National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal distribution systems

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Typical Commercial Building Thermal Energy Distribution Design Load Intensities (Watts per SF) Distribution System Fans Other Central System Supply Fans Cooling Tower Fan Central System Return Fans Air-Cooled Chiller Condenser Fan 0.6 Terminal Box Fans 0.5 Exhaust Fans (2) Fan-Coil Unit Fans (1) Condenser Fans 0.6 Packaged or Split System Indoor Blower 0.6 Pumps Chilled Water Pump Condenser Water Pump Heating Water Pump Note(s): Source(s): 0.1 - 0.2 0.1 - 0.2 1) Unducted units are lower than

  2. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

    1999-12-01

    According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct

  3. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Thermal Distribution Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by Building Activity Education 0.5 1.3 Food Sales 1.1 6.4 Food Service 1.5 6.4 Health Care 1.5 5.6 Lodging 0.5 1.9 Mercantile and Service 0.9 2.7 Office 1.3 3.3 Public Assembly 1.2 3.0 Warehouse 0.4 1.8 All Buildings 1.0 2.8 Source(s): Design Load Intensity End Use Intensity (W/SF) (kWh/SF) BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment,

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Market Share of Major HVAC Equipment Manufacturers ($2009 Million) Air-Handling Units 1032 Cooling Towers 533 Pumps 333 Central System Terminal Boxes 192 Classroom Unit Ventilator 160 Fan Coil Units 123 Source(s): Total Market Size BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table 4-1, p. 4-4; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for price

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 U.S. Commercial Buildings Conditioned Floorspace, Building Type and System Type (Million SF) Total Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care Lodging Mercantile and Service Office Public Buildings Warehouse/Storage Total Source(s): BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table A2-12, p. B2-1. 3,988 4,771 19,767 5,287 2,822 3,352 12,065 48,064 119 1,482 0 0 102

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Thermal Distribution Equipment Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by System Type Central VAV Central CAV Packaged CAV Central VAV Central CAV Packaged CAV Condenser Fan 0.3 0.2 Cooling Tower Fan 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 Condenser Water Pump 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.0 Chilled Water Pump 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 Supply & Return Fans 0.7 0.5 0.6 1.2 1.9 1.9 Chiller/Compressor 1.9 1.8 3.3 1.7 2.3 4.0 Source(s): BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II:

  7. Bibliography of reports of the Sandia Solar Thermal Distributed Receiver Systems Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, J.A.; Klimas, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    This document, which is a bibliography of solar thermal distributed receiver reports and publications by Sandia Laboratories and its contractors, is provided as a convenient reference for those interested in solar thermal technology. Reports are listed by principal author, by report numbers, and by unnumbered reports.

  8. Test procedures and protocols: Their relevance to the figure of merit for thermal distribution systems. Volume 1: Informal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1993-09-01

    A conceptual framework is developed that categorizes measurement protocols for forced-air thermal distribution systems in small buildings. This framework is based on the distinction between two generic approaches. The {open_quote}system-comparison{close_quote} approach seeks to determine, via a pair of whole-house energy-use measurements, the difference in energy use between the house with the as-found duct system and the same house with no energy losses attributable to the thermal distribution system. The {open_quote}component loss-factor{close_quote} approach identifies and measures the individual causes of duct losses, and then builds up a value for the net overall duct efficiency, usually with the help of computer simulation. Examples of each approach are analyzed and related to a proposed Figure of Merit for thermal distribution systems. This Figure of Merit would serve as the basis for a Standard Method of Test analogous to those already in place for furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, and heat pumps.

  9. Modeling of thermal storage systems in MILP distributed energy resource models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steen, David; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Groissböck, Markus; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris

    2014-08-04

    Thermal energy storage (TES) and distributed generation technologies, such as combined heat and power (CHP) or photovoltaics (PV), can be used to reduce energy costs and decrease CO2 emissions from buildings by shifting energy consumption to times with less emissions and/or lower energy prices. To determine the feasibility of investing in TES in combination with other distributed energy resources (DER), mixed integer linear programming (MILP) can be used. Such a MILP model is the well-established Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); however, it currently uses only a simplified TES model to guarantee linearity and short run-times. Loss calculations are based only on the energy contained in the storage. This paper presents a new DER-CAM TES model that allows improved tracking of losses based on ambient and storage temperatures, and compares results with the previous version. A multi-layer TES model is introduced that retains linearity and avoids creating an endogenous optimization problem. The improved model increases the accuracy of the estimated storage losses and enables use of heat pumps for low temperature storage charging. Ultimately,results indicate that the previous model overestimates the attractiveness of TES investments for cases without possibility to invest in heat pumps and underestimates it for some locations when heat pumps are allowed. Despite a variation in optimal technology selection between the two models, the objective function value stays quite stable, illustrating the complexity of optimal DER sizing problems in buildings and microgrids.

  10. Distribution of occupation numbers in finite Fermi systems and role of interaction in chaos and thermalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flambaum, V.V.; Izrailev, F.M. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    1997-01-01

    A method is developed for calculation of single-particle occupation numbers in finite Fermi systems of interacting particles. It is more accurate than the canonical distribution method and gives the Fermi-Dirac distribution in the limit of large number of particles. It is shown that statistical effects of the interaction are absorbed by an increase of the effective temperature. Criteria for quantum chaos and statistical equilibrium are considered. All results are confirmed by numerical experiments in the two-body random interaction model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Modeling of thermal storage systems in MILP distributed energy resource models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steen, David; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Groissböck, Markus; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris

    2014-08-04

    Thermal energy storage (TES) and distributed generation technologies, such as combined heat and power (CHP) or photovoltaics (PV), can be used to reduce energy costs and decrease CO2 emissions from buildings by shifting energy consumption to times with less emissions and/or lower energy prices. To determine the feasibility of investing in TES in combination with other distributed energy resources (DER), mixed integer linear programming (MILP) can be used. Such a MILP model is the well-established Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); however, it currently uses only a simplified TES model to guarantee linearity and short run-times. Loss calculations aremore » based only on the energy contained in the storage. This paper presents a new DER-CAM TES model that allows improved tracking of losses based on ambient and storage temperatures, and compares results with the previous version. A multi-layer TES model is introduced that retains linearity and avoids creating an endogenous optimization problem. The improved model increases the accuracy of the estimated storage losses and enables use of heat pumps for low temperature storage charging. Ultimately,results indicate that the previous model overestimates the attractiveness of TES investments for cases without possibility to invest in heat pumps and underestimates it for some locations when heat pumps are allowed. Despite a variation in optimal technology selection between the two models, the objective function value stays quite stable, illustrating the complexity of optimal DER sizing problems in buildings and microgrids.« less

  12. Solar wind thermal electron distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Solar wind thermal electron distributions exhibit distinctive trends which suggest Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in the interplanetary magnetic field play keys roles in electron transport. We introduce a simple numerical model incorporating these mechanisms, discuss the ramifications of model results, and assess the validity of the model in terms of ISEE-3 and Ulysses observations. Although the model duplicates the shape of the electron distributions, and explains certain other observational features, observed gradients in total electron temperature indicate the importance of additional heating mechanisms. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  14. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-29

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  15. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-09-30

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution`s concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the `Poisoned Tube Tank` because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service.

  16. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  17. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa

    2014-07-15

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.

  18. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  19. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE-industry thermal distribution conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    The subject of the conference was thermal distribution in small buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment in which the heat or cooling is produced to the building spaces in which it is used. The small buildings category is defined to include single-family residential and multifamily and commercial buildings with less than 10,000 ft{sup 2} floor area. The 1992 DOE-Industry Thermal Distribution Conference was conceived as the beginning of a process of information transfer between the DOE and the industries having a stake in thermal distribution systems, whereby the DOE can make the industry aware of its thinking and planned directions early enough for changes to be made, and whereby the industries represented can provide this input to the DOE on a timely and informed basis. In accordance with this, the objectives of the Conference were: To present--to a representative group of researchers and industry representative--the current industry thinking and DOE`s current directions for research in small-building thermal distribution. To obtain from industry and the research community a critique of the DOE priorities and additional ideas concerning how DOE can best assist the industry in promoting energy conservation in thermal distribution systems.

  20. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE-industry thermal distribution conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    The subject of the conference was thermal distribution in small buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment in which the heat or cooling is produced to the building spaces in which it is used. The small buildings category is defined to include single-family residential and multifamily and commercial buildings with less than 10,000 ft{sup 2} floor area. The 1992 DOE-Industry Thermal Distribution Conference was conceived as the beginning of a process of information transfer between the DOE and the industries having a stake in thermal distribution systems, whereby the DOE can make the industry aware of its thinking and planned directions early enough for changes to be made, and whereby the industries represented can provide this input to the DOE on a timely and informed basis. In accordance with this, the objectives of the Conference were: To present--to a representative group of researchers and industry representative--the current industry thinking and DOE's current directions for research in small-building thermal distribution. To obtain from industry and the research community a critique of the DOE priorities and additional ideas concerning how DOE can best assist the industry in promoting energy conservation in thermal distribution systems.

  1. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  2. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  3. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Arenius, Dana M.; Barrios, Matthew N.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  4. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  5. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation is from a Building America webinar conducted on November 8, 2011, by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) about ductless hydronic distribution systems.

  6. PV distribution system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distribution system - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ...

  7. Smart distribution systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Yazhou; Liu, Chen -Ching; Xu, Yin

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs) and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs) of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. Amore » comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD), is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Furthermore, test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs) is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.« less

  8. Solar thermal power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  9. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  10. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  11. Thermal Hydraulic Computer Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-07-16

    Version 00 RELAP5 was developed to describe the behavior of a light water reactor (LWR) subjected to postulated transients such as loss of coolant from large or small pipe breaks, pump failures, etc. RELAP5 calculates fluid conditions such as velocities, pressures, densities, qualities, temperatures; thermal conditions such as surface temperatures, temperature distributions, heat fluxes; pump conditions; trip conditions; reactor power and reactivity from point reactor kinetics; and control system variables. In addition to reactor applications,more » the program can be applied to transient analysis of other thermal‑hydraulic systems with water as the fluid. This package contains RELAP5/MOD1/029 for CDC computers and RELAP5/MOD1/025 for VAX or IBM mainframe computers.« less

  12. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  13. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Systems (VTMS) Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Characterization and Development of Advanced...

  14. Distributed Optimization System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2004-11-30

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  15. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  16. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  17. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  18. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Thermal Comfort Modeling Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for ...

  19. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual ...

  20. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  1. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  2. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  3. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  4. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  5. Trinity Thermal Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Place: Texas Zip: 75028 Product: Trinity Thermal Systems provides power storage products aimed a shifting energy use from air conditioning systems to off-peak times....

  6. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  7. Electricity Distribution System Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... the Electricity Transmission System (available online). ... or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the ... Workforce development and operator training are needed for ...

  8. Thermal Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thermal Energy Systems Place: London, United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: UK based company that constructs and installs boilers...

  9. Main Injector power distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

    2002-06-03

    The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

  10. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  11. Thermal Simulation of Advanced Powertrain Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under this project, the Volvo complete vehicle model was modified to include engine and exhaust system thermal outputs and cooling system to enable WHR simulations from a system perspective.

  12. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool Home Heating Systems Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto...

  13. Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadi, F.; Qamar, A.; Yoon, P. H.

    2015-02-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.

  14. Quantum chaos and thermalization in gapped systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigol, Marcos [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Santos, Lea F. [Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the onset of thermalization and quantum chaos in finite one-dimensional gapped systems of hard-core bosons. Integrability in these systems is broken by next-nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions, which also generate a superfluid to insulator transition. By employing full exact diagonalization, we study chaos indicators and few-body observables. We show that with increasing system size, chaotic behavior is seen over a broader range of parameters and, in particular, deeper into the insulating phase. Concomitantly, we observe that, as the system size increases, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis extends its range of validity inside the insulating phase and is accompanied by the thermalization of the system.

  15. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  16. Properly Understanding the Impacts of Distributed Resources on Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Adhikari, Sarina; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    The subject paper discusses important impacts of distributed resources on distribution networks and feeders. These include capacity, line losses, voltage regulation, and central system support (such as volt/var via central generators and substation) as the number, placement and penetration levels of distributed resources are varied. Typically, the impacts of distributed resources on the distribution system are studied by using steady-state rather than dynamic analysis tools. However, the response time and transient impacts of both system equipment (such as substation/feeder capacitors) and distributed resources needs to be taken into account and only dynamic analysis will provide the full impact results. ORNL is wrapping up a study of distributed resources interconnected to a large distribution system considering the above variables. A report of the study and its results will be condensed into a paper for this panel session. The impact of distributed resources will vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system. The question is how high of a penetration of distributed resource can be accommodated on the distribution feeder/system without any major changes to system operation, design and protection. The impacts most surely will vary depending upon load composition, distribution and level. Also, it is expected that various placement of distributed resources will impact the distribution system differently.

  17. Distributed Energy Systems Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributed Energy Systems Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Energy Systems Corp Place: Wallingford, Connecticut Zip: CT 06492 Product: The former holding company...

  18. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems This webinar was presented by research team...

  19. Distributed optimization system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2003-06-10

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  20. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  1. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  2. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Closed Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-10-01

    TAP-LOOP is a finite-difference program designed for steady-state and transient thermal analysis of recirculating fluid loops and associated heat transfer equipment; however, it is not limited to loop analysis. TAP-LOOP was developed to perform scoping and conceptual design analyses for closed test loops in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), but it can handle a variety of problems which can be described in terms of potentials, sources, sinks, and storage including, in addition to heatmore » transfer problems, studies of potential fluid flow, electrical networks, and stress analysis.« less

  4. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  5. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Thermal Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The boiler has a modulating gas valve to control the output of the burner to match the load, with a minimum turndown ratio of 10. The 60-ton chiller cools water with continuous ...

  6. Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and Steady State Conditions Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and ...

  7. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Fuel Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Distribution Buses The Energy Systems Integration Facility's integrated fuel distribution buses provide natural gas, hydrogen, and diesel for fueling applications. Standard, ...

  8. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  9. Pulse thermal energy transport/storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weislogel, Mark M.

    1992-07-07

    A pulse-thermal pump having a novel fluid flow wherein heat admitted to a closed system raises the pressure in a closed evaporator chamber while another interconnected evaporator chamber remains open. This creates a large pressure differential, and at a predetermined pressure the closed evaporator is opened and the opened evaporator is closed. This difference in pressure initiates fluid flow in the system.

  10. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  11. First Results on Angular Distributions of Thermal Dileptons in Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Scomparin, E.; Banicz, K.; Damjanovic, S.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Fargeix, J.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.; Cicalo, C.; Falco, A. de; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S.

    2009-06-05

    The NA60 experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has studied dimuon production in 158A GeV In-In collisions. The strong excess of pairs above the known sources found in the complete mass region 0.2thermal radiation. We now present first results on the associated angular distributions. Using the Collins-Soper reference frame, the structure function parameters {lambda}, {mu}, and {nu} are measured to be zero, and the projected distributions in polar and azimuth angles are found to be uniform. The absence of any polarization is consistent with the interpretation of the excess dimuons as thermal radiation from a randomized system.

  12. Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  13. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-10-25

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

  14. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That...

  15. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Heat is distributed through your home in a variety of ways. Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems.

  16. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodie, Brad

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  17. Low jitter RF distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell; Doolittle, Lawrence; Huang, Gang

    2012-09-18

    A timing signal distribution system includes an optical frequency stabilized laser signal amplitude modulated at an rf frequency. A transmitter box transmits a first portion of the laser signal and receive a modified optical signal, and outputs a second portion of the laser signal and a portion of the modified optical signal. A first optical fiber carries the first laser signal portion and the modified optical signal, and a second optical fiber carries the second portion of the laser signal and the returned modified optical signal. A receiver box receives the first laser signal portion, shifts the frequency of the first laser signal portion outputs the modified optical signal, and outputs an electrical signal on the basis of the laser signal. A detector at the end of the second optical fiber outputs a signal based on the modified optical signal. An optical delay sensing circuit outputs a data signal based on the detected modified optical signal. An rf phase detect and correct signal circuit outputs a signal corresponding to a phase stabilized rf signal based on the data signal and the frequency received from the receiver box.

  18. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management

  19. System Design Description PFP Thermal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the FSAR, the OSRs, and Safety Assessment Documents (SADs). This safety equipment documentation should satisfy guidelines for the SDD given in WHC-SD-CP-TI-18 1, Criteria for Identification and Control of Equipment Necessary for Preservation of the Safety Envelope and Safe Operation of PFP. The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP Thermal Stabilization project: Functional and design requirements; Design description; Safety Envelope Analysis; Safety Equipment Class; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures.

  20. Low-temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, R.O.; Brown, A.P.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-21

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical system is described including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the ocmplexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

  1. Low temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Brown, Alan P.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1983-01-01

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical system including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the complexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

  2. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems This webinar was presented by research team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), and reviewed findings from a feasibility study of ductless hydronic distribution systems in new homes and deep retrofits. webinar_arbi_20111108.wmv (14.32 MB) More Documents & Publications Building America Webinar: National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

  3. Integrated solar thermal energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.

    1987-08-18

    A solar thermal collector system is described one of a class of devices which converts solar radiation into heat and transmits this heat to storage from whence it is utilized, comprising: an evacuated glass solar collector, the evacuated glass solar collector having a glass vacuum envelope, the upper portion of the glass vacuum envelope also serving as window to pass solar radiation, the evacuated glass solar collector having a multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent concentrating troughs, each trough shaped and mirror surfaced so as concentrate solar radiation in the vacuum, the mirror surface inside the vacuum and the concentration approximately ideal, the multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent troughs extending substantially over the entire length and width of the evacuated glass solar collector; a heat storage system, the heat storage system adjacent to the evacuated glass solar collector, the heat storage system having a heat storage tank which is thermally insulated, the heat storage tank containing a heat storage medium, and the heat storage system including means of removal of heat from the heat storage tank for utilization.

  4. Project Profile: Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Concentratin...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage Systems for Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Novel Thermal Energy ... reduce thermal resistances within the TES system of a large-scale CSP plant and, in turn, ...

  5. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  6. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  7. Differences Between Distributed and Parallel Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brightwell, R.; Maccabe, A.B.; Rissen, R.

    1998-10-01

    Distributed systems have been studied for twenty years and are now coming into wider use as fast networks and powerful workstations become more readily available. In many respects a massively parallel computer resembles a network of workstations and it is tempting to port a distributed operating system to such a machine. However, there are significant differences between these two environments and a parallel operating system is needed to get the best performance out of a massively parallel system. This report characterizes the differences between distributed systems, networks of workstations, and massively parallel systems and analyzes the impact of these differences on operating system design. In the second part of the report, we introduce Puma, an operating system specifically developed for massively parallel systems. We describe Puma portals, the basic building blocks for message passing paradigms implemented on top of Puma, and show how the differences observed in the first part of the report have influenced the design and implementation of Puma.

  8. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  9. Thermal performance of complex fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, S.C.; Elmahdy, A.H.

    1994-12-31

    The thermal performance (i.e., U-factor) of four complex fenestration systems is examined using computer simulation tools and guarded hot box testing. The systems include a flat glazed skylight, a domed or bubble skylight, a greenhouse window, and a curtain wall. The extra care required in performing simulation and testing of these complex products is described. There was good agreement (within 10%) between test and simulation for two of the four products. The agreement was slightly poorer (maximum difference of 16%) for the two high-heat-transfer products: the domed skylight and the greenhouse window. Possible causes for the larger discrepancy in these projecting window products are uncertainties in the inside and outside film coefficients and lower warm-side air temperatures because of stagnant airflow.

  10. Development of an Integrated Distribution Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe E.

    2010-10-20

    This final report details the components, functionality, costs, schedule and benefits of developing an Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) for power distribution system operation. The Distribution Automation (DA) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems used by electric power companies to manage the distribution of electric power to retail energy consumers are vital components of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. Providing electricity is an essential public service and a disruption in that service, if not quickly restored, could threaten the public safety and the Nation’s economic security. Our Nation’s economic prosperity and quality of life have long depended on the essential services that utilities provide; therefore, it is necessary to ensure that electric utilities are able to conduct their operations safely and efficiently. A fully integrated technology of applications is needed to link various remote sensing, communications and control devices with other information tools that help guide Power Distribution Operations personnel. A fully implemented IDMS will provide this, a seamlessly integrated set of applications to raise electric system operating intelligence. IDMS will enhance DA and SCADA through integration of applications such as Geographic Information Systems, Outage Management Systems, Switching Management and Analysis, Operator Training Simulator, and other Advanced Applications, including unbalanced load flow and fault isolation/service restoration. These apps are capable of utilizing and obtaining information from appropriately installed DER, and by integrating disparate systems, the Distribution Operators will benefit from advanced capabilities when analyzing, controlling and operating the electric system.

  11. High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_singh.pdf (1.63 MB) More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q3 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage

  12. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  13. Parallel Computing Environments and Methods for Power Distribution System Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Chassin, David P.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Studham, Scott S.

    2005-11-10

    The development of cost-effective high-performance parallel computing on multi-processor super computers makes it attractive to port excessively time consuming simulation software from personal computers (PC) to super computes. The power distribution system simulator (PDSS) takes a bottom-up approach and simulates load at appliance level, where detailed thermal models for appliances are used. This approach works well for a small power distribution system consisting of a few thousand appliances. When the number of appliances increases, the simulation uses up the PC memory and its run time increases to a point where the approach is no longer feasible to model a practical large power distribution system. This paper presents an effort made to port a PC-based power distribution system simulator (PDSS) to a 128-processor shared-memory super computer. The paper offers an overview of the parallel computing environment and a description of the modification made to the PDSS model. The performances of the PDSS running on a standalone PC and on the super computer are compared. Future research direction of utilizing parallel computing in the power distribution system simulation is also addressed.

  14. Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transient and Steady State Conditions | Department of Energy Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and Steady State Conditions Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and Steady State Conditions 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Delphi Corporation 2002_deer_bonadies.pdf (430.62 KB) More Documents & Publications A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the Product Distribution from a

  15. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  16. Real-time distributed multimedia systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahurkar, S.S.; Bourbakis, N.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a survey on distributed multimedia systems and discusses real-time issues. In particular, different subsystems are reviewed that impact on multimedia networking, the networking for multimedia, the networked multimedia systems, and the leading edge research and developments efforts and issues in networking.

  17. Thermal Systems Group; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-11-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Thermal Systems Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  18. Project Profile: Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Concentrating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Power | Department of Energy Energy Storage Systems for Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Concentrating Solar Power University of Connecticut logo The University of Connecticut, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage (TES) systems for CSP involving phase change materials (PCMs). Approach Specific objectives include embedding thermosyphons and/or

  19. Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics August 21, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis One challenge facing the widespread use of solar energy is reduced or curtailed energy production when the sun sets or is blocked by clouds. Thermal energy storage provides a workable solution to this challenge. In a concentrating solar power (CSP) system, the sun's rays are reflected onto a receiver, which creates heat that is used to

  20. Integrated thermal solar heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, D.N.

    1980-04-08

    A compression module may comprise a hermetic helical screw rotary compressor having injection and ejection ports in addition to discharge and suction ports or may comprise a multiple cylinder, multiple level, reciprocating compressor. The module incorporates a subcooler coil and is connected to an outside air coil, a thermal energy storage coil, a direct solar energy supply coil, one or more inside coils for the space to be conditioned and a hot water coil through common, discharge manifold, suction manifold, liquid drain manifold and liquid feed manifold, by suitable solenoid operated control valves and check valves. The solenoid operated control valves are selectively operated in response to system operating parameters. Seal pots and positive displacement pumps may operate to force liquid refrigerant condensed at intermediate pressure to flow to the receiver which is pressurized at a pressure corresponding to the condensation temperature of the highest pressure condensing coil in the system. Alternatively, liquid refrigerant expansion may be used to reach a common receiver pressure for all condenser returns.

  1. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2009-05-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the status and FY09 accomplishments for the NREL Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Project.

  2. Johney Green to Lead NREL Mechanical and Thermal Systems Engineering...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johney Green to Lead NREL Mechanical and Thermal Systems Engineering Research August 11, 2016 Photo of Johney Green Photo of Johney Green The Energy Department's National Renewable ...

  3. Johney Green to Lead NREL Mechanical and Thermal Systems Engineering...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johney Green to Lead NREL Mechanical and Thermal Systems Engineering Research August 11, 2016 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has named Dr. ...

  4. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  5. Thermal model of solar absorption HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergquam, J.B.; Brezner, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a thermal model that describes the performance of solar absorption HVAC systems. The model considers the collector array, the building cooling and heating loads, the absorption chiller and the high temperature storage. Heat losses from the storage tank and piping are included in the model. All of the results presented in the paper are for an array of flat plate solar collectors with black chrome (selective surface) absorber plates. The collector efficiency equation is used to calculate the useful heat output from the array. The storage is modeled as a non-stratified tank with polyurethane foam insulation. The system is assumed to operate continuously providing air conditioning during the cooling season, space heating during the winter and hot water throughout the year. The amount of heat required to drive the chiller is determined from the coefficient of performance of the absorption cycle. Results are presented for a typical COP of 0.7. The cooling capacity of the chiller is a function of storage (generator) temperature. The nominal value is 190 F (88 C) and the range of values considered is 180 F (82 C) to 210 F (99 C). Typical building cooling and heating loads are determined as a function of ambient conditions. Performance results are presented for Sacramento, CA and Washington, D.C. The model described in the paper makes use of National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) data and results are presented for these two locations. The uncertainties in the NSRDB are estimated to be in a range of 6% to 9%. This is a significant improvement over previously available data. The model makes it possible to predict the performance of solar HVAC systems and calculate quantities such as solar fraction, storage temperature, heat losses and parasitic power for every hour of the period for which data are available.

  6. Property:Distributed Generation System Power Application | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Based Load + Distributed...

  7. Thermal performance of concrete masonry unit wall systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.

    1995-12-31

    New materials, modern building wall technologies now available in the building marketplace, and unique, more accurate, methods of thermal analysis of wall systems create an opportunity to design and erect buildings where thermal envelopes that use masonry wall systems can be more efficient. Thermal performance of the six masonry wall systems is analyzed. Most existing masonry systems are modifications of technologies presented in this paper. Finite difference two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer modeling and unique methods of the clear wall and overall thermal analysis were used. In the design of thermally efficient masonry wall systems is t to know how effectively the insulation material is used and how the insulation shape and its location affect the wall thermal performance. Due to the incorrect shape of the insulation or structural components, hidden thermal shorts cause additional heat losses. In this study, the thermal analysis of the clear wall was enriched with the examination of the thermal properties of the wall details and the study of a quantity defined herein the Thermal Efficiency of the insulation material.

  8. Distributed Object Oriented Geographic Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    This interactive, object-oriented, distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) uses the World Wibe Web (WWW) as application medium and distribution mechanism. The software provides distributed access to multiple geo-spatial databases and presents them as if they came from a single coherent database. DOOGIS distributed access comes not only in the form of multiple geo-spatial servers but can break down a single logical server into the constituent physical servers actually storing the data. The program provides formore » dynamic protocol resolution and content handling allowing unknown objects from a particular server to download their handling code. Security and access privileges are negotiated dynamically with each server contacted and each access attempt.« less

  9. Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The focus of the Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate new techniques for thermal energy storage systems that are relevant to utility-scale concentrating solar power plants. The laboratory holds test systems that can provide heat transfer fluids for the evaluation of heat exchangers and thermal energy storage devices. The existing system provides molten salt at temperatures up to 800 C. This unit is charged with nitrate salt rated to 600 C, but is capable of handling other heat transfer fluid compositions. Three additional test bays are available for future deployment of alternative heat transfer fluids such as hot air, carbon dioxide, or steam systems. The Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory performs pilot-scale thermal energy storage system testing through multiple charge and discharge cycles to evaluate heat exchanger performance and storage efficiency. The laboratory equipment can also be utilized to test instrument and sensor compatibility with hot heat transfer fluids. Future applications in the laboratory may include the evaluation of thermal energy storage systems designed to operate with supercritical heat transfer fluids such as steam or carbon dioxide. These tests will require the installation of test systems capable of providing supercritical fluids at temperatures up to 700 C.

  10. Building a Smarter Distribution System in Pennsylvania

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study - PPL Electric Utilities Corporation Smart Grid Investment Grant 1 Building a Smarter Distribution System in Pennsylvania PPL Electric Utilities Corporation (PPL) provides electricity to 1.4 million customers across central and eastern Pennsylvania. Having installed smart meters and other advanced technologies over the last several years, PPL has experience with operating smart grid systems and achieving operational improvements. To further improve quality of service for its customers, PPL

  11. Harmonic analysis of electrical distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data pertaining to research on harmonics of electric power distribution systems. Harmonic data is presented on RMS and average measurements for determination of harmonics in buildings; fluorescent ballast; variable frequency drive; georator geosine harmonic data; uninterruptible power supply; delta-wye transformer; westinghouse suresine; liebert datawave; and active injection mode filter data.

  12. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  13. An advanced power distribution automation model system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niwa, Shigeharu; Kanoi, Minoru; Nishijima, Kazuo; Hayami, Mitsuo

    1995-12-31

    An advanced power distribution automation (APDA) model system has been developed on the present basis of the automated distribution systems in Japan, which have been used for remote switching operations and for urgent supply restorations during faults. The increased use of electronic apparatuses sensitive to supply interruption requires very high supply reliability, and the final developed system is expected to be useful for this purpose. The developed model system adopts pole circuit breakers and remote termination units connected through 64kbps optical fibers to the computer of the automated system in the control center. Immediate switching operations for supply restorations during faults are possible through the restoration procedures, prepared beforehand, by the computer and by fast telecommunications using optical fibers. So, protection by the feeder circuit breaker in the substation can be avoided, which would otherwise cause the blackout of the whole distribution line. The test results show the effectiveness of model the system: successful fault locations and reconfiguration for supply restoration including separation of the fault sections (without blackout for the ground faults and with a short period (within 1 s) of blackout for the short-circuit faults).

  14. Measuring the Resilience of Energy Distribution Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report provides a review of existing resilience metrics for electric, oil, and natural gas distribution systems. The report summarizes the concepts addressed by measures of resilience, describes a framework for organizing alternative metrics used to measure resilience of energy distribution systems, and reviews the state of metrics for resilience of such systems. The framework organized resilience metrics into five categories – system inputs, capacities, capabilities, performance and outcomes – and existing metrics were evaluated within the context of this framework. The report finds more metrics for the electricity system than for oil and gas and that the literature pays greater attention to metrics at the facility level. Also, there were many performance measures identified at the system and regional level and these metrics were determined to be relatively well developed. In comparison, outcome measures were identified at the system, regional and national levels, but they were judged to be relatively less well developed. To improve resilience metrics, the report recommends standardizing data on inputs and capacities at the facility and system levels; developing measures of capabilities at the system and regional levels; and improving understanding of how capabilities and performance translate to regional and national outcomes.

  15. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System ...

  16. Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems This presentation was delivered at the U.S. ...

  17. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses-due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low ...

  18. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

  19. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven; McIntyre, Dustin L.

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  20. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  1. THE ODTX SYSTEM FOR THERMAL IGNITION AND THERMAL SAFETY STUDY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Howard, M; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-03

    Understanding the response of energetic material to thermal event is very important for the storage and handling of energetic materials. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) can precisely measure times to explosion and minimum ignition temperatures of energetic materials at elevated temperatures. These measurements provide insight into the relative ease of thermal ignition and allow for the determination of kinetic parameters. The ODTX system can potentialy be a good tool to measure violence of the thermal ignition by monitoring the size of anvil cavity. Recent ODTX experimental data on various energetic materials (solid and liquids) are reported in this paper.

  2. Distributed Power Electronics for PV Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2011-12-01

    An overview of the benefits and applications of microinverters and DC power optimizers in residential systems. Some conclusions from this report are: (1) The impact of shade is greater than just the area of shade; (2) Additional mismatch losses include panel orientation, panel distribution, inverter voltage window, soiling; (3) Per-module devices can help increase performance, 4-12% or more depending on the system; (4) Value-added benefits (safety, monitoring, reduced design constraints) are helping their adoption; and (5) The residential market is growing rapidly. Efficiency increases, cost reductions are improving market acceptance. Panel integration will further reduce price and installation cost. Reliability remains an unknown.

  3. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  4. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Develop distributed HVAC components to supplement the central HVAC system to reduce the energy required by current compressed gas air conditioners by at least one-third.

  5. FRIB Cryogenic Distribution System and Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Yang, Shuo; Nellis, Timothy; Jones, S.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    The MSU-FRIB cryogenic distribution system supports the 2 K primary, 4 K primary, and 35 - 55 K shield operation of more than 70 loads in the accelerator and the experimental areas. It is based on JLab and SNS experience with bayonet-type disconnects between the loads and the distribution system for phased commissioning and maintenance. The linac transfer line, which features three separate transfer line segments for additional independence during phased commissioning at 4 K and 2 K, connects the folded arrangement of 49 cryomodules and 4 superconducting dipole magnets and a fourth transfer line supports the separator area cryo loads. The pressure reliefs for the transfer line process lines, located in the refrigeration room outside the tunnel/accelerator area, are piped to be vented outdoors. The transfer line designs integrate supply and return flow paths into a combined vacuum space. The main linac distribution segments are produced in a small number of standard configurations; a prototype of one such configuration has been fabricated at Jefferson Lab and has been installed at MSU to support testing of a prototype FRIB cryomodule.

  6. Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stimulation; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Enhanced Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review egs_009_rose.pdf (190.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Concept Testing and

  7. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE The Idaho National

  8. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series | Department of Energy Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific

  9. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  10. Property:Distributed Generation System Enclosure | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Outdoor + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Dedicated Shelter + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Outdoor +...

  11. Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed...

  12. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.A.

    1996-03-04

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system.

  13. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  14. Analysis and control of distributed cooperative systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feddema, John Todd; Parker, Eric Paul; Wagner, John S.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2004-09-01

    As part of DARPA Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) Software for Distributed Robotics (SDR) Program, Sandia National Laboratories has developed analysis and control software for coordinating tens to thousands of autonomous cooperative robotic agents (primarily unmanned ground vehicles) performing military operations such as reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition; countermine and explosive ordnance disposal; force protection and physical security; and logistics support. Due to the nature of these applications, the control techniques must be distributed, and they must not rely on high bandwidth communication between agents. At the same time, a single soldier must easily direct these large-scale systems. Finally, the control techniques must be provably convergent so as not to cause undo harm to civilians. In this project, provably convergent, moderate communication bandwidth, distributed control algorithms have been developed that can be regulated by a single soldier. We have simulated in great detail the control of low numbers of vehicles (up to 20) navigating throughout a building, and we have simulated in lesser detail the control of larger numbers of vehicles (up to 1000) trying to locate several targets in a large outdoor facility. Finally, we have experimentally validated the resulting control algorithms on smaller numbers of autonomous vehicles.

  15. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  16. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-12-21

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  17. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  18. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  19. DETERMINATION OF NON-THERMAL VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM SERTS LINEWIDTH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyner, Aaron J. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M., E-mail: aaron.j.coyner@nasa.gov [Code 671, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Non-thermal velocities obtained from the measurement of coronal Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) linewidths have been consistently observed in solar EUV spectral observations and have been theorized to result from many plausible scenarios including wave motions, turbulence, or magnetic reconnection. Constraining these velocities can provide a physical limit for the available energy resulting from unresolved motions in the corona. We statistically determine a series of non-thermal velocity distributions from linewidth measurements of 390 emission lines from a wide array of elements and ionization states observed during the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Research Telescope and Spectrograph 1991-1997 flights covering the spectral range 174-418 A and a temperature range from 80,000 K to 12.6 MK. This sample includes 248 lines from active regions, 101 lines from quiet-Sun regions, and 41 lines were observed from plasma off the solar limb. We find a strongly peaked distribution corresponding to a non-thermal velocity of 19-22 km s{sup -1} in all three of the quiet-Sun, active region, and off-limb distributions. For the possibility of Alfven wave resonance heating, we find that velocities in the core of these distributions do not provide sufficient energy, given typical densities and magnetic field strengths for the coronal plasma, to overcome the estimated coronal energy losses required to maintain the corona at the typical temperatures working as the sole mechanism. We find that at perfect efficiency 50%-60% of the needed energy flux can be produced from the non-thermal velocities measured.

  20. NREL: Electric Infrastructure Systems Research - Distributed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Integration Research Printable Version Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility Virtual Tour The Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF), located at the ...

  1. Generators for Small Electrical and Thermal Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    build and test improved electric-power generators for use in residential Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, which capture the generator's heat output for space and water...

  2. Thermal control system for SSF sensor/electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akau, R.L.; Lee, D.E.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP) with Martin Marieta Astro-Space Division, a thermal control system was designed for the SSF (Special Sensor F) sensor/electronics box (SSTACK) located on the precision mounting platform of the DMSP satellite. Multi-layer insulation and heaters are used to maintain the temperatures of the critical components within their operating and survival temperature limits. Detailed and simplified SSTACK thermal models were developed and temperatures were calculated for worst-case orbital conditions. A comparison between the two models showed very good agreement. Temperature predictions were also compared to measured temperatures from a thermal-vacuum test

  3. PROJECT PROFILE: Visualization and Analytics of Distribution Systems with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deep Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy Visualization and Analytics of Distribution Systems with Deep Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Visualization and Analytics of Distribution Systems with Deep Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Systems Integration Location: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA SunShot Award Amount: $4,000,000

  4. Battery and Thermal Energy Storage | Energy Systems Integration | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery and Thermal Energy Storage Not long ago, the mantra among electric utilities was that "you can't store electricity"-instantaneous power production had to nearly equal demand. But NREL research is changing this belief, demonstrating the high performance of grid-integrated battery and thermal energy storage technologies. Photo of a battery energy storage system NREL examines how best to integrate these energy storage technologies into the electrical grid and potentially into

  5. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  6. Clock distribution system for digital computers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Robert H.; Loomis, Jr., Herschel H.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for eliminating, in each clock distribution amplifier of a clock distribution system, sequential pulse catch-up error due to one pulse "overtaking" a prior clock pulse. The apparatus includes timing means to produce a periodic electromagnetic signal with a fundamental frequency having a fundamental frequency component V'.sub.01 (t); an array of N signal characteristic detector means, with detector means No. 1 receiving the timing means signal and producing a change-of-state signal V.sub.1 (t) in response to receipt of a signal above a predetermined threshold; N substantially identical filter means, one filter means being operatively associated with each detector means, for receiving the change-of-state signal V.sub.n (t) and producing a modified change-of-state signal V'.sub.n (t) (n=1, . . . , N) having a fundamental frequency component that is substantially proportional to V'.sub.01 (t-.theta..sub.n (t) with a cumulative phase shift .theta..sub.n (t) having a time derivative that may be made uniformly and arbitrarily small; and with the detector means n+1 (1.ltoreq.n

  7. STUDY OF THERMAL SENSITIVITY AND THERMAL EXPLOSION VIOLENCE OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS IN THE LLNL ODTX SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HSU, P C; Hust, G; May, C; Howard, M; Chidester, S K; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2011-08-03

    Some energetic materials may explode at fairly low temperatures and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults for safe handling and storage of energetic materials. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory can measure times to explosion, lowest explosion temperatures, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also generate useful data for determining thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. We also performed detonation experiments of LX-10 in aluminum anvils to determine the detonation violence and validated the Zerilli Armstrong aluminum model. Results of the detonation experiments agreed well with the model prediction.

  8. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  9. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  10. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNLs metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800C). A high-temperature tank in PNNLs storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNLs thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  11. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Energy System Basics Video...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Codes & Standards Data Collection & Visualization Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Microgrids Power Systems Modeling Solar Distributed Grid Integration Technology Development ...

  12. Secondary Network Distribution Systems Background and Issues Related to the Interconnection of Distributed Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, M.; Erdman, W.; Horgan, S.; Dawson, D.; Feero, W.; Soudi, F.; Smith, D.; Whitaker, C.; Kroposki, B.

    2005-07-01

    This document addresses the technical considerations associated with the interconnection of distributed resources (DR) with secondary network distribution systems. It provides an overview of the characteristics of distribution systems and interconnection requirements and identifies unique issues specific to network interconnections. It also identifies the network-specific interconnection issues for which test protocols should be developed. Recommended criteria and requirements for the interconnection of DR with network distribution systems are presented.

  13. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, A.

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  14. Chapter 3: Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System Technology Assessment | Flexible and Distributed Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Measurements, Communications, and Controls Transmission and Distribution Components ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Flexible and Distributed Energy Resources Chapter 3: Technology Assessments Introduction The U.S. electric power system is undergoing significant changes. The reliance on large thermal generators of the past is giving way to a much more dynamic paradigm. In recent years, many new technologies have been

  15. FY 93 Thermal Loading Systems Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.F. Saterlie

    1994-08-29

    The objective of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Thermal Loading Systems Study being conducted by the is to identify a thermal strategy that will meet the performance requirements for waste isolation and will be safe and licensable. Specifically, both postclosure and preclosure performance standards must be met by the thermal loading strategy ultimately selected. In addition cost and schedule constraints must be considered. The Systems Engineering approach requires structured, detailed analyses that will ultimately provide the technical basis for the development, integration, and evaluation of the overall system, not just a subelement of that system. It is also necessary that the systems study construct options from within the range that are allowed within the current legislative and programmatic framework. For example the total amount of fuel that can legally be emplaced is no more than 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) which is composed of 63,000 MTU spent fuel and 7,000 MTU of defense high level waste. It is the intent of this study to begin the structured development of the basis for a thermal loading decision. However, it is recognized that to be able to make a final decision on thermal loading will require underground data on the effects of heating as well as a suite of ''validated'' models. It will be some time before these data and models are available to the program. Developing a final, thermal loading decision will, therefore, be an iterative process. In the interim, the objective of the thermal loading systems study has been to utilize the information available to assess the impact of thermal loading. Where technical justification exists, recommendations to narrow the range of thermal loading options can be made. Additionally, recommendations as to the type of testing and accuracy of the testing needed to establish the requisite information will be made. A constraint on the ability of the study to select an option stems from the lack of

  16. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able tomore » quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.« less

  17. Thermal performance of various multilayer insulation systems below 80K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Schoo, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The SSC collider dipole cryostat consists of a vacuum shell operating at room temperature, two thermal shields operating near 80K and 20K respectively, and the superconducting magnet assembly operating near 4K. The cryostat design incorporates multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets to limit radiant heat transfer into the 80K and 20K thermal shields. Also, an MLI blanket is used to impede heat transfer through residual gas conduction into the 4K superconducting magnet assembly. A measurement facility at Fermilab has been used to experimentally optimize the thermal insulation system for the dipole cryostat. Previous thermal measurements have been used to define the 80K MLI system configuration and verify system performance. With the 80K MLI system defined, the current effort has focused on experimentally defining the optimum insulation scheme for the 20K thermal shield. The SSC design specification requires that radiant heat transfer be limited to 0.093 W/m[sup 2] at an insulating vacuum of 10[sup [minus]6]torr.

  18. Thermal performance of various multilayer insulation systems below 80K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Schoo, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The SSC collider dipole cryostat consists of a vacuum shell operating at room temperature, two thermal shields operating near 80K and 20K respectively, and the superconducting magnet assembly operating near 4K. The cryostat design incorporates multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets to limit radiant heat transfer into the 80K and 20K thermal shields. Also, an MLI blanket is used to impede heat transfer through residual gas conduction into the 4K superconducting magnet assembly. A measurement facility at Fermilab has been used to experimentally optimize the thermal insulation system for the dipole cryostat. Previous thermal measurements have been used to define the 80K MLI system configuration and verify system performance. With the 80K MLI system defined, the current effort has focused on experimentally defining the optimum insulation scheme for the 20K thermal shield. The SSC design specification requires that radiant heat transfer be limited to 0.093 W/m{sup 2} at an insulating vacuum of 10{sup {minus}6}torr.

  19. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  20. Cathode power distribution system and method of using the same for power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Koehl, Eugene R; Bailey, James L; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2014-11-11

    Embodiments include a cathode power distribution system and/or method of using the same for power distribution. The cathode power distribution system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly of the plurality of cathode assemblies includes a plurality of cathode rods. The system also includes a plurality of bus bars configured to distribute current to each of the plurality of cathode assemblies. The plurality of bus bars include a first bus bar configured to distribute the current to first ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies and a second bus bar configured to distribute the current to second ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies.

  1. General theme report: Working session 2, Solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alpert, D.J.; Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Currently, over 90% of the world's large-scale solar electric energy is generated with concentrating solar thermal power plants. Such plants have the potential to meet many of the world's future energy needs. Research efforts are generally focused on generating electricity, though a variety of other applications are being pursued. Today, the technology for using solar thermal energy is well developed, cost competitive, and in many cases, ready for widespread application. The current state of each of the solar thermal technologies and their applications is reviewed, and recommendations for increasing their use are presented. The technologies reviewed in detail are: parabolic trough systems, central tower systems, and parabolic dish systems. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  3. Control and regulation of modern distribution system, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    system, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Control and regulation of modern distribution system, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates...

  4. Distributed Generation Systems Inc DISGEN | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc DISGEN Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Generation Systems Inc (DISGEN) Place: Lakewood, Colorado Zip: 80228 Sector: Wind energy Product: Developer of...

  5. and Control of Power Systems Using Distributed Synchrophasors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... be offered through the Electrical & Computer Engineering ... program focused on distribution systems, substation ... of Synchrophasors in transmission-level power systems, and ...

  6. Modeling Reactor Coolant Systems Thermal-Hydraulic Transients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary W.

    1999-10-05

    RELAP5/MOD3.2* is used to model reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transients without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal-hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to allow modeling of the plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems.

  7. Modeling Reactor Coolant Systems Thermal-Hydraulic Transients

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-10-05

    RELAP5/MOD3.2* is used to model reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transients without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal-hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to allow modeling of themore » plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems.« less

  8. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  9. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling[Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses results from TE HVAC project to add detail to a human thermal comfort model and further allow load reduction in the climate control energy through a distributed TE network

  10. Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon

    2014-01-29

    Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.

  11. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allan, Marita

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  12. NREL: Electric Infrastructure Systems Research - Distributed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project, which uses electricity from wind turbines and solar panels to produce hydrogen. ... Electricity Integration Research Home Distributed Grid Integration Transmission Grid ...

  13. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This webinar was presented by research team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), and reviewed findings from a feasibility study of ductless hydronic distribution ...

  14. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2016-08-30

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  15. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2013-12-10

    Lighting system having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  16. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2016-08-23

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  17. Applied research in the solar thermal-energy-systems program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C. T.; Lefferdo, J. M.

    1981-03-01

    Within the Solar Thermal Research and Advanced Development (RAD) program a coordinated effort in materials research, fuels and chemical research and applied research is being carried out to meet the systems' needs. Each of these three program elements are described with particular attention given to the applied research activity.

  18. Thermal Performance of Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-performance wall system is under development to improve wall thermal performance to a level of U-factor of 0.19 W(m2 K) (R-30 h ft2 FBtu) in a standard wall thickness by ...

  19. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbunov, A. I.; Serdyukov, O. V.

    2015-03-15

    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 1999 AC Adjustable-Speed Drive Population Horsepower Range 1 - 5 70% 5.1 - 20 23% 21 - 50 4% 51 - 100 1% 101 - 200 1% 200 + 1% Total 100% Source(s): Electrical Apparatus Service Association, Past Trends and Probable Future Changes in the Electric Motor Industry 1990-1999, 2001, p. 30.

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    and p. 28 for energy efficient motor sales. 738 59.6 1.0% 412 56.5 0.8% 6,927 81.8 2.0% 2,376 78.2 1.5% Existing Replacements (thousands) Share of New Motors 20,784 59.6 2.5%

  2. Thermal overinsulation and the behavior of hot water heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casier, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Supported by thermodynamic calculations and field experience G.D.F. disproved the theory that because of their high warm-up/cooldown inertia, hot-water central heating systems are inefficient for insulated dwellings that have low thermal losses, causing overheating in certain situations. With the proper choice of thermostat, water temperature, and piping design, a heating system that uses water as the heat carrier can be responsive to the needs of a tightly insulated residence.

  3. Device and Software to Measure Thermal Impedance of Electrochemical Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Device and Software to Measure Thermal Impedance of Electrochemical Systems National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Different components within an electrochemical system (e.g., a battery) can generate heat due to inefficiencies in

  4. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  5. Analyzing the Effects of Climate and Thermal Configuration on Community Energy Storage Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Coleman, D.; Chen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Community energy storage (CES) has been proposed to mitigate the high variation in output from renewable sources and reduce peak load on the electrical grid. Thousands of these systems may be distributed around the grid to provide benefits to local distribution circuits and to the grid as a whole when aggregated. CES must be low cost to purchase and install and also largely maintenance free through more than 10 years of service life to be acceptable to most utilities.Achieving the required system life time is a major uncertainty for lithium-ion batteries. The lifetime and immediate system performance of batteries can change drastically with battery temperature, which is a strong function of system packaging, local climate, electrical duty cycle, and other factors. In other Li-ion applications, this problem is solved via air or liquid heating and cooling systems that may need occasional maintenance throughout their service life. CES requires a maintenance-free thermal management system providing protection from environmental conditions while rejecting heat from a moderate electrical duty cycle. Thus, the development of an effective, low-cost, zero-maintenance thermal management system poses a challenge critical to the success of CES. NREL and Southern California Edison have collaborated to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of various CES thermal configurations in multiple climates by building a model of CES based on collected test data, integrating it with an NREL-developed Li-ion degradation model, and applying CES electrical duty cycles and historic location-specific meteorological data to forecast battery thermal response and degradation through a 10-year service life.

  6. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S.; Williams, H.R.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system, and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  7. High-speed thermal cycling system and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.A.; Jaklevic, J.M.

    1996-04-16

    A thermal cycling system and method of use are described. The thermal cycling system is based on the circulation of temperature-controlled water directly to the underside of thin-walled polycarbonate plates. The water flow is selected from a manifold fed by pumps from heated reservoirs. The plate wells are loaded with typically 15-20 microliters of reagent mix for the PCR process. Heat transfer through the thin polycarbonate is sufficiently rapid that the contents reach thermal equilibrium with the water in less than 15 seconds. Complete PCR amplification runs of 40 three-step cycles have been performed in as little as 14.5 minutes, with the results showing substantially enhanced specificity compared to conventional technology requiring run times in excess of 100 minutes. The plate clamping station is designed to be amenable to robotic loading and unloading of the system. It includes a heated lid, thus eliminating the need for mineral oil overlay of the reactants. The present system includes three or more plate holder stations, fed from common reservoirs but operating with independent switching cycles. The system can be modularly expanded. 13 figs.

  8. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  9. High-speed thermal cycling system and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Anthony D. A.; Jaklevic, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal cycling system and method of use are described. The thermal cycling system is based on the-circulation of temperature-controlled water directly to the underside of thin-walled polycarbonate microtiter plates. The water flow is selected from a manifold fed by pumps from heated reservoirs. The plate wells are loaded with typically 15-20 .mu.l of reagent mix for the PCR process. Heat transfer through the thin polycarbonate is sufficiently rapid that the contents reach thermal equilibrium with the water in less than 15 seconds. Complete PCR amplification runs of 40 three-step cycles have been performed in as little as 14.5 minutes, with the results showing substantially enhanced specificity compared to conventional technology requiring run times in excess of 100 minutes. The plate clamping station is designed to be amenable to robotic loading and unloading of the system. It includes a heated lid, thus eliminating the need for mineral oil overlay of the reactants. The present system includes three or more plate holder stations, fed from common reservoirs but operating with independent switching cycles. The system can be modularly expanded.

  10. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the

  11. Elimination of direct current distribution systems from new generating stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jancauskas, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper advances the concept that it may be both possible and advantageous to eliminate the traditional direct current distribution system from a new generating station. The latest developments in uninterruptible power supply (UPS) technology are what have made this option technically feasible. A traditional dc distribution system will be compared to an ac distribution system supplied by a UPS to investigate the merits of the proposed approach.

  12. Voices of Experience | Advanced Distribution Management Systems_brochure.indd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insights into Advanced Distribution Management Systems VOICES of Experience February, 2015 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC36-08G028308, Subtask SG10.1011 in conjunction with Energetics Incorporated under contract No. GS-10F-0103J, Subtask J3806.0002. INSIGHTS INTO ADVANCED DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS | DOE 3 Voices of Experience | Advanced Distribution Management Systems When people think of the electric power

  13. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Top Innovation | Department of Energy Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows framed walls and HVAC distribution systems. This Top Innovation profile describes work by Building America research team IBACOS who field tested simplified duct designs in hundreds of homes, confirming the performance of

  14. Scalable Distributed Automation System: Scalable Real-time Decentralized Volt/VAR Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: Caltech is developing a distributed automation system that allows distributed generators—solar panels, wind farms, thermal co-generation systems—to effectively manage their own power. To date, the main stumbling block for distributed automation systems has been the inability to develop software that can handle more than 100,000 distributed generators and be implemented in real time. Caltech’s software could allow millions of generators to self-manage through local sensing, computation, and communication. Taken together, localized algorithms can support certain global objectives, such as maintaining the balance of energy supply and demand, regulating voltage and frequency, and minimizing cost. An automated, grid-wide power control system would ease the integration of renewable energy sources like solar power into the grid by quickly transmitting power when it is created, eliminating the energy loss associated with the lack of renewable energy storage capacity of the grid.

  15. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... For operational management to support the distribution system, the utility's consumers (e.g., homeowners) need to be provided financial incentives. Historically, demand-response ...

  16. Distribution System planning for Smart Grids, ForskEL (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Distribution System planning for Smart Grids, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type...

  17. Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leaks in distribution systems are caused by a number of factors, including pipe corrosion, ... Cathodic protection controls corrosion of metal surfaces by supplying an electrical ...

  18. Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System A method ... Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Laser Spark ...

  19. Fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.

    1990-10-01

    Simulation of the performance of electric lighting systems has been successfully handled using computers, since electric lighting systems have a constant luminous output with respect to intensity and spatial distribution, usually referred to as candlepower distribution, which can be measured and used conveniently. This paper describes an approach of treating fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution, so that the determination of their luminous performance becomes consistent with that of electric lighting systems. The transmitted distribution through fenestration systems due to radiation from the sun, sky and ground is determined from their bidirectional transmittance and the luminance distribution of the sources of radiation. The approach is demonstrated using the experimentally determined bidirectional transmittance of a diffusive sample under the uniform, overcast and clear sky luminance distributions. 6 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  1. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  2. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. ape_13_bennion.pdf (1.2 MB) More Documents & Publications Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Integrated Power Module Cooling Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Power Electronics R&D Annual Progress Report

  3. Determines the Thermal and Optical Properties of Fenestration Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-01-27

    WINDOW4.1 computes the thermal properties of windows and other fenestration elements used in typical residential and commercial buildings. Manufactures, specifiers, architects, consumers, and the energy code specialists all need to know these properties (U-values, Solar Heat Gain Coefficients, optical properties). The use of this program to calculate these properties is typically much more cost effective than laboratory test procedures. Properties of complete window systems are based on libraries (or user input) component data.

  4. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  5. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  6. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  7. NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.: System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Summarizes NiSource Energy Technologies' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D. Includes studying distributed generation interconnection issues and CHP system performance.

  8. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

  9. A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan

    2011-01-15

    Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

  10. Battery management system with distributed wireless sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2016-02-23

    A system for monitoring parameters of an energy storage system having a multiplicity of individual energy storage cells. A radio frequency identification and sensor unit is connected to each of the individual energy storage cells. The radio frequency identification and sensor unit operates to sense the parameter of each individual energy storage cell and provides radio frequency transmission of the parameters of each individual energy storage cell. A management system monitors the radio frequency transmissions from the radio frequency identification and sensor units for monitoring the parameters of the energy storage system.

  11. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems You ...

  12. Thermal Storage R&D for CSP Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage R&D for CSP Systems Thermal Storage R&D for CSP Systems A distinguishing feature of concentrating solar power among other renewable ...

  13. Modeling, design and thermal performance of a BIPV/T system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab in a low energy solar house: Part 1, BIPV/T system and house energy concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Athienitis, A.K.; Galal, Khaled

    2010-11-15

    This paper is the first of two papers that describe the modeling, design, and performance assessment based on monitored data of a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV/T) system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab (VCS) in a prefabricated, two-storey detached, low energy solar house. This house, with a design goal of near net-zero annual energy consumption, was constructed in 2007 in Eastman, Quebec, Canada - a cold climate area. Several novel solar technologies are integrated into the house and with passive solar design to reach this goal. An air-based open-loop BIPV/T system produces electricity and collects heat simultaneously. Building-integrated thermal mass is utilized both in passive and active forms. Distributed thermal mass in the direct gain area and relatively large south facing triple-glazed windows (about 9% of floor area) are employed to collect and store passive solar gains. An active thermal energy storage system (TES) stores part of the collected thermal energy from the BIPV/T system, thus reducing the energy consumption of the house ground source heat pump heating system. This paper focuses on the BIPV/T system and the integrated energy concept of the house. Monitored data indicate that the BIPV/T system has a typical efficiency of about 20% for thermal energy collection, and the annual space heating energy consumption of the house is about 5% of the national average. A thermal model of the BIPV/T system suitable for preliminary design and control of the airflow is developed and verified with monitored data. (author)

  14. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called agents from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing the

  15. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  16. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  17. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects ofmore » both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.« less

  18. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects of both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.

  19. 239Pu Resonance Evaluation for Thermal Benchmark System Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal, Luiz C; Noguere, G; De Saint Jean, C; Kahler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of thermal plutonium solution critical benchmark systems have indicated a deciency in the 239Pu resonance evaluation. To investigate possible solutions to this issue, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party for Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) established Subgroup 34 to focus on the reevaluation of the 239Pu resolved resonance parameters. In addition, the impacts of the prompt neutron multiplication (nubar) and the prompt neutron ssion spectrum (PFNS) have been investigated. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the 239Pu resolved resonance evaluation eort.

  20. Solar-thermal-energy collection/storage-pond system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1982-03-25

    A solar thermal energy collection and storage system is disclosed. Water is contained, and the water surface is exposed directly to the sun. The central part of an impermeable membrane is positioned below the water's surface and above its bottom with a first side of the membrane pointing generally upward in its central portion. The perimeter part of the membrane is placed to create a watertight boundary separating the water into a first volume which is directly exposable to the sun and which touches the membranes first side, and a second volumn which touches the membranes second side. A salt is dissolved in the first water volume.

  1. Integrated Distribution Management System for Alabama Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe

    2013-03-31

    Southern Company Services, under contract with the Department of Energy, along with Alabama Power, Alstom Grid (formerly AREVA T&D) and others moved the work product developed in the first phase of the Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) from “Proof of Concept” to true deployment through the activity described in this Final Report. This Project – Integrated Distribution Management Systems in Alabama – advanced earlier developed proof of concept activities into actual implementation and furthermore completed additional requirements to fully realize the benefits of an IDMS. These tasks include development and implementation of a Distribution System based Model that enables data access and enterprise application integration.

  2. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  3. Momentum Integral Network Method for Thermal-Hydraulic Systems Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-11-20

    EPIPE is used for design or design evaluation of complex large piping systems. The piping systems can be viewed as a network of straight pipe elements (or tangents) and curved elements (pipe bends) interconnected at joints (or nodes) with intermediate supports and anchors. The system may be subject to static loads such as thermal, dead weight, internal pressure, or dynamic loads such as earthquake motions and flow-induced vibrations, or any combination of these. MINET (Momentummore » Integral NETwork) was developed for the transient analysis of intricate fluid flow and heat transfer networks, such as those found in the balance of plant in power generating facilities. It can be utilized as a stand-alone program or interfaced to another computer program for concurrent analysis. Through such coupling, a computer code limited by either the lack of required component models or large computational needs can be extended to more fully represent the thermal hydraulic system thereby reducing the need for estimating essential transient boundary conditions. The MINET representation of a system is one or more networks of volumes, segments, and boundaries linked together via heat exchangers only, i.e., heat can transfer between networks, but fluids cannot. Volumes are used to represent tanks or other volume components, as well as locations in the system where significant flow divisions or combinations occur. Segments are composed of one or more pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, turbines, and/or valves each represented by one or more nodes. Boundaries are simply points where the network interfaces with the user or another computer code. Several fluids can be simulated, including water, sodium, NaK, and air.« less

  4. Improving the efficiency of residential air-distribution systems in California, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modera, M.; Dickerhoff, D.; Jansky, R.; Smith, B.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes the results of the first phase of a multiyear research project. The project`s goal is to investigate ways to improve the efficiency of air-distribution systems in detached, single-family residences in California. First-year efforts included: A survey of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) contractors in California. A 31-house field study of distribution-system performance based on diagnostic measurements. Development of an integrated air-flow and thermal-simulation tool for investigating residential air-distribution system performance. Highlights of the field results include the following: Building envelopes for houses built after 1979 appear to be approximately 30% tighter. Duct-system tightness showed no apparent improvement in post-1979 houses. Distribution-fan operation added an average of 0.45 air changes per hour (ACH) to the average measured rate of 0.24 ACH. The simulation tool developed is based on DOE-2 for the thermal simulations and on MOVECOMP, an air-flow network simulation model, for the duct/house leakage and flow interactions. The first complete set of simulations performed (for a ranch house in Sacramento) indicated that the overall heating-season efficiency of the duct systems was approximately 65% to 70% and that the overall cooling-season efficiency was between 60% and 75%. The wide range in cooling-season efficiency reflects the difference between systems with attic return ducts and those with crawl-space return ducts, the former being less efficient. The simulations also indicated that the building envelope`s UA-value, a measurement of thermoconductivity, did not have a significant impact on the overall efficiency of the air-distribution system.

  5. A distributed timing system for sychronizing control and data correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stettler, M.; Thout, M.; Dalesio, L.R.; Cole, R.; Fite, C.; Slentz, G.; Warren, D.

    1992-09-01

    Synchronization is necessary in experimental physics machines to provide positive control over related events. The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) timing system provides this function through a distributed control system, known as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The EPICS timing system was designed to take advantage of a distributed architecture, and provides time stamping for synchronous data correlation as well as event control. The system has been successfully demonstrated on over a dozen controller nodes for operation and data analysis. The design of the hardware, software, and operational results are discussed.

  6. Waste Heat Recovery System: Lightweight Thermal Energy Recovery (LIGHTER) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GM is using shape memory alloys that require as little as a 10C temperature difference to convert low-grade waste heat into mechanical energy. When a stretched wire made of shape memory alloy is heated, it shrinks back to its pre-stretched length. When the wire cools back down, it becomes more pliable and can revert to its original stretched shape. This expansion and contraction can be used directly as mechanical energy output or used to drive an electric generator. Shape memory alloy heat engines have been around for decades, but the few devices that engineers have built were too complex, required fluid baths, and had insufficient cycle life for practical use. GM is working to create a prototype that is practical for commercial applications and capable of operating with either air- or fluid-based heat sources. GMs shape memory alloy based heat engine is also designed for use in a variety of non-vehicle applications. For example, it can be used to harvest non-vehicle heat sources, such as domestic and industrial waste heat and natural geothermal heat, and in HVAC systems and generators.

  7. Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nambu, Shigeo

    1985-01-01

    A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

  8. System-wide power management control via clock distribution network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Reed, Don D.

    2015-05-19

    An apparatus, method and computer program product for automatically controlling power dissipation of a parallel computing system that includes a plurality of processors. A computing device issues a command to the parallel computing system. A clock pulse-width modulator encodes the command in a system clock signal to be distributed to the plurality of processors. The plurality of processors in the parallel computing system receive the system clock signal including the encoded command, and adjusts power dissipation according to the encoded command.

  9. Impact of SolarSmart Subdivisions on SMUD's Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, P.; Hambrick, J.; Keesee, M.; Brown, D.

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes the distribution impacts of high penetrations of grid-integrated renewable energy systems, specifically photovoltaic (PV) equipped SolarSmart Homes found in the Anatolia III Residential Community.

  10. Mapping a hierarchical control strategy onto a distributed system architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Thompson, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the control architecture for the Thermal Management System (TMS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It represents one of the major process control subsystems and is responsible for the overall thermal environment during the operational phases of the facility. The author's involvement included the conceptualization, development, design, and implementation of the overall control strategy along with the specification/configuration of the supporting hardware and software. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  12. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-04-27

    A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

  13. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

  14. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  15. Thermal Reactor Code System for Reactor Design and Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-21

    Version: 00 SRAC95 is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors, including cell calculation with burn up, core calculation for any type of thermal reactor; where core burn up calculation and fuel management were done by an auxiliary code. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications were made for nuclear data libraries and programs. In this version,more » many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors. SRAC95 can be used for burnup credit analysis within the ORIGEN2 and SWAT (CCC-714) code system.« less

  16. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas ...

  17. Porter-Thomas distribution in unstable many-body systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volya, Alexander

    2011-04-15

    We use the continuum shell model approach to explore the resonance width distribution in unstable many-body systems. The single-particle nature of a decay, the few-body character of the interaction Hamiltonian, and the collectivity that emerges in nonstationary systems due to the coupling to the continuum of reaction states are discussed. Correlations between the structures of the parent and daughter nuclear systems in the common Fock space are found to result in deviations of decay width statistics from the Porter-Thomas distribution.

  18. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A.; Gee, R.; May, K.

    1997-12-31

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  19. General volume sizing strategy for thermal storage system using phase change material for concentrated solar thermal power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ben; Li, Peiwen; Chan, Cholik; Tumilowicz, Eric

    2014-12-18

    With an auxiliary large capacity thermal storage using phase change material (PCM), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a promising technology for high efficiency solar energy utilization. In a thermal storage system, a dual-media thermal storage tank is typically adopted in industry for the purpose of reducing the use of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) which is usually expensive. While the sensible heat storage system (SHSS) has been well studied, a dual-media latent heat storage system (LHSS) still needs more attention and study. The volume sizing of the thermal storage tank, considering daily cyclic operations, is of particular significance. In this paper, a general volume sizing strategy for LHSS is proposed, based on an enthalpy-based 1D transient model. One example was presented to demonstrate how to apply this strategy to obtain an actual storage tank volume. With this volume, a LHSS can supply heat to a thermal power plant with the HTF at temperatures above a cutoff point during a desired 6 hours of operation. This general volume sizing strategy is believed to be of particular interest for the solar thermal power industry.

  20. General volume sizing strategy for thermal storage system using phase change material for concentrated solar thermal power plant

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Ben; Li, Peiwen; Chan, Cholik; Tumilowicz, Eric

    2014-12-18

    With an auxiliary large capacity thermal storage using phase change material (PCM), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a promising technology for high efficiency solar energy utilization. In a thermal storage system, a dual-media thermal storage tank is typically adopted in industry for the purpose of reducing the use of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) which is usually expensive. While the sensible heat storage system (SHSS) has been well studied, a dual-media latent heat storage system (LHSS) still needs more attention and study. The volume sizing of the thermal storage tank, considering daily cyclic operations, is of particular significance. In thismore » paper, a general volume sizing strategy for LHSS is proposed, based on an enthalpy-based 1D transient model. One example was presented to demonstrate how to apply this strategy to obtain an actual storage tank volume. With this volume, a LHSS can supply heat to a thermal power plant with the HTF at temperatures above a cutoff point during a desired 6 hours of operation. This general volume sizing strategy is believed to be of particular interest for the solar thermal power industry.« less

  1. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment of the hot conditioning system and process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heard, F.J.

    1996-10-10

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. A series of analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the proposed Hot Conditioning System and process for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The analyses were performed using a series of thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the Hot Conditioning System. The subject efforts focus on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms, flow distributions within the multi-canister overpack, and performing process simulations for various purge gases under consideration for the Hot Conditioning System, as well as obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology- based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the Hot Conditioning System design bases.

  2. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  3. Thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demko, Jonathan A; Hassenzahl, William V

    2011-01-01

    Projections of electric power production suggest a major shift to renewables, such as wind and solar, which will be in remote locations where massive quantities of power are available. One solution for transmitting this power over long distances to load centers is direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Electric transmission via dc cables promises to be effective because of the low-loss, highcurrent- carrying capability of HTS wire at cryogenic temperatures. However, the thermal management system for the cable must be carefully designed to achieve reliable and energyefficient operation. Here we extend the analysis of a superconducting dc cable concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which has one stream of liquid nitrogen flowing in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the power cable, and a separate return tube for the nitrogen. Refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km cool both nitrogen streams. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum/cryogenic envelope. Other coolants, including gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen, could provide potential advantages, though they bring some technical challenges to the operation of long-length HTS dc cable systems. A discussion of the heat produced in superconducting cables and a system to remove the heat are discussed. Also, an analysis of the use of various cryogenic fluids in long-distance HTS power cables is presented.

  4. Function allocation in distributed safeguards and security systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlich, G.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Computerized distributed systems are being used to collect and manage data for activities such as nuclear materials accounting, process control, laboratory coordination, and security. Poor choices made in allocating functions to individual processors can make a system unusable by burdening machines with excessive network retrievals and updates. During system design phases, data allocation algorithms based on operation frequencies, field sizes, security information, and reliability requirements can be applied in sensitivity studies to mathematically ensure processor efficiency. The Los Alamos Network Design System (NDS) implements such an allocation algorithm. The authors analyzed a large, existing distributed system to test the cost functions and to compare actual network problems with NDS results. Several common configurations were also designed and studied using the software. From these studies, some basic principles for allocating functions emerged. In this paper recommendations for function allocation in generic systems and related design options are discussed.

  5. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  6. Diagnosing delivery problems in the White House Information Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nahabedian, M.; Shrobe, H.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a collaboration with the White House Office of Media Affairs, members of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory designed a system, called COMLINK, which distributes a daily stream of documents released by the Office of Media Affairs. Approximately 4000 direct subscribers receive information from this service but more than 100,000 people receive the information through redistribution channels. The information is distributed via Email and the World Wide Web. In such a large scale distribution scheme, there is a constant problem of subscriptions becoming invalid because the user`s Email account has terminated. This causes a backwash of hundreds of {open_quotes}bounced mail{close_quotes} messages per day which must be processed by the operators of the COMLINK system. To manage this annoying but necessary task, an expert system named BMES was developed to diagnose the failures of information delivery.

  7. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method Preprint Michael Kuss, Tony Markel, and William Kramer Presented at the 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition Shenzhen, China November 5 - 9, 2010 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5400-48827 January 2011 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor

  8. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP -- This project is inactive -- ANL logo Argonne National Laboratory and project partner Ohio Aerospace Institute, under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, will design, develop, and test a prototype high-temperature and high-efficiency thermal energy storage (TES) system with rapid charging and discharging times. By

  9. Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. O'Brien; Andrew C. Klein; William T. Taitano; Justice Gibson; Brian Myers; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01

    Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

  10. Research and Development for Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES) for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faghri, Amir; Bergman, Theodore L; Pitchumani, Ranga

    2013-09-26

    The overall objective was to develop innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power generation involving phase change materials (PCMs). Specific objectives included embedding thermosyphons and/or heat pipes (TS/HPs) within appropriate phase change materials to significantly reduce thermal resistances within the thermal energy storage system of a large-scale concentrating solar power plant and, in turn, improve performance of the plant. Experimental, system level and detailed comprehensive modeling approaches were taken to investigate the effect of adding TS/HPs on the performance of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems.

  11. Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Modeling Capabilities for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Modeling Capabilities for Enhanced Geothermal Systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  12. Distributed Frequency Control of Prosumer-Based Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazari, MH; Costello, Z; Feizollahi, MJ; Grijalva, S; Egerstedt, M

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed frequency regulation framework for prosumer-based electric energy systems, where a prosumer (producer-consumer) is defined as an intelligent agentwhich can produce, consume, and/or store electricity. Despite the frequency regulators being distributed, stability can be ensured while avoiding inter-area oscillations using a limited control effort. To achieve this, a fully distributed one-step model-predictive control protocol is proposed and analyzed, whereby each prosumer communicates solely with its neighbors in the network. The efficacy of the proposed frequency regulation framework is shown through simulations on two real-world electric energy systems of different scale and complexity. We show that prosumers can indeed bring frequency and power deviations to their desired values after small perturbations.

  13. Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with conventional'' HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

  14. Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with ``conventional`` HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

  15. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.; Perry, S.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  16. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  17. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses—due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low power factor, undersized conductors, leakage to ground, and poor connections—can account for less than 1% to more than 4% of total plant electrical energy consumption.

  18. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  19. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  20. Development of a thermal reclamation system for spent blasting abrasive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, B.B.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Abrasive blasting is the most economical method for paint removal from large surface areas such as the hulls and tanks of oceangoing vessels. Tens of thousands of tons of spent abrasive are generated annually by blasting operations in private and US Navy shipyards. Some of this material is classified as hazardous waste, and nearly all of it is currently being either stockpiled or disposed in landfills. The rapid decline in available landfill space and corresponding rise in landfill tipping fees pose a severe problem for shipyard operators throughout the US. This paper discusses the results of a research and development program initiated by the Institute of Gas Technology and supported by the US Navy to develop and test a fluidized-bed thermal reclamation system for spent abrasive waste minimization. Bench- and pilot-scale reclaimer tests and reclaimed abrasive performance tests are described along with the current status of a program to build and test a 5-ton/hour prototype reclaimer at a US Navy shipyard.

  1. The Thermal Hydraulic Test of the MEGAPIE Cooling System and System Code Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, W.H.; Dementjev, S.; Groeschel, F.; Dierckx, M.

    2006-07-01

    The MEGAPIE project undertaking in Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) aims at design, building, operating and decommissioning a 1 MW liquid-metal spallation target. The design and manufacturing phases are almost finished. The target and the required ancillary systems were installed on a test facility called MEGAPIE Integral Test Stand (MITS). The cooling system is among the ancillary systems being tested. A series of thermal hydraulic tests were conducted for testing the main functions of the cooling system. These tests were focused on obtaining data about the system's stability, cooling capacity, and the transient responses. The consistency of the data was checked by comparing the heat balance between the input and output power of each heat exchanger (HEX) in the system. The main flow in the target can only be determined by the thermal balance because the built in flow meter did not work properly. The steady state pump speed, flow rates, and overall heat transfer coefficients (OHTC) of the whole cooling system were measured and analyzed for characterization of the system. Those results were used to refine numerical model of the system. A special version of RELAP5/Mod3.2.2 implemented with the fluid properties of LBE was used for the simulation study. Two cases of 'beam trip' transients were simulated and compared with test results. The agreements were good in both cases and the main features of the transients were captured by the RELAP5. This was the first step of validating RELAP5 model. (authors)

  2. Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam Jump to: navigation, search Name Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam AgencyCompany...

  3. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  4. Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System May 27, 2010 - 11:46am Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs A floating platform, simple turbine and tropical oceans could be the key to producing 30 percent or more of the total energy the world consumes today, according to Lockheed Martin. The technology in play: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Lockheed Martin

  5. Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System Savannah River National Laboratory logo -- This project is inactive -- The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, is collaborating with Curtin University (CU) to evaluate new metal hydride materials for thermal energy storage (TES) that meet the SunShot cost and performance targets for

  6. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-05-15

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

  7. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  8. The Fermilab CMTF cryogenic distribution remote control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.

    2014-01-29

    The Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) is able to provide the necessary test bed for measuring the performance of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities in a cryomodule (CM). The CMTF have seven 300 KW screw compressors, two liquid helium refrigerators, and two Cryomodule Test Stands (CMTS). CMTS1 is designed for 1.3 GHz cryomodule operating in a pulsed mode (PM) and CMTS2 is for cryomodule operating in Half-Wave (HW) and Continuous Wave (CW) mode. Based on the design requirement, each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in distant locations. Therefore choosing Siemens Process Control System 7-400, DL205 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET are the ideal choices for CMTF cryogenic distribution real-time remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time remote control systems.

  9. Foundational Report Series: Advanced Distribution Management Systems for Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianhui

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the application functions for distribution management systems (DMS). The application functions are those surveyed by the IEEE Power and Energy Society’s Task Force on Distribution Management Systems. The description of each DMS application includes functional requirements and the key features and characteristics in current and future deployments, as well as a summary of the major benefits provided by each function to stakeholders — from customers to shareholders. Due consideration is paid to the fact that the realizable benefits of each function may differ by type of utility, whether investor-owned, cooperative, or municipal. This report is sufficient to define the functional requirements of each application for system procurement (request-for-proposal [RFP]) purposes and for developing preliminary high-level use cases for those functions. However, it should not be considered a design document that will enable a vendor or software developer to design and build actual DMS applications.

  10. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C. ); Todosow, M. )

    1992-09-22

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized.

  11. Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating Component and System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J; Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Mingyu; WolfeIV, Edward; Craig, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Cabin heating of current electric vehicle (EV) designs is typically provided using electrical energy from the traction battery, since waste heat is not available from an engine as in the case of a conventional automobile. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required for space heating of an EV can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, its driving range can be reduced very significantly during the winter season, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage from an advanced phase change material (PCM) has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The present paper focuses on the modeling and analysis of this electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) and is a companion to the paper Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating. A detailed heat transfer model was developed to simulate the PCM heat exchanger that is at the heart of the ePATHS and was subsequently used to analyze and optimize its design. The results from this analysis were integrated into a MATLAB Simulink system model to simulate the fluid flow, pressure drop and heat transfer in all components of the ePATHS. The system model was then used to predict the performance of the climate control system in the vehicle and to evaluate control strategies needed to achieve the desired temperature control in the cabin. The analysis performed to design the ePATHS is described in detail and the system s predicted performance in a vehicle HVAC system is presented.

  12. Solid state thermal rectifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    None

    2016-07-05

    Thermal rectifiers using linear nanostructures as core thermal conductors have been fabricated. A high mass density material is added preferentially to one end of the nanostructures to produce an axially non-uniform mass distribution. The resulting nanoscale system conducts heat asymmetrically with greatest heat flow in the direction of decreasing mass density. Thermal rectification has been demonstrated for linear nanostructures that are electrical insulators, such as boron nitride nanotubes, and for nanostructures that are conductive, such as carbon nanotubes.

  13. Fisher Pierce products for improving distribution system reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The challenges facing the electric power utility today in the 1990s has changed significantly from those of even 10 years ago. The proliferation of automation and the personnel computer have heightened the requirements and demands put on the electric distribution system. Today`s customers, fighting to compete in a world market, demand quality, uninterrupted power service. Privatization and the concept of unregulated competition require utilities to streamline to minimize system support costs and optimize power delivery efficiency. Fisher Pierce, serving the electric utility industry for over 50 years, offers a line of products to assist utilities in meeting these challenges. The Fisher Pierce Family of products provide tools for the electric utility to exceed customer service demands. A full line of fault indicating devices are offered to expedite system power restoration both locally and in conjunction with SCADA systems. Fisher Pierce is the largest supplier of roadway lighting controls, manufacturing on a 6 million dollar automated line assuring the highest quality in the world. The distribution system capacitor control line offers intelligent local or radio linked switching control to maintain system voltage and Var levels for quality and cost efficient power delivery under varying customer loads. Additional products, designed to authenticate revenue metering calibration and verify on sight metering service wiring, help optimize the profitability of the utility assuring continuous system service improvements for their customers.

  14. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to ???¢????????networks???¢??????? in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline

  15. Parallel Breadth-First Search on Distributed Memory Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Computational Research Division; Buluc, Aydin; Madduri, Kamesh

    2011-04-15

    Data-intensive, graph-based computations are pervasive in several scientific applications, and are known to to be quite challenging to implement on distributed memory systems. In this work, we explore the design space of parallel algorithms for Breadth-First Search (BFS), a key subroutine in several graph algorithms. We present two highly-tuned par- allel approaches for BFS on large parallel systems: a level-synchronous strategy that relies on a simple vertex-based partitioning of the graph, and a two-dimensional sparse matrix- partitioning-based approach that mitigates parallel commu- nication overhead. For both approaches, we also present hybrid versions with intra-node multithreading. Our novel hybrid two-dimensional algorithm reduces communication times by up to a factor of 3.5, relative to a common vertex based approach. Our experimental study identifies execu- tion regimes in which these approaches will be competitive, and we demonstrate extremely high performance on lead- ing distributed-memory parallel systems. For instance, for a 40,000-core parallel execution on Hopper, an AMD Magny- Cours based system, we achieve a BFS performance rate of 17.8 billion edge visits per second on an undirected graph of 4.3 billion vertices and 68.7 billion edges with skewed degree distribution.

  16. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

  17. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-10

    Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier system with increased temperature capability and reliability relative to current systems. This report describes the bond coat development and deposition, manufacturing, and repair.

  18. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  19. Method for adding nodes to a quantum key distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grice, Warren P

    2015-02-24

    An improved quantum key distribution (QKD) system and method are provided. The system and method introduce new clients at intermediate points along a quantum channel, where any two clients can establish a secret key without the need for a secret meeting between the clients. The new clients perform operations on photons as they pass through nodes in the quantum channel, and participate in a non-secret protocol that is amended to include the new clients. The system and method significantly increase the number of clients that can be supported by a conventional QKD system, with only a modest increase in cost. The system and method are compatible with a variety of QKD schemes, including polarization, time-bin, continuous variable and entanglement QKD.

  20. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  1. Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-12-31

    Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system including providing to one or more compiling nodes software to be compiled, wherein at least a portion of the software to be compiled is to be executed by one or more nodes; compiling, by the compiling node, the software; maintaining, by the compiling node, any compiled software to be executed on the compiling node; selecting, by the compiling node, one or more nodes in a next tier of the hierarchy of the distributed processing system in dependence upon whether any compiled software is for the selected node or the selected node's descendents; sending to the selected node only the compiled software to be executed by the selected node or selected node's descendent.

  2. Feasibility Study: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  3. Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-11-01

    Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

  4. Optimal operational planning of cogeneration systems with thermal storage by the decomposition method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoyama, R.; Ito, K.

    1995-12-01

    An optimal operational planning method is proposed for cogeneration systems with thermal storage. The daily operational strategy of constituent equipment is determined so as to minimize the daily operational cost subject to the energy demand requirement. This optimization problem is formulated as a large-scale mixed-integer linear programming one, and it is solved by means of the decomposition method. Effects of thermal storage on the operation of cogeneration systems are examined through a numerical study on a gas engine-driven cogeneration system installed in a hotel. This method is a useful tool for evaluating the economic and energy-saving properties of cogeneration systems with thermal storage.

  5. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants SENER logo SENER, under the Baseload CSP FOA, aimed to develop a highly efficient, low-maintenance and economical thermal energy storage (TES) system using solid graphite modular blocks for CSP plants. Approach Graphic of a rectangle shape to the left of a row or smaller rectangles stacked in two rows. The main objective was to evaluate a TES system able to

  6. Code System to Calculate Fuel Rod Thermal Performance.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-11-27

    Version: 00 GT2R2 is Revision 2 of GAPCON-THERMAL-2 and is used to calculate the thermal behavior of a nuclear fuel rod during normal steady-state operation. The program was developed as a tool for estimating fuel-cladding gap conductances and fuel-stored energy. Models used include power history, fission gas generation and release, fuel relocation and densification, and fuel-cladding gap conductance. The gas release and relocation models can be used to make either best-estimate or conservative predictions. Themore » code is used by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for audit calculations of nuclear fuel thermal performance computer codes.« less

  7. Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a system and method for controlling the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of solar radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

  8. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off

  9. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

  10. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Discusses comfort model enhancement/validation, climate system efficiency parameters and system trade off, and powertrain mode operation changes to further vehicle energy saving while preserving occupant comfort.

  11. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  12. Entanglement evolution of a two-mode Gaussian system in various thermal environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaescu, Tatiana Isar, Aurelian

    2015-12-07

    We describe the evolution of the quantum entanglement of an open system consisting of two bosonic modes interacting with a common thermal environment, described by two different models. The initial state of the system is taken of Gaussian form. In the case of a thermal bath, characterized by temperature and dissipation constant which correspond to an asymptotic Gibbs state of the system, we show that for a zero temperature of the thermal bath an initial entangled Gaussian state remains entangled for all finite times. For an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death takes place and we calculate the survival time of entanglement. For the second model of the environment, corresponding to a non-Gibbs asymptotic state, we study the possibility of generating entanglement. We show that the generation of the entanglement between two uncoupled bosonic modes is possible only for definite values of the temperature and dissipation constant, which characterize the thermal environment.

  13. Method and device for predicting wavelength dependent radiation influences in thermal systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kee, Robert J.; Ting, Aili

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for predicting the spectral (wavelength-dependent) radiation transport in thermal systems including interaction by the radiation with partially transmitting medium. The predicted model of the thermal system is used to design and control the thermal system. The predictions are well suited to be implemented in design and control of rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactors. The method involves generating a spectral thermal radiation transport model of an RTP reactor. The method also involves specifying a desired wafer time dependent temperature profile. The method further involves calculating an inverse of the generated model using the desired wafer time dependent temperature to determine heating element parameters required to produce the desired profile. The method also involves controlling the heating elements of the RTP reactor in accordance with the heating element parameters to heat the wafer in accordance with the desired profile.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  15. Experience base for Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems: A preliminary survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayberry, J.; Geimer, R.; Gillins, R.; Steverson, E.M.; Dalton, D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    In the process of considering thermal technologies for potential treatment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory mixed transuranic contaminated wastes, a preliminary survey of the experience base available from Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems is reported. A list of known commercial radioactive waste facilities in the United States and some international thermal treatment facilities are provided. Survey focus is upon the US Department of Energy thermal treatment facilities. A brief facility description and a preliminary summary of facility status, and problems experienced is provided for a selected subset of the DOE facilities.

  16. Cooled electronic system with thermal spreaders coupling electronics cards to cold rails

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2013-07-23

    Liquid-cooled electronic systems are provided which include an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket or removal of the card from the socket. A liquid-cooled cold rail is disposed at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader couples the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The thermally conductive extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  17. Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon

    2016-06-14

    Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.

  18. Panel 2, Modeling the Financial and System Benefits of Energy Storage Applications in Distribution Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling the Financial and System Benefits of Energy Storage Applications in Distribution Systems Patrick Balducci, Senior Economist, Pacific NW National Laboratory Hydrogen Energy Storage for Grid and Transportation Services Workshop Sacramento, California May 14, 2014 Valuation challenges 2 Source: Lamontagne, C. 2014. Survey of Models and Tools for the Stationary Energy Storage Industry. Presentation at Infocast Storage Week. Santa Clara, CA. Transmission and Distribution planning Models lack

  19. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-12-26

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

  20. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime ?200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a regolith mound. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  1. Site selection for concentrated solar thermal systems in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report identifies ares on the five major islands (Oahu, Maui, Molakai, Hawaii, and Kauai) that have the potential for concentrating solar thermal applications. The locations are based on existing solar insolation (mostly global and some direct normal) data, other meteorological information, land use, potential end-use, and existing facilities. These areas are: - Western coast of Oahu, especially near Kahe Point - Maui plains area - South-Central Molokai - Kona coast of the Big Island, especially Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii - Western and southern areas of Kauai. Monitoring stations are recommended at some of these sites to obtain direct normal insolation data for future evaluation.

  2. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility | Energy Systems Integratio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility At the Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF), researchers use state-of-the-art laboratories and outdoor test beds to ...

  3. Foundational Report Series. Advanced Distribution management Systems for Grid Modernization (Importance of DMS for Distribution Grid Modernization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianhui

    2015-09-01

    Grid modernization is transforming the operation and management of electric distribution systems from manual, paper-driven business processes to electronic, computer-assisted decisionmaking. At the center of this business transformation is the distribution management system (DMS), which provides a foundation from which optimal levels of performance can be achieved in an increasingly complex business and operating environment. Electric distribution utilities are facing many new challenges that are dramatically increasing the complexity of operating and managing the electric distribution system: growing customer expectations for service reliability and power quality, pressure to achieve better efficiency and utilization of existing distribution system assets, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by accommodating high penetration levels of distributed generating resources powered by renewable energy sources (wind, solar, etc.). Recent “storm of the century” events in the northeastern United States and the lengthy power outages and customer hardships that followed have greatly elevated the need to make power delivery systems more resilient to major storm events and to provide a more effective electric utility response during such regional power grid emergencies. Despite these newly emerging challenges for electric distribution system operators, only a small percentage of electric utilities have actually implemented a DMS. This paper discusses reasons why a DMS is needed and why the DMS may emerge as a mission-critical system that will soon be considered essential as electric utilities roll out their grid modernization strategies.

  4. Development and Demonstration of an Innovative Thermal Energy Storage System for Baseload Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Y. Goswami

    2012-09-04

    The objective of this project is to research and develop a thermal energy storage system (operating range 3000C ???¢???????? 450 0C ) based on encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) that can meet the utility-scale base-load concentrated solar power plant requirements at much lower system costs compared to the existing thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The major focus of this program is to develop suitable encapsulation methods for existing low-cost phase change materials that would provide a cost effective and reliable solution for thermal energy storage to be integrated in solar thermal power plants. This project proposes a TES system concept that will allow for an increase of the capacity factor of the present CSP technologies to 75% or greater and reduce the cost to less than $20/kWht.

  5. Distribution System Voltage Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, E.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report examines the performance of commonly used distribution voltage regulation methods under reverse power flow.

  6. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, George; Meyers, Steven J.; Lee, Arthur

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

  7. Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee Zia Mirza

    2008-10-01

    PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to

  8. Sheet beam model for intense space-charge: with application to Debye screening and the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies in a thermal equilibrium beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, Steven M.; Friedman, Alex; Bazouin, Guillaume

    2011-01-10

    A one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson model for sheet beams is reviewed and extended to provide a simple framework for analysis of space-charge effects. Centroid and rms envelope equations including image charge effects are derived and reasonable parameter equivalences with commonly employed 2D transverse models of unbunched beams are established. This sheet beam model is then applied to analyze several problems of fundamental interest. A sheet beam thermal equilibrium distribution in a continuous focusing channel is constructed and shown to have analogous properties to two- d three-dimensional thermal equilibrium models in terms of the equilibrium structure and Deybe screening properties. The simpler formulation for sheet beams is exploited to explicitly calculate the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies within a thermal equilibrium beam. It is shown that as space-charge intensity increases, the frequency distribution becomes broad, suggesting that beams with strong space-charge can have improved stability.

  9. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load

  10. Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy The stack characterization system (SCS) is a tele-operated remote system that collects samples and data to characterize the quantitative and qualitative levels of contamination inside off-gas stacks protecting workers from the physical, radiological and chemical hazards of deteriorating contaminated stacks. Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks (130.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Uranium Downblending and Disposition

  11. Best Estimate Code System to Calculate Thermal & Hydraulic Phenomena in a Nuclear Reactor or Related System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-19

    Version 00 RELAP4/MOD7/101 performs best estimate analyses of nuclear reactors or related systems undergoing a transient. Transient thermal-hydraulic, two-phase phenomena are calculated from formulations of one-dimensional, homogeneous, equilibrium conservation equations for water mass, momentum, and energy. Heat structures are modeled using a transient one-dimensional heat conduction solution that is coupled to the fluid through heat transfer relations. Various explicit models are used to calculate nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium behavior including a phase separation model, a vertical slipmore » model, and a nonequilibrium model. Other models are used to represent critical flow, reactor kinetics, pressurized water reactor reflood behavior, nuclear fuel rod swelling and blockage, and components such as pumps, valves, and accumulators.« less

  12. Review of thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. Volume I. Synopsis and executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H. L.; Osteryoung, R. A.

    1980-08-01

    Thermally regenerative electrochemical systems (TRES) are closed systems that convert heat into electricity in an electrochemical heat engine that is Carnot cycle limited in efficiency. Past and present work on such systems is reviewed. Two broad classes of TRES are based on the types of energy inputs required for regeneration: thermal alone and coupled thermal and electrolytic. The thermal regeneration alone encompasses electrochemical systems (galvanic or fuel cells) in which one or more products are formed. The regeneration can be performed in single or multiple steps. The compounds include metal hydrides, halides, oxides, chalcogenides, and alloys or bimetallic systems. The coupled thermal and electrolytic regeneration encompasses electrochemical systems (galvanic or fuel cells) regenerated by electrolysis at a different temperature or different pressure. Examples include metal halides and water. Thermogalvanic or nonisothermal cells are included in this category. Also included are electrochemical engines in which the working electroactive fluid is isothermally expanded through an electrolyte. TRES cover temperature ranges from about 20/sup 0/C to 1000/sup 0/C. Engines with power outputs of 0.1 mW/cm/sup 2/ to 1 W/cm/sup 2/ have been demonstrated. Recommendations are made of areas of research in science and engineering that would have long-range benefit to a TRES program.

  13. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-07

    Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability, for the Advanced Turbine Systems program (gas turbine). The base program consists of three phases: Phase I, program planning (complete); Phase II, development; and Phase III (selected specimen-bench test). Work is currently being performed in Phase II.

  14. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

    1996-09-10

    A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  15. Thermal energy storage with liquid-liquid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santana, E.A.; Stiel, L.I.

    1989-03-01

    The use of liquid-liquid mixtures for heat and cool storage applications has been investigated. Suitable mixtures exhibit large changes in the heat of mixing above and below the critical solution temperature of the system. Analytical procedures have been utilized to determine potential energy storage capabilities of systems with upper or lower critical solution temperatures. It has been found that aqueous systems with lower critical solution temperatures in a suitable range can result in large increases in the effective heat capacity in the critical region. For cool storage with a system of this type, the cooling process results in a transformation from two liquid phases to a single phase. Heats of mixing have been measured with a flow calorimeter system for a number of potential mixtures, and the results are summarized.

  16. Some characteristics of emerging distribution systems considering the smart grid initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Hilary E.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Heydt, Gerald T.

    2010-06-15

    Modernization of the electric power system in the United States is driven by the Smart Grid Initiative. Many changes are planned in the coming years to the distribution side of the U.S. electricity delivery infrastructure to embody the idea of ''smart distribution systems.'' However, no functional or technical definition of a smart distribution system has yet been accepted by all. (author)

  17. An Industrial Membrane System Suitable for Distributed Used Oil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    such as thermal and chemical stability, including waste oil re-refining, coal tar oil clean-up, and FCC slurry upgrading. * In parallel, use these applications and know-how ...

  18. Creation of an Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To create an Enhanced Geothermal System on the margin of the Cosofield through the hydraulic, thermal, and/or chemical stimulation of one or more tight injection wells; To increase the productivity of the Cosofield by 10 MWe; To develop and calibrate geomechanical, geochemical, and fluid flow models in order to extend the Coso/EGS concepts to wherever appropriate tectonic and thermal conditions apply.

  19. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swerdlow, Harold P.; Wittwer, Carl T.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

  20. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swerdlow, H.P.; Wittwer, C.T.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes an apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column. 6 figs.

  1. An investigation of thermally driven acoustical oscillations in helium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerst, J.D.

    1990-08-01

    The phenomenon of thermal-acoustic oscillation is seen to arise spontaneously in gas columns subjected to steep temperature gradients, particularly in tubes connecting liquid helium reservoirs with the ambient environment. This if often the arrangement for installed cryogenic instrumentation and is accompanied by undesirably large heat transfer rates to the cold region. Experimental data are collected and matched to theoretical predictions of oscillatory behavior; these results are in good agreement with the analytical model and with previously collected data. The present experiment places the open ends of oscillating tubes of the various lengths and cross sections in communication with flowing helium in the subcooled, 2-phase, or superheated state while the other ends are maintained at some controlled, elevated temperature. Assorted cold end conditions are achieved through adjustments to the Fermilab Tevatron satellite test refrigerator to which the test cryostat is connected. The warm, closed ends of the tubes are maintained by isothermal baths of liquid nitrogen, ice water, and boiling water. The method is contrasted to previous arrangements whereby tubes are run from room temperature into or adjacent to a stagnant pool of liquid helium. Additionally, the effect of pulsations in the flowing helium stream is explored through operation of the refrigerator's wet and dry expanders during data collection. These data confirm the theory to which try were compared and support its use in the design of cryogenic sensing lines for avoidance of thermoacoustic oscillation.

  2. JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Hutton; Nikhil Patel; Kyle Martin; Devinder Singh

    2008-02-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a substoichiometric air downdraft gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000 C). At this temperature, moisture in the biomass acts as an essential carbon-gasifying medium, reducing the equivalence ratio at which the gasifier can operate with complete carbon conversion. Calculations show gross conversion efficiencies up to 45% (higher heating value) for biomass moisture levels up to 40% (wt basis). Experimental work on a bench-scale gasifier demonstrated increased tar cracking within the gasifier and increased energy density of the resultant syngas. A series of experiments on wood chips demonstrated tar output in the range of 9.9 and 234 mg/m{sup 3}. Both button cells and a 100-watt stack was tested on syngas from the gasifier. Both achieved steady-state operation with a 22% and 15% drop in performance, respectively, relative to pure hydrogen. In addition, tar tolerance testing on button cells demonstrated an upper limit of tar tolerance of approximately 1%, well above the tar output of the gasifier. The predicted system efficiency was revised down to 33% gross and 27% net system efficiency because of the results of the gasifier and fuel cell experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of thermally integrating a gasifier and a high-temperature fuel cell in small distributed power systems.

  3. Linac cryogenic distribution system maintenance and upgrades at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.; Wright, M.; Ganni, V.

    2014-01-29

    The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) distribution system to the CEBAF and FEL linacs at Jefferson Lab (JLab) experienced a planned warm up during the late summer and fall of 2012 for the first time after its commissioning in 1991. Various maintenance and modifications were performed to support high beam availability to the experimental users, meet 10 CFR 851 requirements for pressure systems, address operational issues, and prepare the cryogenic interfaces for the high-gradient cryomodules needed for the 12 GeV upgrade. Cryogenic maintenance and installation work had to be coordinated with other activities in the linacs and compete for manpower from other department installation activities. With less than a quarter of the gas storage capacity available to handle the boil-off from the more than 40 cryomodules, 35,000 Nm{sup 3} of helium was re-liquefied and shipped to a vendor via a liquid tanker trailer. Nearly 200 u-tubes had to be removed and stored while seals were replaced on related equipment such as vacuum pump outs, bayonet isolation and process valves.

  4. Linac cryogenic distribution system maintenance and upgrades at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Kelly D.; Wright, Mathew C.; Ganni, Venkatarao

    2014-01-01

    The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) distribution system to the CEBAF and FEL linacs at Jefferson Lab (JLab) experienced a planned warm up during the late summer and fall of 2012 for the first time after its commissioning in 1991. Various maintenance and modifications were performed to support high beam availability to the experimental users, meet 10 CFR 851 requirements for pressure systems, address operational issues, and prepare the cryogenic interfaces for the high-gradient cryomodules needed for the 12 GeV upgrade. Cryogenic maintenance and installation work had to be coordinated with other activities in the linacs and compete for manpower from other department installation activities. With less than a quarter of the gas storage capacity available to handle the boil-off from the more than 40 cryomodules, 35,000 Nm{sup 3} of helium was re-liquefied and shipped to a vendor via a liquid tanker trailer. Nearly 200 u-tubes had to be removed and stored while seals were replaced on related equipment such as vacuum pump outs, bayonet isolation and process valves.

  5. Cybersecurity through Real-Time Distributed Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, Roger A; Manges, Wayne W; MacIntyre, Lawrence Paul; Nutaro, James J; Munro Jr, John K; Ewing, Paul D; Howlader, Mostofa; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Wallace, Richard M; Olama, Mohammed M

    2010-04-01

    Critical infrastructure sites and facilities are becoming increasingly dependent on interconnected physical and cyber-based real-time distributed control systems (RTDCSs). A mounting cybersecurity threat results from the nature of these ubiquitous and sometimes unrestrained communications interconnections. Much work is under way in numerous organizations to characterize the cyber threat, determine means to minimize risk, and develop mitigation strategies to address potential consequences. While it seems natural that a simple application of cyber-protection methods derived from corporate business information technology (IT) domain would lead to an acceptable solution, the reality is that the characteristics of RTDCSs make many of those methods inadequate and unsatisfactory or even harmful. A solution lies in developing a defense-in-depth approach that ranges from protection at communications interconnect levels ultimately to the control system s functional characteristics that are designed to maintain control in the face of malicious intrusion. This paper summarizes the nature of RTDCSs from a cybersecurity perspec tive and discusses issues, vulnerabilities, candidate mitigation approaches, and metrics.

  6. Analytical evaluation of thermal conductance and heat capacities of one-dimensional material systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saygi, Salih

    2014-02-15

    We theoretically predict some thermal properties versus temperature dependence of one dimensional (1D) material nanowire systems. A known method is used to provide an efficient and reliable analytical procedure for wide temperature range. Predicted formulas are expressed in terms of Bloch-Grneisen functions and Debye functions. Computing results has proved that the expressions are in excellent agreement with the results reported in the literature even if it is in very low dimension limits of nanowire systems. Therefore the calculation method is a fully predictive approach to calculate thermal conductivity and heat capacities of nanowire material systems.

  7. THERMAL DESIGN OF THE ITER VACUUM VESSEL COOLING SYSTEM (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the cooling system is described in detail, and RELAP5 results are presented. Two parallel pumpheat exchanger trains comprise the design one train is for full-power operation and...

  8. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet), Thermal Systems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... loss on both the cost of electric- ity and amount of ... LLC NRELFS-550-48659 * August 2010 solar power systems. ... of both point-focus and line-focus optical concentrators. ...

  9. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  10. System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems: Phase 1 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.'s base year of a planned 3-year effort to advance distributed power development, deployment, and integration. Its long-term goal is to design ways to extend distributed generation into the physical design and controls of buildings. NET worked to meet this goal through advances in the implementation and control of CHP systems in end-user environments and a further understanding of electric interconnection and siting issues. Important results from the first year were a survey of the state of the art of interconnection issues associated with distributed generation, a survey of the local zoning requirements for the NiSource service territory, and the acquisition of data about the operation, reliability, interconnection, and performance of CHP systems and components of two test sites.

  11. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-10

    The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary is given of progress made in each of these 6 areas.

  12. THERMAL DESIGN OF THE ITER VACUUM VESSEL COOLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-01-01

    RELAP5-3D models of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) have been developed. The design of the cooling system is described in detail, and RELAP5 results are presented. Two parallel pump/heat exchanger trains comprise the design one train is for full-power operation and the other is for emergency operation or operation at decay heat levels. All the components are located inside the Tokamak building (a significant change from the original configurations). The results presented include operation at full power, decay heat operation, and baking operation. The RELAP5-3D results confirm that the design can operate satisfactorily during both normal pulsed power operation and decay heat operation. All the temperatures in the coolant and in the different system components are maintained within acceptable operating limits.

  13. Spatial Distribution of -Crystals in Metallocene-Made Isotactic Polypropylene Crystallized under Combined Thermal and Flow Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Pan, J; Mao, Y; Li, Z; Li, L; Hsiao, B

    2010-01-01

    The present Article reports the relationships between molecular orientation, formation, and spatial distribution of {gamma}-crystals in metallocene-made isotactic polypropylene (m-iPP) samples prepared by two industrial processes: conventional injection molding (CIM) and oscillatory shear injection molding (OSIM), in which combined thermal and flow fields typically exist. In particular, spatial distributions of crystallinity, fraction of {gamma}-crystal (f{gamma}) with respect to {alpha}-crystal, and lamella-branched shish-kebab structure in the shaped samples were characterized by synchrotron two-dimensional (2D) wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The results showed that the crystallinity in any given region of OSIM samples was always higher than that of CIM samples. The value of f{gamma} increased monotonously from skin to core in CIM samples, whereas the corresponding f{gamma} increased nonmonotonically in OSIM samples. The spatial distribution of {gamma}-crystal in OSIM samples can be explained by the epitaxial arrangement between {gamma}- and {alpha}-crystal in a lamella-branched shish-kebab structure. In the proposed model, the parent lamellae of {alpha}-crystal provide secondary nucleation sites for daughter lamellae of {alpha}-crystal and {gamma}-crystal, and the different content of parent lamellae results in varying amounts of {gamma}-crystal. In OSIM samples, the smallest parent-daughter ratio ([R] = 1.38) in the core region led to the lowest fraction of {gamma}-crystal (0.57), but relatively higher {gamma}-crystal content (0.69) at 600 and 1200 {micro}m depth of the samples (corresponding to [R] of 4.5 and 5.8, respectively). This is consistent with the proposed model where more parent lamellae provide more nucleation sites for crystallization, thus resulting in higher content of {gamma}-crystal. The melting behavior of CIM and OSIM samples was studied by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The

  14. Impact of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power system with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity systems. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-scale distributed wind power on bulk system operations by performing a case study on the power system of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).

  15. Gaussian geometric discord of two-mode systems in a thermal environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suciu, Serban Isar, Aurelian

    2014-11-24

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the Gaussian geometric discord for a system consisting of two non-interacting non-resonant bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We take as initial state of the system a two-mode squeezed thermal state and describe the time evolution of the Gaussian geometric discord under the influence of the thermal bath. By tracing the distance between the state of the considered subsystem and the closest classical-quantum Gaussian state we evaluate the Gaussian geometric discord for all times and temperatures. The geometric discord has finite values between 0 and 1 and decreases asymptotically to zero at large times and temperatures with oscillations on the time axis.

  16. Field testing of a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.; Hoyer, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) System has been operated as a field test facility for the past six years. Four short-term and two long-term cycles have been completed to data providing a greatly increased understanding of the efficiency and geochemical effects of high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. A third long-term cycle is currently being planned to operate the ATES system in conjunction with a real heating load and to further study the geochemical impact on the aquifer from heated waste storage cycles. The most critical activities in the preparation for the next cycle have proved to be the applications for the various permits and variances necessary to conduct the third cycle and the matching of the characteristics of the ATES system during heat recovery with a suitable adjacent building thermal load.

  17. Garbage collection for functional languages in a distributed system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckart, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Garbage collection is a helpful facility provided by many applicative languages such as Prolog, SISAL, FP, and Lisp. While these, and other, languages provide easy recognition of actions that may be executed in parallel, the garbage-collection algorithms used for single-machine environments become significantly more inefficient in multi-machine environments. Thus, in order to make effective use of these languages, more-efficient algorithms for collecting inter-machine structures is needed. Reference marking is the algorithm developed to meet these needs. It takes advantage of the semantics of applicative languages allowing each parallel action to be responsible for collecting any discarded structures it was responsible for creating. Simulation results comparing the performance of reference marking with other distributed garbage-collection algorithms are given. A variety of problem types and sizes are examined to determine the effects of particular styles of computation on each of the garbage-collection algorithms. The results gathered demonstrate the usefulness of the reference-marking algorithm in both uni- and multi-machine systems.

  18. Detailed End Use Load Modeling for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2010-04-09

    The field of distribution system analysis has made significant advances in the past ten years. It is now standard practice when performing a power flow simulation to use an algorithm that is capable of unbalanced per-phase analysis. Recent work has also focused on examining the need for time-series simulations instead of examining a single time period, i.e., peak loading. One area that still requires a significant amount of work is the proper modeling of end use loads. Currently it is common practice to use a simple load model consisting of a combination of constant power, constant impedance, and constant current elements. While this simple form of end use load modeling is sufficient for a single point in time, the exact model values are difficult to determine and it is inadequate for some time-series simulations. This paper will examine how to improve simple time invariant load models as well as develop multi-state time variant models.

  19. FY 93 thermal loading systems study final report: Volume 2. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-08-29

    The ability to meet the overall performance requirements for the proposed Mined Geology Disposal System at Yucca Mountain, Nevada requires the two major subsystem (natural barriers and engineered barriers) to positively contribute to containment and radionuclide isolation. In addition to the postclosure performance the proposed repository must meet preclosure requirements of safety, retrievability, and operability. Cost and schedule were also considered. The thermal loading strategy chosen may significantly affect both the postclosure and preclosure performance of the proposed repository. Although the current Site Characterization Plan reference case is 57 kilowatts (kW)/acre, other thermal loading strategies (different areal mass loadings) have been proposed which possess both advantages and disadvantages. The objectives of the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study were to (1) place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading regime that is ``too hot`` and the loading regime that is ``too cold``, to (2) ``grade`` or evaluate the performance, as a function of thermal loading, of the repository to contain high level wastes against performance criteria and to (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability. Additionally, the effort was to (4) identify important uncertainties that need to be resolved by tests and/or analyses in order to complete a performance assessment on the effects of thermal loading. The FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study was conducted from December 1, 1992 to December 30, 1993 and this final report provides the findings of the study. Volume 2 consists of 10 appendices which contain the following: Waste Stream Analysis; Waste Package Design Inputs; Subsurface Design Inputs; Thermal-Hydrologic Model Inputs; Near-Field Calculations; Far-Field; Reliability of Electronics as a Function of Temperature; Cost Analysis Details; Geochemistry; and Areas of Uncertainty in Thermal Loading.

  20. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  1. Exciting News About LEAP-X and Thermal Systems | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exciting News About LEAP-X and Thermal Systems Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Exciting News About LEAP-X and Thermal Systems Todd Wetzel 2011.07.20 I was excited to hear that the LEAP-X engine (Leading Edge Aviation Propulsion) developed by CFM International, a 50/50 joint venture between GE and Snecma

  2. System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems: Phase 2 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.'s second year of a planned 3-year effort to advance distributed power development, deployment, and integration. Its long-term goal is to design ways to extend distributed generation into the physical design and controls of buildings. NET worked to meet this goal through advances in the implementation and control of combined heat and power systems in end-user environments and a further understanding of electric interconnection and siting issues. The specific objective of work under this subcontract is to identify the system integration and implementation issues of DG and develop and test potential solutions to these issues. In addition, recommendations are made to resolve identified issues that may hinder or slow the integration of integrated energy systems into the national energy picture.

  3. Neutron emission effects on fragment mass and kinetic energy distribution from fission of 239{sup Pu} induced by thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Lobato, I.

    2010-08-04

    The average of fragment kinetic energy (E-bar sign*) and the multiplicity of prompt neutrons ({nu}(bar sign)) as a function of fragment mass (m*), as well as the fragment mass yield (Y(m*)) from thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 239}Pu have been measured by Tsuchiya et al.. In that work the mass and kinetic energy are calculated from the measured kinetic energy of one fragment and the difference of time of flight of the two complementary fragments. However they do not present their results about the standard deviation {sigma}{sub E}*(m*). In this work we have made a numerical simulation of that experiment which reproduces its results, assuming an initial distribution of the primary fragment kinetic energy (E(A)) with a constant value of the standard deviation as function of fragment mass ({sigma}{sub E}(A)). As a result of the simulation we obtain the dependence {sigma}{sub E}*(m*) which presents an enhancement between m* = 92 and m* = 110, and a peak at m* = 121.

  4. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  5. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  6. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  7. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Thermal Comfort Modeling Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for ...

  9. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating

  10. System Impacts from Interconnection of Distributed Resources: Current Status and Identification of Needs for Further Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents and evaluates system impacts from the interconnection of distributed resources to transmission and distribution systems, including a focus on renewable distributed resource technologies. The report also identifies system impact-resolution approaches and actions, including extensions of existing approaches. Lastly, the report documents the current challenges and examines what is needed to gain a clearer understanding of what to pursue to better avoid or address system impact issues.

  11. IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    2001-04-01

    The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

  12. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors

  13. Distribution:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive

  14. Request for Information for Distributed Wind Energy Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Department’s Wind Program is seeking feedback from the wind industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders regarding the Energy Department’s new perspective on Distributed Wind R&D.

  15. COMPARISON OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATING DEPOSITED ON IN738 USING STANDARD AIR PLASMA SPRAY WITH 100HE PLASMA SPRAY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uppu, N.; Mensah, P.F.; Ofori, D.

    2006-07-01

    A typical blade material is made of Nickel super alloy and can bear temperatures up to 950C. But the operating temperature of a gas turbine is above the melting point of super alloy nearly at 1500C. This could lead to hot corrosions, high temperature oxidation, creep, thermal fatigue may takes place on the blade material. Though the turbine has an internal cooling system, the cooling is not adequate to reduce the temperature of the blade substrate. Therefore to protect the blade material as well as increase the efficiency of the turbine, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be used. A TBC coating of 250 ?m thick can reduce the temperature by up to 200 C. Air Plasma Spray Process (APS) and High Enthalpy Plasma Spray Process (100HE) were the processes used for coating the blades with the TBCs. Because thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperature, it is desired that these processes yield very low thermal conductivities at high temperatures in order not to damage the blade. An experiment was carried out using Flash line 5000 apparatus to compare the thermal conductivity of both processes.The apparatus could also be used to determine the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of the TBCs. 75 to 2800 K was the temperature range used in the experimentation. It was found out that though 100HE has high deposition efficiency, the thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperatures whiles APS yielded low thermal conductivities.

  16. Leveraging AMI data for distribution system model calibration and situational awareness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peppanen, Jouni; Reno, Matthew J.; Thakkar, Mohini; Grijalva, Santiago; Harley, Ronald G.

    2015-01-15

    The many new distributed energy resources being installed at the distribution system level require increased visibility into system operations that will be enabled by distribution system state estimation (DSSE) and situational awareness applications. Reliable and accurate DSSE requires both robust methods for managing the big data provided by smart meters and quality distribution system models. This paper presents intelligent methods for detecting and dealing with missing or inaccurate smart meter data, as well as the ways to process the data for different applications. It also presents an efficient and flexible parameter estimation method based on the voltage drop equation andmore » regression analysis to enhance distribution system model accuracy. Finally, it presents a 3-D graphical user interface for advanced visualization of the system state and events. Moreover, we demonstrate this paper for a university distribution network with the state-of-the-art real-time and historical smart meter data infrastructure.« less

  17. Leveraging AMI data for distribution system model calibration and situational awareness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peppanen, Jouni; Reno, Matthew J.; Thakkar, Mohini; Grijalva, Santiago; Harley, Ronald G.

    2015-01-15

    The many new distributed energy resources being installed at the distribution system level require increased visibility into system operations that will be enabled by distribution system state estimation (DSSE) and situational awareness applications. Reliable and accurate DSSE requires both robust methods for managing the big data provided by smart meters and quality distribution system models. This paper presents intelligent methods for detecting and dealing with missing or inaccurate smart meter data, as well as the ways to process the data for different applications. It also presents an efficient and flexible parameter estimation method based on the voltage drop equation and regression analysis to enhance distribution system model accuracy. Finally, it presents a 3-D graphical user interface for advanced visualization of the system state and events. Moreover, we demonstrate this paper for a university distribution network with the state-of-the-art real-time and historical smart meter data infrastructure.

  18. Double ended chilled water distribution system flow control at the Univeristy of Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, H.; Womack, W.; Notary, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the analysis effort and resultant primary flow control strategy for an intensely interconnected chilled water distribution system that is fed by production plants at opposing ends. A brief description of the evolution of the existing campus chilled water distribution systems at the University of Arizona is followed by a statement of a problem common to many expanding chilled water distribution systems. This problem relates to the optimal control of dissimilar yet interconnected pumping and production plants. A simple hydraulic modeling spreadsheet with coupled graphical representation developed for the UA system is presented. The surprisingly simple control strategies designed for the UA system will be explained. The use of the simplified modeling approach as a long range production and distribution system planning tool will be explored. Conclusions on the applicability of the simplified approach and the extension of the UA distribution system control strategies to other district chilled water systems will be drawn.

  19. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  20. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burn, G.

    1990-07-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Programs is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months..

  1. A Performance Comparison of Tree and Ring Topologies in Distributed System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min Huang

    2005-12-19

    A distributed system is a collection of computers that are connected via a communication network. Distributed systems have become commonplace due to the wide availability of low-cost, high performance computers and network devices. However, the management infrastructure often does not scale well when distributed systems get very large. Some of the considerations in building a distributed system are the choice of the network topology and the method used to construct the distributed system so as to optimize the scalability and reliability of the system, lower the cost of linking nodes together and minimize the message delay in transmission, and simplify system resource management. We have developed a new distributed management system that is able to handle the dynamic increase of system size, detect and recover the unexpected failure of system services, and manage system resources. The topologies used in the system are the tree-structured network and the ring-structured network. This thesis presents the research background, system components, design, implementation, experiment results and the conclusions of our work. The thesis is organized as follows: the research background is presented in chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes the system components, including the different node types and different connection types used in the system. In chapter 3, we describe the message types and message formats in the system. We discuss the system design and implementation in chapter 4. In chapter 5, we present the test environment and results, Finally, we conclude with a summary and describe our future work in chapter 6.

  2. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, Barry T.

    2012-02-02

    both. Some societal benefits associated with financial benefits to the utility of having a distributed generation capacity that is not fossil-fuel based have been included into the economic models. Also included and quantified in the models are several benefits to society more generally: job creation and some estimates of benefits from avoiding greenhouse emissions. PV system failures result in a lowering of the economic values of a grid-connected system, but this turned out to be a surprisingly small effect on the overall economics. The most significant benefit noted resulted from including the societal benefits accrued to the utility. This provided a marked increase in the valuations of the array and made the overall value proposition a financially attractive one, in that net present values exceeded installation costs. These results indicate that the Department of Energy and state regulatory bodies should consider focusing on societal benefits that create economic value for the utility, confirm these quantitative values, and work to have them accepted by the utilities and reflected in the rate structures for power obtained from grid-connected arrays. Understanding and applying the economic benefits evident in this work can significantly improve the business case for grid-connected PV installations. This work also indicates that the societal benefits to the population are real and defensible, but not nearly as easy to justify in a business case as are the benefits that accrue directly to the utility.

  3. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Fields, Paul R.

    1981-04-21

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  4. Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A distribution system audit, or leak detection and repair program, may help federal facilities identify and reduce water losses and be better stewards of water as a resource.

  5. Distribution of Wind Power Forecasting Errors from Operational Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation offers new data and statistical analysis of wind power forecasting errors in operational systems.

  6. TurboGenerator Power Systems{trademark} for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinstein, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    The AlliedSignal TurboGenerator is a cost effective, environmentally benign, low cost, highly reliable and simple to maintain generation source. Market Surveys indicate that the significant worldwide market exists, for example, the United States Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) which is the uniform research facility for domestic electric utilities, predicts that up to 40% of all new generation could be distributed generation by the year 2006. In many parts of the world, the lack of electric infrastructure (transmission and distribution lines) will greatly expedite the commercialization of distributed generation technologies since central plants not only cost more per kW, but also must have expensive infrastructure installed to deliver the product to the consumer. Small, multi-fuel, modular distributed generation units, such as the TurboGenerator, can help alleviate current afternoon brownouts and blackouts prevalent in many parts of the world. Its simple, one moving part concept allows for low technical skill maintenance and its low overall cost allows for wide spread purchase in those parts of the world where capital is sparse. In addition, given the United States emphasis on electric deregulation and the world trend in this direction, consumers of electricity will now have not only the right to choose the correct method of electric service but also a new cost effective choice from which to choose.

  7. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  8. Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; Persinger, Justin A.; Khorsandi, Behrooz; Blue, Thomas E.

    2007-01-30

    The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1013 to 1015 n/cm2. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1015 to 1016 n/cm2 with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions.

  9. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC system layout early in the design process.in order to realize the successful ... Graphic courtesy of IBACOS, Inc. A "Plug-n-Play" Air Delivery System for Low-Load ...

  10. Distributed Generation Study/615 kW Waukesha Packaged System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PHE-Type SL140-TM-EE-190, Sondex PHE-Type SL140-TM-EE-150, Cain UTR1-810A17.5SSP Fuel Natural Gas System Installer GTI System Enclosure Outdoor System Application Combined Heat...

  11. Integrating wind turbines into the Orcas Island distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1998-09-01

    This research effort consists of two years of wind data collection and analysis to investigate the possibility of strategically locating a megawatt (MW) scale wind farm near the end of an Orcas Power and light Company (OPALCO) 25-kilovolt (kV) distribution circuit to defer the need to upgrade the line to 69 kV. The results of this study support the results of previous work in which another year of wind data and collection was performed. Both this study and the previous study show that adding a MW-scale wind farm at the Mt. Constitution site is a feasible alternative to upgrading the OPALCO 25-kV distribution circuit to 69 kV.

  12. Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Distribution System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wide use of advanced inverters could double the electricity-distribution system’s hosting capacity for distributed PV at low costs—from about 170 GW to 350 GW (see Palmintier et al. 2016). At the distribution system level, increased variable generation due to high penetrations of distributed PV (typically rooftop and smaller ground-mounted systems) could challenge the management of distribution voltage, potentially increase wear and tear on electromechanical utility equipment, and complicate the configuration of circuit-breakers and other protection systems—all of which could increase costs, limit further PV deployment, or both. However, improved analysis of distribution system hosting capacity—the amount of distributed PV that can be interconnected without changing the existing infrastructure or prematurely wearing out equipment—has overturned previous rule-of-thumb assumptions such as the idea that distributed PV penetrations higher than 15% require detailed impact studies. For example, new analysis suggests that the hosting capacity for distributed PV could rise from approximately 170 GW using traditional inverters to about 350 GW with the use of advanced inverters for voltage management, and it could be even higher using accessible and low-cost strategies such as careful siting of PV systems within a distribution feeder and additional minor changes in distribution operations. Also critical to facilitating distributed PV deployment is the improvement of interconnection processes, associated standards and codes, and compensation mechanisms so they embrace PV’s contributions to system-wide operations. Ultimately SunShot-level PV deployment will require unprecedented coordination of the historically separate distribution and transmission systems along with incorporation of energy storage and “virtual storage,” which exploits improved management of electric vehicle charging, building energy systems, and other large loads. Additional analysis and

  13. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System Presentation by C.E. (Sandy) Thomas at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_thomas_h2gen.pdf (2.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) An Energy Evolution:Alternative Fueled Vehicle

  14. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  15. Field Test of a DHW Distribution System: Temperature and Flow Analyses (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Hendron, B.; Magnusson, L.

    2010-05-13

    This presentation discusses a field test of a DHW distribution system in an occupied townhome. It includes measured fixture flows and temperatures, a tested recirculation system, evaluated disaggregation of flow by measured temperatures, Aquacraft Trace Wizard analysis, and comparison.

  16. Energy and costs scoping study for plasma pyrolysis thermal processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherick, K.E.; Findley, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information in support of an investigation of thermal technologies as possible treatment process for buried wastes at the INEL. Material and energy balances and a cost estimate were generated for a representative plasma torch-based thermal waste treatment system operating in a pyrolysis mode. Two waste streams were selected which are representative of INEL buried wastes, large in volume, and difficult to treat by other technologies. These streams were a solidified nitrate sludge waste stream and a waste/soil mix of other buried waste components. The treatment scheme selected includes a main plasma chamber operating under pyrolyzing conditions; a plasma afterburner to provide additional residence time at high temperature to ensure complete destruction of hazardous organics; an off-gas treatment system; and a incinerator and stack to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and vent the clean, oxidized gases to atmosphere. The material balances generated provide materials flow and equipment duty information of sufficient accuracy to generate initial rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) system capital and operating cost estimates for a representative plasma thermal processing system.

  17. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  18. Performance assessment of OTEC power systems and thermal power plants. Final report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leidenfrost, W.; Liley, P.E.; McDonald, A.T.; Mudawwar, I.; Pearson, J.T.

    1985-05-01

    The focus of this report is on closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power systems under research at Purdue University. The working operations of an OTEC power plant are briefly discussed. Methods of improving the performance of OTEC power systems are presented. Brief discussions on the methods of heat exchanger analysis and design are provided, as are the thermophysical properties of the working fluids and seawater. An interactive code capable of analyzing OTEC power system performance is included for use with an IBM personal computer.

  19. Heat Transfer and Fluid Transport of Supercritical CO2 in Enhanced Geothermal System with Local Thermal Non-equilibrium Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Le; Luo, Feng; Xu, Ruina; Jiang, Peixue; Liu, Huihai

    2014-12-31

    The heat transfer and fluid transport of supercritical CO2 in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is studied numerically with local thermal non-equilibrium model, which accounts for the temperature difference between solid matrix and fluid components in porous media and uses two energy equations to describe heat transfer in the solid matrix and in the fluid, respectively. As compared with the previous results of our research group, the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium mainly depends on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient ah, which has a significant effect on the production temperature at reservoir outlet and thermal breakthrough time. The uniformity of volumetricmore » heat transfer coefficient ah has little influence on the thermal breakthrough time, but the temperature difference become more obvious with time after thermal breakthrough with this simulation model. The thermal breakthrough time reduces and the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium becomes significant with decreasing ah.« less

  20. Resolution of thermal-hydraulic safety and licensing issues for the system 80+{sup {trademark}} design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpentino, S.E.; Ritterbusch, S.E.; Schneider, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The System 80+{sup {trademark}} Standard Design is an evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) with a generating capacity of 3931 MWt (1350 MWe). The Final Design Approval (FDA) for this design was issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in July 1994. The design certification by the NRC is anticipated by the end of 1995 or early 1996. NRC review of the System 80+ design has involved several new safety issues never before addressed in a regulatory atmosphere. In addition, conformance with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) required that the System 80+ plant address nuclear industry concerns with regard to design, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. A large number of these issues/concerns deals with previously unresolved generic thermal-hydraulic safety issues and severe accident prevention and mitigation. This paper discusses the thermal-hydraulic analyses and evaluations performed for the System 80+ design to resolve safety and licensing issues relevant to both the Nuclear Stream Supply System (NSSS) and containment designs. For the NSSS design, the Safety Depressurization System mitigation capability and resolution of the boron dilution concern are described. Examples of containment design issues dealing with containment shell strength, robustness of the reactor cavity walls and hydrogen mixing under severe accident conditions are also provided. Finally, the overall approach used in the application of NRC`s new (NUREG-1465) radiological source term for System 80+ evaluation is described. The robustness of the System 80+ containment design to withstand severe accident consequences was demonstrated through detailed thermal-hydraulic analyses and evaluations. This advanced design to shown to meet NRC severe accident policy goals and ALWR URD requirements without any special design features and unnecessary costs.

  1. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the history of the system. Authors Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano and Joseph N. Moore Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1983 DOI Not...

  2. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combustion Turbine CHP System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry Reducing Industry's Environmental Footprint and Easing Transmission Congestion Based at a...

  3. Category:Smart Grid Projects - Electric Distributions Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems" The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. A Atlantic City Electric Company Smart Grid Project Avista Utilities Smart Grid Project C...

  4. Validation of the fast neutron spectrum in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avdic, S.; Pesic, M.; Marinkovic, P.

    1995-12-31

    Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of the measurements of the fast neutron spectrum in the NERBE coupled fast-thermal system are validated in this paper. When advantages and disadvantages of a He-filled semi-conductor-sandwich detector are compared to other neutron detectors, the former is found more appropriate. The neutron detection is based on the reaction {sup 3}He(n,p)T + 0.764 MeV and simultaneous detection of the reaction products in the silicon diodes. The pulses from the diodes are amplified and shaped in separate {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} channels and summed to produce a single pulse with height proportional to the energy of the incident neutron plus the Q value of the reaction. A well-known measuring system of the He neutron spectrometer is used for the HERBE fast neutron spectrum measurement and calibration in a thermal neutron field.

  5. Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Mingyu; WolfeIV, Edward; Craig, Timothy; LaClair, Tim J; Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.

  6. Global garbage collection for distributed heap storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, K.A.M.; Haridi, S.

    1986-10-01

    The authors present a garbage-collection algorithm, suitable for loosely-coupled multi-processor systems, in which the processing elements (PEs) share only the communication medium. The algorithm is global, i.e., it involves all the PEs in the system. It allows space compaction, and it uses a system-wide marking phase to mark all accessible objects where a combination of parallel breadth-first/depth-first strategies is used for tracing the object-graphs according to a decentralized credit mechanism that regulates the number of garbage collections messages in the system. The credit mechanism is crucial for determining the space requirement of the garbage-collection messages. Also a variation of this algorithm is presented for systems with high locality of reference. It allows each PE to perform first its local garbage collection and only invokes the global garbage collection when the freed space by the local collector is insufficient.

  7. Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B.; Estrada, C.

    1995-11-01

    Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

  8. Modeling the thermal and structural response of engineered systems to abnormal environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.; Moya, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is engaged actively in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to thermal and structural abnormal environments. Abnormal environments that will be addressed in this paper include: fire, impact, and puncture by probes and fragments, as well as a combination of all of the above. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the survivability of engineered systems to abnormal environments using a balanced approach between numerical simulation and testing. It is necessary to determine the response of engineered systems in two cases: (1) to satisfy regulatory specifications, and (2) to enable quantification of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). In a regulatory case, numerical simulation of system response is generally used to guide the system design such that the system will respond satisfactorily to the specified regulatory abnormal environment. Testing is conducted at the regulatory abnormal environment to ensure compliance.

  9. Evaluation of diurnal thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration systems. Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the results of a study of thermal energy storage (TES) systems integrated with combined-cycle gas turbine cogeneration systems. Integrating thermal energy storage with conventional cogeneration equipment increases the initial cost of the combined system; but, by decoupling electric power and process heat production, the system offers two significant advantages. First, electric power can be generated on demand, irrespective of the process heat load profile, thus increasing the value of the power produced. Second, although supplementary firing could be used to serve independently varying electric and process heat loads, this approach is inefficient. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the two independent loads while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. An earlier study analyzed TES integrated with a simple-cycle cogeneration system. This follow-on study evaluated the cost of power produced by a combined-cycle electric power plant (CC), a combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CC/Cogen), and a combined-cycle cogeneration plant integrated with thermal energy storage (CC/TES/Cogen). Each of these three systems was designed to serve a fixed (24 hr/day) process steam load. The value of producing electricity was set at the levelized cost for a CC plant, while the value of the process steam was for a conventional stand-alone boiler. The results presented here compared the costs for CC/TES/Cogen system with those of the CC and the CC/Cogen plants. They indicate relatively poor economic prospects for integrating TES with a combined-cycle cogeneration power plant for the assumed designs. The major reason is the extremely close approach temperatures at the storage media heaters, which makes the heaters large and therefore expensive.

  10. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  11. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  12. High efficiency thermal storage system for solar plants (HELSOLAR). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villarroel, Eduardo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Lenartz, Jeff; Parysek, Karen

    2013-02-27

    The project objective was to develop a high temperature Thermal Storage System (TES) based on graphite and able to provide both economical and technical advantages with respect to existing solutions contributing to increase the share of Concentrated Solar Plants (CSP). One of the main disadvantages of most of the renewable energy systems is their dependence to instantaneous irradiation and, thus, lack of predictability. CSP plants with thermal storage have proved to offer a good solution to this problem although still at an elevated price. The identification of alternative concepts able to work more efficiently would help to speed up the convergence of CSP towards grid parity. One way to reduce costs is to work in a range of temperatures higher than those allowed by the actual molten salt systems, currently the benchmark for TES in CSP. This requires the use of alternative energy storage materials such as graphite, as well as the utilization of Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF) other than molten salts or organic oils. The main technical challenges identified are derived from the high temperatures and significant high pressures, which pose risks such as potential graphite and insulation oxidation, creep, fatigue, corrosion and stress-corrosion in the pipes, leakages in the joints, high blower drivers’ electrical power consumption, thermal compatibility or relative deformations of the different materials. At the end, the main challenge of the project, is to identify a technical solution able to overcome all these problems but still at a competitive cost when compared to already existing thermal storage solutions. Special attention is given to all these issues during this project.

  13. Effects of Neutron Emission on Fragment Mass and Kinetic Energy Distribution from Thermal Neutron-Induced Fission of {sup 235}U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Saetone, E.

    2007-10-26

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f) have been studied using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening in the standard deviation of the kinetic energy at the final fragment mass number around m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125. These results are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. and other results on yield of mass. We conclude that the obtained results are a consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the sharp variation in the primary fragment kinetic energy and mass yield curves. We show that because neutron emission is hazardous to make any conclusion on primary quantities distribution of fragments from experimental results on final quantities distributions.

  14. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  15. Thermal and economic analysis of a solar multi-effect desalination system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamed, O.A.

    1996-10-01

    The performance of a solar multieffect desalination pilot plant has been studied over an extended period of one year. The impact of solar flux, ambient and sea water temperatures on the monthly average water production and plant performance ratios are investigated. The specific thermal and electric energy requirements of the system have been examined and compared with the requirements of conventional fossil fuel powered desalination plants. The economic viability of the solar desalination system has been assessed. It reveals that the capital and operating costs represent around 93 and 7 percent of the overall water production cost respectively. The capital cost critically depends on solar radiation and distiller performance ratio.

  16. Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom McDermott

    2010-05-07

    The project objective was to provide robust state estimation for distribution systems, comparable to what has been available on transmission systems for decades. This project used an algorithm called Branch Current State Estimation (BCSE), which is more effective than classical methods because it decouples the three phases of a distribution system, and uses branch current instead of node voltage as a state variable, which is a better match to current measurement.

  17. Rarefactive and compressive soliton waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma with non-thermal electron and ion distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslami, Esmaeil Baraz, Rasoul

    2014-02-15

    Sagdeev's pseudo potential method is employed to study dust acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma containing negatively charged dusts with non-thermal electron and ion. The range of parameters for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential has been found. It is observed that, depending on the values of the plasma parameters like ion to electron temperature ratio σ, non-thermal parameters β and γ, electron to ion density ratio μ, and the value of the Mach number M, both rarefactive and compressive solitary waves may exist.

  18. RBMK coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics analyses by two independent code systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parisi, C.; D'Auria, F.; Malofeev, V.; Ivanov, B.; Ivanov, K.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics activities carried out in the framework of the part B of the TACIS project R2.03/97, 'Software development for accident analysis of RBMK reactors in Russia'. Two independent code systems were assembled, one from the Russian side and the other from the Western side, for studying RBMK core transients. The Russian code system relies on the use of code UNK for neutron data libraries generation and the three-dimensional neutron kinetics thermal-hydraulics coupled codes BARS-KORSAR for plant transient analyses. The Western code system is instead based on the lattice physics code HELIOS and on the RELAP5-3D C code. Several activities were performed for testing code system's capabilities: the neutron data libraries were calculated and verified by precise Monte Carlo calculations, the coupled codes' steady state results were compared with plant detectors' data, and calculations of several transients were compared. Finally, both code systems proved to have all the capabilities for addressing reliable safety analyses of RBMK reactors. (authors)

  19. Measure Guideline: Implementing a Plenum Truss for a Compact Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    This Measure Guideline presents the steps to implement a compact duct system inside an attic bulkhead (plenum truss) of a one-story, slab-on-grade (SOG) home. In a compact duct design, ductwork runs are reduced in length to yield a smaller and more compact duct system. Less energy will be lost through ductwork if the ducts are contained within the thermal enclosure of the house. These measures are intended for the production builder working to meet the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements and keep the ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house. This measure of bringing the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house is appropriate for the builder wishing to avoid cathedralizing the insulation in the attic space (i.e., locating it at the underside of the roof deck rather than along the attic floor) or adding dropped soffits.

  20. Measure Guideline: Implementing a Plenum Truss for a Compact Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    This Measure Guideline presents the steps to implement a compact duct system inside an attic bulkhead (plenum truss) of a one-story, slab-on-grade home. In a compact duct design, ductwork runs are reduced in length to yield a smaller and more compact duct system. Less energy will be lost through ductwork if the ducts are contained within the thermal enclosure of the house. These measures are intended for the production builder working to meet the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements and keep the ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house. This measure of bringing the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house is appropriate for the builder wishing to avoid cathedralizing the insulation in the attic space (i.e., locating it at the underside of the roof deck rather than along the attic floor) or adding dropped soffits.

  1. Heat capacities of solid polymers (The Advanced THermal Analysis System, ATHAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wunderlich, B.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal properties of solid, linear macromolecules are accessible through heat capacity measurements from about 10 K to the glass transition. By measuring and collecting data on over 150 polymers, a data bank was established and used as a base for detailed correlation with an approximate frequency spectrum for the polymers. Besides assessment of the entropy at zero kelvin of disordered polymers, this heat capacity knowledge has helped in the elucidation of partial phase transitions and conformationally disordered crystal phases. A link has also been established to measurements of mobility through solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Most recently heat capacity measurements have been linked to full dynamic simulations of crystal segments of 1900 chain atoms. Questions of disorder and anharmonicity can thus be analyzed. The work is summarized as the Advanced Thermal Analysis System, ATHAS. 27 refs., 26 figs.

  2. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

  3. Near equilibrium distributions for beams with space charge in linear and nonlinear periodic focusing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnad, Kiran G.; Cary, John R.

    2015-04-15

    A procedure to obtain a near equilibrium phase space distribution function has been derived for beams with space charge effects in a generalized periodic focusing transport channel. The method utilizes the Lie transform perturbation theory to canonically transform to slowly oscillating phase space coordinates. The procedure results in transforming the periodic focusing system to a constant focusing one, where equilibrium distributions can be found. Transforming back to the original phase space coordinates yields an equilibrium distribution function corresponding to a constant focusing system along with perturbations resulting from the periodicity in the focusing. Examples used here include linear and nonlinear alternating gradient focusing systems. It is shown that the nonlinear focusing components can be chosen such that the system is close to integrability. The equilibrium distribution functions are numerically calculated, and their properties associated with the corresponding focusing system are discussed.

  4. Methods and systems to thermally protect fuel nozzles in combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helmick, David Andrew; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-17

    A method of assembling a gas turbine engine is provided. The method includes coupling a combustor in flow communication with a compressor such that the combustor receives at least some of the air discharged by the compressor. A fuel nozzle assembly is coupled to the combustor and includes at least one fuel nozzle that includes a plurality of interior surfaces, wherein a thermal barrier coating is applied across at least one of the plurality of interior surfaces to facilitate shielding the interior surfaces from combustion gases.

  5. Simulation of spacecraft fuelcell systems including thermal control and electrical interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothmeyer, M.; Simon, R.; Benz, U.

    1987-01-01

    Fuel cell systems will be applied as non-regenerative power source in HERMES and as regenerative power supply in future space stations. To support project development and engineering tasks flexible software is needed for simulation and analysis of such systems. A simulation program, called SANFU (System Analyzer for Fuel cells) for low temperature fuel cells has been developed, which supports a modular model construction. The current configuration of the program includes simulation of transient thermal boundary conditions, transient electrical interface data, several operating options and different control logics. For HERMES fuel cell system simulation three standard fuel cell configurations are currently being simulated: immobile electrolyte fuel cells, mobile electrolyte (KOH) fuel cells and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Test results for different load cases and transient boundary conditions are quoted. The general design, input and output capabilities, future extensions and applications are discussed.

  6. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed hard dollar benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipment investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.

  7. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipmentmore » investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.« less

  8. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipment investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

    2013-12-24

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2012-11-06

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  11. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  12. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  13. Defining and enabling resiliency of electric distribution systems with multiple microgrids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chanda, Sayonsom; Srivastava, Anurag K.

    2016-05-02

    This paper presents a method for quantifying and enabling the resiliency of a power distribution system (PDS) using analytical hierarchical process and percolation theory. Using this metric, quantitative analysis can be done to analyze the impact of possible control decisions to pro-actively enable the resilient operation of distribution system with multiple microgrids and other resources. Developed resiliency metric can also be used in short term distribution system planning. The benefits of being able to quantify resiliency can help distribution system planning engineers and operators to justify control actions, compare different reconfiguration algorithms, develop proactive control actions to avert power systemmore » outage due to impending catastrophic weather situations or other adverse events. Validation of the proposed method is done using modified CERTS microgrids and a modified industrial distribution system. Furthermore, simulation results show topological and composite metric considering power system characteristics to quantify the resiliency of a distribution system with the proposed methodology, and improvements in resiliency using two-stage reconfiguration algorithm and multiple microgrids.« less

  14. The rotary zone thermal cycler: A low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Edwards, Harrison S.; Lee, Daniel; Moseley, Caroline E.; Tew, Karen E.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Van de Vreugde, James L.; Kim, Hanyoup; Knight, Daniel L.; Sinha, Anupama; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Wanunu, Meni

    2015-03-31

    In this study, advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, portable, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology such as aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We further demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system using low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, preliminary results are presented for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.

  15. The rotary zone thermal cycler: A low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Edwards, Harrison S.; Gas Transmission Systems, Walnut Creek, CA; Lee, Daniel; California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA; Moseley, Caroline E.; Tew, Karen E.; Utah State Univ., Logan, UT; Renzi, Ronald F.; Van de Vreugde, James L.; et al

    2015-03-31

    In this study, advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, portable, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology such as aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks intomore » contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We further demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system using low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, preliminary results are presented for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.« less

  16. The rotary zone thermal cycler: A low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Edwards, Harrison S.; Lee, Daniel; Moseley, Caroline E.; Tew, Karen E.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Van de Vreugde, James L.; Kim, Hanyoup; Knight, Daniel L.; Sinha, Anupama; et al

    2015-03-31

    Advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology (e.g., aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling) to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microlitermorecapillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system that uses low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between-run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, we present preliminary results for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.less

  17. Transient loads identification for a standoff metallic thermal protection system panel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hundhausen, R. J.; Adams, Douglas E.; Derriso, Mark; Kukuchek, Paul; Alloway, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Standoff thermal protection system (TPS) panels are critical structural components in future aerospace vehicles because they protect the vehicle from the hostile environment encountered during space launch and reentry. Consequently, the panels are exposed to a variety of loads including high temperature thermal stresses, thermal shock, acoustic pressure, and foreign object impacts. Transient impacts are especially detrimental because they can cause immediate and severe degradation of the panel in the form of, for example, debonding and buckling of the face sheet, cracking of the fasteners, or deformation of the standoffs. Loads identification methods for determining the magnitude and location of impact loads provide an indication of TPS components that may be more susceptible to failure. Furthermore, a historical database of impact loads encountered can be retained for use in the development of statistical models that relate impact loading to panel life. In this work, simulated inservice transient loads are identified experimentally using two methods: a physics-based approach and an inverse Frequency Response Function (FRF) approach. It is shown that by applying the inverse FRF method, the location and magnitude of these simulated impacts can be identified with a high degree of accuracy. The identified force levels vary significantly with impact location due to the differences in panel deformation at the impact site indicating that resultant damage due to impacts would vary with location as well.

  18. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair: Kirtland Air Force Base Leak Detection and Repair Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-14

    Water Best Management Practice #3 Fact Seet: Outlines how a leak detection and repair program helped Kirtland Air Force Base perform distribution system audits, leak detection, and repair to conserve water site-wide.

  19. Development of numerical simulation system for thermal-hydraulic analysis in fuel assembly of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Akihiko; Imai, Yasutomo; Ito, Masahiro

    2015-12-31

    A numerical simulation system, which consists of a deformation analysis program and three kinds of thermal-hydraulics analysis programs, is being developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to offer methodologies to clarify thermal-hydraulic phenomena in fuel assemblies of sodium-cooled fast reactors under various operating conditions. This paper gives the outline of the system and its applications to fuel assembly analyses as a validation study.

  20. Energy distribution analysis in boosted HCCI-like / LTGC engines Understanding the trade-offs to maximize the thermal efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dernotte, Jeremie; Dec, John E.; Ji, Chunsheng

    2015-04-14

    A detailed understanding of the various factors affecting the trends in gross-indicated thermal efficiency with changes in key operating parameters has been carried out, applied to a one-liter displacement single-cylinder boosted Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine. This work systematically investigates how the supplied fuel energy splits into the following four energy pathways: gross-indicated thermal efficiency, combustion inefficiency, heat transfer and exhaust losses, and how this split changes with operating conditions. Additional analysis is performed to determine the influence of variations in the ratio of specific heat capacities (?) and the effective expansion ratio, related to the combustion-phasing retard (CA50), on the energy split. Heat transfer and exhaust losses are computed using multiple standard cycle analysis techniques. Furthermore, the various methods are evaluated in order to validate the trends.

  1. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  2. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2007 | Department of Energy Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 The models surveyed in this study vary in design, scope, and detail, but they all seek to capture the functions of an energy economy and use knowledge of economic interactions to simulate the effects of economic and policy changes. In this 2007 document, Integrated Planning Model (IPM), Average Displaced

  3. Reinvestigation of the charge density distribution in arc discharge fusion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Lin Horng; Yee, Lee Kim; Nan, Phua Yeong; Thung, Yong Yun; Khok, Yong Thian; Rahman, Faidz Abd

    2015-04-24

    A continual arc discharge system has been setup and the light intensity of arc discharge has been profiled. The mathematical model of local energy density distribution in arc discharge fusion has been simulated which is in good qualitative agreement with light intensity profile of arc discharge in the experiments. Eventually, the local energy density distribution of arc discharge system is able to be precisely manipulated to act as heat source in the fabrication of fused fiber devices.

  4. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-from- Ethanol: A Distributed Production System Presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting Laurel, Maryland Tuesday, November 6, 2007 H 2 Gen Innovations, Inc. Alexandria, Virginia www.h2gen.com 2 Topics * H 2 Gen Reformer System Innovation * Natural Gas Reformer - Key performance metrics - Summary unique H2A inputs * Ethanol Reformer - Key performance metrics - Summary unique H2A inputs * Questions from 2007 Merit Review 3 H 2 Gen

  5. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  6. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  7. Integration of ocean thermal energy conversion power plants with existing power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arunasalam, N.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of integrating an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant with existing power systems is studied. A nonlinear model of an OTEC power system is developed. The dynamics of the large local induction motor load, and the coaxial cable connection to the mainland are included in the model. The effect of the motor load and the coaxial cable on the steady-state stability of the OTEC power plant is investigated using linearized analysis. The transient stability of the OTEC system is investigated through simulation. The contribution made by the motor load and the coaxial cable to the transient stability is studied. The occurrence of self excitation phenomena is analyzed using linear methods and simulation. The effects of wave and vessel motion on the electrical power output of the OTEC plant is investigated.

  8. Impact of Distribution-Connected Large-Scale Wind Turbines on Transmission System Stability during Large Disturbances: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Allen, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-02-01

    This work examines the dynamic impacts of distributed utility-scale wind power during contingency events on both the distribution system and the transmission system. It is the first step toward investigating high penetrations of distribution-connected wind power's impact on both distribution and transmission stability.

  9. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman

    2006-09-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  10. Intelligent Monitoring System With High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor For Power Plant Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boheman

    2005-12-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we investigate a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. The 3D temperature data is furnished by the Penn State Energy Institute using FLUENT. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first develop an analytic description and then extend that model along a single axis. Extrapolation

  11. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 Distribution of domestic solar thermal collector shipments (thousand square feet) 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  12. Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lee, S.M.

    2003-09-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin or a human volunteer seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air in the breathing zone) in experiments with the mannequin ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 (median, 1.8), whereas with human subjects the air change effectiveness ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 (median, 1.6). The majority of the air change effectiveness values with the human subjects were less than values with the mannequin at comparable tests. Similarly, the tests run with supply air temperature equal to the room air temperature had lower air change effectiveness values than comparable tests with the supply air temperature lower ({approx}5 C) than the room air temperature. The air change effectiveness values are higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems. Based on surveys completed by the subjects, operation of the task ventilation system did not cause thermal discomfort.

  13. Temperature Profile in Fuel and Tie-Tubes for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishal Patel

    2015-02-01

    A finite element method to calculate temperature profiles in heterogeneous geometries of tie-tube moderated LEU nuclear thermal propulsion systems and HEU designs with tie-tubes is developed and implemented in MATLAB. This new method is compared to previous methods to demonstrate shortcomings in those methods. Typical methods to analyze peak fuel centerline temperature in hexagonal geometries rely on spatial homogenization to derive an analytical expression. These methods are not applicable to cores with tie-tube elements because conduction to tie-tubes cannot be accurately modeled with the homogenized models. The fuel centerline temperature directly impacts safety and performance so it must be predicted carefully. The temperature profile in tie-tubes is also important when high temperatures are expected in the fuel because conduction to the tie-tubes may cause melting in tie-tubes, which may set maximum allowable performance. Estimations of maximum tie-tube temperature can be found from equivalent tube methods, however this method tends to be approximate and overly conservative. A finite element model of heat conduction on a unit cell can model spatial dependence and non-linear conductivity for fuel and tie-tube systems allowing for higher design fidelity of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  14. Impact of Distributed Wind on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Palchak, D.; Miettinen, J.

    2014-11-01

    The work presented in the paper corresponding to this presentation aims to study the impact of a range of penetration levels of distributed wind on the operation of the electric power system at the transmission level. This presentation is an overview of a case study on the power system in Independent System Operator New England. It is analyzed using PLEXOS, a commercial power system simulation tool

  15. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  16. Residential forced-air-distribution system study. Semi-annual report March-September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlando, J.A.; Pettit, V.E.; Gamze, M.G.

    1982-11-01

    Tracer gas techniques have frequently been used to determine the air change characteristics for various structures. Previously, GKCO had utilized a tracer gas procedure to measure intrastructural air flows as a basis for computing the heat loss due to forced air distribution systems. Testing of several gas furnace hot air systems indicated that distribution losses can be significant and were affected by the characteristics of the heat source. In a subsequent study, the field testing was expanded to other heating system components including an electric heat pump, a gas heat pump, and a gas furnace/electric heat pump hybrid system. In addition, cooling mode data were taken as a basis for an annual analysis of distribution system efficiency. The report describes the detailed instrumentation of a single test home with a tracer gas and with flowmeters and temperature sensors installed in the duct system, the calibration of these flowmeters, and two alternative analyses of the resulting data. It also includes results from data collection in two additional structures - a two story structure with the duct system located in the basement and attic, and a one story rambler with a radial duct system buried in the building slab. Distribution system efficiencies ranged from 66% to over 74%.

  17. Distributed Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Energy Distributed Energy Distributed energy consists of a range of smaller-scale and modular devices designed to provide electricity, and sometimes also thermal energy, in locations close to consumers. They include fossil and renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells, combustion turbines, and steam turbines); energy storage devices (e.g., batteries and flywheels); and combined heat and power systems.

  18. November 18 PSERC Webinar: Quantifying and Mitigating the Impacts of PV in Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE-funded Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) is offering a free public webinar presenting a simulation-based investigation of PV impacts on distribution systems and discussing a new approach for volt-VAR optimization with reactive power capabilities of PV inverters.

  19. Performance Modeling and Testing of Distributed Electronics in PV Systems; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2015-03-18

    Computer modeling is able to predict the performance of distributed power electronics (microinverters, power optimizers) in PV systems. However, details about partial shade and other mismatch must be known in order to give the model accurate information to go on. This talk will describe recent updates in NREL’s System Advisor Model program to model partial shading losses with and without distributed power electronics, along with experimental validation results. Computer modeling is able to predict the performance of distributed power electronics (microinverters, power optimizers) in PV systems. However, details about partial shade and other mismatch must be known in order to give the model accurate information to go on. This talk will describe recent updates in NREL’s System Advisor Model program to model partial shading losses.

  20. Performance and Economic Analysis of Distributed Power Electronics in Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Granata, J.; Gonzalez, S.

    2011-01-01

    Distributed electronics like micro-inverters and DC-DC converters can help recover mismatch and shading losses in photovoltaic (PV) systems. Under partially shaded conditions, the use of distributed electronics can recover between 15-40% of annual performance loss or more, depending on the system configuration and type of device used. Additional value-added features may also increase the benefit of using per-panel distributed electronics, including increased safety, reduced system design constraints and added monitoring and diagnostics. The economics of these devices will also become more favorable as production volume increases, and integration within the solar panel?s junction box reduces part count and installation time. Some potential liabilities of per-panel devices include increased PV system cost, additional points of failure, and an insertion loss that may or may not offset performance gains under particular mismatch conditions.

  1. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  2. Recovery and utilization of fine clean coal in a thermal dryer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breault, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    Two specific problems exist at a large number of coal preparation plants in the United States using thermal dryers for producing product coal, cyclones for first-stage recovery of coal fines, and second-stage wet scrubbers to remove coal carry-over from the dryer exhaust gas. The first problem involves a need for eliminating the common practice of sacrificing clean ultra-fine coal captured in the scrubbers. The second problem involves a need for mitigating over-dry fine coal dusting from in the dryer product. The second problem, controlling fine coal dusting, has been met by applying a solution of surfactants and process water to the over-dry coal fraction, de-dusting the product coal. To date, the problems associated with the recovery and use of fine clean coal from dryer scrubber effluent have not been solved. The program, reported in this paper, demonstrates a simple process improvement, involving use of a belt press, will simultaneously solve both the de-dusting and the dryer scrubber effluent recovery issues. This program proposed to use a combination of a clean coal thickener with a squeeze belt press to recovery the ultra-fine coal in dryer scrubber effluent before it is mixed in with the balance-of-plant tailings. As an additional essential part of this program, we propose to demonstrate that the coal-water mixture (CWM) produced from the scrubber sludge of a thermal dryer can be used as a dust suppressant. The net effect of these two coal circuit changes will be to integrate the thickener underflow into the thermal dryer circuit. This will essentially close the loop and permit maximum efficiency from the system, by recycling a former waste stream (sludge) as an effective dust suppressant.

  3. Rule based decision support system for single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momoh, J.A.; Dias, L.G.; Thor, T. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Laird, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Single-line fault detection, faulted feeder identification, fault type classification, fault location and fault impedance estimation, continue to pose a problem to delta-delta connected distribution systems such as the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) which has over 1,500 feeder circuits at the 4.8kV voltage level. This paper describes a rule based decision support (RBDS) system application to single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system. The RBDS system is built from knowledge acquired through exhaustive simulation based on non-arcing type fault situations. It is primarily designed to detect the presence of a fault, identify the faulted feeder, the faulted phase and classify the fault type. It is also designed to gauge the proximity of the fault to the substation and to assess the fault impedance. A fault in the distribution system, upon identification, triggers an alarm with explanatory facility leading to the fault. The RBDS system was tested with different sets of simulated data and proved successful in most cases. Additional tests will be done using field data made available by LADWP. The RBDS system module is a prototype integrated fault detection scheme to be installed in a LADWP distribution substation.

  4. Development of Innovative Distributed Power Interconnection and Control Systems: Annual Report, December 2000-December 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, W.; Dybel, M.; West, R.; Adams, L.

    2002-11-01

    This report covers the first year's work performed by the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc. under subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The objective of this three-year contract is to develop innovative grid interconnection and control systems. This supports the advancement of distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible across the electric power and energy management systems. Specifically, the goals are: (1) To develop and demonstrate cost-effective distributed power grid interconnection products and software and communication solutions applicable to improving the economics of a broad range of distributed power systems, including existing, emerging, and other power generation technologies. (2) To enhance the features and capabilities of distributed power products to integrate, interact, and provide operational benefits to the electric power and advanced energy management systems. This includes features and capabilities for participating in resource planning, the provision of ancillary services, and energy management. Specific topics of this report include the development of an advanced controller, a power sensing board, expanded communication capabilities, a revenue-grade meter interface, and a case study of an interconnection distributed power system application that is a model for demonstrating the functionalities of the design of the advanced controller.

  5. Chapter 3: Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System Technology Assessment | Transmission and Distribution Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Components ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Transmission and Distribution Components Chapter 3: Technology Assessments Introduction Today's electric power system was designed for efficiency, reliability, ease of operation, and to meet consumer needs at minimum cost. The grid of the future must maintain these characteristics while meeting a number of new requirements: supporting the integration of various clean and distributed

  6. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems – Success Stories

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  7. Particle-number conservation in static-path approximation for thermal superfluid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, K.; Schiller, A.

    2007-12-15

    By applying particle-number projection to the static-path approximation (SPA), the heat capacity and the breakdown of pairing correlations are investigated in the thermally excited, superfluid systems {sup 172}Yb, {sup 94}Mo, and {sup 56}Fe. For the heavy nucleus {sup 172}Yb, the heat capacities in both the SPA and the number-projected SPA (NPSPA) exhibit an S shape; the difference between the SPA and NPSPA heat-capacity curves is not very large and the particle-number projection thereby enhances the S shape already seen in the SPA. The temperature at which the S-shape of heat capacity curve occurs parallels the temperature of the breakdown of pairing correlations as indicated by the effective pairing gap. However, for the comparatively lighter nuclei {sup 94}Mo and {sup 56}Fe, the SPA does not produce an S-shaped heat capacity on its own; only after particle-number projection the S shape appears in the heat-capacity curve. For {sup 94}Mo, we compare the NPSPA result with thermal odd-even mass differences, which are regarded as a direct measure of the pairing gap.

  8. Distribution system model calibration with big data from AMI and PV inverters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peppanen, Jouni; Reno, Matthew J.; Broderick, Robert J.; Grijalva, Santiago

    2016-03-03

    Efficient management and coordination of distributed energy resources with advanced automation schemes requires accurate distribution system modeling and monitoring. Big data from smart meters and photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverters can be leveraged to calibrate existing utility models. This paper presents computationally efficient distribution system parameter estimation algorithms to improve the accuracy of existing utility feeder radial secondary circuit model parameters. The method is demonstrated using a real utility feeder model with advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and PV micro-inverters, along with alternative parameter estimation approaches that can be used to improve secondary circuit models when limited measurement data is available. Lastly, themore » parameter estimation accuracy is demonstrated for both a three-phase test circuit with typical secondary circuit topologies and single-phase secondary circuits in a real mixed-phase test system.« less

  9. Video and thermal imaging system for monitoring interiors of high temperature reaction vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saveliev, Alexei V.; Zelepouga, Serguei A.; Rue, David M.

    2012-01-10

    A system and method for real-time monitoring of the interior of a combustor or gasifier wherein light emitted by the interior surface of a refractory wall of the combustor or gasifier is collected using an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end. Color information in the light is captured with primary color (RGB) filters or complimentary color (GMCY) filters placed over individual pixels of color sensors disposed within a digital color camera in a BAYER mosaic layout, producing RGB signal outputs or GMCY signal outputs. The signal outputs are processed using intensity ratios of the primary color filters or the complimentary color filters, producing video images and/or thermal images of the interior of the combustor or gasifier.

  10. Acceptance Performance Test Guideline for Utility Scale Parabolic Trough and Other CSP Solar Thermal Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kearney, D. W.

    2011-08-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. Progress on interim guidelines was presented at SolarPACES 2010. Significant additions and modifications were made to the guidelines since that time, resulting in a final report published by NREL in April 2011. This paper summarizes those changes, which emphasize criteria for assuring thermal equilibrium and steady state conditions within the solar field.

  11. Resonant activation in a colored multiplicative thermal noise driven closed system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Somrita; Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Mondal, Debasish

    2014-05-28

    In this paper, we have demonstrated that resonant activation (RA) is possible even in a thermodynamically closed system where the particle experiences a random force and a spatio-temporal frictional coefficient from the thermal bath. For this stochastic process, we have observed a hallmark of RA phenomena in terms of a turnover behavior of the barrier-crossing rate as a function of noise correlation time at a fixed noise variance. Variance can be fixed either by changing temperature or damping strength as a function of noise correlation time. Our another observation is that the barrier crossing rate passes through a maximum with increase in coupling strength of the multiplicative noise. If the damping strength is appreciably large, then the maximum may disappear. Finally, we compare simulation results with the analytical calculation. It shows that there is a good agreement between analytical and numerical results.

  12. Distributed processing and analysis of physics data in the D0 SAM system at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igor V. Terekhov

    2001-08-30

    SAM (Sequential Access through Meta-data) is the data access system for the D0 high energy physics (HEP) experiment at Fermilab. The system is being developed and used to handle the Petabyte-scale experiment data. The D0 applications, like virtually all HEP applications, are data-intensive, which poses special problems for the data management and job control facilities in the distributed environment. The fundamental problem is to bring the user applications and the data together, and SAM attacks the problems from both sides. First, we describe how the system moves the data through the distributed disk cache. Second, we describe how SAM interacts with the batch system to synchronize parallel user jobs with the data availability. All the design solutions herein have been implemented in a real system that handles the mission-critical data of the D0 experiment; thus, we present our work from the standpoint of real experience.

  13. Hydraulic model analysis of water distribution system, Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perstein, J.; Castellano, J.A.

    1989-01-20

    Rockwell International requested an analysis of the existing plant site water supply distribution system at Rocky Flats, Colorado, to determine its adequacy. On September 26--29, 1988, Hughes Associates, Inc., Fire Protection Engineers, accompanied by Rocky Flats Fire Department engineers and suppression personnel, conducted water flow tests at the Rocky Flats plant site. Thirty-seven flows from various points throughout the plant site were taken on the existing domestic supply/fire main installation to assure comprehensive and thorough representation of the Rocky Flats water distribution system capability. The analysis was completed in four phases which are described, together with a summary of general conclusions and recommendations.

  14. Entanglement verification for quantum-key-distribution systems with an underlying bipartite qubit-mode structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigas, Johannes; Luetkenhaus, Norbert

    2006-01-15

    We consider entanglement detection for quantum-key-distribution systems that use two signal states and continuous-variable measurements. This problem can be formulated as a separability problem in a qubit-mode system. To verify entanglement, we introduce an object that combines the covariance matrix of the mode with the density matrix of the qubit. We derive necessary separability criteria for this scenario. These criteria can be readily evaluated using semidefinite programming and we apply them to the specific quantum key distribution protocol.

  15. Manufacturing R&D for systems that will produce and distribute hydrogen |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy for systems that will produce and distribute hydrogen Manufacturing R&D for systems that will produce and distribute hydrogen Background paper prepared for the 2005 Hydrogen Manufacturing R&D workshop. mfg_wkshp_production.pdf (369.86 KB) More Documents & Publications Manufacturing R&D of PEM Fuel Cells Roadmap on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell

  16. Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through the Use of CFD Analysis | Department of Energy Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System Through the Use of CFD Analysis Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System Through the Use of CFD Analysis Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle

  17. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  18. Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-Campusof Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-14

    In this study, referring to the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) which was developed by the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), E-GAMS programmer is developed with a research of database of energy tariffs, DER (Distributed Energy Resources) technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption in Japan. E-GAMS is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills. In this research, by using E-GAMS, we present a tool to select the optimal combination of distributed energy system for an Ecological-Campus, Kitakyushu, Science and Research Park (KSRP). We discuss the effects of the combination of distributed energy technologies on the energy saving, economic efficiency and environmental benefits.

  19. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document performance

  20. Three-Phase Unbalanced Transient Dynamics and Powerflow for Modeling Distribution Systems With Synchronous Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike transmission systems, distribution feeders in North America operate under unbalanced conditions at all times, and generally have a single strong voltage source. When a distribution feeder is connected to a strong substation source, the system is dynamically very stable, even for large transients. However if a distribution feeder, or part of the feeder, is separated from the substation and begins to operate as an islanded microgrid, transient dynamics become more of an issue. To assess the impact of transient dynamics at the distribution level, it is not appropriate to use traditional transmission solvers, which generally assume transposed lines and balanced loads. Full electromagnetic solvers capture a high level of detail, but it is difficult to model large systems because of the required detail. This paper proposes an electromechanical transient model of synchronous machine for distribution-level modeling and microgrids. This approach includes not only the machine model, but also its interface with an unbalanced network solver, and a powerflow method to solve unbalanced conditions without a strong reference bus. The presented method is validated against a full electromagnetic transient simulation.

  1. Simulation of a high temperature thermal energy storage system employing several families of phase-change storage material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adebiyi, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Previous work by the author entailed modeling of the Packed Bed Thermal Energy Storage System, utilizing Phase-Change Materials, and a performance evaluation of the system based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. A principal conclusion reached is that the use of a single family of phase-change storage material may not in fact produce a thermodynamically superior system relative to one utilizing sensible heat storage material. This prompted us to modify our model so that we could investigate whether or not a significantly improved performance may be achieved via the use of multiple families of phase-change materials instead. Other factors investigated in the present work include the effect on system performance due to the thermal mass of the containment vessel wall, varying temperature and mass flow rate of the flue gas entering the packed bed during the storage process, and thermal radiation which could be a significant factor at high temperature levels. The resulting model is intended to serve as an integral part of a real-time simulation of the application of a high temperature regenerator in a periodic brick plant. This paper describes the more comprehensive model of the high temperature thermal energy storage system and presents results indicating that improved system performance could be achieved via a judicious choice of multiple families of phase-change materials.

  2. Distributed Hierarchical Control of Multi-Area Power Systems with Improved Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2012-12-12

    The conventional distributed hierarchical control architecture for multi-area power systems is revisited. In this paper, a new distributed hierarchical control architecture is proposed. In the proposed architecture, pilot generators are selected in each area to be equipped with decentralized robust control as a supplementary to the conventional droop speed control. With the improved primary frequency control, the system frequency can be restored to the nominal value without the help of secondary frequency control, which reduces the burden of the automatic generation control for frequency restoration. Moreover, the low frequency inter-area electromechanical oscillations can also be effectively damped. The effectiveness of the proposed distributed hierarchical control architecture is validated through detailed simulations.

  3. Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2014-01-28

    Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

  4. Impact of Distributed Wind on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Palchak, D.; Miettinen, J.

    2014-09-01

    The work presented in this paper aims to study the impact of a range of penetration levels of distributed wind on the operation of the electric power system at the transmission level. This paper presents a case study on the power system in Independent System Operator New England. It is analyzed using PLEXOS, a commercial power system simulation tool. The results show that increasing the integration of distributed wind reduces total variable electricity generation costs, coal- and gas-fired electricity generation, electricity imports, and CO2 emissions, and increases wind curtailment. The variability and uncertainty of wind power also increases the start-up and shutdown costs and ramping of most conventional power plants.

  5. Proceedings of the Workshop on software tools for distributed intelligent control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herget, C.J.

    1990-09-01

    The Workshop on Software Tools for Distributed Intelligent Control Systems was organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the United States Army Headquarters Training and Doctrine Command and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The goals of the workshop were to the identify the current state of the art in tools which support control systems engineering design and implementation, identify research issues associated with writing software tools which would provide a design environment to assist engineers in multidisciplinary control design and implementation, formulate a potential investment strategy to resolve the research issues and develop public domain code which can form the core of more powerful engineering design tools, and recommend test cases to focus the software development process and test associated performance metrics. Recognizing that the development of software tools for distributed intelligent control systems will require a multidisciplinary effort, experts in systems engineering, control systems engineering, and compute science were invited to participate in the workshop. In particular, experts who could address the following topics were selected: operating systems, engineering data representation and manipulation, emerging standards for manufacturing data, mathematical foundations, coupling of symbolic and numerical computation, user interface, system identification, system representation at different levels of abstraction, system specification, system design, verification and validation, automatic code generation, and integration of modular, reusable code.

  6. Chapter 6: Innovating Clean Energy Technologies in Advanced Manufacturing | Direct Thermal Energy Conversion Materials, Devices, and Systems Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Modeling for Manufacturing Combined Heat and Power Systems Composite Materials Critical Materials Direct Thermal Energy Conversion Materials, Devices, and Systems Materials for Harsh Service Conditions Process Heating Process Intensification Roll-to-Roll Processing Sustainable Manufacturing - Flow of Materials through Industry Waste Heat Recovery Systems Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology

  7. Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali

    2008-09-24

    Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

  8. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System: Validation Integration - Results of Future Architecture Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-06-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects. This report is second in a series of reports detailing this effort.

  9. Thermal Characterization and Analysis of A123 Systems Battery Cells, Modules and Packs: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-243

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2012-03-01

    In support of the A123 Systems battery development program with USABC/DOE, NREL provided technical support in thermal characterization, analysis and management of batteries. NREL's effort was part of Energy Storage Project funded by DOE Vehicle Technologies Program. The purpose of this work was for NREL to perform thermal characterization and analysis of A123 Systems cells and modules with the aim for Al23 Systems to improve the thermal performance of their battery cells, modules and packs.

  10. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  11. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.

    1997-01-01

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

  12. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

    1997-10-28

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

  13. Melting and thermal expansion in the Fe-FeO system at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seagle, C. T.; Heinz, D. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Wanless, S. T.

    2015-02-26

    Melting in the Fe–FeO system was investigated at pressures up to 93 GPa using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a laser heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). The criteria for melting were the disappearance of reflections associated with one of the end-member phases upon raising the temperature above the eutectic and the reappearance of those reflections on dropping the temperature below the eutectic. The Fe–FeO system is a simple eutectic at 50 GPa and remains eutectic to at least 93 GPa. The eutectic temperature was bound at several pressure points between 19 and 93 GPa, and in some cases the liquidus temperature was also determined. The eutectic temperature rises rapidly with pressure closely following the melting curve of pure Fe. A detailed phase diagram at 50 GPa is presented; the eutectic temperature is 2500 ± 150 K and the eutectic composition is bound between 7.6 ± 1.0 and 9.5 ± 1.0 wt.% O. The coefficient of thermal expansion of FeO is a strong function of volume and decreases with pressure according to a simple power law.

  14. Code System for Transient and Steady-State Temperature Distribution in Multidimensional Systems.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-24

    Version 01 TRUMP solves a general nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady‑state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complexmore » shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables, temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time‑steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state.« less

  15. Code System for Transient and Steady-State Temperature Distribution in Multidimensional Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EDWARDS, ARTHUR L.

    2005-10-24

    Version 01 TRUMP solves a general nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady‑state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complex shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables, temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time‑steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state.

  16. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; Sakadjian, B. B.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the costmore » and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.« less

  17. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; Sakadjian, B. B.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the cost and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.

  18. Privacy and Security Research Group workshop on network and distributed system security: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Practice; Security Issues of a UNIX PEM Implementation; Implementing Privacy Enhanced Mail on VMS; Distributed Public Key Certificate Management; Protecting the Integrity of Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail; Practical Authorization in Large Heterogeneous Distributed Systems; Security Issues in the Truffles File System; Issues surrounding the use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Smart Card Applications; Smart Card Augmentation of Kerberos; and An Overview of the Advanced Smart Card Access Control System. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burman, K.; Olis, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Warren, A.; Butt, R.; Lilienthal, P.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on the economic and technical feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies into the U.S. Virgin Islands transmission and distribution systems. The report includes three main areas of analysis: 1) the economics of deploying utility-scale renewable energy technologies on St. Thomas/St. John and St. Croix; 2) potential sites for installing roof- and ground-mount PV systems and wind turbines and the impact renewable generation will have on the electrical subtransmission and distribution infrastructure, and 3) the feasibility of a 100- to 200-megawatt power interconnection of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), and British Virgin Islands (BVI) grids via a submarine cable system.

  20. Installation of the first Distributed Energy Storage System (DESS) at American Electric Power (AEP).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nourai, Ali

    2007-06-01

    AEP studied the direct and indirect benefits, strengths, and weaknesses of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) and chose to transform its entire utility grid into a system that achieves optimal integration of both central and distributed energy assets. To that end, AEP installed the first NAS battery-based, energy storage system in North America. After one year of operation and testing, AEP has concluded that, although the initial costs of DESS are greater than conventional power solutions, the net benefits justify the AEP decision to create a grid of DESS with intelligent monitoring, communications, and control, in order to enable the utility grid of the future. This report details the site selection, construction, benefits and lessons learned of the first installation, at Chemical Station in North Charleston, WV.

  1. Integration of distributed resources in electric utility systems: Current interconnection practice and unified approach. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, P.; Leskan, T.; Zaininger, H.; Smith, D.

    1998-11-01

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry, new state and federal programs, and technology developments are making distributed resources (DR) an increasingly utilized option to provide capacity for growing or heavily loaded electric power systems. Optimal DR placement near loads provides benefits not attainable from bulk generation system additions. These include reduced loading of the T and D system, reduced losses, voltage support, and T and D equipment upgrade deferments. The purpose of this document is to review existing interconnection practices and present interconnection guidelines are relevant to the protection, control, and data acquisition requirements for the interconnection of distributed resources to the utility system. This is to include protection performance requirements, data collection and reporting requirements, on-line communication requirements, and ongoing periodic documentation requirements. This document also provides guidelines for the practical placement and sizing of resources as pertinent to determining the interconnection equipment and system control requirements. The material contained herein has been organized into 4 sections dealing with application issues, existing practices, a unified interconnection approach, and future work. Section 2 of the report discusses the application issues associated with distributed resources and deals with various engineering issues such as overcurrent protection, voltage regulation, and islanding. Section 3 summarizes the existing utility interconnection practices and guidelines as determined from the documents provided by participating utilities. Section 4 presents a unified interconnection approach that is intended to serve as a guide for interconnection of distributed resources to the utility system. And finally, Section 5 outlines possible future areas of study to expand upon the topics discussed in this report.

  2. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  3. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants November 7, 2007 Denver, Colorado Paul Lemar Jr., President pll@rdcnet.com www.rdcnet.com www.distributed-generation.com Reciprocating Engines for ADG and LFG z Reciprocating engines are either Otto (spark ignition) or Diesel (compression ignition) cycle systems z Natural gas engines, as well as those powered by ADG or LFG, are typically spark ignition systems z Some dual fuel engines have been developed using ADG/LFG with a portion of diesel

  4. A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Yin, Hongxi; Archer, David H.

    2010-02-15

    A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

  5. Future Opportunities and Challenges with Using Demand Response as a Resource in Distribution System Operation and Planning Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This scoping study focuses on identifying the ability for current and future demand response opportunities to contribute to distribution system management. To do so, this scoping study will...

  6. High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid, Workshop Report, February 24-25, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Outcomes from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Program workshop on high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the distribution grid, Feb. 24-25, 2009, Ontario, Calif.

  7. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  8. Development of a Consensus Standard for Verification and Validation of Nuclear System Thermal-Fluids Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Richard R. Schultz; Ryan L. Crane

    2011-12-01

    With the resurgence of nuclear power and increased interest in advanced nuclear reactors as an option to supply abundant energy without the associated greenhouse gas emissions of the more conventional fossil fuel energy sources, there is a need to establish internationally recognized standards for the verification and validation (V&V) of software used to calculate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of advanced reactor designs for both normal operation and hypothetical accident conditions. To address this need, ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Standards and Certification has established the V&V 30 Committee, under the jurisdiction of the V&V Standards Committee, to develop a consensus standard for verification and validation of software used for design and analysis of advanced reactor systems. The initial focus of this committee will be on the V&V of system analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software for nuclear applications. To limit the scope of the effort, the committee will further limit its focus to software to be used in the licensing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. In this framework, the Standard should conform to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other regulatory practices, procedures and methods for licensing of nuclear power plants as embodied in the United States (U.S.) Code of Federal Regulations and other pertinent documents such as Regulatory Guide 1.203, 'Transient and Accident Analysis Methods' and NUREG-0800, 'NRC Standard Review Plan'. In addition, the Standard should be consistent with applicable sections of ASME NQA-1-2008 'Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications (QA)'. This paper describes the general requirements for the proposed V&V 30 Standard, which includes; (a) applicable NRC and other regulatory requirements for defining the operational and accident domain of a nuclear system that must be considered if the system is to be licensed, (b) the corresponding calculation domain of

  9. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of N Reactor graphite and shield cooling system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, J.O.; Schmitt, B.E.

    1988-02-01

    A series of bounding (worst-case) calculations were performed using a detailed hydrodynamic RELAP5 model of the N Reactor graphite and shield cooling system (GSCS). These calculations were specifically aimed to answer issues raised by the Westinghouse Independent Safety Review (WISR) committee. These questions address the operability of the GSCS during a worst-case degraded-core accident that requires the GDCS to mitigate the consequences of the accident. An accident scenario previously developed was designed as the hydrogen-mitigation design-basis accident (HMDBA). Previous HMDBA heat transfer analysis,, using the TRUMP-BD code, was used to define the thermal boundary conditions that the GSDS may be exposed to. These TRUMP/HMDBA analysis results were used to define the bounding operating conditions of the GSCS during the course of an HMDBA transient. Nominal and degraded GSCS scenarios were investigated using RELAP5 within or at the bounds of the HMDBA transient. 10 refs., 42 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency Improvements in the U.S. Electricity Transmission and Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    From 2000-2012, about 6% of U.S. electricity generation did not reach any customer, instead being lost in the transmission and distribution system. This report describes sources of energy loss in the transmission and distribution of electricity, and reviews research on both the magnitude and potential for reducing these losses. Strategies to improve energy efficiency on the grid include upgrades in physical infrastructure as well as information technologies and operational strategies that can help grid operators make the system run more efficiently. The report also describes engineering, economic, and policy barriers to implementing these loss reduction strategies. For transmission, emerging technologies such as superconductors and power flow control technologies can reduce transmission loss 50% or more, but these technologies may not be cost-effective in all areas. On the distribution system, theoretical studies of reducing overloading lines through reconfiguration have identified loss reductions of up to 40%; however, studies of real systems have observed loss reductions of only 5-20%.

  11. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  12. Modeling, design and thermal performance of a BIPV/T system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab in a low energy solar house: Part 2, ventilated concrete slab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Galal, Khaled; Athienitis, A.K.

    2010-11-15

    This paper is the second of two papers that describe the modeling and design of a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV/T) system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab (VCS) adopted in a prefabricated, two-storey detached, low energy solar house and their performance assessment based on monitored data. The VCS concept is based on an integrated thermal-structural design with active storage of solar thermal energy while serving as a structural component - the basement floor slab ({proportional_to}33 m{sup 2}). This paper describes the numerical modeling, design, and thermal performance assessment of the VCS. The thermal performance of the VCS during the commissioning of the unoccupied house is presented. Analysis of the monitored data shows that the VCS can store 9-12 kWh of heat from the total thermal energy collected by the BIPV/T system, on a typical clear sunny day with an outdoor temperature of about 0 C. It can also accumulate thermal energy during a series of clear sunny days without overheating the slab surface or the living space. This research shows that coupling the VCS with the BIPV/T system is a viable method to enhance the utilization of collected solar thermal energy. A method is presented for creating a simplified three-dimensional, control volume finite difference, explicit thermal model of the VCS. The model is created and validated using monitored data. The modeling method is suitable for detailed parametric study of the thermal behavior of the VCS without excessive computational effort. (author)

  13. Oxide vapor distribution from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Tassano, P.L.; Tsujimoto, N.

    1995-03-01

    Oxide vapor distributions have been determined as a function of operating parameters of a high frequency sweep e-beam source combined with a programmable sweep controller. We will show which parameters are significant, the parameters that yield the broadest oxide deposition distribution, and the procedure used to arrive at these conclusions. A design-of-experimental strategy was used with five operating parameters: evaporation rate, sweep speed, sweep pattern (pre-programmed), phase speed (azimuthal rotation of the pattern), profile (dwell time as a function of radial position). A design was chosen that would show which of the parameters and parameter pairs have a statistically significant effect on the vapor distribution. Witness flats were placed symmetrically across a 25 inches diameter platen. The stationary platen was centered 24 inches above the e-gun crucible. An oxide material was evaporated under 27 different conditions. Thickness measurements were made with a stylus profilometer. The information will enable users of the high frequency e-gun systems to optimally locate the source in a vacuum system and understand which parameters have a major effect on the vapor distribution.

  14. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes power electronic interfaces for DE applications and the topologies needed for advanced power electronic interfaces. It focuses on photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, battery storage, and flywheel storage systems.

  15. Thermal management system and method for a solid-state energy storing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Gauthier, Michel; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Rouillard, Jean; Shiota, Toshimi; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    An improved electrochemical energy storing device includes a number of thin-film electrochemical cells which are maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of each electrochemical cell, conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cells and also conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cells and thermally conductive material disposed on a wall structure adjacent the conductors. The wall structure includes electrically resistive material, such as an anodized coating or a thin film of plastic. The thermal conductors are fabricated to include a spring mechanism which expands and contacts to maintain mechanical contact between the electrochemical cells and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the electrochemical cells and the wall structure. An active cooling apparatus may be employed external to a hermetically sealed housing containing the electrochemical cells to enhance the transfer of thermal energy into and out of the electrochemical cells. An integrated interconnect board may be disposed within the housing onto which a number of electrical and electro-mechanical components are mounted. Heat generated by the components is conducted from the interconnect board to the housing using the thermal conductors.

  16. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities and Feeders Under Various Market Structures: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, Mark; Pratt, Annabelle; Lunacek, Monte; Mittal, Saurabh; Wu, Hongyu; Jones, Wesley

    2015-07-17

    The combination of distributed energy resources (DER) and retail tariff structures to provide benefits to both utility consumers and the utilities is poorly understood. To improve understanding, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed to simulate the physical and economic aspects of DER technologies, the buildings where they reside, and feeders servicing them. The IESM was used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time of use tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. HEMS reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Household savings are greater than the reduction utility net revenue indicating that HEMS can provide a societal benefit providing tariffs are structured so that utilities remain solvent. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices and resulting in a higher peak load.

  17. thermal energy power conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  18. Phase lag deduced information in photo-thermal actuation for nano-mechanical systems characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bijster, R. J. F. Vreugd, J. de; Sadeghian, H.

    2014-08-18

    In photo-thermal actuation, heat is added locally to a micro-cantilever by means of a laser. A fraction of the irradiation is absorbed, yielding thermal stresses and deformations in the structure. Harmonic modulation of the laser power causes the cantilever to oscillate. Moreover, a phase lag is introduced which is very sensitive to the spot location and the cantilever properties. This phase lag is theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. Combined with thermo-mechanical properties of the cantilever and its geometry, the location of the laser spot, the thermal diffusivity, and the layer thicknesses of the cantilever can be extracted.

  19. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands Kari Burman, Dan Olis, Vahan Gevorgian, Adam Warren, and Robert Butt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Peter Lilienthal and John Glassmire HOMER Energy LLC Technical Report NREL/TP-7A20-51294 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No.

  20. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems Will Gans, Anna Monis Shipley, and R. Neal Elliott January 2007 Report Number IE071 ©American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy 1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 801, Washington, D.C. 20036 (202) 429-8873 phone, (202) 429-2248 fax, http://aceee.org Web site Survey of Emissions Models for CHP, ACEEE CONTENTS