electricity rates, particularly as retail

  15. Electrical and Thermal Experimental Characterization and Modeling of Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardea, Frank

    2012-10-19

    The present work investigates the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT) inclusions on the electrical and thermal conductivity of a thermoset epoxy resin. The characterization of electrical and thermal conductivity of CNT/epoxy composites is presented...

  16. Design and Synthesis of Plasmonic Core/Shell Nanorods for Light Trapping in Organic Photo-Voltaics, Non-Linear Optics and Photo-Thermal Tumor Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jankovic, Vladan

    2013-01-01

    photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells." Applied Physics2-Layer Organic Photovoltaic Cell." Applied Physics Letters1995). "Polymer Photovoltaic Cells: Enhanced Efficiencies

  17. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  18. Thermal Systems Group; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-11-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Thermal Systems Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  19. Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells use the energy in sunlight to produce electricity. However, the amount of electricity produced depends on the quality of the light available and the performance of the PV cell.

  20. Optical Refrigeration for Ultra-Efficient Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Improving the conversion efficiency of solar energy to electricity is most important to mankind. For single-junction photovoltaic solar-cells, the Shockley-Queisser thermodynamic efficiency limit is extensively due to the heat dissipation, inherently accompanying the quantum process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics and thermo-photonics, have been suggested to harness this wasted heat, yet efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit have not been demonstrated due to the challenge of operating at high temperatures. Here, we present a highly efficient converter based on endothermic photoluminescence, which operates at relative low temperatures. The thermally induced blue-shifted photoluminescence of a low-bandgap absorber is coupled to a high-bandgap photovoltaic cell. The high absorber's photo-current and the high cell's voltage results in 69% maximal theoretical conversion efficiencies. We experimentally demonstrate tenfold thermal-enhancement of usef...

  1. Tunable Electrical and Thermal Transport in Ice-Templated MultiLayer Graphene Nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    to electrical energy storage,1­3 thermal energy storage,4­13 and composite materials.14­21 Ice applications in thermal and electrical energy storage. Phase change thermal storage seeks to reduce building offsets in energy supply and demand.6 Thermal energy storage is also an appealing way to cool power

  2. 2007 IEEE Canada Electrical Power Conference Solar Photovoltaic Array's Shadow Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    to predict the shadow effects on the solar PV arrays for long term assumed linearly proportional to solar Modeling and performance prediction of solar photovoltaic factor because shadows change their shape prediction of the illumination may be the shadows from: clouds, trees, booms, maximum output power of solar

  3. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  4. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    networks. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andenergy markets. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andfuture prospects. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

  5. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beavis, Leonard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  6. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01

    pricing, high solar penetrations in the market could lead tosolar power (CSP), and wind penetrations in the electricity market.in wholesale market electricity prices. Under high solar

  7. Modeling of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Interactions with a Sustainable Community Grid in the Azores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2013-01-01

    for solar energy thermal and photovoltaics installations instorage, ST - Solar thermal, PV - Photovoltaics. Technologysolar thermal, the cost curve was designed based on 85 different suppliers. The photovoltaics

  8. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01

    electricity from photovoltaic cells to convert CO 2 intoSolar Energy Anode Photovoltaic Cell Cathode PP Mesh SpacerCoupling a Photovoltaic Solar Cell with a Homogeneous

  9. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaffari, Azad

    2013-01-01

    Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems . . . 4.1DC- DC converter photovoltaic systems: power optimizationgrid-connected photovoltaic systems,” IET Electric Power

  10. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    N ATIONAL L ABORATORY Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity20, 2012. I. Dincer, On thermal energy storage systems andin research on cold thermal energy storage, International

  11. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  12. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    ocean thermal energy, distributed solar thermal energy,heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demand

  13. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

  14. Presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden,Germany, 4-8 September 2006 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PV ELECTRICITY GENERATION -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden,Germany, 4-8 September.dewild@ecn.nl, Phone +31 224 564736, Fax +31 224 568214 Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Solar 2006 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PV ELECTRICITY GENERATION - A CRITICAL COMPARISON OF ENERGY SUPPLY

  15. Electrical conductivity and thermal dilepton rate from quenched lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olaf Kaczmarek; Anthony Francis

    2011-09-19

    We report on a continuum extrapolation of the vector current correlation function for light valence quarks in the deconfined phase of quenched QCD. This is achieved by performing a systematic analysis of the influence of cut-off effects on light quark meson correlators at $T\\simeq 1.45 T_c$ using clover improved Wilson fermions. We discuss resulting constraints on the electrical conductivity and the thermal dilepton rate in a quark gluon plasma. In addition new results at 1.2 and 3.0 $T_c$ will be presented.

  16. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

  17. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  18. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  19. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  20. Thermalization and Isotropization of Color-Electric Flux Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ruggieri; A. Puglisi; L. Oliva; S. Plumari; F. Scardina; V. Greco

    2015-05-29

    In this study we model early times dynamics of the system produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism, coupling the dynamical evolution of the initial color field to the dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay. The latter is described by relativistic kinetic theory in which we fix the ratio $\\eta/s$ rather than insisting on specific microscopic processes. We study isotropization and thermalization of the system produced by the field decay for a static box and for a $1+1$D expanding geometry. We find that regardless of the viscosity of the produced plasma, the initial color electric field decays within $1$ fm/c; however in the case $\\eta/s$ is large, oscillations of the field are effective along all the entire time evolution of the system, which affect the late times evolution of the ratio between longitudinal and transverse pressure. In case of small $\\eta/s$ ($\\eta/s\\lesssim0.3$) we find $\\tau_{isotropization}\\approx 0.8$ fm/c and $\\tau_{thermalization}\\approx 1$ fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics. Moreover we have investigated the effect of turning from the relaxation time approximation to the Chapman-Enskog one: we find that this improvement affects mainly the early times evolution of the physical quantities, the effect being milder in the late times evolution.

  1. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loferski, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  2. Monitoring SERC Technologies — Solar Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Market Transformation Center electrical engineer Peter McNutt about Solar Photovoltaics and how to properly monitor its installation.

  3. Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Otto VanGeet on using solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide electricity for homes.

  4. Utility-scale photovoltaic concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics concentrators section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  5. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01

    displaces higher marginal cost generation. The high periodrates Utility-owned generation Costs to run and maintainrenewable electricity generation costs. This proportion is

  6. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    designed for optimal thermal storage after extracting theand hot water for thermal storage. 2. Theory and Backgroundnot as ideal for thermal storage. An insulated reservoir

  7. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    and nuclear power plants, solar thermal energy, geothermalpower plants, distributed solar thermal energy, geo/ocean-power plants and concentrated solar thermal energy farms.

  8. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Krawetz, Barton (Idaho Falls, ID); Barklund, C. Rodger (Idaho Falls, ID); Seifert, Gary D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-14

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  9. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Ruiting

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce ...

  10. Thermal/Electrical Modeling for Abuse-Tolerant Design of Li-Ion Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2008-11-01

    To help design safe, high-performing batteries, NREL and NASA created and verified a new multicell math model capturing electrical-thermal interactions of cells with PTC devices during thermal abuse.

  11. Thermal Energy Storage: It's not Just for Electric Cost Savings Anymore 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrepont, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Large cool Thermal Energy Storage (TES), typically ice TES or chilled water (CHW) TES, has traditionally been thought of, and used for, managing time-of-day electricity use to reduce the cost associated with electric energy and demand charges...

  12. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  13. Electrical and photovoltaic properties of CdTe/ZnTe n-i-p junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zielony, E., E-mail: eunika.zielony@pwr.edu.pl; P?aczek-Popko, E.; Racino, A.; Gumienny, Z. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Olender, K.; Wosi?ski, T.; Karczewski, G.; Chusnutdinow, S. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-28

    Preliminary studies have been performed on photoelectrical properties of CdTe/ZnTe n-i-p junctions grown using the molecular beam epitaxy technique. Photovoltaic properties of the cells have been investigated by the measurements of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics under 1-sun illumination. I-V characteristics yield efficiencies of the cells varying from 3.4% to 4.9%. The low efficiency can be due to the presence of electrically active defects. In order to study the origin of defects in CdTe/ZnTe photovoltaic junctions, space charge techniques (C-V and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS)) have been applied. From the C-V measurements, a doping profile was calculated confirming charge accumulation in the i-CdTe layer. The results of the DLTS studies revealed the presence of four traps within a temperature range from 77–420?K. Three of them with activation energies equal to 0.22 eV, 0.45?eV, and 0.78?eV have been ascribed to the hole traps present in the i-CdTe material and their possible origin has been discussed. The fourth, high-temperature DLTS peak observed at ?350?K has been attributed to extended defects as its amplitude and temperature position depends on the value of the filling pulse width. It is assumed that the defects related to the trap are either located in the i-CdTe layer or at the i-CdTe/ZnTe interface. However, it was found that the trap exhibits twofold nature: it behaves as a majority or as a minority trap, depending on the filling pulse height, which is a characteristic feature of recombination centers. This trap is presumably responsible for the low efficiency of the cells.

  14. Electricity Rate Structures and the Economics of Solar PV: Could Mandatory Time-of-Use Rates Undermine California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2007-01-01

    the Twenty- Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference,T. and R. Margolis. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLarge Grid- Connected Photovoltaic Systems in California and

  15. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Margolis, R. , 2004. Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toeconomics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California.a grid-connected photovoltaic system. Renewable Energy 32,

  16. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  17. Thermal effects of asymmetric electrolytes in electric double layer Anna L. d'Entremont, Laurent Pilon*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    presents a thermal model, derived from first principles, for electric double layer capacitors (EDLCsThermal effects of asymmetric electrolytes in electric double layer capacitors Anna L. d. Electrolytes leading to large capacitance also produce large reversible heating. Total heat generation rate

  18. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  19. Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Electrical Performance and Spectral Response of Nonconcentrator Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells and Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide special techniques needed to determine the electrical performance and spectral response of two-terminal, multijunction photovoltaic (PV) devices, both cell and modules. 1.2 These test methods are modifications and extensions of the procedures for single-junction devices defined by Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.3 These test methods do not include temperature and irradiance corrections for spectral response and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Procedures for such corrections are available in Test Methods E948, E1021, and E1036. 1.4 These test methods may be applied to cells and modules intended for concentrator applications. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and ...

  20. Reconfigurable microfluidic pump enabled by opto-electrical-thermal transduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeuchi, M; Takeuchi, M; Hagiwara, M; Haulot, G; Ho, CM

    2013-01-01

    Reconfigurable microfluidic pump enabled by opto-electrical-Reconfigurable microfluidic pump enabled by opto-electrical-of reconfigurable microfluidic pump using optoelectronic

  1. Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit

  2. Electrical-Thermal Co-analysis for Power Delivery Networks in 3D System Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Electrical-Thermal Co-analysis for Power Delivery Networks in 3D System Integration Jianyong Xie1 Rubin3 1 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 2 IBM Package Design, Development, and Electrical Services Group, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 12601 3 IBM T

  3. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  4. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings for Specific Measures 5 U.S.Machines |

  5. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings for Specific Measures 5 U.S.Machines |Machines

  6. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    watts of thermal energy from the sun via the water coolingkilowatt-hours of energy from the sun per square mile perthe heat. The thermal energy from the sun is typically used

  7. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    steam turbine or sterling engine connected to an electricalsolar thermal systems, a sterling engine or steam turbine is

  8. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  9. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rourke, D; Ahn, S; Nardes, AM; van de Lagemaat, J; Kopidakis, N; Park, W

    2014-09-21

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  10. Quantum-coupled single-electron thermal to electric conversion scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, D. M.

    Thermal to electric energy conversion with thermophotovoltaics relies on radiation emitted by a hot body, which limits the power per unit area to that of a blackbody. Microgap thermophotovoltaics take advantage of evanescent ...

  11. Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of solar thermal technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaogang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    To build an electric car plus renewable energy system for Singapore, solar thermal technologies were investigated in this report in the hope to find a suitable "green" energy source for this small island country. Among all ...

  12. Thermodynamics -2 A cogeneration plant (plant which provides both electricity and thermal energy) executes a cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Thermodynamics - 2 A cogeneration plant (plant which provides both electricity and thermal energy] Determine the rate of heat addition in the steam generator. Now consider an ideal, reversible cogeneration 1 2 3 45 6 Cogeneration Plant Boundary #12;

  13. Quantum-coupled single-electron thermal to electric conversion scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dennis M. (Dennis Meng-Jiao)

    2008-01-01

    A new thermal to electric conversion scheme based on an excitation transfer and tunneling mechanism is studied theoretically. Coulomb coupling dominates when the hot side and the cold side are very close. Two important ...

  14. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2007-01-01

    Capacity Investor Owned Utility Los Angeles Department of Water & Power Pacific Gas & Electric photovoltaic

  15. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01

    capacity. 9 The technology for the capture and conversion of solar energy into electricity using photovoltaic

  16. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    making direct thermal energy storage methods, e.g. thosethermal shorting, that limits the energy conversion efficiency of direct thermoelectric energy conversion methods.

  17. Multiband semiconductor compositions for photovoltaic devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual...

  18. Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2003-05-27

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  19. HeatProbe: A Thermal-based Power Meter for Accounting Disaggregated Electricity Usage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Hao-hua

    consumer awareness of energy usage behavior. This study proposes HeatProbe, a thermal-based power meterHeatProbe: A Thermal-based Power Meter for Accounting Disaggregated Electricity Usage Bo-Jhang Ho1}@citi.sinica.edu.tw ABSTRACT To promote energy-saving behavior, disaggregating elec- tricity usage is critical for increasing

  20. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Lawrence L. : “Solar photovoltaics R&D at the tipping point:available include solar thermal, photovoltaics (PV) and fuelabsorption chiller solar thermal photovoltaics Please note

  1. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    as Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) mahines, Sterling engines,Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system or Sterling Engine (SE)an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system generates electricity

  2. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  3. Optimizing Carbon Nanotube Contacts for Use in Organic Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, T. M.; Blackburn, J. L.; Tenent, R. C.; Morfa, A.; Heben, M.; Coutts, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    This report describes research on optimizing carbon nanotube networks for use as transparent electrical contacts (TCs) in organic photovoltaics (OPV).

  4. ENERGY ANALYSIS PROGRAM FY-1979.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01

    from wind, OTEC, photovoltaics, solar thermal electrictechnologies include photovoltaics, solar thermal electricOTEC, solar thermal electricity and photovoltaics are

  5. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    distributed photovoltaics (PV) adoption. 5 Though specificgreater support for PV adoption among high usage customers.customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV),

  6. Enhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic field processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    Enhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube CNT -polymer composites are significantly enhanced. INTRODUCTION The addition of small quantities of carbon nanotubes CNTs to polymer composites is known to cause

  7. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max (Madison, WI); Liu, Feng (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  8. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University - Bozeman EELE408 Photovoltaics & Ventre: Photovoltaic Systems Engineering , 3E · Resources: ­ Green: Solar Cells: Operating Principles

  9. Thermal and Electrical Transport Study of One Dimensional Nanomaterials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Liang

    2013-07-13

    advantages comparing to other semiconductors. Two nanostructured materials, SrTiO3 nanotubes and ZnO nanowires, are introduced and successfully synthesized by simple methods. Thermal conductivity of ZnO nanowires with different diameter were characterized...

  10. SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy about using solar photovoltaics (PV) systems to provide electricity for homes.

  11. Rapid screening buffer layers in photovoltaics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    List, III, Frederick Alyious; Tuncer, Enis

    2014-09-09

    An apparatus and method of testing electrical impedance of a multiplicity of regions of a photovoltaic surface includes providing a multi-tipped impedance sensor with a multiplicity of spaced apart impedance probes separated by an insulating material, wherein each impedance probe includes a first end adapted for contact with a photovoltaic surface and a second end in operable communication with an impedance measuring device. The multi-tipped impedance sensor is used to contact the photovoltaic surface and electrical impedance of the photovoltaic material is measured between individual first ends of the probes to characterize the quality of the photovoltaic surface.

  12. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    to electrical energy by turbine engines. Organic Rankineheat and rotating turbine engines. Figure 1.1 is a schematicthe gas stream rotates the turbine engine. The gas stream is

  13. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    12 2.2.1. Solar Potential ………………. …………………………… 13 2.2.2.to an electrical generator. 2.2.1. Solar Potential To fullyunderstand the energy potential of solar power, it is useful

  14. Loss analysis of thermal reservoirs for electrical energy storage schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Alexander

    2011-05-14

    , will inevitably lead to a greater interest in large-scale electrical energy storage schemes. In par- ticular, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull... phase change materials,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 45, pp. 263–275, 2004. [3] C. Bullough, C. Gatzen, C. Jakiel, M. Koller, A. Nowi, and S. Zunft, “Advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage for the integration of wind energy,” in Proc...

  15. QUANTIFYING PHOTOVOLTAIC FIRE DANGER REDUCTION WITH ARC-FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QUANTIFYING PHOTOVOLTAIC FIRE DANGER REDUCTION WITH ARC-FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS Kenneth M, shock hazards, and cause system downtime in photovoltaic (PV) systems. The 2011 National Electrical Code

  16. OTEC- Residential Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers of Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) who install photovoltaic systems are eligible for a rebate of $500 for the first kilowatt (kW) of installed capacity per year. ...

  17. EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2011-01-01

    EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org DOI: 10.1051/epjpv/2011001 c Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2011 EPJ PhotovoltaicsEPJ Photovoltaics Geometrical optimization and electrical online: 1 April 2011 Abstract This article investigates the optimal efficiency of a photovoltaic system

  18. The Third Way of Thermal-Electric Conversion beyond Seebeck and Pyroelectric Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Jie

    2014-02-14

    Thermal-electric conversion is crucial for smart energy control and harvesting, such as thermal sensing and waste heat recovering. So far, people are aware of only two ways of direct thermal-electric conversion, Seebeck and pyroelectric effects, each with distinct working conditions and limitations. Here, we report the third way of thermal-electric conversion beyond Seebeck and pyroelectric effects. In contrast to Seebeck effect that requires spatial temperature difference, the-third-way converts the time-dependent ambient temperature fluctuation into electricity, similar to the behavior of pyroelectricity. However, the-third-way is also distinct from pyroelectric effect in the sense that it does not require polar materials but applies to general conducting systems. We demonstrate that the-third-way results from the temperature-fluctuation-induced dynamical charge redistribution. It is a consequence of the fundamental nonequilibrium thermodynamics and has a deep connection to the topological phase in quantum mechanics. Our findings expand our knowledge and provide new means of thermal-electric energy harvesting.

  19. Novel materials, computational spectroscopy, and multiscale simulation in nanoscale photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernardi, Marco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells convert solar energy to electricity using combinations of semiconducting sunlight absorbers and metallic materials as electrical contacts. Novel nanoscale materials introduce new paradigms for ...

  20. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  1. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel Electrode Valence Band Conduction Band Fermi Level I- /I3 - Redox Potential Dye 1D 3D* 1D* Energy Levels Counter Electrode Valence Band Conduction Band Fermi Level I- /I3 - Redox Potential Dye 1D 3D* 1D* Energy

  2. Thermal-to-electric energy conversion using ferroelectric film capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyrev, A. B.; Platonov, R. A.; Soldatenkov, O. I. [Saint-Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, 5 Professor Popov Street, St-Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-28

    The capacitive ferroelectric thermoelectric converter harvesting electrical energy through non-linear capacitance variation caused by changes in temperature is analyzed. The ferroelectric material used was the thin (0.5??m) Ba{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 0.7}TiO{sub 3} film. On the basis of experimental dependencies of the ferroelectric film permittivity on temperature ranging from 100?K to 350?K under different electric fields up to 80?V/?m, the optimum values of operating temperatures and electric field for the energy harvesting optimization were determined. For the temperature oscillations of ±15?K around room temperature and electric field about 40?V/?m, the harvested energy was estimated as 30 mJ/cm{sup 3}. It is shown that the use of thin ferroelectric films for rapid capacitance variation versus temperature and microelectromechanical systems for fast temperature modulations may be a relevant solution for creation of small power scale generators for portable electronics.

  3. Multi-scale electrical and thermal properties of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Namiko

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a potential new component to be incorporated into existing aerospace structural composites for multi-functional (mechanical, electrical, thermal, etc.) property enhancement and tailoring. ...

  4. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Hongguang, E-mail: chenghg7932@gmail.com; Deng, Ning [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15

    We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor ? of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10{sup ?9} can be achieved for the device of thermal stability factor ? of 40. Low damping factor ? material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM) applications.

  5. Agent-Based Simulation of Distribution Systems with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Agent-Based Simulation of Distribution Systems with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation- tems, photovoltaic generation, power distribution, power system economics, smart grids. I. INTRODUCTION study of electric distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) panels within

  6. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  7. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 ?m, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.

  8. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  9. ANALYTIC CRITERIA FOR THE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL STABILITY OF MAGNETIC STARS WITH FINITE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pressure changes with the mass density as roughly 4/3 , and the Joule heating rate goes as roughly for dynamical, secular, and pulsational stability, but the Joule heating rate directly affects the secularANALYTIC CRITERIA FOR THE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL STABILITY OF MAGNETIC STARS WITH FINITE ELECTRICAL

  10. MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS on the maximum deliverable power is essential to protect lithium-ion batteries from over- charge Terminal voltage Voc Open circuit voltage of a battery 1 INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries have been used

  11. Stirling Engines for Low-Temperature Solar-Thermal-Electric Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    Stirling Engines for Low-Temperature Solar-Thermal- Electric Power Generation Artin Der Minassians Energy Institute (UCEI) and National Science Foundation (NSF) #12;Stirling Engines for Low: Chair Date Date Date Date University of California, Berkeley Fall 2007 #12;Stirling Engines for Low

  12. Sizing Optimization with Thermal and Electrical Matching of a Thermogenerator placed on the Human Body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is presented in this article. The dual thermal and electrical matching that maximize energy harvesting, UEB Tel: +33(0)299059322 ­ e-mail: marianne.lossec@bretagne.ens-cachan.fr Topics: Energy harvesting 1] (heat, light, movement), we studied the potential of thermoelectric generation from human body heat

  13. Analysis of Off-Board Powered Thermal Preconditioning in Electric Drive Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.; Rugh , J.; Smith, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Following a hot or cold thermal soak, vehicle climate control systems (air conditioning or heat) are required to quickly attain a cabin temperature comfortable to the vehicle occupants. In a plug-in hybrid electric or electric vehicle (PEV) equipped with electric climate control systems, the traction battery is the sole on-board power source. Depleting the battery for immediate climate control results in reduced charge-depleting (CD) range and additional battery wear. PEV cabin and battery thermal preconditioning using off-board power supplied by the grid or a building can mitigate the impacts of climate control. This analysis shows that climate control loads can reduce CD range up to 35%. However, cabin thermal preconditioning can increase CD range up to 19% when compared to no thermal preconditioning. In addition, this analysis shows that while battery capacity loss over time is driven by ambient temperature rather than climate control loads, concurrent battery thermal preconditioning can reduce capacity loss up to 7% by reducing pack temperature in a high ambient temperature scenario.

  14. Customer-Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Impact of High Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings with Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. There is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. This article uses a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under a reference scenario and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, the article develops retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV are estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. The article finds that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 054203 (2011) Electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium from first-principles calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    2011-01-01

    and technological point of view. For example, it is used as coolant in fast-breeding nuclear reactors, and in heatPHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 054203 (2011) Electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium from first on the electrical and thermal conductivity of liquid sodium at 400 K, calculated using density functional theory

  16. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 184201 (2012) Electrical and thermal conductivity of Al liquid at high pressures and temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    perturbation theory to phase trajectories generated using first-principles molecular dynamics. Our results time-invariant electrical field and thermal gradient. First-principles calculations provide a directPHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 184201 (2012) Electrical and thermal conductivity of Al liquid at high

  17. Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals neurons. Subretinal photovoltaic arrays convert pulsed illumination into pulsed electric current

  18. Modeling Thermal Fatigue in CPV Cell Assemblies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosco, N.; Panchagade, D.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    This presentation outlines the modeling of thermal fatigue in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) assemblies.

  19. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01

    Effect of building integrated photovoltaics on microclimateof a building's integrated-photovoltaics on heating a n dgaps for building- integrated photovoltaics, Solar Energy

  20. Automatic control of electric thermal storage (heat) under real-time pricing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daryanian, B.; Tabors, R.D.; Bohn, R.E. [Tabors Caramanis and Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Real-time pricing (RTP) can be used by electric utilities as a control signal for responsive demand-side management (DSM) programs. Electric thermal storage (ETS) systems in buildings provide the inherent flexibility needed to take advantage of variations in prices. Under RTP, optimal performance for ETS operations is achieved under market conditions where reductions in customers` costs coincide with the lowering of the cost of service for electric utilities. The RTP signal conveys the time-varying actual marginal cost of the electric service to customers. The RTP rate is a combination of various cost components, including marginal generation fuel and maintenance costs, marginal costs of transmission and distribution losses, and marginal quality of supply and transmission costs. This report describes the results of an experiment in automatic control of heat storage systems under RTP during the winter seasons of 1989--90 and 1990--91.

  1. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  2. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 20: Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 20: Photovoltaic Systems Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser into the grid 2 Application Areas 3 Photovoltaic System Basics · Photovoltaic Systems ­ Cell Panel Array · 6. Determine battery size for recommended reserve time Photovoltaic System Design Block Diagram Ph

  3. Calcium/calcium chromate thermal battery and thermal battery assignment at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neale, J.B.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-10-10

    A nontechnical overview of thermal battery design and fabrication methods is given, along with a description of the role of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) in the Department of Energy's battery program. A thermal battery is a primary, reserve electrochemical power source; that is, it can be used only once and then for a relatively short period, measured in minutes. To energize the battery, an external electrical signal ignites a heat source in the battery to melt the electrolyte and initiate an electrochemical reaction. The battery is made up of several series-connected cells, each with an anode, a cathode, and a current collector. A cell's anode is calcium; its cathode is hexavalent chromium. The electrochemical reaction takes place when the electrolyte is melted by heat supplied from ignition of an iron-potassium perchlorate disk. Since no reaction occurs while the electrolyte is in the solid state, the battery does not deteriorate with time and has a shelf life exceeding 20 years. Presented are such critical battery operating characteristics as temperature, rise time, active life, current capacity, etc. Design factors described include size and shape, pellet density, ignition methods, anode construction, etc. These batteries are designed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. GEND acts as a procurement agency and provides engineering support to suppliers. 18 figures.

  4. Thermal and Electric Conductivities of Coulomb Crystals in the Inner Crust of a Neutron Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Baiko; D. G. Yakovlev

    1996-04-28

    Thermal and electric conductivities of relativistic degenerate electrons are calculated for the case when electrons scatter by phonons in Coulomb crystals made of spherical finite--size nuclei at densities $10^{11}$~g/cm$^3 neutron star. In combination with the results of the previous article (for lower $\\rho$), simple unified fits are obtained which describe the kinetic coefficients in the range $10^3$~g/cm$^3 neutron stars and evolution of their magnetic fields. The difference between the kinetic coefficients in the neutron star crust composed of ground state and accreted matters is analyzed. Thermal drift of the magnetic field in the neutron star crust is discussed.

  5. Analysis of the Potential Applications of Solar Termal and Photovoltaic Systems for Northwest Vista College 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugursal, A.; Martinez, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Zilbershtein, G.

    2013-01-01

    the following RE technologies as viable: ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems, closed loop solar thermal system and photovoltaic (PV)....

  6. Modeling of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Interactions with a Sustainable Community Grid in the Azores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2013-01-01

    of turnkey costs for solar energy thermal and photovoltaicsSolar thermal, PV - Photovoltaics. Technology costs are rounded for presentation. Table 3 - Energy

  7. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Will; Walker, Iain; Roux, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  8. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

  9. Electricity Rate Structures and the Economics of Solar PV: Could Mandatory Time-of-Use Rates Undermine California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2007-01-01

    paper presented at the American Solar Energy Society 2004and the Economics of Solar PV: Could Mandatory Time-of-Rates Undermine California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies?

  10. China Solar Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic Power Co Ltd or China Solar PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar Photovoltaic Group (CNPV, aka Dongying Photovoltaic...

  11. Retrospective modeling of the merit-order effect on wholesale electricity prices from distributed photovoltaic generation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandiford, Mike

    -front cost, and this is particularly the case for renewables such as solar photo- voltaic (PV). On a levelised cost basis, solar PV is currently an expensive way to produce electricity. However, solar PV has.8 billion in the market over two years. c The depression of wholesale prices offsets the cost of support

  12. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process. A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    As of the end of 2014, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) had connected over 130,000 DG PV systems in its service territory, more than any other utility in the U.S. In this case study, we examine how PG&E achieved a faster, more efficient interconnection approval process despite rising application volumes.

  13. Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation What cost for photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation What cost for photovoltaic modules in 2020? Lessons from@mines-paristech.fr hal-00805668,version2-27May2013 #12;1 What cost for photovoltaic modules in 2020? Lessons from Abstract Except in few locations, photovoltaic generated electricity remains considerably more expensive

  14. Organic Electronics and Photovoltaics CopyrightDaveWhite2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENERGY Organic Electronics and Photovoltaics Objective CopyrightDaveWhite2008 Organic electronics and photovoltaic technology are reaching critical mass with the establishment of a U.S. consortium and the recent an inte- grated suite of measurement methods to tie the electrical and photovoltaic performance of organic

  15. Photovoltaics Program: utility interface southwest regional workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-04-01

    This was the first of a series of regional workshops that will focus on the photovoltaic and utility interface, and the use of photovoltaics as a cogeneration option by utilities. The needs and constraints of the utilities are defined and an understanding is established of the capabilities and limitations of photovoltaic systems as an alternative electricity generation option by utilities. Utilities' viewpoints regarding large-scale central systems and small-scale, interconnected, distributed systems are given. The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act and other economic, legislative, and regulatory factors affecting photovoltaic systems are discussed. Current status of photovoltaic systems with respect to the Department of Energy Photovoltaic Program is given. (LEW)

  16. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01

    Electricity derived from solar thermal energy is limited byto the generation of thermal energy (solar thermal).

  17. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  18. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  19. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  20. World Conference on Photovoltaic Conversion, Hawaii, May 8-12, 2006 QUANTIFYING THE LIFE-CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE 4 th World Conference on Photovoltaic Conversion, Hawaii, May 8-12, 2006 QUANTIFYING THE LIFE-CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMPARISONS WITH OTHER ELECTRICITY-GENERATING TECHNOLOGIES V and Australian studies portrayed photovoltaic systems as causing significant life-cycle environmental and health

  1. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  2. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  3. Status report on a solar photovoltaic concentrating energy system for a hospital in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, A.; Curtis, G.; Yuen, P.

    1983-06-01

    The largest parabolic concentrating photovoltaic/solar thermal system in the U.S. began producing electricity and hot water for a hospital on the island of Kauai, Hawaii in November 1981. Each of the 80 parabolic collectors is 6 feet by 10 feet and concentrates incident sunlight on photovoltaic cells mounted on two faces of the receiver at the focus. Although the 35 kilowatt system has been designed to produce 22,000 net kilowatt-hours per year of electricity and 620,000 gallons of 180 F water, electrical output (12 to 15 kilowatt-hours per day) is only 20 percent of that expected, primarily because insolation at the site has been only 40 percent of predicted values. A second problem with fungal attack on the receivers has been solved by better sealing. The system has also withstood a hurricane with negligible damage.

  4. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 15 Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 15 Photovoltaic Devices Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser) · Demonstrated the photovoltaic effect · Best results with UV or blue light 2 g · Electrodes covered with light of photovoltaic effect in an all solid state device · Several decades before the effect could be explained Fritts

  5. Central Georgia EMC- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In June 2008, Central Georgia Electric Membership Corporation (CGEMC) began offering a rebate of $450 per kilowatt (kW) to residential members who install photovoltaic (PV) systems that are...

  6. GreyStone Power- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative in Georgia, offers a rebate for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to members. The one-time rebate is offered for PV installations that are interconnected...

  7. Silicon cast wafer recrystallization for photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hantsoo, Eerik T. (Eerik Torm)

    2008-01-01

    Current industry-standard methods of manufacturing silicon wafers for photovoltaic (PV) cells define the electrical properties of the wafer in a first step, and then the geometry of the wafer in a subsequent step. The ...

  8. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%?about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  9. Design, construction, and startup of a concentrating photovoltaic solar energy system in Hawaii: Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, R.; Harper, R.; Maberry, G.; Bedard, R.; Rafinejad, D.

    1982-10-01

    Acurex Corporation has designed, constructed, and is now operating a 35-kWp concentrating photovoltaic solar system located at the G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Lihue, Kauai, Hawaii. The facility consists of 446 m/sup 2/ (4800 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough photovoltaic collectors, an electrical power generation system which converts the direct current field output into grid-compatible alternating current power, and a thermal power subsystem for heating the hospital potable water. This report summarizes the design, construction, startup, and performance of this solar facility.

  10. Characterization of solar thermal concepts for electricity generation: Volume 1, Analyses and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Antoniac, Z.A.; Ross, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications of several concepts that have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Since the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's, there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress has included development of new solar components, improvements in component and system design detail, construction of working systems, and collection of operating data on the systems. This study provides an updating of the expected performance and cost of the major components and the overall system energy cost for the concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's time frame, based on the capabilities of the technologies that could be expected to be achieved with further technology development.

  11. Optical, vibrational, thermal, electrical, damage and phase-matching properties of lithium thioindate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossier, S; Mangin, J F; Bidault, O; Thnot, I; Zondy, J J; Chen, W; Rotermund, F; Petrov, V; Petrov, P; Henningsen, J; Yelisseyev, A; Isaenko, L; Lobanov, S; Balachninaite, O; Slekys, G; Sirutkaitis, V; Zelt, S

    2003-01-01

    Lithium thioindate (LiInS$_{2}$) is a new nonlinear chalcogenide bi-axial material transparent from 0.4 to 12 $\\mu$m, that has been successfully grown in large sizes and good optical quality. As a result of a three-year intensive characterization campaign of its main properties, we report new and updated physical parameters that are relevant for laser and nonlinear optics applications: lattice phonon vibrational spectra, thermal expansion and thermo-optic coefficients, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, piezo-electric and electro-optic coefficients, laser damage thresholds, accurate optical linear dispersion and nonlinear second-order susceptibility coefficients. We provide also a detailed study of the in and out-of-principal plane phase-matching characteristics and associated effective nonlinear coefficients. New experimental results on direct mid-IR (5 - $12 \\mu$m) down-conversion (femtosecond parametric amplification and continuous-wave (cw) difference-frequency generation) pumped by...

  12. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  13. The influence of surface functionalisation on the electrical properties and thermal stability of nanodiamonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, Joseph O; Li, Pei; Chaudhary, Aysha; Edgington, Robert; Jackman, Richard B.

    2014-10-07

    Detonation nanodiamond (ND) has recently emerged as a useful new class of diamond material. However, to date there has been little investigation of the electrical properties of this material. Due to the nanoscale dimensions, the surface functionalisation of the individual ND is of particular importance to the characteristics of ND films. Here, hydrogen and oxygen termination of ND, verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are shown to strongly influence the electronic properties of NDs. Hydrogen terminated ND exhibiting a far greater resilience to thermal decomposition when compared to the oxygen terminated NDs. Moreover, H-NDs also displayed so-called “surface conductivity,” a property displayed by hydrogen-terminated bulk diamond films, whilst O-NDs display properties high resistivity. These results indicate that under the correct conditions ND layers can display similar electrical properties to “bulk” diamond thin films.

  14. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    those described by the Electricity Storage Association (see also Electricity Storage Association). The installationtechnologies. References Electricity Storage Association,

  15. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  16. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricitydue to zero marginal cost solar generation, similar to thatshort-term integration costs of solar. This is true under an

  17. Photovoltaic (PV)energy conversion is a rapidly growing technology for converting solar energy into electricity. The current production is over 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    Photovoltaic (PV)energy conversion is a rapidly growing technology for converting solar energy polymers, is making rapid strides towards becoming the low cost material of choice for PV energy conversion

  18. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  19. Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis Vasilis Fthenakis Center of Life Cycle Analysis Earth & Environmental Engineering Department Columbia University and National Photovoltaic (PV) EHS Research Center (air, water, solid) M, Q E PV array Photovoltaic modules Balance of System (BOS) (Inverters

  20. INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS INTO PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE CONTRACTS IN DELAWARE FINAL for Energy and Environmental Policy University of Delaware February 2006 #12;INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC..................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Photovoltaics in Performance Contracts: An Overview

  1. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01

    and Photovoltaic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amorphous Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material 2.1.2ii Photovoltaic Model . . . . . . . . . . .

  2. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  3. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  4. Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvador, James R.; Cho, Jung Y; Ye, Zuxin; Moczygemba, Joshua E.; Thompson, Alan; Sharp, Jeff W.; Konig, Jan; Maloney, Ryan; Thompson, Travis; Sakamoto, Jeff; Wang, Hsin; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Meisner, G P

    2013-01-01

    The performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials has improved tremendously over the past decade. The intrinsic thermal and electrical properties of state-of-the-art TE materials demonstrate that the potential for widespread practical TE applications is very large and includes TE generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. TE materials for automotive TEG applications must have good intrinsic performance, be thermomechanically compatible, and be chemically stable in the 400 K to 850 K temperature range. Both n-type and p-type varieties must be available at low cost, easily fabricated, and durable. They must also form robust junctions and develop good interfaces with other materials to permit efficient flows of electrical and thermal energy. Among the TE materials of interest for automotive waste heat recovery systems are the skutterudite compounds, which are the antimony-based transition-metal compounds RTE4Sb12, where R can be an alkali metal (e.g., Na, K), alkaline earth (e.g., Ba), or rare earth (e.g., La, Ce, Yb), and TE can be a transition metal (e.g., Co, Fe). We synthesized a considerable quantity of n-type and p-type skutterudites, fabricated TE modules, incorporated these modules into a prototype TEG, and tested the TEG on a production General Motors (GM) vehicle. We discuss our progress on skutterudite TE module fabrication and present module performance data for electrical power output under simulated operating conditions for automotive waste heat recovery systems. We also present preliminary durability results on our skutterudite modules.

  5. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 17 Photovoltaic Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 17 Photovoltaic Modules Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser with the lowest output · Cells usually matched to each other · Shaded cell acts like poor cell ­ Significantly

  6. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, stationary batteries,AC - absorption cooling, ST-solar thermal, PV-Photovoltaicsbe used during times when solar thermal is not available or

  7. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    USA. CEC, 2012. Electricity Consumption by Planning Area [of customer gross electricity consumption, for three levelsresponse reduces electricity consumption, sometimes through

  8. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Borenstein, S. , 2007. Electricity Rate Structures and theEnvironmentally-Sound Electricity Rates for the Twenty-FirstCap-and-Trade for Electricity Rate Design, with Examples

  9. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    payments in imperfect electricity markets: Need and design.Economics of Renewable Electricity Market Integration. Angeneration in the Irish electricity market, in: 30th IAEE/

  10. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    2005a. Time- varying retail electricity prices: Theory andpractice. Electricity Deregulation: Choices and Challenges.efficiency of real-time electricity pricing. Energy Journal

  11. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  12. Photovoltaic building sheathing element with anti-slide features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2015-09-08

    The present invention is premised` upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic building sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the photovoltaic building sheathing element. The element including a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; and at feast a first and a second connector assembly capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to one or more adjoining devices; wherein the body portion includes one or more geometric features adapted to engage a vertically adjoining device before installation.

  13. Simulation of a concentrating PV/thermal collector using TRNSYS J.S. Coventry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and a PV array located side-by-side. 1 Introduction The Combined Heat and Power Solar System, or CHAPS that combines photovoltaic (PV) cells to produce electricity, with thermal energy absorption to produce hot, in particular heating, cooling and domestic hot water applications (Solar Energy Laboratory, 2000). TRNSYS

  14. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    that growth in electricity demand in developed countriesof displacement of electricity demand by heat- activatedmeets all of its electricity demand via utility purchases

  15. Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B.; Estrada, C.

    1995-11-01

    Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

  16. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    photovoltaics: cohesive optical and electrical investigation of the complete solarphotovoltaics represents an emerging alternative to standard solarPhotovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar

  17. An Analysis of the Effects of Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Home Sales Prices in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Home Sales Prices in CaliforniaResidential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Home Sales Prices in CaliforniaCalifornia electric utilities provide service under tiered residential rates that charge progressively higher prices for energy

  18. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  19. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  20. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    energy conservation and distributed generation from elimination of electricof intermittent electric generation technologies. Energyof intermittent electric generation technologies. Energy

  1. Thermal and Electric Conductivities of Coulomb Crystals in Neutron Stars and White Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Baiko; D. G. Yakovlev

    1996-04-28

    Thermal and electric conductivities are calculated for degenerate electrons scattered by phonons in a crystal made of atomic nuclei. The exact phonon spectrum and the Debye--Waller factor are taken into account. Monte Carlo calculations are performed for body-centered cubic (bcc) crystals made of C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe nuclei in the density range from $10^3$ to $10^{11}$ g cm$^{-3}$ at temperatures lower than the melting temperature but higher than the temperature at which the Umklapp processes begin to be "frozen out". A simplified method of calculation is proposed, which makes it possible to describe the results in terms of simple analytic expressions, to extend these expressions to any species of nucleus, and to consider face-centered cubic (fcc) crystals. The kinetic coefficients are shown to depend tangibly on the lattice type. The results are applicable to studies of heat transfer and evolution of the magnetic field in the cores of white dwarfs and in the crusts of neutron stars. The thermal drift of the magnetic field in the crust of a neutron star is discussed.

  2. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  3. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    also for electricity generation in fuel cells” (Californiageneration capability to power a stationary fuel cell that would provide electricity

  4. Interfacial Engineering of Molecular Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton, Steven Wade

    2014-01-01

    Engineering of Molecular Photovoltaics by Steven WadeEngineering of Molecular Photovoltaics Copyright © 2014 byEngineering of Molecular Photovoltaics by Steven Wade

  5. Advanced Review High efficiency photovoltaics: on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    price and its relation to market electricity sales price. The current gap between PV energy price the research and development opportunities for high-efficiency PV and projects the required efficiency-priceAdvanced Review High efficiency photovoltaics: on the way to becoming a major electricity source

  6. Electrical and thermal conductivities of reduced graphene oxide/polystyrene Wonjun Park, Jiuning Hu, Luis A. Jauregui, Xiulin Ruan, and Yong P. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    conductive polymer composites are used as heat sinks for device packaging requiring a high thermalElectrical and thermal conductivities of reduced graphene oxide/polystyrene composites Wonjun Park. The electrical conductivity (r) of RGO/PS composites with different RGO concentrations at room temperature shows

  7. Comparison of thermal annealing effects on electrical activation of MBE grown and ion implant Si-doped In0.53Ga0.47As

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Comparison of thermal annealing effects on electrical activation of MBE grown and ion implant Si are metastable and susceptible to deactivation upon subsequent thermal treatments after growth. Active Si doping.47As Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 042113 (2014); 10.1063/1.4892079 Electrically active Er doping in InAs, In0

  8. The added economic and environmental value of plug-in electric vehicles connected to commercial building microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    microgrid, which may include photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, stationary batteries, thermal storage, and combined heat and power (

  9. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO); Taylor, Roger W. (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load.

  10. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1998-05-05

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load. 20 figs.

  11. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  12. Development of an Approach to Compare the `Value' of Electrical and Thermal Output from a Domestic PV/Thermal System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermodynamically and technically harder to produce. The Combined Heat and Power Solar System, or CHAPS system and light industrial buildings, and will contribute to building heating, cooling and power requirements in the form of heat and a Joule of energy in the form of electricity are equally valuable. Electrical energy

  13. Electricity Rate Structures and the Economics of Solar PV: Could Mandatory Time-of-Use Rates Undermine California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2007-01-01

    CSEM WP 172 Electricity Rate Structures and the Economics of94720-5180 www.ucei.org Electricity Rate Structures and thefuture of California electricity rate levels and rate design

  14. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Berkeley, CA, USA. CEC, 2012. Electricity Consumption byUSA. E3, 2010c. Greenhouse Gas Modeling of California’s Electricity

  15. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    linking wholesale and retail market conditions, and providesbetween wholesale markets, retail electricity rates, andof Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and

  16. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    2008. Capacity payments in imperfect electricity markets:capacity adequacy in the competitive electricity marketelectricity market design with price caps and a separate capacity market,

  17. MOA: Magnetic Field Oscillating Amplified Thruster and its Application for Nuclear Electric and Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frischauf, Norbert [QASAR Technologie(s) GmbH, Johann Gottekgasse 39, A-1230, Vienna (Austria); Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias [QASAR Technologie(s) GmbH, Johann Gottekgasse 39, A-1230, Vienna (Austria); Koudelka, Otto [Institute of Communication Networks and Satellite Communication, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 12/I, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. Based on computer simulations, which were conducted to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. (authors)

  18. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hebert, Peter H. (Glendale, CA); Brandt, Randolph J. (Palmdale, CA)

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  19. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    on simulated electricity spot prices in Germany, using theelectricity generation on spot market prices in Germany.

  20. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  1. Electroluminescence in photovoltaic cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petraglia, Antonio; 10.1088/0031-9120/46/5/F01

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose two methods to get electroluminescence images from photovoltaic cells in a school or home lab.

  2. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-06-27

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  3. Mesa Top Photovoltaic Array SyStem SpecificationS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electricity that array will provide: 7% environmental impact Annual carbon offset: 2.4 million pounds of CO2Mesa Top Photovoltaic Array SyStem SpecificationS System size: 750 kW (DC, estimated) Characteristics: Single axis tracker photovoltaics, ground mounted Annual output: 1,200 MWh Location: Top of South

  4. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01

    to the generation of thermal energy (solar thermal).Electricity derived from solar thermal energy is limited by

  5. PHOTOVOLTAICS EXCELLENCE IS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    #12;THE PHOTOVOLTAICS CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IS A CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE OF THE AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH) Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence commenced at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) on 13th June, 2003 silicon photovoltaic research on three separate fronts, as well as to apply these advances to the related

  6. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS-- A NATURAL MATCH A study highlighting strategic opportunities and locations for using photovoltaics to power businesses #12;SHOULD PV BE IN YOUR BUSINESS PLAN know that solar energy is environ- mentally attractive--and that photovoltaic or PV systems have made

  7. Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation How do solar photovoltaic feed-in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation How do solar photovoltaic feed-in tariffs interact@mines-paristech.fr hal-00809449,version2-27May2013 #12;1 How do solar photovoltaic feed-in tariffs interact with solar electricity increases the demand for solar photovoltaic systems. They can thus induce price to increase

  8. Conjugated Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Kevin M. Coakley and Michael D. McGehee*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Conjugated Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Kevin M. Coakley and Michael D. McGehee* Department semiconductors for photovoltaic cells because they are strong absorbers and can be deposited on flexible to create, transport, and store electricity. For photovoltaic (PV) cells to gain widespread ac- ceptance

  9. High-performance Si microwire photovoltaics Michael D. Kelzenberg,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    High-performance Si microwire photovoltaics Michael D. Kelzenberg,a Daniel B. Turner-Evans,a Morgan for low- cost, thin-film photovoltaics. Here, we demonstrate VLS-grown Si microwires that have suitable electrical properties for high-perfor- mance photovoltaic applications, including long minority

  10. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    of 2.5$/W & low solar thermal costs (minus 10% of originalof 2.5$/W & low solar thermal costs (minus 10% of originalcosts ($/kW or $/kWh) lifetime ( a) thermal storage 11 flow battery absorption chiller solar

  11. An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Home Sales Prices in CaliforniaCalifornia electric utilities provide service under tiered residential rates that charge progressively higher prices for energy

  12. A Cradle to Grave Framework for Environmental Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa; Dornfeld, David

    2010-01-01

    L. Reijnders, “Life-cycle assessment of photovoltaic2006. [45] M. Raugei, “Life Cycle Assessment of CdTe PVBélanger, Y. Uchiyama, "Life-cycle assessment of electricity

  13. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    electricity markets: Need and design. Utilities Policy 16,market design .Alternative wholesale market design and retail rate

  14. Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Dugan, Larry M. (Boulder, CO)

    1995-10-24

    The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels.

  15. Effects of transcutaneous thermal and electrical stimulation of the teat on pituitary luteinizing hormone, prolactin and oxytocin secretion in ovariectomized, estrogen-treated beef cows following acute weaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutshaw, Jonetta Lee

    1991-01-01

    ld E dl Cll u 0 dl dl dl td IP Sl 0 0 0 du rd IP E dl Ca 0 ld Ul 23 calves were returned to dams. Stimulation of the Teat and Tail Electrical Stimulation. Electrical stimulation was performed by taping two infant limb... treatment groups (n = 5 per group): 1) control-suckled (CS), 2) weaned plus electrical stimulation of the teat (ESTT), 3) weaned plus electrical stimulation of the tail (ESTL), 4) weaned plus thermal stimulation of the teat (TTT), 5) weaned plus thermal...

  16. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Solar Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems that are designed to offset the customer's electrical needs. Systems must be owned by...

  17. Photosynthesis-inspired device architectures for organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidel, Timothy David

    2010-01-01

    Organic semiconductor photovoltaics offer a promising route to low-cost, scalable, emissions-free electricity generation. However, achieving higher power conversion efficiencies is critical before these devices can play a ...

  18. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  19. Expedited Permitting Process for Solar Photovoltaic Systems (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vermont has established an expedited permitting process for solar photovoltaic systems that are 10 kilowatts-AC (kW) or less. In order to interconnect and net meter, electric customers in Vermont...

  20. Use of photovoltaics for waste heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D

    2013-04-16

    A device for recovering waste heat in the form of radiated light, e.g. red visible light and/or infrared light includes a housing having a viewing window, and a photovoltaic cell mounted in the housing in a relationship to the viewing window, wherein rays of radiated light pass through the viewing window and impinge on surface of the photovoltaic cell. The housing and/or the cell are cooled so that the device can be used with a furnace for an industrial process, e.g. mounting the device with a view of the interior of the heating chamber of a glass making furnace. In this manner, the rays of the radiated light generated during the melting of glass batch materials in the heating chamber pass through the viewing window and impinge on the surface of the photovoltaic cells to generate electric current which is passed onto an electric load.

  1. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  2. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

  3. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    by biomass, 1.5% by small hydro, and 0.3% by PV. The pricebiomass, geothermal, and small hydro electricity generation

  4. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    scenarios .. 85 4.2.2 Wholesale market design .electricity market scenarios, retail rate designs, PVscenario). Results: Alternative wholesale market design and

  5. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    and Public Economies of Renewable Electricity Generation.wind power development. Renewable Energy 33, 1854–1867.SR-581-42303). National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),

  6. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Using hourly generator and load bid data from the Californias (CAISO) electricity bid data and simulated PV generationresults data. Market bid data is available online through

  7. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-08-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontract research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics (PV) Program from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996 (fiscal year [FY] 1996). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to: "Work in partnership with U.S. industry to develop and deploy photovoltaic technology for generating economically competitive electric power, making photovoltaics an important contributor to the nation's and the world's energy use and environmental improvement. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the U.S. PV industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the U.S. industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NREL PV Program provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals.

  8. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Volume 8, Number 1, June 2010 Simplified Thermal Model of PM Motors in Hybrid Vehicle Applications Taking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    needs to be thor- oughly understood. The optimal design of electrical motors with solid thermal characteristics will provide improved efficiency and power densities in traction vehicle. Such vehicles rely complexities involved in designing PM motors for HEV applications require a breakdown of the individual thermal

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electric PCM Assisted Thermal Heating System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Delphi Automotive at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electric PCM assisted...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electric...

  11. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01

    cells: An overview. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andnanoparticles. Progress in Photovoltaics, 19( 3):260–265,

  12. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  13. Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, H.M.; Crandall, R.S.; Tracy, C.E.

    1994-12-27

    A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer. 5 figures.

  14. Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer.

  15. Solar Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHECKLIST AND GUIDE Renewable Energy Ready Home Renewable Energy Ready Home SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE i Table of Contents About the...

  16. Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia's glitter-sized photovoltaic cells are highly efficient and cost effective – the perfect combination for a game-changing technology.

  17. National Laboratory Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE supports photovoltaic (PV) research and development and facilities at its national laboratories to accelerate progress toward achieving the SunShot Initiative's technological and economic...

  18. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  19. Photovoltaics Business Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantzis, L.; Graham, S.; Katofsky, R.; Sawyer, H.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes work to better understand the structure of future photovoltaics business models and the research, development, and demonstration required to support their deployment.

  20. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  1. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes (El Paso, TX)

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  3. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes (El Paso, TX)

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  4. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  5. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  6. Electrical and thermal transport in single nickel nanowire M. N. Ou,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    K the WF law is violated, indicating that thermal current in this material is suppressed more than and magnetoresistivity, whereas the knowledge on heat transport on this material is suffering from the lack

  7. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    could be acquired, e.g. battery storage, the costs for whichlead/acid battery, and thermal storage, capabilities, withis limited by battery size - Heat storage is limited by

  8. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  9. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: ePATHS- electrical PCM Assisted Thermal Heating System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Delphi Automotive at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ePATHS - electrical PCM...

  11. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    the potential of hydro- gen energy stations as a source ofVegas energy station that has a lower electricity to hydro-hydro- gen roadmap” in an effort led by the New York State Energy

  12. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2014-06-23

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  13. Photovoltaics industry profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  14. Investigations on the electrical, thermal and optical properties of the nonlinear optical allylthiourea mercury chloride single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreekanth, G. [Department of Physics, St. Thomas College Pala, Kottayam 686574, Kerala (India)] [Department of Physics, St. Thomas College Pala, Kottayam 686574, Kerala (India); Chandralingam, S. [Department of Physics, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad 500085 (India)] [Department of Physics, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad 500085 (India); Philip, Jacob; Jayalakshmy, M.S. [Department of instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala (India)] [Department of instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala (India); Philip, Reji; Sridharan, Kishore [Raman research institute, Bangalore, Karnataka 560080 (India)] [Raman research institute, Bangalore, Karnataka 560080 (India); Santhosh Kumar, R. [Department of Physics, St. George's College Aruvithura, Kottayam 686122, Kerala (India)] [Department of Physics, St. George's College Aruvithura, Kottayam 686122, Kerala (India); Joseph, Ginson P., E-mail: ginsonpj@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St. Thomas College Pala, Kottayam 686574, Kerala (India)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? The single crystals of dimension 10 × 5 × 5 mm{sup 3} of allylthiourea mercury chloride are synthesized using slow evaporation technique. ? The bandgap of allylthiourea mercury chloride crystal is found to be about 3.18 eV. ? The optical nonlinearity of the crystal sample are studied using the open aperture Z-scan technique employing a nanosecond laser at 532 nm, and three photon absorption effect has been found. ? An improved photo pyroelectric is used to find the thermal parameters of the crystal. ? The piezoelectric charge coefficient is determined. -- Abstract: Single crystals of dimension 10 × 5 × 5 mm{sup 3} of allylthiourea mercury chloride were synthesized from aqueous solution using slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The grown crystals are confirmed by elemental analysis. The band gap of Allylthiourea mercury chloride crystal was found to be about 3.18 eV. The optical nonlinearity of the crystal sample was studied using the open aperture Z-scan technique employing a nanosecond laser at 532 nm, and a three-photon absorption effect has been found. The electrical properties such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity of the sample were carried out by Agillent E 4980 A LCR meter at different temperatures. An improved photopyroelectric technique was used to find the thermal parameters of the crystal. The piezo electric charge coefficient is also determined.

  15. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  16. Annual Report: Photovoltaic Subcontract Program FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, K. A.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  17. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program. Annual report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  18. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  19. Plasmon-enhanced polymer photovoltaic cells based on large aspect ratio gold nanorods and the related working mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Qihua

    Plasmon-enhanced polymer photovoltaic cells based on large aspect ratio gold nanorods-to-electrical conversion performances in polymer photovoltaic cells. Totally different improvement factors in short AIP Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4880575] Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells

  20. In the July 2011 PE magazine article "Why We Need Rational Selection of Energy Projects," the author stated that "photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ," the author stated that "photovoltaic electricity generation cannot be an energy source for the future" because photovoltaics require more energy than they produce (during their lifetime), thus their "Energy Payback Times The life cycle of photovoltaics starts from the extraction of raw mate- rials (cradle

  1. The path to clean energy: direct coupling of nuclear and renewable technologies for thermal and electrical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Boardman, Richard; Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can significantly reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both clean energy generation sources and hydrocarbon resources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean nuclear and renewable energy generation sources. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing energy (thermal or electrical) where it is needed, when it is needed. For the purposes of this work, the hybrid system would integrate two or more energy resources to generate two or more products, one of which must be an energy commodity, such as electricity or transportation fuel. This definition requires coupling of subsystems ‘‘behind’’ the electrical transmission bus, where energy flows are dynamically apportioned as necessary to meet demand and the system has a single connection to the grid that provides dispatchable electricity as required while capital intensive generation assets operate at full capacity. Development of integrated energy systems for an “energy park” must carefully consider the intended location and the associated regional resources, traditional industrial processes, energy delivery infrastructure, and markets to identify viable region-specific system configurations. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of regional hybrid energy system design, development and application of dynamic analysis tools to assess technical and economic performance, and roadmap development to identify and prioritize component, subsystem and system testing that will lead to prototype demonstration.

  2. Editorial: Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Rupnowski, P.

    2012-01-01

    As the global energy needs grow, there is increasing interest in the generation of electricity by photovoltaics (PVs) devices or solar cells - devices that convert sunlight to electricity. Solar industry has seen an enormous growth during the last decade. The sale of PV modules has exceeded 27 GW in 2011, with significant contributions to the market share from all technologies. While the silicon technology continues to have the dominant share, the other thin film technologies (CdTe, CIGS, a-Si, and organic PV) are experiencing fast growth. Increased production of silicon modules has led to a very rapid reduction in their price and remains as benchmark for other technologies. The PV industry is in full gear to commercialize new automated equipment for solar cell and module production, instrumentation for process monitoring technologies, and for implementation of other cost-reduction approaches, and extensive research continues to be carried out in many laboratories to improve the efficiency of solar cells and modules without increasing the production costs. A large variety of solar cells, which differ in the material systems used, design, PV structure, and even the principle of PV conversion, are designed to date. This special issue contains peer-reviewed papers in the recent developments in research related to broad spectrum of photovoltaic materials and devices. It contains papers on many aspects of solar cells-the growth and deposition, characterization, and new material development.

  3. Thermal dilepton rate and electrical conductivity: An analysis of vector current correlation functions in quenched lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. -T. Ding; A. Francis; O. Kaczmarek; F. Karsch; E. Laermann; W. Soeldner

    2011-02-04

    We calculate the vector current correlation function for light valence quarks in the deconfined phase of QCD. The calculations have been performed in quenched lattice QCD at T=1.45 Tc for four values of the lattice cut-off on lattices up to size 128^3x48. This allows to perform a continuum extrapolation of the correlation function in the Euclidean time interval tau*T -in [0.2, 0.5], which extends to the largest temporal separations possible at finite temperature, to better than 1% accuracy. In this interval, at the value of the temperature investigated, we find that the vector correlation function never deviates from the free correlator for massless quarks by more than 9%. We also determine the first two non-vanishing thermal moments of the vector meson spectral function. The second thermal moment deviates by less than 7% from the free value. With these constraints, we then proceed to extract information on the spectral representation of the vector correlator and discuss resulting consequences for the electrical conductivity and the thermal dilepton rate in the plasma phase.

  4. ANNUAL REPORT 1998 PHOTOVOLTAICS GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    ANNUAL REPORT 1998 UNSW PHOTOVOLTAICS GROUP ANNUAL REPORT 1998 UNSW PHOTOVOLTAICS GROUP #12;THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES THE PHOTOVOLTAICS SPECIAL RESEARCH CENTRE IS A SPECIAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF THE AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL THE KEY CENTRE FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC ENGINEERING IS A KEY CENTRE OF THE AUSTRALIAN

  5. Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics SEMICONDUCTORS Our goal is to provide industry with test structures and models of next-generation photovoltaics, with an initial focus on cadmium telluride (Cd (nanostructured) photovoltaic devices. Objective Impact and Customers · The U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Roadmap

  6. Roseville Electric- Residential New Construction Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Roseville Electric provides financial incentives to encourage local builders to construct energy efficient homes which incorporate  photovoltaics (PV). Participating builders can choose from three...

  7. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Solar thermal .ab’), photovoltaic (‘pv’), and solar thermal (‘st’)} t u Daym,t,h Net heat from solar thermal during hour h, type of day

  8. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2008-10-14

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, for use with a photovoltaic assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending generally perpendicular to the central portion. Each arm has an outer portion with each outer portion having an outer end. At least one frame surface-disrupting element is at each outer end. The central portion defines a plane with the frame surface-disrupting elements pointing towards the plane. In some examples each arm extends from the central portion at an acute angle to the plane.

  9. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

  10. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  11. Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Stephen C. (Tewksbury, MA); Michalski, Lech A. (Pennington, NJ); Volltrauer, Hermann N. (Englishtown, NJ); Van Dine, John E. (Faribault, MN)

    2000-04-25

    A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

  12. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Worobey, Walter (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-09-14

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  13. Metallic nanostructures for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Swee Hoe

    2009-01-01

    enhanced performance of photovoltaic and photodetector Proc.and H. Wagner, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. ,for Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Applications by Swee Hoe

  14. DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Submitted by Russell M Reserved #12;ABSTRACT DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Thin-film photovoltaics

  15. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01

    costs for installed photovoltaic systems. This graph showsOne dollar per watt photovoltaic systems workshop sum- mary,costs for installed photovoltaic systems. This graph shows

  16. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  17. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

    1995-01-24

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

  18. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Boulder, CO); Deb, Satyendra K. (Boulder, CO); Stone, Jack L. (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

  19. High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

  20. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2014: February 25-26, 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-02-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  1. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013: February 26-27, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-10-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  2. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2010: February 18-19, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  3. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2011: February 16-17, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  4. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2012: February 28 - March 1, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  5. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developingin reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annualwill drive total electricity demand significantly above

  6. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  7. Photovoltaic decision analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Neil L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development and implementation of a methodology that analyzes information relating to the choice between flat plate and concentrator technologies for photovoltaic development. A

  8. Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE supports crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) research and development efforts that lead to market-ready technologies. Below are a list of the projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion...

  9. Organic Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE funds research and development projects related to organic photovoltaics (OPV) due to the unique benefits of the technology. Below is a list of the projects, summary of the benefits, and...

  10. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Bryan

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...

  11. Photovoltaic Research Facilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) at its national laboratory facilities located throughout the country. To encourage further innovation,...

  12. Amonix Photovoltaic System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the Amonix and Arizona Public Service (APS) partnership to install the world’s largest utility-scale concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power plant in 2002. Photovoltaic (PV) systems at the APS facility use a combination of technologies. The systems in the foreground are single-axis tracking flat-plate silicon systems. Shown in the upper right are three large (35 kilowatt) Amonix CPV.

  13. Photovoltaics: The next generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, A.

    1986-08-01

    The development of photovoltaics in the United States, with a few notable exceptions, has been carried out by the oil industry. Companies such as Arco, Exxon, Mobil and Sohio have played a tremendously important role in bringing photovoltaic technology to its current state of development. Many of these companies are continuing very active programs in pv, including the investigation of new and potentially far-reaching technologies.

  14. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  15. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  16. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, James Scott (Englewood, CO); Wanlass, Mark Woodbury (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy Arthur (Conifer, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

  17. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, J.S.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.

    1999-04-27

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device. 15 figs.

  18. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

  19. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleerman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2015-11-10

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  20. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2014-06-03

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  1. Performance Analysis of a Near-Field Thermophotovoltaic Device with a Metallodielectric Selective Emitter and Electrical Contacts for the Photovoltaic Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    A near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a multilayer emitter of alternate tungsten and alumina layer is proposed in this paper. The fluctuational electrodynamics along with the dyadic Green function for a multilayered structure is applied to calculate the spectral heat flux, and the charge transport equations are solved to get the photocurrent generation and electrical power output. The spectral heat flux is much enhanced when plain tungsten emitter is replaced with multilayer emitter. The mechanism of surface plasmon polariton coupling in the tungsten thin film, which is responsible for the heat flux enhancement, is analyzed. In addition, the invalidity of effective medium theory to predict the optical properties of multilayer structure in near-field radiation is discussed. The tungsten and alumina layer thicknesses are optimized to match the spectral heat flux with the bandgap of TPV cell. Practically, with a gold reflector placed on the back of TPV cell, which also acts as the back electrode, and...

  2. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-05-15

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

  3. Sustainability of Large Photovoltaic Deployment: Environmental Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Sustainability of Large Photovoltaic Deployment: Environmental Research Sustainability of Large Photovoltaic Deployment: Environmental ResearchEnvironmental ResearchEnvironmental Research Vasilis Fthenakis and Te from Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Manufacturing Scrap, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research

  4. General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento, California General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento, California Document describes a...

  5. Amorphous oxide semiconductors are promising new materials for various optoelectronic applications. In this study, improved electrical and optical properties upon thermal and microwave processing of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors are promising new materials for various optoelectronic applications. In this study, improved electrical and optical properties upon thermal and microwave processing of mixed-oxide semiconductors are reported. First, arsenic-doped silicon was used as a model system to understand susceptor

  6. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  7. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    load electricity (kW) thermal storage storage charging non-avoidable electrical and thermal storage costs are set tototal electric load thermal storage solar thermal storage

  8. Solar Real-Time Pricing: Is Real-Time Electricity Pricing Beneficial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the validity of the following statement: "the coincidence of high electric energy prices and peak solar electric photovoltaic (PV) output can improve the economics of PV...

  9. Modeling of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Interactions with a Sustainable Community Grid in the Azores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2013-01-01

    Thermal storage, ST - Solar thermal, PV - Photovoltaics.possible PV and solar thermal adoption are considered 3 .Figure 3. In the case of solar thermal, the cost curve was

  10. Cost-Effectivenessof PhotovoltaicGenerationIn A Transmission-Constrained Load Area of An InterconnectedSystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Abstract: Electric power systems of today are experiencing a difficulty of constrained transmission lines, present electric system networks are experiencing the difficulty of constrained transmission lines: Photovoltaic Generation, Power System Economics, Dispersed Generation, Transmission-Constrained Interconnected

  11. Photovoltaic commercialization: an analysis of legal issues affecting a government-accelerated solar industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamm, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Photovoltaics Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 is discussed. Legal issues, including solar access, the need for performance standards, the effects of building codes on photovoltaic system use and commercialization, and manufacturer and installer performance guarantees, are examined. Electric utility policies are examined, including interconnection, and rates and legal issues affecting them. (LEW)

  12. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, James E. (Newark, DE); Lasswell, Patrick G. (Newark, DE)

    1987-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

  13. Modeling low cost hybrid tandem photovoltaics with the potential for efficiencies exceeding 20%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    in places around planet where there is a lot of sunlight or where the price of electricity is relatively high, such as California and Germany.1 In order for photovoltaics to compete widespread with power from.2 However, this reduction in module price is not itself sufficient for photovoltaics to match

  14. Keywords: Photovoltaic System, fault-tolerance, recon-figurable PV panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Keywords: Photovoltaic System, fault-tolerance, recon- figurable PV panel Photovoltaic (PV and the advancement of PV device technologies. PV systems have been widely deployed in electric vehicles, homes, power plants, and satellites. The output power of a PV cell (also called solar cell) is dependent on the solar

  15. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved adhesion and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boven, Michelle L; Keenihan, James R; Lickly, Stan; Brown, Jr., Claude; Cleereman, Robert J; Plum, Timothy C

    2014-12-23

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic device suitable for directly mounting on a structure. The device includes an active portion including a photovoltaic cell assembly having a top surface portion that allows transmission of light energy to a photoactive portion of the photovoltaic device for conversion into electrical energy and a bottom surface having a bottom bonding zone; and an inactive portion immediately adjacent to and connected to the active portion, the inactive portion having a region for receiving a fastener to connect the device to the structure and having on a top surface, a top bonding zone; wherein one of the top and bottom bonding zones comprises a first bonding element and the other comprises a second bonding element, the second bonding element designed to interact with the first bonding element on a vertically overlapped adjacent photovoltaic device to bond the device to such adjacent device or to the structure.

  16. Simulation and simplified design studies of photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, D.L.; Facinelli, W.A.; Koehler, L.P.

    1980-09-01

    Results of TRNSYS simulations of photovoltaic systems with electrical storage are described. Studies of the sensitivity of system performance, in terms of the fraction of the electrical load supplied by the solar energy system, to variables such as array size, battery size, location, time of year, and load shape are reported. An accurate simplified method for predicting array output of max-power photovoltaic systems is presented. A second simplified method, which estimates the overall performance of max-power systems, is developed. Finally, a preliminary technique for predicting clamped-voltage system performance is discussed.

  17. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers CoMadison -T: Designation ofSEPE.ELECTRIC

  18. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  19. Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A.; Birner, S.

    2014-04-21

    Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ?5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

  20. Technical Potential for Solar Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Technical Potential for Solar Photovoltaics in Illinois May 2013 #12;Authors ...................................................................................................... 1.1 Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the U.S. ........................... 1.2 Previous ...................................................................................................... 3.1 Optimization Matrix for Large-Scale PV System Applications ......... 3.2 Photovoltaic

  1. Photovoltaic Forecasting: A state of the art B. Espinar, J.L. Aznarte, R. Girard, A.M. Moussa and G. Kariniotakis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Photovoltaic Forecasting: A state of the art B. Espinar, J.L. Aznarte, R. Girard, A.M. Moussa and G(0)493678967; FAX: +33 (0)493957535,bella.espinar@mines-paristech.fr Abstract Photovoltaic (PV) energy, together Introduction Photovoltaics (PV) for electricity generation is the fastest-growing energy technology since 2002

  2. Photovoltaic energy conversion The objective of this laboratory is for you to explore the science and engineering of the conversion of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Photovoltaic energy conversion Objective The objective of this laboratory is for you to explore the science and engineering of the conversion of light to electricity by photovoltaic devices. Preparation photovoltaic modules; reversebiased Si pin photodiode. · White light LED lamp; dc power supply; bread board

  3. arXiv:1101.5667v1[cond-mat.mes-hall]29Jan2011 Resonant Photovoltaic Effect in Surface-State Electrons on Liquid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepelyansky, Dima

    as an electromotive force (EMF), to develop across the system. In semicon- ductors, such a photovoltaic effect canarXiv:1101.5667v1[cond-mat.mes-hall]29Jan2011 Resonant Photovoltaic Effect in Surface into electricity and has important appli- cations in photodiodes and photovoltaic cells. Recently, significant

  4. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers,photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors; • electrical

  5. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Xu, Xi Xiang (Findlay, OH)

    1999-11-02

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  6. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  7. Oxidation Behavior of In-Flight Molten Aluminum Droplets in the Twin-Wire Electric Arc Thermal Spray Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Brian G. Williams

    2005-05-01

    This paper examines the in-flight oxidation of molten aluminum sprayed in air using the twin-wire electric arc (TWEA) thermal spray process. The oxidation reaction of aluminum in air is highly exothermic and is represented by a heat generation term in the energy balance. Aerodynamic shear at the droplet surface enhances the amount of in-flight oxidation by: (1) promoting entrainment and mixing of the surface oxides within the droplet, and (2) causing a continuous heat generation effect that increases droplet temperature over that of a droplet without internal circulation. This continual source of heat input keeps the droplets in a liquid state during flight. A linear rate law based on the Mott-Cabrera theory was used to estimate the growth of the surface oxide layer formed during droplet flight. The calculated oxide volume fraction of an average droplet at impact agrees well with the experimentally determined oxide content for a typical TWEA-sprayed aluminum coating, which ranges from 3.3 to 12.7%. An explanation is provided for the elevated, nearly constant surface temperature (~ 2000 oC) of the droplets during flight to the substrate and shows that the majority of oxide content in the coating is produced during flight, rather than after deposition.

  8. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  9. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  10. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  11. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV) domestically. The SunShot Initiative aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  12. Electrical & Computer Engineering S E M I N A R

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koppelman, David M.

    energy (wind and photovoltaic), distributed generation, power quality, electric vehicles, and electric-connected distributed generation systems, power quality improvement in microgrid, high-power charging station and level energy (wind and photovoltaic), high power converters, electric vehicles, power quality, and model

  13. A uniform economic valuation methodology for solar photovoltaic applications competing in a utility environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    The question of how the economic benefits of weather-dependent electric generation technologies should be measured is addressed, with specific reference to dispersed, user-owned photovoltaic systems. The approach to ...

  14. Control of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Using Fuzzy-Logic Controller 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellit, A.; Benghanme, M.; Arab, A. H.; Guessoum, A.

    2004-01-01

    With industrial development the problem of energy shortage is more and more aggravating. The photovoltaic (PV) systems are rapidly expanding and have increasing in electric power technology and regarded as the green energy of the new century control...

  15. A Cradle to Grave Framework for Environmental Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa; Dornfeld, David

    2010-01-01

    2006. [45] M. Raugei, “Life Cycle Assessment of CdTe PVBélanger, Y. Uchiyama, "Life-cycle assessment of electricityL. Reijnders, “Life-cycle assessment of photovoltaic

  16. Controlling of grid connected photovoltaic lighting system with fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saglam, Safak; Ekren, Nazmi; Erdal, Hasan

    2010-02-15

    In this study, DC electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels is converted to AC electrical energy and an indoor area is illuminated using this energy. System is controlled by fuzzy logic algorithm controller designed with 16 rules. Energy is supplied from accumulator which is charged by photovoltaic panels if its energy would be sufficient otherwise it is supplied from grid. During the 1-week usage period at the semester time, 1.968 kWh energy is used from grid but designed system used 0.542 kWh energy from photovoltaic panels at the experiments. Energy saving is determined by calculations and measurements for one education year period (9 months) 70.848 kWh. (author)

  17. Back contact to film silicon on metal for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard M.; Teplin, Charles; Stradins, Pauls

    2013-06-18

    A crystal oriented metal back contact for solar cells is disclosed herein. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic device and methods for making the photovoltaic device are disclosed. The photovoltaic device includes a metal substrate with a crystalline orientation and a heteroepitaxial crystal silicon layer having the same crystal orientation of the metal substrate. A heteroepitaxial buffer layer having the crystal orientation of the metal substrate is positioned between the substrate and the crystal silicon layer to reduce diffusion of metal from the metal foil into the crystal silicon layer and provide chemical compatibility with the heteroepitaxial crystal silicon layer. Additionally, the buffer layer includes one or more electrically conductive pathways to electrically couple the crystal silicon layer and the metal substrate.

  18. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL FROM THE TONE-BURST EDDY CURRENT THERMOGRAPHY (TBET) TIME-TEMPERATURE DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biju, N.; Ganesan, N.; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan [Centre for Nondestructive Evaluation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India)

    2010-02-22

    In this paper, an inversion method is proposed to determine simultaneously the electrical and thermal properties of a given isotropic material from the time-temperature data obtained from the Tone-Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET). A multi-physics forward model for computing the surface temperature data was used in a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based inversion technique to determine the material properties such as electrical conductivity (sigma), thermal conductivity (k), density (rho), and specific heat (C{sub p}) simultaneously. Different trials were carried out initially with simulated temperature data (with and without noise). A typical case of inversion of anisotropic material properties using a 2D finite element model is also discussed.

  19. Installing and Maintaining a Home Solar Electric System | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Making sure your home solar electric or photovoltaic (PV) system is sized, sited, installed, and maintained correctly is essential...

  20. Installing and Maintaining a Home Solar Electric System | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Making sure your home solar electric or photovoltaic (PV) system is sized, sited, installed, and maintained correctly is essential for maximizing its energy performance. When...

  1. Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Nicklas

    1999-09-08

    The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the bank. The design featured a triangulated truss that incorporated ten crystalline photovoltaic modules on one side of the truss and a reflective panel on the opposite side. The system used a utility interactive, programmable inverter and a 18.9 kilowatt-hour battery bank. The system is designed so that a DC fan, connected to one of the modules, forces ambient air across the back side of the modules. In the summer this heat is vented to the outside but in the winter this heated, fresh air is introduced into the building as ventilation air. Like the Applebee's system, the design allowed the entire roof assembly to be constructed off-site, tested, and then shipped to the site in pie-assembled, large components. During the first full year of operation, the 2.2 kilowatt (rated peak is 2.7 kilowatts) system contributed to an average peak reduction of .9 kilowatts. The system, as designed, saves 2,576 kilowatt-hours of electricity and offsets 3,473 kilowatt hours (of a potential thermal benefit of 10,172 collected kWhs) of thermal energy savings that is used as fresh air make-up in the colder months. This report is a summary of their conclusions.

  2. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 13: Solar Cell Design I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    · Commercial cost of manufacture · Research highest efficiency w/o regard to expense 2 Si Solar Cell Efficiency1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 13: Solar Cell Design I Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University - Bozeman Solar Cell Design

  3. Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    capacity every 2 years. MW/yr #12;3 A Solar Grand PlanA Solar Grand Plan Energy Policy 37 (2009) By 2050 Photovoltaics Environmental Research Center Brookhaven National Laboratory #12;2 Source: PV Market Outlook renewable energy to supply 69% of electricity, 35% of total energy needs of the U.S. Zweibel, Mason

  4. Photovoltaics Green is a Prerequisite for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    costs, whilst conserving resources for future generations, and having environmental impacts lower than Criteria Photovoltaics are required to meet the need for abundant electricity generation at competitive Environmental Impact #12;6 The Triangle of SuccessThe Triangle of Success Low Cost Resource Availability Lowest

  5. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 11: Solar Cell Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 11: Solar Cell Parameters Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University - Bozeman Solar Cell Parameters circuit current is the current through the cell when the voltage across the cell is zero (the solar cell

  6. ARC Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence Annual Report 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    generating capacity of new photovoltaic product installed in 2006 exceeded new nuclear power capacity when falling upon devices known as solar cells. Silicon is the most common material used to make the largest source of new electricity generating capacity for each of the last five years and became

  7. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov

    2010-08-04

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.

  9. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  10. Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golda Weir

    2012-01-23

    The main objective of the Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic (PV) Panel project is to install a PV System that will promote the use of renewable energy. This project will also help sustain Bexar County ongoing greenhouse gas emissions reduction and energy efficiency goals. The scope of this project includes the installation of a 100-kW system on the top level of a new 236,285 square feet parking garage. The PV system consists of 420 solar panels that covers 7,200 square feet and is tied into the electric-grid. It provides electricity to the office area located within the garage. The estimated annual electricity production of the PV system is 147,000 kWh per year.

  11. Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Liping; Lany, Stephan; Kykyneshi, Robert; Jieratum, Vorranutch; Ravichandran, Ram; Pelatt, Brian; Altschul, Emmeline; Platt, Heather A. S.; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.; Zunger, Alex

    2011-08-10

    An integrated computational and experimental study of FeS? pyrite reveals that phase coexistence is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. This phase coexistence is suppressed with the ternary materials Fe?SiS? and Fe?GeS?, which also exhibit higher band gaps than FeS?. Thus, the ternaries provide a new entry point for development of thin-film absorbers and high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  12. Sandia Photovoltaics Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProjectData Dashboard RutlandSTEAB's PrioritiesFuelofPhotovoltaics Program

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Daylighting, Wind (Small) Puerto Rico- Renewable Energy Equipment Certification Certification of Photovoltaic Equipment...

  14. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  15. Department of Energy: Photovoltaics program - FY 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The National Photovoltaic Program supports efforts to make PV an important part of the US economy through three main program elements: Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. (1) Research and Development activities generate new ideas, test the latest scientific theories, and push the limits of PV efficiencies in laboratory and prototype materials and devices. (2) Technology Development activities apply laboratory innovations to products to improve PV technology and the manufacturing techniques used to produce PV systems for the market. (3) Systems Engineering and Applications activities help improve PV systems and validate these improvements through tests, measurements, and deployment of prototypes. In addition, applications research validates, sales, maintenance, and financing mechanisms worldwide. (4) Environmental, Health, Safety and Resource Characterization activities help to define environmental, health and safety issues for those facilities engaged in the manufacture of PV products and organizations engaged in PV research and development. All PV Program activities are planned and executed in close collaboration and partnership with the U.S. PV industry. The overall PV Program is planned to be a balanced effort of research, manufacturing development, and market development. Critical to the success of this strategy is the National Photovoltaic Program`s effort to reduce the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaic. The program is doing this in three primary ways: by making devices more efficient, by making PV systems less expensive, and by validating the technology through measurements, tests, and prototypes.

  16. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Arya, D. Carlson, Prog. Photovoltaics 10, p. 69 (2002). K.and J. Bailat, Prog. in Photovoltaics 12 , 113 (2004). M.and A. Mart?´, Progress in Photovoltaics 9, p. 73 (2001). S.

  17. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermal control...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermal control...

  20. Annealing effects on the photovoltaic performance of all-conjugated poly(3-alkylthiophene) diblock copolymer-based bulk heterojunction solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Annealing effects on the photovoltaic performance of all-conjugated poly(3-alkylthiophene) diblock copolymer-based bulk heterojunction solar cells Ming He,ab Wei Han,ac Jing Ge,b Weijie Yu,a Yuliang Yang The effects of thermal and solvent vapor annealing on the photovoltaic performance of a new class of all

  1. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

  2. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future.

  3. Southwest Photovoltaic Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Southwest Photovoltaic Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Southwest Photovoltaic Systems Inc Place: Tomball, Texas Zip: 77375 Product: Distributor of small scale PV...

  4. ULTRATHIN FLEXIBLE CRYSTALLINE SILICON: MICROSYSTEMS ENABLED PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ULTRATHIN FLEXIBLE CRYSTALLINE SILICON: MICROSYSTEMS ENABLED PHOTOVOLTAICS Jose L. Cruz Photovoltaics (MEPV) is a technique to create solar cells relying on tools from the microsystems and integrated

  5. Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Collaboration Key to Enabling On-The-Fly HPC...

  6. Ris Energy Report 5 Photovoltaics 6.3.1 Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kREbs, RIsø NATIONAL LAbORATORy, DENMARk The market for photovoltaics (PV, or solar cells) has grown? Crystalline silicon remains the standard PV technology, with a market share that has increased from 85 Photovoltaics 6.3.1 less than half the market. Figure 18 shows that the cost of traditional PV technology has

  7. Apparatus for making photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  8. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, Roger J. (Albuquerque, NM); Osbourn, Gordon C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  9. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1983-07-08

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  10. Thin film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothwarf, Allen (Philadelphia, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell has as its transparent electrical contact a grid made from a non-noble metal by providing a layer of copper oxide between the transparent electrical contact and the absorber-generator.

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utilities Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Landfill Gas, Comprehensive...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Institutional Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Ocean Thermal, Wind (Small),...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Utilities, Cooperative Utilities, Agricultural Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All),...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Government, Agricultural, Institutional Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass,...

  16. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  17. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-01-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  18. A stochastic method for stand-alone photovoltaic system sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Jose Helvecio; Toledo, Olga Moraes

    2010-09-15

    Photovoltaic systems utilize solar energy to generate electrical energy to meet load demands. Optimal sizing of these systems includes the characterization of solar radiation. Solar radiation at the Earth's surface has random characteristics and has been the focus of various academic studies. The objective of this study was to stochastically analyze parameters involved in the sizing of photovoltaic generators and develop a methodology for sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. Energy storage for isolated systems and solar radiation were analyzed stochastically due to their random behavior. For the development of the methodology proposed stochastic analysis were studied including the Markov chain and beta probability density function. The obtained results were compared with those for sizing of stand-alone using from the Sandia method (deterministic), in which the stochastic model presented more reliable values. Both models present advantages and disadvantages; however, the stochastic one is more complex and provides more reliable and realistic results. (author)

  19. Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1985-01-01

    energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility...

  20. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham (Oakland, CA); Miros, Robert H. J. (Fairfax, CA); Brown, Malcolm P. (San Francisco, CA); Stancel, Robert (Loss Altos Hills, CA)

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.