National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal efficiency nonrenewable

  1. Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight efficiency Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight efficiency Discusses technological...

  2. Efficient Thermally Variable Cooling System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  3. High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical...

  4. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on...

  5. Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology 2005 Diesel...

  6. Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions...

  7. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  8. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Developing integrated TE system configurations...

  9. Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources Tariff RNR-7 (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Renewable and Non-Renewable Resource tariff is authorized by the Georgia Public Service Commission (PSC), which requires that the investor owned utility, Georgia Power Company, purchase...

  10. Thermal Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007, 2010 and Beyond Thermal Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007, 2010 and Beyond 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  11. Understanding Earths Energy Sources, Part 1. Nonrenewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    be replaced in a short period replaced in a short period of time. 2 3 4 Fossil Fuels N bl b b d f l d f h Nonrenewable carbon based fuels made from the remains of...

  12. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

  13. Energy Efficient Proactive Thermal Management in Memory Subsystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Energy Efficient Proactive Thermal Management in Memory Subsystem Raid Ayoub rayoub management of memory subsystem is challenging due to performance and thermal constraints. Big energy gains appreciable energy savings in memory sub-system and mini- mize thermal problems. We adopt the consolidation

  14. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  15. The problem of non-renewable energy resources in the production of physical capital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesterov, Yurii

    2007/8 The problem of non-renewable energy resources in the production of physical capital Agustin Pérez-Barahona #12;CORE DISCUSSION PAPER 2007/8 The problem of non-renewable energy resources-run growth, although energy is produced by means of non-renewable energy resources. The mechanism behind

  16. Capital accumulation and non-renewable energy resources: a special functions case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesterov, Yurii

    2007/9 Capital accumulation and non-renewable energy resources: a special functions case Agustin Pérez-Barahona #12;CORE DISCUSSION PAPER 2007/9 Capital accumulation and non-renewable energy resources-run dynamics using Gauss Hypergeometric functions. Keywords: non-renewable resources, energy-saving technical

  17. Efficient thermal management for multiprocessor systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Co?kun, Ay?e K?v?lc?m

    2009-01-01

    energy and thermal based static scheduling strategies. Our methodmethod which outperforms other static energy or temperature management techniques in terms of reducing thermalthermal cycles, and optimization methods that consider reliability constraints provide energy

  18. Thermal management concepts for higher efficiency heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-05-19

    Thermal management is a cross-cutting technology that directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, aerodynamics, driver/passenger comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and component life. This review paper provides an assessment of thermal management for large trucks, particularly as it impacts these features. Observations arrived at from a review of the state of the art for thermal management for over-the-road trucks are highlighted and commented on. Trends in the large truck industry, pertinent engine truck design and performance objectives, and the implications of these relative to thermal management, are presented. Finally, new thermal management concepts for high efficiency vehicles are described.

  19. Towards Energy-Efficient Reactive Thermal Management in Instrumented Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pompili, Dario

    Towards Energy-Efficient Reactive Thermal Management in Instrumented Datacenters Ivan Rodero, Eun techniques used to alleviate thermal anomalies (i.e., hotspots) in cloud datacenter's servers of by reducing such as voltage scaling that also can be applied to reduce the temperature of the servers in datacenters. Because

  20. Heavy-Duty Engine Technology for High Thermal Efficiency at EPA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for High Thermal Efficiency at EPA 2010 Emissions Regulations Heavy-Duty Engine Technology for High Thermal Efficiency at EPA 2010 Emissions Regulations Presentation...

  1. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    lowers cycle efficiency based on Carnot considerations.of the cycle and poor efficiency results based on Carnotand lowers cycle thermal efficiencies based on Carnot

  2. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-31

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called â??Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency,â? and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named â??Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines.â? This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: â?¢ Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. â?¢ Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. â?¢ Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. â?¢ Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. â?¢ Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: â?¢ Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under EPA 2010 emissions regulations. â?¢ Experimentally demonstrate brake efficiency of 48.5% at EPA 2010 emission level at single steady-state point. â?¢ Analytically demonstrated additional brake efficiency benefits using advanced aftertreatment configuration concept and air system enhancement including, but not limited to, turbo-compound, variable valve actuator system, and new cylinder head redesign, thus helping to achieve the final program goals. â?¢ Experimentally demonstrated EPA 2010 emissions over FTP cycles using advanced integrated engine and aftertreatment system. These aggressive thermal efficiency and emissions results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. It used integrated analytical and experimental tools for subsystem component optimization encompassing advanced fuel injection system, increased EGR cooling capacity, combustion process optimization, and advanced aftertreatment technologies. Model based controls employing multiple input and output techniques enabled efficient integration of the various subsystems and ensured optimal performance of each system within the total engine package. . The key objective of the NZ-50 program for the second phase was to explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize cylinder-out emissions, targeting a 10% efficiency improvement. The most noteworthy achievements in this phase of the program are summarized as follows: â?¢ Experimentally and analytically evaluated numerous air system improvements related to the turbocharger and variable valve actuation. Some of the items tested proved to be very successful and modifications to the turbine discovered in this program have since been incorporated into production hardware. â?¢ The combustion system development continued with evaluation of various designs of the 2-step piston bowl. Significant improvemen

  3. Efficient Power Modeling and Software Thermal Sensing for Runtime Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient Power Modeling and Software Thermal Sensing for Runtime Temperature Monitoring WEI WU of cooling and packaging considerably. It is therefore imper- ative to be able to monitor the temperature temperature monitoring. ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst. 12, 3, Article 25 (August 2007), 29 pages. DOI

  4. Economic Growth and the Transition from Non-renewable to Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Economic Growth and the Transition from Non-renewable to Renewable Energy Alfred Greiner Lars a canonical growth model with damages in the household's welfare function and two energy sources ­ non-renewable and renewable energy. To produce renewable energy a capital stock must be built up. We study when a transition

  5. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J.; Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  6. Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    1 Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock tanks and reducing thermal mass. A companion paper, Energy Efficiency Process Heating: Managing Air Flow of the oven/furnace. Reducing the quantity of energy lost to thermal mass in a process heating system saves

  7. A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection a thermal-conscious system-level methodology to make energy-efficient voltage selection (VS) for nanometer), thermal resistance, are integrated and considered in our system models, and their impacts on energy

  8. Energy-Efficient Speed Scheduling for Real-Time Tasks under Thermal Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shengquan

    Energy-Efficient Speed Scheduling for Real-Time Tasks under Thermal Constraints Shengquan Wang. We develop energy-efficient speed scheduling schemes for frame-based real-time tasks under thermal, Jian-Jia Chen, Zhenjun Shi, and Lothar Thiele Abstract Thermal constraints have limited

  9. Metal stud wall systems -- Thermal disaster, or modern wall systems with highly efficient thermal insulation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Buildings Technology Center

    1997-11-01

    Because steel has higher thermal conductivity than wood and intense heat transfer occurs through the metal wall components, thermal performances of a metal stud wall are significantly lower than for similar wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. That is why metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar made of wood. However, properly designed metal stud walls can be as thermally effective as wood stud walls. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is widely used as a remedy for a weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of the promising metal stud wall configurations is analyzed using results of finite difference computer modeling and guarded hotbox tests. Some of these walls were designed and tested in the ORNL Building Technology Center, some were tested in other laboratories, and some walls were developed and forgotten long time ago. Also, a novel concept of combined foam-metal studs is considered. The main aim of the present paper is to prove that it is possible to build metal stud walls which perform as well as wood stud walls. The key lies in designing; metal stud wall systems have to be treated in a special way with particular consideration to the high thermal conduction of metal components. In the discussed collection of the efficient metal stud wall configurations, reductions of the in-cavity R-value caused by metal studs are between 10 and 20%.

  10. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  11. The Path to a 50% Thermal Efficient Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Posters 2005deereasley.pdf More Documents & Publications Demonstration of a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including HTCD Program Overview Engine System Approach...

  12. Comments on the thermal efficiency of an ideal shape-recovery cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golestaneh, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    The thermal efficiency of the shape recovery phenomena associated with the martensite-parent phase transformation was studied. Mathematical analysis of the phenomena are given. (FS)

  13. Efficient Implementation Algorithm for a Homogenized Energy Model with Thermal Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient Implementation Algorithm for a Homogenized Energy Model with Thermal Relaxation Thomas R to implement the homogenized energy hysteresis model with thermal relaxation for both ferroelectric For Algorithm 1. Algorithm used to implement the homogenized energy model with negligible thermal relaxation

  14. PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two for the production of hydrogen from water and high temperature thermal energy are presented and compared. Increasing for the production of hydrogen from water has received considerable attention.1 High temperature thermal energy

  15. Market Power in Nonrenewable Resource Markets: An Empirical Dynamic Model1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    , iron, lead, tin, and zinc were characterized by oligopolistic behavior. Our model enables us find that the demand for copper, iron, lead, and zinc is relatively inelastic, while the demand for tin nonrenewable resources with excessive capacities in both mining and processing (Auty, 2000). Since the world

  16. Writing Motor Specifications - How to Include Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartermaine, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    The escalating cost of electric power coupled with the rapid depletion of our non-renewable resources makes consideration of motor efficiency good sense both from economic and conservation viewpoints. The efficiency of an electric motor can...

  17. Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,2 * Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) have energy is high enough and the 3 LE state is higher than the 3 CT state. O rganic light-emitting diodes

  18. Computational Efficient Upscaling Methodology for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Nuclear Waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-28

    This study evaluated different upscaling methods to predict thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form, a heterogeneous material system. The efficiency and accuracy of these methods were compared. Thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form is an important property specific to scientific researchers, in waste form Integrated performance and safety code (IPSC). The effective thermal conductivity obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. How the heat generated during storage is directly related to thermal conductivity, which in turn determining the mechanical deformation behavior, corrosion resistance and aging performance. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling models were developed and implemented. Due to the absence of experimental data, prediction results from finite element method (FEM) were used as reference to determine the accuracy of different upscaling models. Micrographs from different loading of nuclear waste were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (Taylor and Sachs model) are better than self consistent model, statistical upscaling method and FEM. Balancing the computation resource and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a computational efficient method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste form.

  19. Field Analysis of Thermal Comfort in Two Energy Efficient Office Buildings in Malaysia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qahtan, A. T.; Keumala, N.; Rao, S. P.; Samad, Z. A.

    2010-01-01

    with exception of an air movement in the workspace of both buildings. The result suggested workers? preferable condition. Keywords: Building Energy Efficiency; Thermal comfort; and Occupant Satisfaction. INTRODUCTION In a tropical climate... that mentioned earlier. The significance of this paper is that measuring the thermal comfort parameters supported by surveying the occupants? satisfaction in these two EE buildings would be as evaluation to upcoming EE buildings in tropical region. MALAYSIA...

  20. Efficiency bounds for quantum engines powered by non-thermal baths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Niedenzu; David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Abraham G. Kofman; Gershon Kurizki

    2015-08-26

    We analyse the operation principles and performance bounds of quantum engines whose working fluid (WF) is energised by a non-thermal bath. We show that such a bath (e.g., a squeezed or coherently displaced thermal bath) can render the WF state non-passive, i.e., capable of storing and delivering work. This non-passivity converts the heat engine into a thermo-mechanical machine that is powered by mechanical work, as well as heat, from the non-thermal bath. Its efficiency is unrestricted by the Carnot bound, which only applies to heat engines. By contrast, for certain WF--bath interactions and non-thermal bath states the WF thermalises. The machine then operates as a heat engine, but its Carnot bound may correspond to a higher temperature than its thermal-bath counterpart.

  1. Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5298) Photonic crystals; (350.6050) Solar energy. References and links 1. W. Spirkl and H. Ries, "Solar. Harder and P. Wurfel, "Theoretical limits of thermophotovoltaic solar energy conversion," Semicond. SciDesign and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems with tungsten cermets David

  2. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-09

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  3. An investigation of methods for reducing the use of non-renewable energy resources for housing in Thailand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasisuttha, Sakkara

    2005-08-29

    photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collector system, has been developed by several researchers over the last 20 years. The hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collector system is a combination photovoltaic (for producing electricity) and solar thermal collector (for... producing hot water). Theoretical and experimental studies of this collector have highlighted the advantages of the hybrid PV-T collector system over separate systems of PV and solar collector in term of system efficiency and economics. Unfortunately...

  4. Abstract--The substitution of non-renewable energy by renewable energy as electricity supply is an emerging trend for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    Abstract-- The substitution of non-renewable energy by renewable energy as electricity supply]. The transition from traditional energy to renewable energy has now become a real demand for sustainability pack. The electrical grid servers as back-up supplier in case energy stored in the battery is used up

  5. Thin-film 'Thermal Well' Emitters and Absorbers for High-Efficiency Thermophotovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Jonathan K; Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is introduced to significantly improve the performance of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems by using low-dimensional thermal emitters and photovoltaic (PV) cells. By reducing the thickness of both the emitter and the PV cell, strong spectral selectivity in both thermal emission and absorption can be achieved by confining photons in trapped waveguide modes inside the thin-films that act as thermal analogs to quantum wells. Simultaneously, photo-excited carriers travel shorter distances across the thin-films reducing bulk recombination losses resulting in a lower saturation current in the PV cell. We predict a TPV efficiency enhancement with near-field coupling between the thermal emitter and the PV cell of up to 38.7% using a germanium (Ge) emitter at 1000 K and a gallium antimonide (GaSb) cell with optimized thicknesses separated by 100 nm. Even in the far-field limit, the efficiency is predicted to reach 31.5%, which is an order of magnitude higher than the Shockley Queisser limit of 1.6% for a...

  6. On the global economic potentials and marginal costs of non-renewable resources and the price dynamics of energy commodities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercure, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    A model is presented in this work for simulating endogenously the evolution of the marginal costs of production of energy carriers from non-renewable resources, their consumption, depletion pathways and timescales. Such marginal costs can be used to simulate the long term average price formation of energy commodities. Drawing on previous work where a global database of energy resource economic potentials was constructed, this work uses cost distributions of non-renewable resources in order to evaluate global flows of energy commodities. A mathematical framework is given to calculate endogenous flows of energy resources given an exogenous commodity price path. This framework can be used in reverse in order to calculate an exogenous marginal cost of production of energy carriers given an exogenous carrier demand. Using rigid price inelastic assumptions independent of the economy, these two approaches generate limiting scenarios that depict extreme use of natural resources. This is useful to characterise the cur...

  7. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    reclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [as geothermal energy [55], solar thermal energy [41], wastetemperature geothermal and solar thermal energy. His results

  8. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    concentrated solar thermal energy and low grade waste heatreclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"

  9. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    reclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"

  10. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    SA Kalogirou, "Solar thermal collectors and applications,"axis concentrating solar thermal (collectors such as linearof non- concentrated solar thermal collectors also operate

  11. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    doing so would reduce thermal pollution and overall planthave been wasted. Thermal pollution and the production of

  12. Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Brad Beardsley, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Darrell Socie, University of Illinois; Dr. Ed Redja, University of Illinois; Dr. Christopher Berndt, State University of New York at Stony Brook

    2006-03-02

    The objective of this program was to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating (TTBC) systems for application to low heat rejection diesel engine combustion chambers. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of thermal barrier coating to diesel engines.(1) Areas of TTBC technology examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coating composition, coating design, microstructure and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC "aging" effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Fifteen TTBC ceramic powders were evaluated. These powders were selected to investigate the effects of different chemistries, different manufacturing methods, lot-to-lot variations, different suppliers and varying impurity levels. Each of the fifteen materials has been sprayed using 36 parameters selected by a design of experiments (DOE) to determine the effects of primary gas (Ar and N2), primary gas flow rate, voltage, arc current, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spraying distance. The deposition efficiency, density, and thermal conductivity of the resulting coatings were measured. A coating with a high deposition efficiency and low thermal conductivity is desired from an economic standpoint. An optimum combination of thermal conductivity and disposition efficiency was found for each lot of powder in follow-on experiments and disposition parameters were chosen for full characterization.(2) Strengths of the optimized coatings were determined using 4-point bending specimens. The tensile strength was determined using free-standing coatings made by spraying onto mild steel substrates which were subsequently removed by chemical etching. The compressive strengths of the coatings were determined using composite specimens of ceramic coated onto stainless steel substrates, tested with the coating in compression and the steel in tension. The strength of the coating was determined from an elastic bi-material analysis of the resulting failure of the coating in compression.(3) Altough initial comparisons of the materials would appear to be straight forward from these results, the results of the aging tests of the materials are necessary to insure that trends in properties remain after long term exposure to a diesel environment. Some comparisons can be made, such as the comparison between for lot-to-lot variation. An axial fatigue test to determine the high cycle fatigue behavior of TTBCs was developed at the University of Illinois under funding from this program.(4) A fatigue test apparatus has been designed and initial work performed which demonstrates the ability to provide a routine method of axial testing of coating. The test fixture replaces the normal load frame and fixtures used to transmit the hydraulic oil loading to the sample with the TTBC specimen itself. The TTBC specimen is a composite metal/coating with stainless steel ends. The coating is sprayed onto a mild steel center tube section onto which the stainless steel ends are press fit. The specimen is then machined. After machining, the specimen is placed in an acid bath which etches the mild steel away leaving the TTBC attached to the the stainless steel ends. Plugs are then installed in the ends and the composite specimen loaded in the test fixture where the hydraulic oil pressurizes each end to apply the load. Since oil transmits the load, bending loads are minimized. This test fixture has been modified to allow piston ends to be attached to the specimen which allows tensile loading as well as compressive loading of the specimen. In addition to the room temperature data, specimens have been tested at 800 Degrees C with the surprising result that at high temperature, the TTBC exhibits much higher fatigue strength. Testing of the TTBC using tension/compression cycling has been con

  13. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYZER CONFIGURATION AND PERFORMANCE ON HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2007-03-16

    Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

  14. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    waste heat reclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [K Lovegrove and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems inK Lovegrove and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in

  15. Evaluation of annual efficiencies of high temperature central receiver concentrated solar power plants with thermal energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrhart, Brian David; Gill, David Dennis

    2013-07-01

    The current study has examined four cases of a central receiver concentrated solar power plant with thermal energy storage using the DELSOL and SOLERGY computer codes. The current state-of-the-art base case was compared with a theoretical high temperature case which was based on the scaling of some input parameters and the estimation of other parameters based on performance targets from the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This comparison was done for both current and high temperature cases in two configurations: a surround field with an external cylindrical receiver and a north field with a single cavity receiver. There is a fairly dramatic difference between the design point and annual average performance, especially in the solar field and receiver subsystems, and also in energy losses due to the thermal energy storage being full to capacity. Additionally, there are relatively small differences (<2%) in annual average efficiencies between the Base and High Temperature cases, despite an increase in thermal to electric conversion efficiency of over 8%. This is due the increased thermal losses at higher temperature and operational losses due to subsystem start-up and shut-down. Thermal energy storage can mitigate some of these losses by utilizing larger thermal energy storage to ensure that the electric power production system does not need to stop and re-start as often, but solar energy is inherently transient. Economic and cost considerations were not considered here, but will have a significant impact on solar thermal electric power production strategy and sizing.

  16. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Research," in Sandia National Laboratory Science and Engineering Exposition 2011, Albuquerque, New Mexico,

  17. An efficient modeling method for thermal stratification simulation in a BWR suppression pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; Hua Li; Walter Villanueva; Pavel Kudinov

    2012-09-01

    The suppression pool in a BWR plant not only is the major heat sink within the containment system, but also provides major emergency cooling water for the reactor core. In several accident scenarios, such as LOCA and extended station blackout, thermal stratification tends to form in the pool after the initial rapid venting stage. Accurately predicting the pool stratification phenomenon is important because it affects the peak containment pressure; and the pool temperature distribution also affects the NPSHa (Available Net Positive Suction Head) and therefore the performance of the pump which draws cooling water back to the core. Current safety analysis codes use 0-D lumped parameter methods to calculate the energy and mass balance in the pool and therefore have large uncertainty in prediction of scenarios in which stratification and mixing are important. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze realistic 3D configurations, these methods normally require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, therefore long simulation time. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, the BMIX++ code has been developed to implement a highly efficient analysis method for stratification where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. The POOLEX experiments at Finland, which was designed to study phenomena relevant to Nordic design BWR suppression pool including thermal stratification and mixing, are used for validation. GOTHIC lumped parameter models are used to obtain boundary conditions for BMIX++ code and CFD simulations. Comparison between the BMIX++, GOTHIC, and CFD calculations against the POOLEX experimental data is discussed in detail.

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 30, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2011 1883 Energy-Efficient Multiobjective Thermal Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    , DECEMBER 2011 1883 Energy-Efficient Multiobjective Thermal Control for Liquid-Cooled 3-D Stacked a stable thermal profile. The DVFS decisions increase chip-level energy savings and help balance to overcome the accelerated thermal problems in 3-D architectures; however, it brings new challenges

  19. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    the solar power tower, the solar efficiency of the system isThe product of the solar efficiency and the power blockFig. 6.6 shows the solar efficiency, maximum power block

  20. Method for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>1.0E4)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Heineck, Daniel; Voss, Lars F.; Wang, Tzu Fang; Shao, Qinghui

    2013-10-15

    Methods for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>10.sup.4) are provided. A structure is provided that includes a p+ region on a first side of an intrinsic region and an n+ region on a second side of the intrinsic region. The thickness of the intrinsic region is minimized to achieve a desired gamma discrimination factor of at least 1.0E+04. Material is removed from one of the p+ region or the n+ region and into the intrinsic layer to produce pillars with open space between each pillar. The open space is filed with a neutron sensitive material. An electrode is placed in contact with the pillars and another electrode is placed in contact with the side that is opposite of the intrinsic layer with respect to the first electrode.

  1. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    128] V Minea, "Using Geothermal Energy and Industrial Wastesuch as solar thermal and geothermal energy will become ansolar field, and geothermal energy, where energy is obtained

  2. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    energy source stream transfers energy to the ORC workingmatching to the energy reservoir stream during heat additionenergy in the thermal energy source stream is discarded or

  3. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  4. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    low and mid temperature solar collectors," Journal of SolarSA Kalogirou, "Solar thermal collectors and applications,"analysis of the solar collector system is presented. Results

  5. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    such as nuclear, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), and coal,energies, such as concentrated solar power (CSP) [165]. CSPand non- concentrated solar thermal, vapor power cycles

  6. Advanced thermal insulation for energy efficient buildings : structural performance of aerogel composite panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goutierre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Aerogels are well known as exceptional thermal insulators. Thermal conductivities of 9 to 10 mW/m.K have been achieved at atmospheric pressure, and a moderate vacuum (between 1/3 and 1/10 of an atmosphere) can lower this ...

  7. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency data to advance efficiency for improving system- level operation of energy infrastructure. This data

  8. Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

  9. Where solar thermal meets photovoltaic for high-efficiency power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierman, David M. (David Matthew)

    2014-01-01

    To develop disruptive techniques which generate power from the Sun, one must understand the aspects of existing technologies that limit performance. Solar thermal and solar photovoltaic schemes dominate today's solar market ...

  10. Beryllium Impregnation of Uranium Fuel: Thermal Modeling of Cylindrical Objects for Efficiency Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynn, Nicholas

    2011-08-04

    With active research projects related to nuclear waste immobilization and high conductivity nuclear fuels, a thermal model has been developed to simulate the temperature profile within a heat generating cylinder in order to imitate the behavior...

  11. Thermal hydraulic design of a salt-cooled highly efficient environmentally friendly reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

    2009-01-01

    A 1 OOOMWth liquid-salt cooled thermal spectrum reactor was designed with a long fuel cycle, and high core exit temperature. These features are desirable in a reactor designed to provide process heat applications such as ...

  12. Making Record-efficiency SnS Solar Cells by Thermal Evaporation and Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Rafael

    Tin sulfide (SnS) is a candidate absorber material for Earth-abundant, non-toxic solar cells. SnS offers easy phase control and rapid growth by congruent thermal evaporation, and it absorbs visible light strongly. However, ...

  13. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Discusses comfort model enhancement/validation, climate system efficiency parameters and system trade off, and powertrain mode operation changes to further vehicle energy saving while preserving occupant comfort.

  14. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    occurs where the solar and power block efficiency curvesSalt Closed- Brayton-Cycle Solar Power Towers," ASME Journalefficeincy triple cycle for solar power generation," Solar

  15. Thermal testing of the proposed HUD energy efficiency standard for new manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.D.; Barker, G.M.

    1992-06-01

    Thermal testing of two manufactured homes was performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Testing (CMFERT) environmental enclosure in the winter and spring of 1991. The primary objective of the study was to directly measure the thermal performance of the two homes, each built according to a proposed new US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standard. Secondary objectives were to test the accuracy of an accompanying compliance calculation method and to help manufacturers find cost-effective ways to meet the new standard. Both homes performed within the standard without major design or production line modifications. Their performance fell within 8% of predictions based on the new draft HUD calculation manual; however, models with minimum window area were selected by the manufacturer. Models with more typical window area would have required substantive design changes to meet the standard. Several other tests were also performed on the homes by both NREL and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to uncover potential thermal anomalies and to explore the degradation in thermal performance that might occur because of (a) penetrations in the rodent barrier from field hookups and repairs, (b) closing of interior doors with and without operation of the furnace blower, and (c) exposure to winds.

  16. Thermal testing of the proposed HUD energy efficiency standard for new manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.D.; Barker, G.M.

    1992-06-01

    Thermal testing of two manufactured homes was performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Testing (CMFERT) environmental enclosure in the winter and spring of 1991. The primary objective of the study was to directly measure the thermal performance of the two homes, each built according to a proposed new US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standard. Secondary objectives were to test the accuracy of an accompanying compliance calculation method and to help manufacturers find cost-effective ways to meet the new standard. Both homes performed within the standard without major design or production line modifications. Their performance fell within 8% of predictions based on the new draft HUD calculation manual; however, models with minimum window area were selected by the manufacturer. Models with more typical window area would have required substantive design changes to meet the standard. Several other tests were also performed on the homes by both NREL and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to uncover potential thermal anomalies and to explore the degradation in thermal performance that might occur because of (a) penetrations in the rodent barrier from field hookups and repairs, (b) closing of interior doors with and without operation of the furnace blower, and (c) exposure to winds.

  17. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: Application to ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    : Application to ozone formation Mikhail V. Ivanov and Dmitri Babikov Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184304 (2012 for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: Application to ozone formation Mikhail V. Ivanov of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented. © 2012 American Institute

  18. Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  19. Integration of Diesel Engine Technology to Meet US EPA 2010 Emissions with Improved Thermal Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  20. High-temperature microfluidic systems for thermally-efficient fuel processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arana, Leonel R

    2003-01-01

    Miniaturized fuel cell systems have the potential to outperform batteries in powering a variety of portable electronics. The key to this technology is the ability to efficiently process an easily-stored, energy-dense fuel. ...

  1. Growth, spectral and thermal studies of an efficient NLO material: Diaquadicinnamatocadmium(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Sunalya M.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Dhanya, V. S. [Department of Chemistry, Mahatma Gandhi College, Thiruvananthapuram 695004, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    A nonlinear metal–organic crystal, diaquadicinnamatocadmium(II) has been grown by controlled gel diffusion technique. Sodium metasilicate was used to prepare the gel. The chemical composition of the crystal has been determined by CHN analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the crystalline nature of the grown crystal. Functional groups present in the compound were identified by FT-IR spectral analysis. The thermal decomposition of the compound was studied using thermogravimetry (TG). The optical transparency range and the lower cut-off wavelength were identified from the UV-Visible-NIR spectrum. The NLO activity of the grown crystal was confirmed using Kurtz and Perry powder test.

  2. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined detection of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiles, M.M.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1987-02-27

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation event count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  3. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN); Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blakeman, Edward D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  4. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  5. What can you do with energy-efficient optics and photonics? Well, for starters... FOOTPRINT CLEAN ENERGY WORK SLOW CLIMATE CHANGE CONSERVATION DIRECT CURRENT EFFICIENT SUN FLEXIBLE FUEL ELECTRON OFF-THE-GRID THERMAL ENERGY ENGINEER ENVIRONMEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faure, Claudie

    devices, creating a power plant. Utilize solar energy at night with nanostructured capacitors, and use · ELECTRON · OFF-THE-GRID · THERMAL ENERGY · ENGINEER · ENVIRONMENT · FURNACE · SOLAR POWER · CURRENT SOLAR, PHOTONIC DEVICES FOR EFFICIENT HARVESTING AND CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY DEVICESFORMONITORINGENERGYUSAGE,MONITORINGEXHAUSTGASESANDPOLLUTANTS,ENERGY

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using Non-Renewable Fuels, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non-Renewable Fuels, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy...

  9. Perpendicular spin transfer torque magnetic random access memories with high spin torque efficiency and thermal stability for embedded applications (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Luc, E-mail: luc.thomas@headway.com; Jan, Guenole; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Huanlong; Lee, Yuan-Jen; Le, Son; Tong, Ru-Ying; Pi, Keyu; Wang, Yu-Jen; Shen, Dongna; He, Renren; Haq, Jesmin; Teng, Jeffrey; Lam, Vinh; Huang, Kenlin; Zhong, Tom; Torng, Terry; Wang, Po-Kang [TDK-Headway Technologies, Inc., Milpitas, California 95035 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Magnetic random access memories based on the spin transfer torque phenomenon (STT-MRAMs) have become one of the leading candidates for next generation memory applications. Among the many attractive features of this technology are its potential for high speed and endurance, read signal margin, low power consumption, scalability, and non-volatility. In this paper, we discuss our recent results on perpendicular STT-MRAM stack designs that show STT efficiency higher than 5?k{sub B}T/?A, energy barriers higher than 100?k{sub B}T at room temperature for sub-40?nm diameter devices, and tunnel magnetoresistance higher than 150%. We use both single device data and results from 8?Mb array to demonstrate data retention sufficient for automotive applications. Moreover, we also demonstrate for the first time thermal stability up to 400?°C exceeding the requirement of Si CMOS back-end processing, thus opening the realm of non-volatile embedded memory to STT-MRAM technology.

  10. 7-122 A solar pond power plant operates by absorbing heat from the hot region near the bottom, and rejecting waste heat to the cold region near the top. The maximum thermal efficiency that the power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-49 7-122 A solar pond power plant operates by absorbing heat from the hot region near the bottom, and rejecting waste heat to the cold region near the top. The maximum thermal efficiency that the power plant can have is to be determined. Analysis The highest thermal efficiency a heat engine operating between

  11. High efficiency photovoltaic power conditioning system Hosam Sharabash, DVMM Krishna, Norbert Frhleke and Joachim Bcker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    .1. Introduction Nowadays, the potential threat of global climate enforced, increasing energy demand and diminishing nonrenewable energy has resulted into the usage of renewable energy as alter- native source of energy. Among renewable energy sources, the solar energy is a clean, efficient and readily available

  12. Renewable Energy Prediction for Improved Utilization and Efficiency in Datacenters and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Renewable Energy Prediction for Improved Utilization and Efficiency in Datacenters and Backbone requirements prevent easy integration with highly variable renewable energy sources. Short-term green energy of 11%. Their energy needs are supplied mainly by non-renewable, or brown energy sources, which

  13. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  14. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  15. Technology Development for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines and a Pathway to 50% Thermal Efficiency Technology Development for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines and a Pathway to 50% Thermal Efficiency...

  16. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling[Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses results from TE HVAC project to add detail to a human thermal comfort model and further allow load reduction in the climate control energy through a distributed TE network

  17. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED THERMAL-ACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeffrey J. Swetelitsch

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to explore microwave-excited thermal-acoustic (META) phenomena for quantitative analysis of granular and powdered materials, with the culmination of the research to be an on-line carbon-in-ash monitor for coal-fired power plants. This technique of analyzing unburned carbon in fly ash could be a less tedious and time consuming method as compared to the traditional LOI manual procedure. Phase 1 of the research focused on off-line single-frequency thermal-acoustic measurements where an off-line fly ash monitor was constructed that could operate as analytical tool to explore instrument and methodology parameters for quantifying the microwave-excited thermal-acoustic effect of carbon in fly ash, and it was determined that the off-line thermal-acoustic technique could predict the carbon content of a random collection of fly ashes with a linear correlation constant of R{sup 2} = 0.778. Much higher correlations are expected for fly ashes generated from a single boiler. Phase 2 of the research developing a methodology to generate microwave spectra of various powders, including fly ash, coal, and inorganic minerals, and to determine if these microwave spectra could be used for chemical analyses. Although different minerals produced different responses, higher resolution microwave spectra would be required to be able to distinguish among minerals. Phase 3 of the research focused on the development of an on-line fly ash monitor that could be adapted to measure either a thermal-acoustic or thermal-elastic response to due microwave excitation of fly ash. The thermal-acoustic response was successfully employed for this purpose but the thermal-elastic response was too weak to yield a useful on-line device.

  18. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy, andfor efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  19. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy,for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  20. Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

    2006-01-01

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system-an energy efficiency and environment friendly system-is becoming popular in many parts of China. However, an imbalance usually exists between the annual heat extracted from and rejected to the ground due...

  1. Three-dimensional simulations of the non-thermal broadband emission from young supernova remnants including efficient particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Decourchelle, Anne, E-mail: gferrand@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: anne.decourchelle@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/Irfu, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris VII), CEA Saclay, bât. 709, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the non-thermal emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (1) modify the flow structure and (2) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the non-thermal emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in three dimensions, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to similar modifications of the shock structure, although to very different configurations of the field and particles. We show how this affects the emission patterns in different energy bands, from radio to X-rays and ?-rays. High magnetic fields (>100 ?G) directly impact the synchrotron emission from electrons, by restricting their emission to thin rims, and indirectly impact the inverse Compton emission from electrons and also the pion decay emission from protons, mostly by shifting their cut-off energies to respectively lower and higher energies.

  2. Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management Pu Liu, Zhenyu Qi, Hang temperature by dynamic thermal managements becomes necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach to the thermal analysis at chip architecture level for efficient dynamic thermal management. Our new approach

  3. Besides these questions regarding the efficiency of condensation or thermal conduction in the inner flow, we note that there are other important questions regarding EC theory and implementation, including

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Besides these questions regarding the efficiency of condensation or thermal conduction in the inner with jumps in the power-law component, yet the recovery phase and recurrence of such disk- rate drops occur,10] is bounded, but set manually in code CHW Compton-heated winds based on reliable prescription [11

  4. Suppression of thermal carrier escape and efficient photo-carrier generation by two-step photon absorption in InAs quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells using a dot-in-well structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T.

    2014-08-14

    We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.

  5. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  6. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    materials (PCM) in solar thermal concentrating technologyeffective and efficient solar thermal electricity generatorbeen considered for solar thermal energy storages. These are

  7. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  8. Evaluation and Optimization of Underground Thermal Energy Storage Systems of Energy Efficient Buildings (WKSP)- A Project within the new German R&D- Framework EnBop 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, F.; Kipry, H.; Plesser, S.; Fisch, M. N.

    2008-01-01

    ) Principles of seasonal thermal energy storage in the Foundation In consideration of using renewable energy sources, modern office buildings are more commonly operated with shallow geothermal energy. A evaluation of buildings with such heating... of the ground to store heating and cooling energy are borehole heat exchangers placed below the building or within immediate vicinity of the building. Borehole heat exchangers consist of a single borehole or a network of various boreholes. Practically...

  9. 400 Final Version of PIERS Abstracts will be available on www.piers.org Efficiency Optimization for Microwave Thermal Processing of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    optimization of the systems of microwave heating of materials whose media parameters (the dielectric constant and a cylindrical sample of processed material on it. The optimization problem is formulated as follows: Given: (1400 Final Version of PIERS Abstracts will be available on www.piers.org Efficiency Optimization

  10. Energy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: Results from human subject tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasut, Wilmer; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed; Zhai, Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    Technology Roadmap. Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating andenergy-efficient approaches to thermal comfort using room air motion. Building

  11. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, David G.

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale ...

  12. Thermal analysis and air flow modelling of electrical machines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Yew Chuan

    2015-06-29

    Thermal analysis is an important topic that can affect the electrical machine performance, reliability, lifetime and efficiency. In order to predict the electrical machine thermal performance accurately, thermal analysis ...

  13. Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    for thermal comfort and energy savings. Master of Scienceprevent good building energy Performance – Inte- gratedACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Arens,

  14. You Asked, We Are Answering: Your Home Efficiency Questions ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    is still much more efficient than single speed. Ensure the unit has a thermal expansion valve, which maintains efficiency even with less than optimal refrigerant charge. If you...

  15. High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Application...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications Large increases in engine thermal efficiency result...

  16. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  17. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  18. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    able to operate with a solar thermal efficiency of 50% at afor the total solar irradiation Efficiency is calculated by:of the solar collector thermal efficiency. 6.2 Chiller

  19. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  20. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  1. Thermal noise driven computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laszlo B. Kish

    2006-10-28

    The possibility of a new type of computing, where thermal noise is the information carrier and the clock in a computer, is studied. The information channel capacity and the lower limit of energy requirement/dissipation are studied in a simple digital system with zero threshold voltage, for the case of error probability close to 0.5, when the thermal noise is equal to or greater than the digital signal. In a simple hypothetical realization of a thermal noise driven gate, the lower limit of energy needed to generate the digital signal is 1.1*kT/bit. The arrangement has potentially improved energy efficiency and it is free of leakage current, crosstalk and ground plane electromagnetic interference problems. Disadvantage is the large number of redundancy elements needed for low-error operation.

  2. Cooling efficiency of a brushless direct current stand fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin; Schiavon, Stefano; Sekhar, Chandra; Cheong, David; Tham, Kwok Wai; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    3.1.2. Cooling Fan Efficiency (CFE) index Fig. 5 displaysH, Zhai Y. Enabling energy-efficient approaches to thermalIntroduction of a cooling-fan efficiency index. HVAC&R Res [

  3. Energy Aware Grid: Global Workload Placement based on Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Energy Aware Grid: Global Workload Placement based on Energy Efficiency Chandrakant Patel, Ratnesh.graupner}@hp.com Grid Computing, energy- efficiency, workload placement, cooling, data center, utility computing a global utility infrastructure explicitly incorporating energy efficiency and thermal management among

  4. STAFF PAPER THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF GASFIRED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................. 4 Figure 2: GasFired Heat Rates for Electric Generation Electricity Analysis Office Electricity Supply Analysis Division California Energy Commission is the primary reason for the decline in California's systemwide heat rate. Keywords: Combined cycle

  5. Thermally efficient melting for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. K. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is an integrated process for the production of glass utilizing combustion heat to melt glassmaking materials in a glassmaking furnace. The fuel combusted to produce heat sufficient to melt the glassmaking materials is combusted with oxygen-enriched oxidant to reduce heat losses from the offgas of the glassmaking furnace. The process further reduces heat losses by quenching hot offgas from the glassmaking furnace with a process stream to retain the heat recovered from quench in the glassmaking process with subsequent additional heat recovery by heat exchange of the fuel to the glassmaking furnace, as well as the glassmaking materials, such as batch and cullet. The process includes recovery of a commercially pure carbon dioxide product by separatory means from the cooled, residual offgas from the glassmaking furnace.

  6. Characterizing the thermal efficiency of thermoelectric modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Samuel S

    2009-01-01

    An experimental setup was designed and utilized to measure the thermoelectric properties as functions of temperature of a commercially available, bismuth telluride thermoelectric module. Thermoelectric modules are solid ...

  7. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  8. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  9. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal models power density cost lifetime Advanced Thermal Interface Materials Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies Air Cooling Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  10. Fast Poisson Solvers for Thermal Analysis Haifeng Qian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    of thermal solves with different power dissipation distributions, and demand extremely high efficiency from configuration uses a copper heat spreader, a copper heat sink and thermal interface materials layers

  11. Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

  12. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  13. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  14. Sierra Designs 20 degrees F Wild Bill Climashield Sleeping Bag ClimashieldTM HL, a high-loft continuous filament insulation, offers excellent thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    -loft continuous filament insulation, offers excellent thermal efficiency, durability and water resistance Chest

  15. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    making direct thermal energy storage methods, e.g. thosethermal shorting, that limits the energy conversion efficiency of direct thermoelectric energy conversion methods.

  16. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    hours, since electricity storage is rather inefficient.efficient than electricity storage, solar thermal becomes ato generate electricity. Since heat storage is more

  17. Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a new type of high efficiency thermal waste heat energy converter that can be used to actively cool electronic devices, concentrated...

  18. Review of pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting and new MEMs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the frequency and more magnitude of temperature cycling, and the efficiency of energy recycling using the proposed structure, have been modeled. Results show that thermal...

  19. Pillar Structured Thermal Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolic, R; Conway, A; Reinhardt, C; Graff, R; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C

    2008-06-10

    This work describes an innovative solid state device structure that leverages advanced semiconductor fabrication technology to produce an efficient device for thermal neutron detection which we have coined the 'Pillar Detector'. State-of-the-art thermal neutron detectors have shortcomings in simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low operating voltage while maintaining adequate fieldability performance. By using a three dimensional silicon PIN diode pillar array filled with isotopic {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B), a high efficiency device is theoretically possible. Here we review the design considerations for going from a 2-D to 3-D device and discuss the materials trade-offs. The relationship between the geometrical features and efficiency within our 3-D device is investigated by Monte Carlo radiation transport method coupled with finite element drift-diffusion carrier transport simulations. To benchmark our simulations and validate the predicted efficiency scaling, experimental results of a prototype device are illustrated. The fabricated pillar structures reported in this work are composed of 2 {micro}m diameter silicon pillars with a 2 {micro}m spacing and pillar height of 12 {micro}m. The pillar detector with a 12 {micro}m height achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 7.3% at a reverse bias of -2 V.

  20. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  1. The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

    2011-12-02

    We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

  2. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  3. Thermal noise for quantum state inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Mogilevtsev; V. S. Shchesnovich; N. Korolkova

    2013-02-15

    In this work we describe a simple and efficient scheme for inference of photon number distribution by adding variable thermal noise to the signal. The inference remains feasible even if the scheme parameters are subject to random dynamical change.

  4. Urban solarium : thermal performance in Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juliet Chia-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of energy efficiency through the lens of thermal performance in the context of urban housing in the city of Boston. Located in the historic brick row house neighborhood of the South End, the ...

  5. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  6. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  7. Energy Efficiency in Log Homes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    or purchasing a manufactured log home, you should consider several factors related to energy efficiency. The R-Value of Wood A material's thermal resistance or resistance to...

  8. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    radiation and some convec- tion. These furnaces are characterized by poor thermal efficien- cies ranging from approximately 20%-45%. The Energy Efficient Isothermal Melting...

  9. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Thermoelectric (TE)...

  10. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC...

  11. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    varying solar energy inputs and thermal or power demands. Itusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  12. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solaraided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsobesides MVC require thermal energy as their primary energy

  13. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    15] O. A. Hamed, "THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MULTISTAGE FLASHdesa4.aspx. [18] Encon, "Thermal Evaporators," June 2013. [http://www.evaporator.com/thermal-evaporator. [19] Y. Tian

  14. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    of such an aquifer thermal storage system were studied andusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  15. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    This requires no thermal storage tanks, but can have athe need for large thermal storage equipment, the evaporatorinclude analysis of thermal storage. A way of keeping the

  16. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  17. Multiscale thermal transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  18. Thermal Transport in Nanoporous Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Conductivity Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal ConductivityThermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal

  19. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  20. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D.; Nagaraj, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  1. A Thermal-Photovoltaic Device Based on Thermally Enhanced Photoluminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manor, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Single-junction photovoltaic cells are considered to be efficient solar energy converters, but even ideal cells cannot exceed the their fundamental thermodynamic efficiency limit, first analysed by Shockley and Queisser (SQ). For moderated irradiation levels, the efficiency limit ranges between 30%-40%. The efficiency loss is, to a great extent, due to the inherent heat-dissipation accompanying the process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics (STPV) and thermo-photonics4 aim to harness this dissipated heat, yet exceeding the SQ limit has not been achieved, mainly due to the very high operating temperatures needed. Recently, we demonstrated that in high-temperature endothermic-photoluminescence (PL), the photon rate is conserved with temperature increase, while each photon is blue shifted. We also demonstrated how endothermic-PL generates orders of magnitude more energetic-photons than thermal emission at similar temperatures. These new findings show that endoth...

  2. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  3. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with â??Kalwallâ?? building panels. An added feature of the â??Kalwallâ? system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  4. Energy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: Results from human subject tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasut, Wilmer; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed; Zhai, Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    Technology Roadmap. Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating andH, Zhai Y. Enabling energy-efficient approaches to thermalEnergy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: results

  5. The Application and Verification of ASHRAE 152-2004 (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) to DOE-2-1e Simulation Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    A&M University System 6 The heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system consists of a 10.5 SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) air-conditioning unit (2.5 tons), a furnace with 80% AFUE (Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency), and a 0.... This caused the CV(RMSE) and MBE for the attic temperature to be reduced from 14.5 % to 8.0 % and 6.9 % to 2.0 %. These results showed that using layered materials with DOE-2?s custom weighting factors predicted more accurately than using overall U...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institutional Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable...

  7. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  8. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hiramatsu; Yuhei Miyamoto; Jun'ichi Yokoyama

    2014-12-25

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  9. Efficiency and Current in a correlated ratchet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-Quan Ai; Xian-Ju Wang; Guo-Tao Liu; De-Hua Wen; Wei Chen; Liang-Gang Liu

    2007-09-15

    We present a detailed study of the transport and the efficiency of a ratchet system in a periodic potential in the presence of correlated noises. The current and the efficiency of the system are investigated. It is found that, when the potential is spatially symmetric, the correlation between the two noises can induce a net transport. The efficiency shows many interesting features as a function of the applied force, the noise intensity, the external load, etc. The efficiency can be maximized as a function of noise intensity (or temperature), which shows that the thermal fluctuation can facilitate the efficiency of energy transformation.

  10. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    storage in solar thermal applications," Applied Energy, pp.of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology," 2011. [26] R.C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energy

  11. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  12. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  13. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  14. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  15. DNA Engine Thermal Cycler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raizada, Manish N.

    ® Peltier Thermal Cycler PTC-0200 DNA Engine Cycler Operations Manual Version 4.0 #12;ii Tech Support: 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi The DNA Engine® Peltier Thermal Cycler Introduction

  16. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  17. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    thermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solarsolar energy systems, aquifer energy storage provides a buffer between time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal

  18. Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Acciona Solar, under the Thermal Storage FOA, plans to develop a prototype thermal energy storage (TES) module with high efficiency. This project is looking at a packed or structured bed TES tank with molten salt flowing through it.

  19. Optimization of multi-pressure himidification-dehumidification desalination using thermal vapor compression and hybridization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Karan Hemant

    Humidification-dehumidification (HD or HDH) desalination, and specifically HD driven by a thermal vapor compressor (TVC), is a thermal desalination method that has the potential to produce potable water efficiently in order ...

  20. Quantum thermal machines with single nonequilibrium environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno Leggio; Bruno Bellomo; Mauro Antezza

    2015-01-08

    We propose a scheme for a quantum thermal machine made by atoms interacting with a single non-equilibrium electromagnetic field. The field is produced by a simple configuration of macroscopic objects held at thermal equilibrium at different temperatures. We show that these machines can deliver all thermodynamic tasks (cooling, heating and population inversion), and this by establishing quantum coherence with the body on which they act. Remarkably, this system allows to reach efficiencies at maximum power very close to the Carnot limit, much more than in existing models. Our findings offer a new paradigm for efficient quantum energy flux management, and can be relevant for both experimental and technological purposes.

  1. Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovations and Trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and...

  2. Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations and trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and strategies Portland,...

  3. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

  4. Optical Refrigeration for Ultra-Efficient Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Improving the conversion efficiency of solar energy to electricity is most important to mankind. For single-junction photovoltaic solar-cells, the Shockley-Queisser thermodynamic efficiency limit is extensively due to the heat dissipation, inherently accompanying the quantum process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics and thermo-photonics, have been suggested to harness this wasted heat, yet efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit have not been demonstrated due to the challenge of operating at high temperatures. Here, we present a highly efficient converter based on endothermic photoluminescence, which operates at relative low temperatures. The thermally induced blue-shifted photoluminescence of a low-bandgap absorber is coupled to a high-bandgap photovoltaic cell. The high absorber's photo-current and the high cell's voltage results in 69% maximal theoretical conversion efficiencies. We experimentally demonstrate tenfold thermal-enhancement of usef...

  5. Definition of Energy Efficiency

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Users Energy Efficiency Page Energy Efficiency Definition Energy Efficiency: Definition Stairs) "Take the Stairs--Be More Energy Efficient" Person A interprets the sign as...

  6. Thermal Regimes of Northeast Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Loading (USGS) Stormwater and Streams ­ Optimizing Stormwater Management to Protect the Thermal

  7. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thermal storage for Dish Stirling Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high...

  8. Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwak, Yunki

    2010-10-12

    Thermal properties of one dimensional nanostructures are of interest for thermoelectric energy conversion. Thermoelectric efficiency is related to non dimensional thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT=S^2 o T/k, where S ,o , k and T are Seebeck...

  9. New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashima, Takumi; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Doi, Takuya ); Kamoshida, Junji ); Tani, Tatsuo ); Horigome, Takashi )

    1994-03-01

    One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature of solar cell increases up to the prescribed temperature of thermal energy use, although it is lower than the cell temperature when using only solar cell panel. For maintaining cell conversion efficiency at the standard conditions, it is necessary to keep the cell at lower temperature. In this paper, electric and thermal energy obtained form a PV/T panel is evaluated in terms of energy. BAsed on this evaluation, the method of not to decrease cell conversion efficiency with collecting solar thermal energy was proposed.

  10. Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development (IISD) Sector Climate, Energy, Land, Water Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry,...

  11. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-10-25

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

  12. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES ScienceInformationInformationFor DefenseEnergy-Efficiency Sign

  13. Thermal Via Placement in 3D ICs Brent Goplen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    that as the size of thermal via islands increased, more heat removal was achieved but less space was available pronounced because of higher power densities and greater thermal resistance along heat dissipation paths cluster into parallel networks using the observation that heat transfer is much more efficient vertically

  14. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  15. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    recent advances in thermoelectric device fabrication and the design of novel coolingheating engines exploiting thermal storage for efficient air-conditioners in automobiles...

  16. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    2011-01-01

    of thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4 Thermal transport in2.3.2 Thermal transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  17. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  18. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    phonon transmission and interface thermal conductance acrossF. Miao, et al. , "Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Advanced Materials for Thermal Management of Electronic

  19. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal or powerthermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solar

  20. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  1. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  2. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  3. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  4. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  5. High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large increases in engine thermal efficiency result from a new method of large reductions in both heat energy normally lost to the cooling medium and in heat energy in the exhaust system.

  6. DOE Selects Project to Help Advance More Efficient Supercritical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    have the potential for higher thermal efficiencies when compared to state of the art steam-based power cycles. However, the cost and effectiveness D1 ARW2 of the cycle's...

  7. Experimental study of a high efficiency gyrotron oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Eunmi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    High power, high frequency gyrotrons used in plasma heating must achieve the highest possible efficiency in order to reduce system size and cost and to minimize thermal and mechanical problems. This thesis presents an ...

  8. Design and global optimization of high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter A.

    Despite their great promise, small experimental thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems at 1000 K generally exhibit extremely low power conversion efficiencies (approximately 1%), due to heat losses such as thermal emission of ...

  9. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seok Woo

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low ...

  10. Simulation of thermal-well sucker-rod pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, A. (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (CA)); Sudol, T.A. (Alberta Research Council (CA))

    1992-05-01

    A major problem experienced in pumping thermal wells is low volumetric efficiencies resulting from steam and noncondensable gas interference. This paper examines the results of physical simulations performed on a full-scale sucker-rod pump test facility and numerical simulations that used an equation of state (EOS) to predict theoretical volumetric pump efficiencies.

  11. Efficient Wavelength Tuning Techniques for Integrated Silicon Photonics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titriku, Alex K

    2014-12-04

    and the proposed tuning schemes using a statistical model to determine optimal power and speed efficiency. Modeling results of carrier injection ring resonator devices with common thermal tuning and the new dual-bias/thermal scheme reveals that the latter scheme...

  12. Software Optimization for Performance, Energy, and Thermal Distribution: Initial Case Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbordt, Martin

    Software Optimization for Performance, Energy, and Thermal Distribution: Initial Case Studies Md can help achieve higher energy efficiency and better thermal behavior. We use both direct measurements- sired level of performance while reducing energy consumption. A closely related issue is thermal

  13. Genetic algorithms used for the optimization of light-emitting diodes and solar thermal collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Alexandre

    Genetic algorithms used for the optimization of light-emitting diodes and solar thermal collectors developed for the optimization of light-emitting diodes (LED) and solar thermal collectors. The surface a light-extraction efficiency of only 3.7%). The solar thermal collector we considered consists

  14. 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1/124 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium (Introduction to Thermodynamics) Ron and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland 2/124 3.1: Energy Åbo Akademi University | Thermal and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland #12;3/124 What is energy? /1 "Energy is any quantity that changes

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas,...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Municipal Solid Waste, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal,...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Wind...

  20. PDSF Job Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Running Jobs Efficiently Running Jobs Efficiently Job Efficiency A job's efficiency is the ratio of its CPU time to the actual time it took to run, i.e., cputime ...

  1. SEPTEMBER 2009 ENERGY EFFICIENCY &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    SEPTEMBER 2009 GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICTS FOR LOCAL Assessment Districts) DEER Database for Energy Efficient Resources DSIRE Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency EECBG Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants EIM Energy Improvement Mortgage

  2. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered periodic microstructures in the coating, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of particle transport in the PVD plume, functional graded layer development, the deposition of all layers to form a complete coating, and materials characterization including thermal testing. Ion beam-assisted deposition, beam sharing through advanced digital rastering, substrate pivoting, hearth calorimetry, infrared imaging, fiber optic-enabled optical emission spectroscopy and careful thermal management were used to achieve all the milestones outlined in the FY02 LDRD proposal.

  3. HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Copeland; Yevgenia Gershanovich; Brian Windecker

    2005-02-01

    This project investigated an efficient and low cost method of auto-thermally reforming natural gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reforming is the highest cost step in producing products such as methanol and Fisher Tropsch liquids (i.e., gas to liquids); and reducing the cost of reforming is the key to reducing the cost of these products. Steam reforming is expensive because of the high cost of the high nickel alloy reforming tubes (i.e., indirectly fired reforming tubes). Conventional auto-thermal or Partial Oxidation (POX) reforming minimizes the size and cost of the reformers and provides a near optimum mixture of CO and hydrogen. However POX requires pure oxygen, which consumes power and significantly increases the cost to reforming. Our high efficiency process extracts oxygen from low-pressure air with novel oxygen sorbent and transfers the oxygen to a nickel-catalyzed reformer. The syngas is generated at process pressure (typically 20 to 40 bar) without nitrogen dilution and has a 1CO to 2H{sub 2} ratio that is near optimum for the subsequent production of Fisher-Tropsch liquid to liquids and other chemicals (i.e., Gas to Liquids, GTL). Our high process efficiency comes from the way we transfer the oxygen into the reformer. All of the components of the process, except for the oxygen sorbent, are commonly used in commercial practice. A process based on a longlived, regenerable, oxygen transfer sorbent could substantially reduce the cost of natural gas reforming to syngas. Lower cost syngas (CO + 2H{sub 2}) that is the feedstock for GTL would reduce the cost of GTL and for other commercial applications (e.g., methanol, other organic chemicals). The vast gas resources of Alaska's North Slope (ANS) offer more than 22 Tcf of gas and GTL production in this application alone, and could account for as much as 300,000 to 700,000 bpd for 20 to 30+ years. We developed a new sorbent, which is an essential part of the High Efficiency Oxygen Process (HOP). We tested the sorbent and observed that it has both a good oxygen capacity and operates as a highly effective reforming catalyst. We conducted a long duration tests of the sorbent (1,500 hours of continuous operation in the HOP cycle). Although the sorbent lost some oxygen capacity with cycling, the sorbent oxygen capacity stabilized after 1,000 hours and remained constant to the end of the test, 1,500 hour. The activity of the catalyst to reform methane to a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture was unchanged through the oxidation/reduction cycling. Our cost and performance analyses indicated a significant reduction in the cost of GTL production when using the HOP process integrated into a GTL plant.

  4. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  5. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  6. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  7. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    pp. 67-73, 2003. [17] "Energy Requirements of Desalinationof solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solarapplications," Applied Energy, pp. 538-553, 2013. [20] P. G.

  8. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  9. Energy-Efficient Variable-Flow Liquid Cooling in 3D Stacked Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    in comparison to air. Our focus in this work is developing energy- and performance-efficient thermal management1 Energy-Efficient Variable-Flow Liquid Cooling in 3D Stacked Architectures Ayse K. Coskun , David. In this work, we first propose a framework for detailed thermal modeling of the microchannels embedded between

  10. Power efficiency for very high temperature solar thermal cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, Allan R. (LaCanada-Flintridge, CA); Hale, Robert R. (Upland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positioned in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts infrared radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatures are attained.

  11. A thermally efficient micro-reactor for thermophotovoltaic power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Ole Mattis, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fuels exhibit very high energy densities, and micro-generators converting the stored chemical energy into electrical power are interesting alternatives to batteries in certain applications. The increasing demands ...

  12. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  13. Efficient Thermal Energy Distribution in Commercial Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % of statewide electricity consumption, and about 1,945 million therms or 15% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning in commercial buildings accounts for approximately 18% of their electricity consumption, and 42% of their natural gas consumption. An additional 10% of commercial-building electricity consumption is used

  14. High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  15. Daimler's SuperTruck Program; 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents highlights of engine and vehicle advances made, and progress towards achieving aggressive goals

  16. NOTES AND DISCUSSIONS Note on thermal heating efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    DERIVATION We have a source of heat Q2 which is available at Kelvin temperature T2 . By this we mean, as was stressed long ago by Gibbs,4 that the source is capable of delivering that heat to a heat reservoir which. This is the conversion problem faced in every home, where one has heat from a gas, oil, wood, or coal flame but wants

  17. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  18. Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

    2002-01-01

    In many world regions like North America and Scandinavia wood framing is dominant technology for residential buildings. During last two decades several companies around the world started to promote a low-gage steel framing for residential...

  19. Demonstration of a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006deermilam.pdf More Documents & Publications The Path to...

  20. Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographic courtesy of the White House. PushingLoanRulemakingof

  1. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive CompensationEnergyGet Current: Switch onDepartment2GlassGlass|

  2. The Role of Advanced Combustion in Improving Thermal Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState of Pennsylvania U.S.The6,Category 2The

  3. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings for Specific Measures 5 U.S.

  4. Linearly Polarized Thermal Emitter for More Efficient Thermophotovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H2015TrayDevices - Energy Innovation

  5. Linearly Polarized Thermal Emitter for More Efficient Thermophotovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H2015TrayDevices - Energy

  6. Linearly Polarized Thermal Emitter for More Efficient Thermophotovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H2015TrayDevices - EnergyDevices -

  7. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Intensity versus Efficiency Energy efficiency indicators areOffice for Energy Efficiency) energy efficiency index whichof Energy Use and Energy Efficiency. Understanding the Link

  8. On the practical efficiency of shape memory engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mc Comick, P.G.

    1987-02-01

    An important potential application of the shape memory effect is for the conversion of low grade thermal energy into mechanical power. In view of the relatively low temperature differences involved, the conversion efficiency is of considerable practical as well as theoretical importance. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of non-ideal behaviour on the efficiency of shape memory engines.

  9. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael Ray (Knoxville, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  10. Thermal properties of microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes in a pulsed Yuhang Li, Yan Shi, Jizhou Song, Chaofeng Lu, Tae-il Kim et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    LEDs to be operated by pulsed current (or power) to take advantage of their high efficiency, thermal (LEDs) in a pulsed operation offer combined characteristics in efficiency, thermal management and experiments, is developed to study the thermal properties of micro-scale inorganic LEDs (l-ILED) in a pulsed

  11. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ? 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873K and 83 CRI. As such, the package’s performance exceeds DOE’s warm-white phosphor LED efficacy target for 2013. At the end of the program, we assembled an A19 sized demonstration bulb housing the integrated package which met Energy Star intensity variation requirements. With further development to reduce overall component cost, we anticipate that an integrated remote converter package such as developed during this program will find application in compact, high-efficacy LED-based lamps, particularly those requiring omnidirectional emission.

  12. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  13. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  14. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  15. Thermal radiation Ron Zevenhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .00032, similarly for 2·T = 0.7·2500 = 1750 µmK4 this gives f0-2 = 0.03392. Thus for 0.4 - 0.7 µm, f1-2 = 0Thermal radiation revisited Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Process Engineering

  16. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    LASP's mechanical analysts also lead mechanical verification testing including: random vibration, forceMechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has

  17. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  18. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  19. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  20. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  1. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  2. Energy Efficient Motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmeyer, W.

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency is only one aspect of motor performance. This paper discusses how efficiency is influenced by such factors as horsepower rating, poles, actual load, and starting requirements. It discusses some of the variables affecting efficiency...

  3. SM Energy-Efficient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SM 111 Energy-Efficient Energy-Efficient Ventilation for Apartment Buildings #12. These Guides provide clear and practical information on issues related to energy-efficient building retrofits

  4. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanzisera, Steven

    2014-01-01

    2007. Enabling an Energy-Efficient Future Internet ThroughIEEE 802.3az: The Road to Energy Efficient Ethernet. IEEEPHY Compliant With New Energy Efficient Ethernet Guidelines;

  5. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy An Introduction to the 2010 Fuel Cell Pre a d t ade o a to educe Advancing Presidential Priorities Energy efficiency and renewable energy, cleanest, Recovery Act energy projectsfastest energy source ­ energy efficiency · Double renewable energy

  6. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Fesmire, J. E. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida; Augustynowicz, S. D. [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    2008-01-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  7. Thermal Giant Gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A; Orselli, Marta; Pedersen, Andreas Vigand

    2012-01-01

    We study the giant graviton solution as the AdS_5 X S^5 background is heated up to finite temperature. The analysis employs the thermal brane probe technique based on the blackfold approach. We focus mainly on the thermal giant graviton corresponding to a thermal D3-brane probe wrapped on an S^3 moving on the S^5 of the background at finite temperature. We find several interesting new effects, including that the thermal giant graviton has a minimal possible value for the angular momentum and correspondingly also a minimal possible radius of the S^3. We compute the free energy of the thermal giant graviton in the low temperature regime, which potentially could be compared to that of a thermal state on the gauge theory side. Moreover, we analyze the space of solutions and stability of the thermal giant graviton and find that, in parallel with the extremal case, there are two available solutions for a given temperature and angular momentum, one stable and one unstable. In order to write down the equations of mot...

  8. Water Efficiency Goal Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued water efficiency goal guidance in Federal Agency Implementation of Water Efficiency and Management Provisions of Executive Order 13514. This...

  9. Energy Efficiency Links

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Organizations Energy Efficiency Organizations Release Date: October 1999 Last Updated: Septembert 2009 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages contain hypertext links...

  10. Energy Efficiency -- Home Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home >Energy Users EEnergy Efficiency Page Energy-Efficiency Measurement MEASUREMENT DISCUSSION: Measures and Policy Issues...

  11. FORMATION OF DEPTH HOAR RESULTING FROM THERMAL OPTIMIZATION OF SNOW MICROSTRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    necessary to induce the corresponding flow is a measure of the system efficiency. Kinetic metamorphism to increase the heat transport efficiency. The optimal geometric configuration is a system of well thermal energy through the ice, the system became more efficient. This progression resulted from

  12. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  13. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  14. Thermally Polymerized Rylene Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    Rylene dyes functionalized with varying numbers of phenyl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) moieties were subjected to a thermal emulsion polymerization to yield shape-persistent, water-soluble chromophore nanoparticles. Perylene ...

  15. Thermal Insulation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  16. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  17. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  18. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  19. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-Guo Dong

    2015-07-07

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at different resonance energy given by the WKB method is shown that indicates the thermal resonance fusion mode, especially combined with the tunnel effect, is possible and feasible. But the penetrating probability decreases very sharply when the input resonance energy decreases less than 3 keV, so for thermal resonance fusion, the key point is to increase the resonance peak or make the resonance sharp enough to the acceptable energy level by the suitable compound catalysts, and it is better to reach up more than 3 keV to make the penetrating probability larger than 10^{-10}.

  20. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    density was substantially higher than those produced using salinity gradient energy technologies based sites, but this energy can also be produced from geothermal and solar-based processes.1 Solid- state-based thermoelectrochemical systems (TESs),3 and systems based on salinity gradient energy (SGE),4 offer potentially less

  1. Maryland Efficiency Program Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maryland Efficiency Program Options, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  2. Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Energy Efficient Buildings HUB Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  3. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    o nergy Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Efficiency and Renewable Energy United States Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 18th W rld Hydrogen E Presidential Priorities Energy efficiency and renewable energy research development andEnergy efficiency

  4. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Sunita SatyapalSunita SatyapalSeptember 24, 2009 *On detail #12;2 Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges Energy Efficiency and Resource DiversityEnergy Efficiency and Resource Diversity Fuel cells offer a highly efficient way to use diverse

  5. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at dif...

  6. Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress Anthony J. Bellantuono1 thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant) maintained

  7. Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko Laboratory of Environmental Research, University of Nova-beam Instruments 5 3.3 Differential Thermal Lens Instruments 7 3.4 Multiwavelength and Tunable Thermal Lens Spectrometers 8 3.5 Circular Dichroism TLS Instruments 9 3.6 Miniaturization of Thermal Lens Instruments 9 4

  8. Integrated Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for Fuel Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meeting the most stringent emission standards in the world (EPA2002, EPA2007, EPA2010) required the strength of global organizations EPA2002 emission regulation was associated with a significant drop in engine thermal efficiency; DOE support of R&D program helped avoid further efficiency drop in 2007; EPA2010 will lead to simultaneous improvements in emissions and fuel efficiency for most manufacturers

  9. Universality of Efficiency at Maximum Power Massimiliano Esposito* and Katja Lindenberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindenberg, Katja

    the Carnot cycle with respect to power rather than efficiency, Curzon and Ahlborn found: 05.70.Ln, 05.40.Àa The concept of Carnot efficiency is a cornerstone of thermodynamics. It states that the efficiency of a cyclic (``Carnot'') thermal engine that transforms an amount QðrÞ of energy extracted from

  10. Efficiency of Brownian heat engines Imre Derenyi and R. Dean Astumian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derényi, Imre

    Efficiency of Brownian heat engines Imre Dere´nyi and R. Dean Astumian Department of Surgery, MC 1999 We study the efficiency of one-dimensional thermally driven Brownian ratchets or heat engines. We there is no fundamental limit of the efficiency lower than that of a Carnot cycle. S1063-651X 99 50106-2 PACS number

  11. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

  12. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  13. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  14. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, Donald W

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today’s state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: ? A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target ? An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle – Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine ? Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated. ? The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing. ? The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment. ? The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment ? Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines) ? Key subsystems developed include – sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light- Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  15. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  16. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  17. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  18. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  19. Aquifer thermal energy storage : A well doublet experiment at increased temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molz, F. J.; Melville, J. G.; Parr, Alfred D.; King, D. A.; Hopf, M. T.

    1983-02-01

    improved recovery efficiency but is not thought to be an adequate solution to thermal stratification. A maximum increase of 1.24 cm in relative land surface elevation was recorded near the end of second cycle injection. The engineering implications...

  20. Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast (LAEC), Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey charging of batteries Charging efficiency Integral-transformation technique Nickelemetal hydride battery

  1. Thermal mass performance in residential construction : an energy analysis using a cube model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledwith, Alison C. (Alison Catherine)

    2012-01-01

    Given the pervasiveness of energy efficiency concerns in the built environment, this research aims to answer key questions regarding the performance of thermal mass construction. The work presents the Cube Model, a simplified ...

  2. Molten Salt Nanomaterials for Thermal Energy Storage and Concentrated Solar Power Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Donghyun

    2012-10-19

    The thermal efficiency of concentrated solar power (CSP) system depends on the maximum operating temperature of the system which is determined by the operating temperature of the TES device. Organic materials (such as ...

  3. Experimental study of thermal conductivity reduction of silicon-germanium nanocomposite for thermoelastic application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hohyun, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    To improve the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency of silicon germanium (SiGe), two methods were used to decrease the thermal conductivity by increasing phonon boundary scattering at interfaces. In the first method, ...

  4. Chemical Analysis of Soot Using Thermal Desorption/Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new method of soot analysis using thermal/pyrolysis GS-MS has provided a faster, more efficient analytical method to understand the surface chemistry of the soot.

  5. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yuan

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the ...

  6. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  8. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01

    VITA 36 37 40 40 40 40 44 45 47 48 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Unit cell for derivation of model Page Heat Conduction Solution 22 3 Fission Gas Release Model 26 4A Metal Matrix Thermal Conductivity 4B Ceramic Fuel Thermal Conductivity 5... is based on the simple heat conduction equation. It is assumed that there is a uniform distribution of fuel particles in a regular array. A unit cell consists of a cube of matrix material of side length L, containing a spherical fuel particle of radius, r...

  9. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  10. Low thermal expansion seal ring support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewis, David W. (San Diego, CA); Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Today, the trend is to increase the temperature of operation of gas turbine engines. To cool the components with compressor discharge air, robs air which could otherwise be used for combustion and creates a less efficient gas turbine engine. The present low thermal expansion sealing ring support system reduces the quantity of cooling air required while maintaining life and longevity of the components. Additionally, the low thermal expansion sealing ring reduces the clearance "C","C'" demanded between the interface between the sealing surface and the tip of the plurality of turbine blades. The sealing ring is supported by a plurality of support members in a manner in which the sealing ring and the plurality of support members independently expand and contract relative to each other and to other gas turbine engine components.

  11. Building Energy Efficient Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Many new school buildings consume only half the energy required by similar efficient structures designed without energy performance as a design criterion. These are comfortable and efficient while construction costs remain about the same as those...

  12. Managing Energy Efficiency Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaguer, J.

    2006-01-01

    , CETAC-WEST (Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Corporation - West), in mid-2000, introduced a practical approach to eco-efficiency to Western Canada's upstream oil and gas sector. The CETAC-WEST Eco-Efficiency Program, focused primarily...

  13. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Dr. Sunita Energy efficiency and renewable energy research, development, and deployment activities help the Nation Presidential Priorities Economic · Create green jobs through Recovery Act energy projects · Double renewable

  14. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  15. Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Assessments Lynn Price Staff Scientist China Energy Group Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National...

  16. Energy Efficiency Financing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information and examples of state financing for energy efficiency programs, with descriptions on implementation methods and concerns.

  17. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

  18. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,”Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  19. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  20. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach, assess the impacts of duct system improvements in California large commercial buildings, over a range of building vintages and climates. This assessment will provide a solid foundation for future efforts that address the energy efficiency of large commercial duct systems in Title 24. This report describes our work to address Objective 1, which includes a review of past modeling efforts related to duct thermal performance, and recommends near- and long-term modeling approaches for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings.

  1. Energy Efficient Radio Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Energy Efficient Radio Resource Management in a Coordinated Multi-Cell Distributed Antenna System Hacettepe University 5 September 2014 Omer HALILOGLU (Hacettepe University) Energy Efficient Radio Resource mobility , 1 Gb/s at high mobility). Omer HALILOGLU (Hacettepe University) Energy Efficient Radio Resource

  2. ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY Clerestory windows provide natural day-lighting.· Exterior roof SUSTAINABILITY FEATURES #12;ADMINISTRATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY High performance window glazing· minimizes heat gain. Skylights provide natural day-lighting.· High-efficiency lighting reduces energy· costs and heat gain

  3. EFFECT OF PTFE ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS OF PEM FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    The efficiency and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) depends heavily on the heat, the added PTFE can change the thermal resistance of GDLs and, hence, affects the fuel cell heat managementEFFECT OF PTFE ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS OF PEM FUEL CELLS Hamidreza

  4. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  5. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, John (Stanford, CA); Escher, Claus (Nieder-Ronstadt, DE)

    1988-01-01

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction.

  6. High-speed quantum memory with thermal motion of atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Tikhonov; T. Golubeva; Yu. Golubev

    2015-02-26

    We discuss the influence of atomic thermal motion on the efficiency of multimode quantum memory in two configurations: over the free expand of atoms cooled beforehand in a magneto-optical trap, and over complete mixing of atoms in a closed cell at room temperature. We consider the high-speed quantum memory, and assume that writing and retrieval are short enough, and the displacements of atoms during these stages are negligibly small. At the same time we take in account thermal motion during the storage time, which, as well known, must be much longer than durations of all the other memory processes for successful application of memory cell in communication and computation. We will analyze this influence in terms of eigenmodes of the full memory cycle and show that distortion of the eigenmodes, caused by thermal motion, leads to the efficiency reduction. We will demonstrate, that in the multimode memory this interconnection has complicated character.

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

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    Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Municipal Solid Waste, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

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  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

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  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydrogen, Combined Heat & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Fuel Cells using...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Government, Institutional Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Hydroelectric...

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  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

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    Supplier Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels,...

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    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Institutional Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Municipal Solid Waste, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels,...

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  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

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  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

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  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Combined Heat & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Heat recovery, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric...

  12. Ocean Power (4 Activities) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    our existing non-renewable resources. Ocean power is divided into three categories: wave energy, tidal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) Systems. It is...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydrogen, Combined Heat & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Tidal, Wave, Ocean Thermal, Fuel Cells using...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small),...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Hydroelectric, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion,...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    I renewable energy resources include solar, wind, new sustainable biomass, landfill gas, fuel cells (using renewable or non-renewable fuels), ocean thermal power, wave or tidal...

  17. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  18. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  19. Giant Thermal Rectification from Polyethylene Nanofiber Thermal Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teng

    2015-01-01

    The realization of phononic computing is held hostage by the lack of high performance thermal devices. Here we show through theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations that unprecedented thermal rectification factors (as large as 1.20) can be achieved utilizing the phase dependent thermal conductivity of polyethylene nanofibers. More importantly, such high thermal rectifications only need very small temperature differences (< 20 oC) across the device, which is a significant advantage over other thermal diodes which need temperature biases on the order of the operating temperature. Taking this into consideration, we show that the dimensionless temperature-scaled rectification factors of the polymer nanofiber diodes range from 12 to 25 - much larger than other thermal diodes (< 8). The polymer nanofiber thermal diode consists of a crystalline portion whose thermal conductivity is highly phase-sensitive and a cross-linked portion which has a stable phase. Nanoscale size effect can be utilized t...

  20. Thermal convection in a liquid metal battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Generation of thermal convection flow in the liquid metal battery, a device recently proposed as a promising solution for the problem of the short-term energy storage, is analyzed using a numerical model. It is found that convection caused by Joule heating of electrolyte during charging or discharging is virtually unavoidable. It exists in laboratory prototypes larger than a few cm in size and should become much stronger in larger-scale batteries. The phenomenon needs further investigation in view of its positive (enhanced mixing of reactants) and negative (loss of efficiency and possible disruption of operation due to the flow-induced deformation of the electrolyte layer) effects.

  1. Energy Efficiency Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillingham, G.

    2012-01-01

    IN THE ROOM • A BROAD-BASED CAMPAIGN FOR 30% • 2012 RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL IECC • THE MYRIAD BENEFITS • THE CHALLENGE: ADOPT, TRAIN, ENFORCE ESL-KT-13-12-30 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16...-18 COMMERCIAL BUILDING EFFICIENCY IS STAGNANT Commercial Building Energy Efficiency ESL-KT-13-12-30 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 AND, AFTER WORSENING LAST DECADE, HOME EFFICIENCY IS NOW SAME AS 1990s...

  2. Dynamics of oscillating scalar field in thermal environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyohei Mukaida; Kazunori Nakayama

    2013-04-24

    There often appear coherently oscillating scalar fields in particle physics motivated cosmological scenarios, which may have rich phenomenological consequences. Scalar fields should somehow interact with background thermal bath in order to decay into radiation at an appropriate epoch, but introducing some couplings to the scalar field makes the dynamics complicated. We investigate in detail the dynamics of a coherently oscillating scalar field, which has renormalizable couplings to another field interacting with thermal background. The scalar field dynamics and its resultant abundance are significantly modified by taking account of following effects : (1) thermal correction to the effective potential, (2) dissipation effect on the scalar field in thermal bath, (3) non-perturbative particle production events and (4) formation of non-topological solitons. There appear many time scales depending on the scalar mass, amplitude, couplings and the background temperature, which make the efficiencies of these effects non-trivial.

  3. Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Sai Chun

    Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

  4. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

  5. Harvesting nanoscale thermal radiation using pyroelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin; Frederich, Hugo; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    the other hand, energy transfer by thermal radiation betweenit was shown that energy transfer by thermal radi- ationpyroelectric energy conversion and nanoscale thermal

  6. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    1978, High temperature underground thermal energy storage,in Proceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:High temperature underground thermal energy storage, in ATES

  7. Modeling thermal comfort in stratified environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, H.; Huizenga, C.; Arens, Edward A; Yu, T.

    2005-01-01

    non-uniform thermal environments", European Journal of7730, 1994, Moderate Thermal Environments – Determination offor assessing complex thermal environments,” Building and

  8. Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    field measurement of thermal environment and questionnaireand non-uniform thermal environments, PhD Thesis, Center forPerception of transient thermal environments: Pleasure and

  9. Thermal Transport in Graphene Multilayers and Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subrina, Samia

    2011-01-01

    1 CHAPTER 2 Thermal transport atvalues of graphene’s thermal conductivity and different1 Thermal conductivity : metals and non - metallic

  10. Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    control in offices for thermal comfort and energy savings.ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2013: Thermal environmental conditions forA global database of thermal comfort field experiments.

  11. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01

    35, (3-6), Dames, C. ; Chen, G. , Thermal Conductivity ofProperties of Matter: Thermal conductivity: nonmetallicSociety), Dames, C. ; Chen, G. , Thermal Conductivity of

  12. Thermal Conduction in Graphene and Graphene Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Suchismita

    2009-01-01

    1 1.2 Thermal transport atxv Introduction xii 1.1 Thermal conductivity and65 4.13 Thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of

  13. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Energy can be saved and thermal pollution reduced if a totalnatural flow, and thermal pollution caused by simultaneousStored Heat Energy and Thermal Pollution Daily stored heat

  14. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of air and thermal pollution are additionalsubsidence or upliftu thermal pollution, water chemistry,or ponds to avoid thermal pollution. Because periods of heat

  15. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    the possibility of thermal stratification, i.e. the tendencyratio is very large. Thermal stratification A simple model (ef- fects of thermal stratification. This ideal- ized model

  16. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management...

  17. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    the prob- lem of seasonal storage of thermal energy (Matheyto study seasonal storage of thermal energy: winter storagewithin the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program managed

  18. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    High temperature underground thermal energy storage, inProceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:underground thermal energy storage, in ATES newsletter:

  19. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridgefor Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of the DOE-

  20. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Scale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solarsolar captors, thermal effluents, low cost energy duringSeale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solar

  1. Energy-efficient comfort with a heated/cooled chair: Results from human subject tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasut, Wilmer; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed; Zhai, Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    for thermal comfort. Energy and Buildings 2002;34:593-9.IEA. Technology Roadmap. Energy-efficient Buildings: HeatingH, Arens E, Webster T. Energy Savings from Extended Air

  2. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

  3. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  4. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  5. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

  6. High-Temperature High-Efficiency Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranowski, LL; Warren, EL; Toberer, ES

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by recent high-efficiency thermoelectric modules, we consider thermoelectrics for terrestrial applications in concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). The STEG is modeled as two subsystems: a TEG, and a solar absorber that efficiently captures the concentrated sunlight and limits radiative losses from the system. The TEG subsystem is modeled using thermoelectric compatibility theory; this model does not constrain the material properties to be constant with temperature. Considering a three-stage TEG based on current record modules, this model suggests that 18% efficiency could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000A degrees C to 100A degrees C. Achieving 15% overall STEG efficiency thus requires an absorber efficiency above 85%, and we consider two methods to achieve this: solar-selective absorbers and thermally insulating cavities. When the TEG and absorber subsystem models are combined, we expect that the STEG modeled here could achieve 15% efficiency with optical concentration between 250 and 300 suns.

  7. Investigation of Thermal Interface Materials Using Phase-Sensitive Transient Thermoreflectance Technique: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; King, C.; DeVoto, D.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.

    2014-08-01

    With increasing power density in electronics packages/modules, thermal resistances at multiple interfaces are a bottleneck to efficient heat removal from the package. In this work, the performance of thermal interface materials such as grease, thermoplastic adhesives and diffusion-bonded interfaces are characterized using the phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectance technique. A multi-layer heat conduction model was constructed and theoretical solutions were derived to obtain the relation between phase lag and the thermal/physical properties. This technique enables simultaneous extraction of the contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity of the TIMs. With the measurements, the bulk thermal conductivity of Dow TC-5022 thermal grease (70 to 75 um bondline thickness) was 3 to 5 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 5 to 10 mm2-K/W. For the Btech thermoplastic material (45 to 80 ?m bondline thickness), the bulk thermal conductivity was 20 to 50 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 2 to 5 mm2-K/W. Measurements were also conducted to quantify the thermal performance of diffusion-bonded interface for power electronics applications. Results with the diffusion-bonded sample showed that the interfacial thermal resistance is more than one order of magnitude lower than those of traditional TIMs, suggesting potential pathways to efficient thermal management.

  8. ,{ MO. REV. NO. THERMAL DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ,{ MO. REV. NO. LRRR 300 THERMAL DESIGN FINAL REPORT ATM-931 PAGE i OF iv DATE 1 S Dec 1970 The results of thermal design/analyses performed on the 300 corner Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LRRR 300 performance profiles are contained herein, The entire LRRR thermal design effort is des- cribed commendng

  9. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressedimprovement of energy efficiency in buildings are brieflyimproving the energy efficiency of buildings in the U.S. New

  10. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Tracking Industrial Eneergy Efficiency and Co2 Emissions”.2000 NRCAN, 2006. Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 toCanada’s Office of Energy Efficiency, Ottawa. NRCAN, 2009.

  11. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  12. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  13. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  14. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  15. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  16. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, J. K.

    2012-02-01

    The thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The thermal efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain the thermal efficiency curve. This paper describes this approach and also makes the case that there are advantages to plotting collector efficiency versus the difference between the operating temperature and the ambient temperature at which the receiver heat loss was measured divided by radiation to a fractional power (on the order of 1/3 but obtained via data regression) - as opposed to the difference between operating and ambient temperatures divided by the radiation. The results are shown to be robust over wide ranges of ambient temperature, sky temperature, and wind speed.

  17. Efficiency of Fish Propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maertens, A P; Yue, D K P

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the system efficiency of a self-propelled flexible body is ill-defined unless one considers the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the power needed to tow a body in rigid-straight condition over the power it needs for self-propulsion, both measured for the same speed. Through examples we show that the quasi-propulsive efficiency is the only rational non-dimensional metric of the propulsive fitness of fish and fish-like mechanisms. Using two-dimensional viscous simulations and the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency, we discuss the efficiency two-dimensional undulating foils. We show that low efficiencies, due to adverse body-propulsor hydrodynamic interactions, cannot be accounted for by the increase in friction drag.

  18. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  19. Insight From Efficiency Maine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an in-depth look at Efficiency Maine's transition to weatherization financing, its PowerSaver program, and much more.

  20. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  1. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanzisera, Steven

    2014-01-01

    equipment, market transformation for digital networks iimarket transformation of energy efficient digital networks.transformation activities. Table 7: Transforming the Network for Digital

  2. Appliance Efficiency Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  3. Bearwall Energy Efficient Solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sovero,M.

    2014-01-01

    , 2014 ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Brief History of Bearwall… Who We Are: ? Manuel Sovero ? Luis Osorio Energy Conservation Experience: ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014...: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Energy Programs… ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Bearwall Methodology… Introduction of Bearwall to the Local Authorities ESL...

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    managed the overall development and maturation of this Energy Efficiency Technology Roadmap, the effort would not have been possible without the active engagement of a diverse...

  5. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Washington voters passed Initiative 937 in 2006, creating a renewable energy standard and an energy efficiency resource standard for the state's electric utilities. Initiative 937, enacted as th...

  6. Energy Efficiency Title

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (O&M) practices and capital measures. The program strategy differs from traditional energy-efficiency programs in that it focuses on implementing a holistic energy-management...

  7. CIBO Energy Efficiency Handbook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CIBO ENERGY EFFICIENCY HANDBOOK COUNCIL OF INDUSTRIAL BOILER OWNERS (CIBO) 6035 BURKE CENTRE PARKWAY, SUITE 360 BURKE, VA 22015 EDITED BY RONALD A. ZEITZ Notice of Disclaimer This...

  8. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2010 Fuel Cell Project Kick-off Dr. Dimitrios, 2010September 28, 2010 #12;Administration's Clean Energy Goals Double Renewable Energy Capacity by 2012

  9. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Richard Farmer Hydrogen Business Council September 14, 2010 #12; Double Renewable Energy Capacity by 2012 Invest $150

  10. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy AUGUST 2010 2009 WIND TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT EXECUTIVE (Berkeley Lab) Kevin Porter and Sari Fink (Exeter Associates) Suzanne Tegen (National Renewable Energy

  11. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Charger Efficiency Issues with Marine and Recreational Vehicle Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC...

  12. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  13. Using Back-Scattering to Enhance Efficiency in Neutron Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kittelmann, Thomas; Cai, Xiao Xiao; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P; Hall-Wilton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The principle of using strongly scattering materials to recover efficiency in neutron detectors, via back-scattering of unconverted thermal neutrons, is discussed in general. Feasibility of the method is illustrated through Geant4-based simulations of a specific setup involving a moderator-like material placed behind a single layered boron-10 thin film gaseous detector.

  14. Audit Procedures for Improving Residential Building Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audit Procedures for Improving Residential Building Energy Efficiency This report analyses in thermal envelopes. The report was submitted by HNEI to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability As part of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-EE0003507 Under Task 3.5: Energy

  15. Novel Boron Based Multilayer Thermal Neutron Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. SCHIEBER; O. KHAKHAN

    2010-06-09

    The detector contains four or more layers of natural Boron absorbing thermal neutrons. Thickness of a layer is 0.4 - 1.2 mg/cm2. The layers are deposited on one or on both sides of a metal surface used as contacts. Between the absorbing layers there are gas-filled gaps 3 - 6 mm thick. Electric field of 100 - 200 V/cm is applied to the gas-filled gaps. Natural Boron contains almost 20% of 10B isotope. When atoms of 10B capture a thermal neutron, nuclear reaction occurs, as a result of which two heavy particles - alpha particle and ion 7Li - from the thin absorber layer are emitted in opposing sides. One of the two particles penetrates into gas-filled gap between Boron layers and ionizes the gas. An impulse of electric current is created in the gas-filled gap actuated by the applied electric field. The impulse is registered by an electronic circuit. We have made and tested detectors containing from two to sixteen layers of natural Boron with an efficiency of thermal neutron registration from 2.9% to 12.5% accordingly.

  16. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  17. SEPTEMBER 2009 ENERGY EFFICIENCY &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Summary Improving energy efficiency in buildings is central to combating climate change, with more thanSEPTEMBER 2009 GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICTS FOR LOCAL for Renewable and Sustainable Technology BPI Building Performance Institute CEAD Clean Energy Assessment

  18. Essays on Efficiency Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asava-Vallobh, Norabajra

    2010-07-14

    in determining efficiency scores. This implies that one may not need access to panel data on individual scores to study school efficiency. My final essay applies a standard DEA model and the Malmquist productivity index to commercial banks in Thailand in order...

  19. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Energy Overview & A Perspective on Fuel Cell Technologies Dr; Double Renewable Energy Capacity by 2012 Invest $150 billion over ten years in energy R&D to transition$Thousands Budget History Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Budget History FY2004-FY2011 (requested) U

  20. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program DOE-DOD MOU Workshop September 30, 2010 #12;2 Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges Energy Efficiency and Resource Diversity

  1. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Dr. Sunita of Energy Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference March 17-18, 2010 San Diego, CA #12;2 1. Overview;3 Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges Energy Efficiency and Resource Diversity Fuel cells offer

  2. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Audience/Event Date EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Sunita Satyapal Acting Program Manager U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Fuel Cell Project Kickoff September 30, 2009 #12;2 Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges Energy Efficiency and Resource

  3. Qualifying Examination Thermal Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    of this molecule is fixed while a force, f, is applied to another end. Find the free energy of the molecule efficient way to heat the house to temperature T when the outside tem- perature is T0 given the source of electrical energy. Assume that electrical energy can be converted to mechanical energy without loss

  4. COMPARISON OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATING DEPOSITED ON IN738 USING STANDARD AIR PLASMA SPRAY WITH 100HE PLASMA SPRAY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uppu, N.; Mensah, P.F.; Ofori, D.

    2006-07-01

    A typical blade material is made of Nickel super alloy and can bear temperatures up to 950°C. But the operating temperature of a gas turbine is above the melting point of super alloy nearly at 1500°C. This could lead to hot corrosions, high temperature oxidation, creep, thermal fatigue may takes place on the blade material. Though the turbine has an internal cooling system, the cooling is not adequate to reduce the temperature of the blade substrate. Therefore to protect the blade material as well as increase the efficiency of the turbine, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be used. A TBC coating of 250 ?m thick can reduce the temperature by up to 200° C. Air Plasma Spray Process (APS) and High Enthalpy Plasma Spray Process (100HE) were the processes used for coating the blades with the TBCs. Because thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperature, it is desired that these processes yield very low thermal conductivities at high temperatures in order not to damage the blade. An experiment was carried out using Flash line 5000 apparatus to compare the thermal conductivity of both processes.The apparatus could also be used to determine the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of the TBCs. 75 to 2800 K was the temperature range used in the experimentation. It was found out that though 100HE has high deposition efficiency, the thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperatures whiles APS yielded low thermal conductivities.

  5. Method and apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Drost, Kevin; Vishwanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2004-06-08

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. In another aspect, the apparatus or methods utilize heat exchange channels of varying lengths that have volumes controlled to provide equal heat fluxes. Methods of fuel cell startup are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  6. Apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  7. Method for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  8. Thermal Insulation Performance in the Process Industries: Facts and Fallacies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tye, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-85-05-54.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 24703 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-85-05-54.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 THERMAL INSULATION... PERFORMANCE IN 'mE PROCESS INDUSTRIES: FACTS AND FALLACIES R.P. Tye Dynatech RID Company, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A. ABSTRACT The efficient use of thermal insulation materials and systems for design of cryogenic and elevated temperature process...

  9. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER - OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. WEBER

    2001-03-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite fills a new and important role in advancing the state of the art in remote sensing sciences. Initial results with the full calibration system operating indicate that the system was already close to achieving the very ambitious goals which we laid out in 1993, and we are confident of reaching all of these goals as we continue our research and improve our analyses. In addition to the DOE interests, the satellite is tasked about one-third of the time with requests from other users supporting research ranging from volcanology to atmospheric sciences.

  10. Response microcantilever thermal detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Joseph P.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Evans III, Boyd M.

    2004-10-19

    A "folded leg" thermal detector microcantilever constructed of a substrate with at least one leg interposed between a fixed end and a deflective end, each leg having at least three essentially parallel leg segments interconnected on alternate opposing ends and aligned in a serpentine pattern with only the first leg segment attached to the fixed end and only the last leg segment attached to the deflective end. Alternate leg segment are coated on the pentalever with coating applied to the top of the first, third, and fifth leg segments of each leg and to the bottom of the second and fourth leg segments of each leg.

  11. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  12. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  13. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  14. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  15. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  16. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  17. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  18. Thermally Oxidized Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermal Multi-layer4 Anneli Munkholm

  19. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  20. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  1. Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing chromium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frosch, Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (New Port Beach, CA); Salama, Amal M. (New Port Beach, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing about 10.sup.15 atoms/cm.sup.3 of chromium is improved about 26% by thermal annealing of the silicon wafer at a temperature of 200.degree. C. to form chromium precipitates having a diameter of less than 1 Angstrom. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by scribing laser lines onto the back surface of the wafer at a spacing of at least 0.5 mm and at a depth of less than 13 micrometers to preferentially precipitate chromium near the back surface and away from the junction region of the device. This provides an economical way to improve the deleterious effects of chromium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

  2. Energy Efficiency: A Priority 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patenaude, R.

    2013-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IC-13-10-49.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6770 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IC-13-10-49.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Energy Efficiency: A... Priority October 9th 2013 2 Energy efficiency: a priority NBC profile (April 30th, 2013) 1st financial institution in Quebec 19 920 employees 451 branches in Canada 2,4 million individual clients 3 Energy efficiency: a priority Energenia?s profile...

  3. Energy Efficiency Program Overview 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutiso,S.

    2014-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-KT-14-11-02.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9715 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-KT-14-11-02.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Energy Efficiency Program... Overview Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency CATEE Conference November 18-20, 2014 Dallas, TX ESL-KT-14-11-02 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 General Overview • State of Texas enacted legislation requiring...

  4. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  5. Energy Efficient Upgrades

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities Energy EfficiencyModularEfficiency:IndustrialEfficient

  6. Model Predictive Control for Energy Efficient Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    Model Predictive Control and Thermal Storage: a Simple 3.3of Building Thermal Storage”. In: ASHRAE Transactions 96.2 (and Passive Building Thermal Storage”. In: International

  7. Model Predictive Control for Energy Efficient Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    Control for Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage”.Control for Active and Passive Building Thermal StorageControl for Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage

  8. Thermal Flipping of Interstellar Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph C. Weingartner

    2008-08-27

    In interstellar dust grains, internal processes dissipate rotational kinetic energy. The dissipation is accompanied by thermal fluctuations, which transfer energy from the vibrational modes to rotation. Together, these processes are known as internal relaxation. For the past several years, internal relaxation has been thought to give rise to thermal flipping, with profound consequences for grain alignment theory. I show that thermal flipping is not possible in the limit that the inertia tensor does not vary with time.

  9. Thermal desorption for passive dosimeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen-Chen

    1981-01-01

    recovery of styrene and improved precision when compared with thermal desorption. In addition, thermal desorption tended to breakdown sty- rene, which is vulnerable to heat. The breakdown product may interfere with the analysis results if thermal desorp... of the activation processes. (12, 1&) The first step in the production of activated carbon is carbonization, which is the formation of a char from a source material. The source materials may be coconut shells, peach pits, sawdust, wood char, etc ~ Carbonization...

  10. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  11. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-12

    One of the important applications of yttria stabilized zirconia is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While yttria stabilized zirconia performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatingsmore »are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.« less

  12. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-12

    One of the important applications of yttria stabilized zirconia is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While yttria stabilized zirconia performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatings are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.

  13. Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power By Merrian C. Fuller of the Inter- governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Thus far much of the effort has been focused, such as improving energy efficiency and add- ing solar photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal systems to buildings

  14. Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power By Merrian C. Fuller, such as improving energy efficiency and add- ing solar photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal systems to buildings Berkeley to address this barrier by making financing for solar power installations and energy

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and water efficiency projects which... Eligibility: Commercial Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Lighting, Lighting...

  16. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the United States - A Status Report with Data Through 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    supply-side efficiency technologies or non-renewable energy technologies to meet a portion of their RPS standard, including the electricity and/

  17. Wind Energy R&D Opportunity: Energy Department Announces $125...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of transportation, including the production and distribution of both renewable and non-renewable fuels, electrification, and energy efficiency in transportation. ARPA-E asks...

  18. Water Power R&D Opportunity: Energy Department Announces $125...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of transportation, including the production and distribution of both renewable and non-renewable fuels, electrification, and energy efficiency in transportation. ARPA-E asks...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    efficiency projects which... Eligibility: Commercial Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Lighting, Lighting Controls...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Landfill Gas, Other EE, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Energy Efficiency Standard Origin...