National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal distribution auxiliary

  1. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

  2. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Market Share of Major HVAC Equipment Manufacturers ($2009 Million) Air-Handling Units 1032 Cooling Towers 533 Pumps 333 Central System Terminal Boxes 192 Classroom Unit Ventilator 160 Fan Coil Units 123 Source(s): Total Market Size BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table 4-1, p. 4-4; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for price

  3. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 U.S. Commercial Buildings Conditioned Floorspace, Building Type and System Type (Million SF) Total Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care Lodging Mercantile and Service Office Public Buildings Warehouse/Storage Total Source(s): BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table A2-12, p. B2-1. 3,988 4,771 19,767 5,287 2,822 3,352 12,065 48,064 119 1,482 0 0 102

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Thermal Distribution Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by Building Activity Education 0.5 1.3 Food Sales 1.1 6.4 Food Service 1.5 6.4 Health Care 1.5 5.6 Lodging 0.5 1.9 Mercantile and Service 0.9 2.7 Office 1.3 3.3 Public Assembly 1.2 3.0 Warehouse 0.4 1.8 All Buildings 1.0 2.8 Source(s): Design Load Intensity End Use Intensity (W/SF) (kWh/SF) BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment,

  5. Active electron energy distribution function control in direct current discharge using an auxiliary electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigert, I. V.; George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 ; Kaganovich, I. D.; Demidov, V. I.; St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg

    2013-10-15

    The electron energy distribution functions are studied in the low voltage dc discharge with a constriction, which is a diaphragm with an opening. The dc discharge glows in helium and is sustained by the electron current emitted from a heated cathode. We performed kinetic simulations of dc discharge characteristics and electron energy distribution functions for different gas pressures (0.8 Torr-4 Torr) and discharge current of 0.1 A. The results of these simulations indicate the ability to control the shape of the electron energy distribution functions by variation of the diaphragm opening radius.

  6. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa

    2014-07-15

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.

  7. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Thermal Distribution Bus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Distribution Bus The Energy Systems Integration Facility's integrated thermal distribution bus consists of a thermal water loop connected to a research boiler and chiller that provide precise and efficient control of the water temperature delivered to laboratories. The thermal distribution bus allows the research community to study and test heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems as well as combined heat and power applications that require controlled input water temperature or

  8. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE-industry thermal distribution conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    The subject of the conference was thermal distribution in small buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment in which the heat or cooling is produced to the building spaces in which it is used. The small buildings category is defined to include single-family residential and multifamily and commercial buildings with less than 10,000 ft{sup 2} floor area. The 1992 DOE-Industry Thermal Distribution Conference was conceived as the beginning of a process of information transfer between the DOE and the industries having a stake in thermal distribution systems, whereby the DOE can make the industry aware of its thinking and planned directions early enough for changes to be made, and whereby the industries represented can provide this input to the DOE on a timely and informed basis. In accordance with this, the objectives of the Conference were: To present--to a representative group of researchers and industry representative--the current industry thinking and DOE`s current directions for research in small-building thermal distribution. To obtain from industry and the research community a critique of the DOE priorities and additional ideas concerning how DOE can best assist the industry in promoting energy conservation in thermal distribution systems.

  9. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE-industry thermal distribution conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    The subject of the conference was thermal distribution in small buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment in which the heat or cooling is produced to the building spaces in which it is used. The small buildings category is defined to include single-family residential and multifamily and commercial buildings with less than 10,000 ft{sup 2} floor area. The 1992 DOE-Industry Thermal Distribution Conference was conceived as the beginning of a process of information transfer between the DOE and the industries having a stake in thermal distribution systems, whereby the DOE can make the industry aware of its thinking and planned directions early enough for changes to be made, and whereby the industries represented can provide this input to the DOE on a timely and informed basis. In accordance with this, the objectives of the Conference were: To present--to a representative group of researchers and industry representative--the current industry thinking and DOE's current directions for research in small-building thermal distribution. To obtain from industry and the research community a critique of the DOE priorities and additional ideas concerning how DOE can best assist the industry in promoting energy conservation in thermal distribution systems.

  10. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

    1999-12-01

    According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct insulation, and improved equipment sizing; and (3) to develop and evaluate innovative techniques applicable to large buildings for sealing ducts and encapsulating internal duct insulation. In the UCB fan project, the goals were: (1) to develop a protocol for testing, analyzing and diagnosing problems in large commercial building built-up air handling systems, and (2) to develop low-cost measurement techniques to improve short term monitoring practices. To meet our stated goals and objectives, this project: (1) continued to investigate and characterize the performance of thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings; (2) performed energy analyses and evaluation for duct-performance improvements for both small and large commercial buildings; (3) developed aerosol injection technologies for both duct sealing and liner encapsulation in commercial buildings; and (4) designed energy-related diagnostic protocols based on short term measurement and used a benchmarking database to compare subject systems with other measured systems for certain performance metrics. This year's efforts consisted of the following distinct tasks: performing characterization measurements for five light commercial building systems and five large-commercial-building systems; analyzing the potential for including duct performance in California's Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Non-Residential Buildings (Title 24), including performing energy and equipment sizing analyses of air distribution systems using DOE 2.1E for non-residential buildings; conducting laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling of new aerosol injection technologies concepts for sealing and coating, including field testing aerosol-based sealing in two large commercial buildings; improving low-cost fan monitoring techniques measurements, and disseminating fan tools by working with energy practitioners directly where possible and publishing the results of this research and the tools developed on a web-site. The final report consists of five sections listed below. Each section includes its related

  11. Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadi, F.; Qamar, A.; Yoon, P. H.

    2015-02-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.

  12. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Typical Commercial Building Thermal Energy Distribution Design Load Intensities (Watts per SF) Distribution System Fans Other Central System Supply Fans Cooling Tower Fan Central System Return Fans Air-Cooled Chiller Condenser Fan 0.6 Terminal Box Fans 0.5 Exhaust Fans (2) Fan-Coil Unit Fans (1) Condenser Fans 0.6 Packaged or Split System Indoor Blower 0.6 Pumps Chilled Water Pump Condenser Water Pump Heating Water Pump Note(s): Source(s): 0.1 - 0.2 0.1 - 0.2 1) Unducted units are lower than

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Thermal Distribution Equipment Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by System Type Central VAV Central CAV Packaged CAV Central VAV Central CAV Packaged CAV Condenser Fan 0.3 0.2 Cooling Tower Fan 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 Condenser Water Pump 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.0 Chilled Water Pump 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 Supply & Return Fans 0.7 0.5 0.6 1.2 1.9 1.9 Chiller/Compressor 1.9 1.8 3.3 1.7 2.3 4.0 Source(s): BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II:

  14. Control and Auxiliary Systems - MST - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control and Auxiliary Systems UW Madison Madison Symmetric Torus Control and Auxiliary Systems MST HomeGraduate Student InformationLinksTourControl and Auxiliary SystemsPhysics...

  15. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Z. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  16. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  17. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  18. Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave regeneration ...

  19. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  20. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-12-21

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  1. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  2. DETERMINATION OF NON-THERMAL VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM SERTS LINEWIDTH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyner, Aaron J. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M., E-mail: aaron.j.coyner@nasa.gov [Code 671, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Non-thermal velocities obtained from the measurement of coronal Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) linewidths have been consistently observed in solar EUV spectral observations and have been theorized to result from many plausible scenarios including wave motions, turbulence, or magnetic reconnection. Constraining these velocities can provide a physical limit for the available energy resulting from unresolved motions in the corona. We statistically determine a series of non-thermal velocity distributions from linewidth measurements of 390 emission lines from a wide array of elements and ionization states observed during the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Research Telescope and Spectrograph 1991-1997 flights covering the spectral range 174-418 A and a temperature range from 80,000 K to 12.6 MK. This sample includes 248 lines from active regions, 101 lines from quiet-Sun regions, and 41 lines were observed from plasma off the solar limb. We find a strongly peaked distribution corresponding to a non-thermal velocity of 19-22 km s{sup -1} in all three of the quiet-Sun, active region, and off-limb distributions. For the possibility of Alfven wave resonance heating, we find that velocities in the core of these distributions do not provide sufficient energy, given typical densities and magnetic field strengths for the coronal plasma, to overcome the estimated coronal energy losses required to maintain the corona at the typical temperatures working as the sole mechanism. We find that at perfect efficiency 50%-60% of the needed energy flux can be produced from the non-thermal velocities measured.

  3. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL); Johnson, Kris W. (Peoria, IL); Johnson, Matthew D. (Peoria, IL); Slone, Larry M. (Washington, IL); Welter, James Milton (Chillicothe, IL)

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  4. Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon

    2014-01-29

    Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.

  5. Influence of store dimensions and auxiliary volume configuration on the performance of medium-sized solar combisystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundh, Magdalena; Zass, Katrin; Wilhelms, Claudius; Vajen, Klaus; Jordan, Ulrike

    2010-07-15

    To increase the fractional energy savings achieved with solar thermal combisystems the store volume may be increased. Installation of large stores in single-family houses is, however, often limited by space constraints. In this article the influence of the store dimensions, as well as internal and external auxiliary volume configurations, are investigated for large solar water stores by annual dynamic TRNSYS simulations. The results show that store sizes up to 4 m{sup 3} may be used in solar heating systems with 30 m{sup 2} collector area. It is further shown that well-insulated stores are rather insensitive to the geometry. Stores deviating from the conventional dimensions still yield high fractional energy savings. Furthermore, the simulations show that the performance of an internal auxiliary volume configuration in most cases exceeds that of a solution with an external auxiliary unit. The practical limitations of very thin auxiliary volumes must, however, be further investigated. (author)

  6. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  7. A new small Stirling engine prototype for auxiliary employments aboard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a small size Stirling engine as low power system for auxiliary employments aboard sailing boats or caravan still appears interesting. In previous papers the author presented the design, the prototype construction and the experimental tests of a monocylinder P-type configuration with the regenerator and part of the heat exchangers set on the displacer; the heat was irradiated by the head and it was removed by the water circulating through the rod of the displacer and around the cylinder. Considerable reductions in dead volume and global dimensions were obtained. At the same time, however, the weight of the heat exchanger regenerator displacer, mainly due to the cooler, kept the speed of revolution from increasing, with consequent limitation of specific power value; furthermore thermal insulation between hot and cold ends and displacer rod seals proved to be critical features as far as reliability is concerned. A new prototype has been developed adopting {gamma}-type configuration with stationary heat exchangers and with the displacer connecting rod linked to the crankshaft by means of an epicyclic train able to make its movement linear thus eliminating rod seal side loadings. The paper deals with the criteria followed with the design and the prototype construction; the adopted technical solutions are shown and discussed.

  8. Test procedures and protocols: Their relevance to the figure of merit for thermal distribution systems. Volume 1: Informal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1993-09-01

    A conceptual framework is developed that categorizes measurement protocols for forced-air thermal distribution systems in small buildings. This framework is based on the distinction between two generic approaches. The {open_quote}system-comparison{close_quote} approach seeks to determine, via a pair of whole-house energy-use measurements, the difference in energy use between the house with the as-found duct system and the same house with no energy losses attributable to the thermal distribution system. The {open_quote}component loss-factor{close_quote} approach identifies and measures the individual causes of duct losses, and then builds up a value for the net overall duct efficiency, usually with the help of computer simulation. Examples of each approach are analyzed and related to a proposed Figure of Merit for thermal distribution systems. This Figure of Merit would serve as the basis for a Standard Method of Test analogous to those already in place for furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, and heat pumps.

  9. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  10. Survey of technology for hybrid vehicle auxiliary power units. Interim report, April 1994-June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widener, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    The state-of-the-art of heat engines for use as auxiliary power units in hybrid vehicles is surveyed. The study considers reciprocating or rotary heat engines, excluding gas turbines and fuel cells. The relative merits of various engine-generator concepts are compared. The concepts are ranked according to criteria tailored for a series-type hybrid drive. The two top APU concepts were the free-piston engine/linear generator (FPELG) and the Wankel rotary` engine. The FPELG is highly ranked primarily because of thermal efficiency cost, producibility. reliability, and transient response advantages; it is a high risk concept because of unproven technology. The Wankel engine is proven. with high power density, low cost and low noise. Four additional competitive concepts include two-stroke spark-ignition engine. two-stroke gas generator with turboalternator, free-piston engine gas generator with turboalternator, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine. This study recommends additional work, including cycle simulation development and preliminary design to better quantify thermal efficiency and power density. Auxiliary concepts were also considered, including two which warrant further study: electrically actuated valves, and lean turndown of a normally stoichiometric engine. These concepts should be evaluated by retrofitting to existing engines.

  11. Distribution of occupation numbers in finite Fermi systems and role of interaction in chaos and thermalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flambaum, V.V.; Izrailev, F.M. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    1997-01-01

    A method is developed for calculation of single-particle occupation numbers in finite Fermi systems of interacting particles. It is more accurate than the canonical distribution method and gives the Fermi-Dirac distribution in the limit of large number of particles. It is shown that statistical effects of the interaction are absorbed by an increase of the effective temperature. Criteria for quantum chaos and statistical equilibrium are considered. All results are confirmed by numerical experiments in the two-body random interaction model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. History of Sandia National Laboratories` auxiliary closure mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weydert, J.C.; Ponder, G.M.

    1993-12-01

    An essential component of a horizontal, underground nuclear test setup at the Nevada Test Site is the auxiliary closure system. The massive gates that slam shut immediately after a device has been detonated allow the prompt radiation to pass, but block debris and hot gases from continuing down the tunnel. Thus, the gates protect experiments located in the horizontal line-of-sight steel pipe. Sandia National Laboratories has been the major designer and developer of these closure systems. This report records the history of SNL`s participation in and contributions to the technology of auxiliary closure systems used in horizontal tunnel tests in the underground test program.

  13. DPF for a Tractor Auxiliary Power Unit | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for a Tractor Auxiliary Power Unit DPF for a Tractor Auxiliary Power Unit Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_servati.pdf More Documents & Publications Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for

  14. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  15. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-05-15

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

  16. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-29

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  17. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for AHTRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Quiping; Sun, Xiaodong; Chtistensen, Richard; Blue, Thomas; Yoder, Graydon; Wilson, Dane

    2015-05-08

    The principal objective of this research is to test and model the heat transfer performance and reliability of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) for AHTRs. In addition, component testing of fluidic diodes is to be performed to examine the performance and viability of several existing fluidic diode designs. An extensive database related to the thermal performance of the heat exchangers involved will be obtained, which will be used to benchmark a computer code for the DRACS design and to evaluate and improve, if needed, existing heat transfer models of interest. The database will also be valuable for assessing the viability of the DRACS concept and benchmarking any related computer codes in the future. The experience of making a liquid fluoride salt test facility available, with lessons learned, will greatly benefit the development of the Fluoride Salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) and eventually the AHTR programs.

  18. Spatial Distribution of -Crystals in Metallocene-Made Isotactic Polypropylene Crystallized under Combined Thermal and Flow Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Pan, J; Mao, Y; Li, Z; Li, L; Hsiao, B

    2010-01-01

    The present Article reports the relationships between molecular orientation, formation, and spatial distribution of {gamma}-crystals in metallocene-made isotactic polypropylene (m-iPP) samples prepared by two industrial processes: conventional injection molding (CIM) and oscillatory shear injection molding (OSIM), in which combined thermal and flow fields typically exist. In particular, spatial distributions of crystallinity, fraction of {gamma}-crystal (f{gamma}) with respect to {alpha}-crystal, and lamella-branched shish-kebab structure in the shaped samples were characterized by synchrotron two-dimensional (2D) wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The results showed that the crystallinity in any given region of OSIM samples was always higher than that of CIM samples. The value of f{gamma} increased monotonously from skin to core in CIM samples, whereas the corresponding f{gamma} increased nonmonotonically in OSIM samples. The spatial distribution of {gamma}-crystal in OSIM samples can be explained by the epitaxial arrangement between {gamma}- and {alpha}-crystal in a lamella-branched shish-kebab structure. In the proposed model, the parent lamellae of {alpha}-crystal provide secondary nucleation sites for daughter lamellae of {alpha}-crystal and {gamma}-crystal, and the different content of parent lamellae results in varying amounts of {gamma}-crystal. In OSIM samples, the smallest parent-daughter ratio ([R] = 1.38) in the core region led to the lowest fraction of {gamma}-crystal (0.57), but relatively higher {gamma}-crystal content (0.69) at 600 and 1200 {micro}m depth of the samples (corresponding to [R] of 4.5 and 5.8, respectively). This is consistent with the proposed model where more parent lamellae provide more nucleation sites for crystallization, thus resulting in higher content of {gamma}-crystal. The melting behavior of CIM and OSIM samples was studied by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The observed double-melting peaks could be explained by the melting of {gamma}- and {alpha}-crystal of the shaped samples. The f{gamma} distribution calculated from the relative areas of the peaks in the DSC scans was also consistent with the WAXD results.

  19. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Portable Power and Auxiliary Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for fuel cell systems for portable power and auxiliary power applications.

  20. Auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank electrical power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2006-10-24

    An auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank (AQRDCT) power converter with fast current charging, voltage balancing (or charging), and voltage clamping circuits is provided for achieving soft-switched power conversion. The present invention is an improvement of the invention taught in U.S. Pat. No. 6,111,770, herein incorporated by reference. The present invention provides faster current charging to the resonant inductor, thus minimizing delay time of the pulse width modulation (PWM) due to the soft-switching process. The new AQRDCT converter includes three tank capacitors or power supplies to achieve the faster current charging and minimize the soft-switching time delay. The new AQRDCT converter further includes a voltage balancing circuit to charge and discharge the three tank capacitors so that additional isolated power supplies from the utility line are not needed. A voltage clamping circuit is also included for clamping voltage surge due to the reverse recovery of diodes.

  1. Rarefactive and compressive soliton waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma with non-thermal electron and ion distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslami, Esmaeil Baraz, Rasoul

    2014-02-15

    Sagdeev's pseudo potential method is employed to study dust acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma containing negatively charged dusts with non-thermal electron and ion. The range of parameters for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential has been found. It is observed that, depending on the values of the plasma parameters like ion to electron temperature ratio ?, non-thermal parameters ? and ?, electron to ion density ratio ?, and the value of the Mach number M, both rarefactive and compressive solitary waves may exist.

  2. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. PDF icon wkshp_storage_uihlein.pdf More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Pathway and Resource Overview HyPro: Modeling the Hydrogen Transition

  3. The Modeling of a Standalone Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-10-27

    In this research, a Simulink model of a standalone vehicular solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) is developed. The SOFC APU model consists of three major components: a controller model; a power electronics system model; and an SOFC plant model, including an SOFC stack module; two heat exchanger modules; and a combustor module. This paper discusses the development of the nonlinear dynamic models for the SOFC stacks, the heat exchangers and the combustors. When coupling with a controller model and a power electronic circuit model, the developed SOFC plant model is able to model the thermal dynamics and the electrochemical dynamics inside the SOFC APU components as well as the transient responses to the electric loading changes. It has been shown that having such a model for the SOFC APU will benefit design engineers to adjust design parameters to optimize the performance. The modeling results of the heat-up stage of an SOFC APU and the output voltage response to a sudden load change are presented in the paper. The fuel flow regulation based on fuel utilization is also briefly discussed.

  4. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  5. Map of the State Recognition of the Auxiliary Power Weight Exemption |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Map of the State Recognition of the Auxiliary Power Weight Exemption Map of the State Recognition of the Auxiliary Power Weight Exemption † Allows the 400-lb exemption by enforcement policy rather than by law and has legislation in process to allow the 400-lb exemption by law § Allows the 400-lb exemption by law and a 550-lb exemption takes effect on October 1, 2014 State Recognition of the Auxiliary Power Weight Exemption to GVW Limit: 23 CFR 658.17(n) Does not

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 12 Volt Auxiliary Load On-road Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Idaho National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about 12 volt auxiliary...

  7. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  8. Fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in National Spherical Torus Experiment (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 3, 2016 Title: Fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus Experiment Authors: Ren, Y. [1] ; Wang, W. X. [1] ; LeBlanc, B. P. [1] ; Guttenfelder, W. [1] ;

  9. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  10. Auxiliary-field approach to dilute Bose gases with tunable interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Fred; Mihaila, Bogdan; Dawson, John F.; Chien, Chih-Chun; Timmermans, Eddy

    2011-05-15

    We rewrite the Lagrangian for a dilute Bose gas in terms of auxiliary fields related to the normal and anomalous condensate densities. We derive the loop expansion of the effective action in the composite-field propagators. The lowest-order auxiliary field (LOAF) theory is a conserving mean-field approximation consistent with the Goldstone theorem without some of the difficulties plaguing approximations such as the Hartree and Popov approximations. LOAF predicts a second-order phase transition. We give a set of Feynman rules for improving results to any order in the loop expansion in terms of composite-field propagators. We compare results of the LOAF approximation with those derived using the Popov approximation. LOAF allows us to explore the critical regime for all values of the coupling constant, and we determine various parameters in the unitarity limit.

  11. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorman, William G. (Ballston Spa, NY); Carberg, William George (Ballston Spa, NY); Jones, Charles Michael (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  12. THR-TH: a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor core thermal hydraulics code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    The ORNL version of PEBBLE, the (RZ) pebble bed thermal hydraulics code, has been extended for application to a prismatic gas cooled reactor core. The supplemental treatment is of one-dimensional coolant flow in up to a three-dimensional core description. Power density data from a neutronics and exposure calculation are used as the basic information for the thermal hydraulics calculation of heat removal. Two-dimensional neutronics results may be expanded for a three-dimensional hydraulics calculation. The geometric description for the hydraulics problem is the same as used by the neutronics code. A two-dimensional thermal cell model is used to predict temperatures in the fuel channel. The capability is available in the local BOLD VENTURE computation system for reactor core analysis with capability to account for the effect of temperature feedback by nuclear cross section correlation. Some enhancements have also been added to the original code to add pebble bed modeling flexibility and to generate useful auxiliary results. For example, an estimate is made of the distribution of fuel temperatures based on average and extreme conditions regularly calculated at a number of locations.

  13. Sawtooth Pacing by Real-Time Auxiliary Power Control in a Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Sauter, O.; Graves, J. P.

    2011-06-17

    In the standard scenario of tokamak plasma operation, sawtooth crashes are the main perturbations that can trigger performance-degrading, and potentially disruption-generating, neoclassical tearing modes. This Letter demonstrates sawtooth pacing by real-time control of the auxiliary power. It is shown that the sawtooth crash takes place in a reproducible manner shortly after the removal of that power, and this can be used to precisely prescribe, i.e., pace, the individual sawteeth. In combination with preemptive stabilization of the neoclassical tearing modes, sawtooth pacing provides a new sawtooth control paradigm for improved performance in burning plasmas.

  14. Using Thermally-Degrading, Partitioning, and Nonreactive Tracers to Determine Temperature Distribution and Fracture/Heat Transfer Surface Area in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Project Summary. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and surface area available for heat transfer in EGS.

  15. Energy distribution analysis in boosted HCCI-like / LTGC engines – Understanding the trade-offs to maximize the thermal efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dernotte, Jeremie; Dec, John E.; Ji, Chunsheng

    2015-04-14

    A detailed understanding of the various factors affecting the trends in gross-indicated thermal efficiency with changes in key operating parameters has been carried out, applied to a one-liter displacement single-cylinder boosted Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine. This work systematically investigates how the supplied fuel energy splits into the following four energy pathways: gross-indicated thermal efficiency, combustion inefficiency, heat transfer and exhaust losses, and how this split changes with operating conditions. Additional analysis is performed to determine the influence of variations in the ratio of specific heat capacities (γ) and the effective expansion ratio, related to the combustion-phasing retard (CA50), on the energy split. Heat transfer and exhaust losses are computed using multiple standard cycle analysis techniques. Furthermore, the various methods are evaluated in order to validate the trends.

  16. Energy distribution analysis in boosted HCCI-like / LTGC engines – Understanding the trade-offs to maximize the thermal efficiency

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dernotte, Jeremie; Dec, John E.; Ji, Chunsheng

    2015-04-14

    A detailed understanding of the various factors affecting the trends in gross-indicated thermal efficiency with changes in key operating parameters has been carried out, applied to a one-liter displacement single-cylinder boosted Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine. This work systematically investigates how the supplied fuel energy splits into the following four energy pathways: gross-indicated thermal efficiency, combustion inefficiency, heat transfer and exhaust losses, and how this split changes with operating conditions. Additional analysis is performed to determine the influence of variations in the ratio of specific heat capacities (γ) and the effective expansion ratio, related to the combustion-phasing retard (CA50), onmore » the energy split. Heat transfer and exhaust losses are computed using multiple standard cycle analysis techniques. Furthermore, the various methods are evaluated in order to validate the trends.« less

  17. Auxiliary field formalism for dilute fermionic atom gases with tunable interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaila, Bogdan; Chien, Chih-Chun; Timmermans, Eddy; Dawson, John F.; Cooper, Fred

    2011-05-15

    We develop the auxiliary field formalism corresponding to a dilute system of spin-1/2 fermions. This theory represents the Fermi counterpart of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) theory developed recently by F. Cooper et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 240402 (2010)] to describe a dilute gas of Bose particles. Assuming tunable interactions, this formalism is appropriate for the study of the crossover from the regime of Bardeen-Cooper-Schriffer (BCS) pairing to the regime of BEC in ultracold fermionic atom gases. We show that when applied to the Fermi case at zero temperature, the leading-order auxiliary field (LOAF) approximation gives the same equations as obtained in the standard BCS variational picture. At finite temperature, LOAF leads to the theory discussed by Sa de Melo, Randeria, and Engelbrecht [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3202 (1993); Phys. Rev. B 55, 15153 (1997)]. As such, LOAF provides a unified framework to study the interacting Fermi gas. The mean-field results discussed here can be systematically improved on by calculating the one-particle irreducible action corrections, order by order.

  18. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Database of U.S. CHP Installations Incorporating Thermal Energy Storage (TES) and/or Turbine Inlet Cooling (TIC)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Database of U.S. CHP Installations Incorporating Prepared for: UT-Battelle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory sheet 1 of 5 Thermal Energy Storage (TES) and/or Turbine Inlet Cooling (TIC) U.S. Department of Energy Updated: 9/4/03 Prepared by: The Cool Solutions Company - Lisle, Illinois CoolSolutionsCo@aol.com CHP Year Complementary Power Generation from Total On-site System Capacity Case CHP Facility Name and Location CHP Technologies Type(s) of Building Applications Served by System CHP Prime

  19. Control system analysis for off-peak auxiliary heating of passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, H.S.; Melsa, J.L.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation method is presented for the design of an electrical auxiliary energy system for passive solar heated structures. The system consists of electrical mats buried in the ground underneath the structure. Energy is stored in the ground during utility off-peak hours and released passively to the heated enclosure. An optimal control strategy is used to determine the system design parameters of depth of mat placement and minimum instaled electrical heating capacity. The optimal control applies combinations of fixed duration energy pulses to the heater, which minimize the room temperature error-squared for each day, assuming advance knowledge of the day's weather. Various realizable control schemes are investigated in an attempt to find a system that approaches the performance of the optimal control system.

  20. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul; Fuchs, Benjamin S.; Booten, Chuck W.

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  1. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc.,more » quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured (temporal) surface temperature data. The predicted effusivity is a direct function of depth, not an average or convolved parameter, so it is an accurate (and more sensitive) representation of local property along depth.« less

  2. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Xixers for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-07-20

    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt{trademark} submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt{trademark} mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described.

  3. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  4. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Ginna Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, R.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Moffitt, N.E. )

    1991-09-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Ginna was selected as the eighth plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Ginna plant. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the South Texas Project nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1993-12-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. South Texas Project was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the South Texas Project plant.

  6. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the McGuire nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1994-05-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. McGuire was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the McGuire plant.

  7. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Point Beach nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, R C; Moffitt, N E; Gore, B F; Vo, T V; Vehec, T A

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Point Beach was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Point Beach plant.

  8. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the J. M. Farley Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vo, T.V.; Pugh, R.; Gore, B.F.; Harrison, D.G. )

    1990-10-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment(PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. J. M. Farley was selected as the second plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important at the J. M. Farley plant. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Lloyd, R.C.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Garner, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. H. B. Robinson was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the H. B. Robinson plant.

  10. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Byron and Braidwood nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.: Vo, T.V. )

    1991-07-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Byron and Braidwood were selected for the fourth study in this program. The produce of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plants and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Byron/Braidwood plants. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Development of auxiliary power units for electric hybrid vehicles. Interim report, July 1993-February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, E.C.; Steiber, J.

    1997-06-01

    Larger urban commercial vehicles (such as shuttle and transit buses), various delivery and service vehicles (such as panel and step vans), and garbage trucks and school buses are particularly well suited for electric drive propulsion systems due to their relatively short operating routes, and operation and maintenance from central sites. Furthermore, these vehicles contribute a proportionately large amount to metropolitan air pollution by virtue of their continuous operation in those areas. It is necessary to develop auxiliary power units (APUs) that minimize emissions and in addition, increase range of electric vehicles. This report focuses on the first phase study of the development of APUs for large, electric drive commercial vehicles, intended primarily for metropolitan applications. This paper (1) summarizes the differences between available mobile APUs and Electric Vehicle APU requirements, (2) describes the major components in APUs, and (3) discusses APU integration issues. During this phase, three potential APU manufacturers were identified and selected for development of prototype units at 25 kW and 50 kW power levels.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  13. Scaling analysis for the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for FHRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Q.; Kim, I. H.; Sun, X.; Christensen, R. N.; Blue, T. E.; Yoder, G.; Wilson, D.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-01

    The Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive residual heat removal system proposed for the Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that combines the coated particle fuel and graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three natural circulation/convection loops that rely on buoyancy as the driving force and are coupled via two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS heat exchanger and the natural draft heat exchanger. A fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow into the DRACS primary loop and correspondingly the heat loss to the DRACS during reactor normal operation, and to activate the DRACS in accidents when the reactor is shut down. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for FHRs built or tested in the literature. In this paper, a detailed scaling analysis for the DRACS is performed, which will provide guidance for the design of scaled-down DRACS test facilities. Based on the Boussinesq assumption and one-dimensional flow formulation, the governing equations are non-dimensionalized by introducing appropriate dimensionless parameters. The key dimensionless numbers that characterize the DRACS system are obtained from the non-dimensional governing equations. Based on the dimensionless numbers and non-dimensional governing equations, similarity laws are proposed. In addition, a scaling methodology has been developed, which consists of a core scaling and a loop scaling. The consistency between the core and loop scaling is examined via the reference volume ratio, which can be obtained from both the core and loop scaling processes. The scaling methodology and similarity laws have been applied to obtain a scientific design of a scaled-down high-temperature DRACS test facility.

  14. One-Dimensional Analysis of Thermal Stratification in AHTR and SFR Coolant Pools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2007-10-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are very common in pool type reactor systems, such as the liquid-salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) and liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems such as the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). It is important to accurately predict the temperature and density distributions both for design optimation and accident analysis. Current major reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP5 (for LWRs, and recently extended to analyze high temperature reactors), TRAC (for LWRs), and SASSYS (for liquid metal fast reactors) only provide lumped-volume based models which can only give very approximate results and can only handle simple cases with one mixing source. While 2-D or 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, yet such fine grid resolution is difficult or impossible to provide for studying the reactor response to transients due to computational expense. Therefore, new methods are needed to support design optimization and safety analysis of Generation IV pool type reactor systems. Previous scaling has shown that stratified mixing processes in large stably stratified enclosures can be described using one-dimensional differential equations, with the vertical transport by free and wall jets modeled using standard integral techniques. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in large enclosures. The BMIX++ (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) code was originally developed at UC Berkeley to implement such ideas. This code solves mixing and heat transfer problems in stably stratified enclosures. The code uses a Lagrangian approach to solve 1-D transient governing equations for the ambient fluid and uses analytical or 1-D integral models to compute substructures. By including liquid salt properties, BMIX++ code is extended to analyze liquid salt pool systems in the current AHTR design, to provide an example of its application. Similar analysis is possible for liquid-metal cooled reactors. The current AHTR baseline design uses a large buffer salt tank to provide more thermal inertial and safety margin. Reactor vessel, intermediate heat exchangers, pool reactor auxiliary cooling system heat exchangers (PHX), and direct reactor auxiliary cooling system heat exchangers (DHX) are all immerged in the buffer salt pool. These structures provide major driving sources for vertical mixing and thermal stratification. Predication of the temperature distribution within the buffer salt tank directly affects the major safety systems design, such as the PHX and DHX, safety analysis results, and structure thermal stresses analysis. The BMIX++ code is used to predict mixing and thermal stratification in this pool system. This example shows the potential of 1-D analysis methods and BMIX++ to be included in system analysis codes for pool type of Gen-IV reactor systems.

  15. Evaluation on the Feasibility of Using Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density/Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-06-10

    This technical letter report provides the status of an assessment undertaken by PNNL at the request of the NRC to verify the capability of periodic ASME-required volumetric examinations of reactor vessels to characterize the density and distribution of flaws of interest for applying §50.61a on a plant-by-plant basis. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (§50.61), "Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events," establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. Recently, the NRC completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed and promulgated an alternate PTS rule, §50.61a, that can be implemented by PWR licensees. The §50.61a rule differs from §50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants.

  16. List of Other Distributed Generation Technologies Incentives...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Thermal Process Heat Photovoltaics Wind Biomass Fuel Cells Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydrogen Biodiesel Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Other Distributed Generation...

  17. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others. Natural convection can also be used to reduce the number of auxiliary heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures are predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Experimental results are summarized based on the monitoring of 15 passive solar buildings which employ a wide variety of geometrical configurations including natural convective loops.

  18. Development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatiuk, P.A.; Cassel, D.E.; McCabe, M.; Scarbrough, C.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings, thermal design characteristics and anticipated performance for 266 projects in the HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and the HUD Cycle 5 Demonstration Program were analyzed. These passive residences are located in all regions of the United States requiring space heating, and they represent a variety of passive solar system types including direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium (isolated gain) systems. The results of this statistical analysis are being used to develop proposed minimum acceptable levels of thermal performance for passive solar buildings for the residential performance criteria. A number of performance measures were examined, including net solar contribution, solar fraction, and auxiliary energy use. These and other design and climate-related parameters were statistically correlated using the DATAPLOT computer program and standard statistical analysis techniques.

  19. EIS Distribution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This DOE guidance presents a series of recommendations related to the EIS distribution process, which includes creating and updating a distribution list, distributing an EIS, and filing an EIS with the EPA.

  20. Distributed Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Energy Distributed Energy Distributed energy consists of a range of smaller-scale and modular devices designed to provide electricity, and sometimes also thermal energy, in locations close to consumers. They include fossil and renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells, combustion turbines, and steam turbines); energy storage devices (e.g., batteries and flywheels); and combined heat and power systems.

  1. General volume sizing strategy for thermal storage system using phase change material for concentrated solar thermal power plant

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Ben; Li, Peiwen; Chan, Cholik; Tumilowicz, Eric

    2014-12-18

    With an auxiliary large capacity thermal storage using phase change material (PCM), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a promising technology for high efficiency solar energy utilization. In a thermal storage system, a dual-media thermal storage tank is typically adopted in industry for the purpose of reducing the use of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) which is usually expensive. While the sensible heat storage system (SHSS) has been well studied, a dual-media latent heat storage system (LHSS) still needs more attention and study. The volume sizing of the thermal storage tank, considering daily cyclic operations, is of particular significance. In thismore » paper, a general volume sizing strategy for LHSS is proposed, based on an enthalpy-based 1D transient model. One example was presented to demonstrate how to apply this strategy to obtain an actual storage tank volume. With this volume, a LHSS can supply heat to a thermal power plant with the HTF at temperatures above a cutoff point during a desired 6 hours of operation. This general volume sizing strategy is believed to be of particular interest for the solar thermal power industry.« less

  2. General volume sizing strategy for thermal storage system using phase change material for concentrated solar thermal power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ben; Li, Peiwen; Chan, Cholik; Tumilowicz, Eric

    2014-12-18

    With an auxiliary large capacity thermal storage using phase change material (PCM), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a promising technology for high efficiency solar energy utilization. In a thermal storage system, a dual-media thermal storage tank is typically adopted in industry for the purpose of reducing the use of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) which is usually expensive. While the sensible heat storage system (SHSS) has been well studied, a dual-media latent heat storage system (LHSS) still needs more attention and study. The volume sizing of the thermal storage tank, considering daily cyclic operations, is of particular significance. In this paper, a general volume sizing strategy for LHSS is proposed, based on an enthalpy-based 1D transient model. One example was presented to demonstrate how to apply this strategy to obtain an actual storage tank volume. With this volume, a LHSS can supply heat to a thermal power plant with the HTF at temperatures above a cutoff point during a desired 6 hours of operation. This general volume sizing strategy is believed to be of particular interest for the solar thermal power industry.

  3. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  4. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This ...

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC...

  6. Distribution Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

  7. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  8. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Harrison, D.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document presents a compilation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system failure information which has been screened for risk significance in terms of failure frequency and degradation of system performance. It is a risk-prioritized listing of failure events and their causes that are significant enough to warrant consideration in inspection planning at Diablo Canyon. This information is presented to provide inspectors with increased resources for inspection planning at Diablo Canyon. The risk importance of various component failure modes was identified by analysis of the results of probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for many pressurized water reactors (PWRs). However, the component failure categories identified in PRAs are rather broad, because the failure data used in the PRAs is an aggregate of many individual failures having a variety of root causes. In order to help inspectors to focus on specific aspects of component operation, maintenance and design which might cause these failures, an extensive review of component failure information was performed to identify and rank the root causes of these component failures. Both Diablo Canyon and industry-wide failure information was analyzed. Failure causes were sorted on the basis of frequency of occurrence and seriousness of consequence, and categorized as common cause failures, human errors, design problems, or component failures. This information permits an inspector to concentrate on components important to the prevention of core damage. Other components which perform essential functions, but which are not included because of high reliability or redundancy, must also be addressed to ensure that degradation does not increase their failure probabilities, and hence their risk importances. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  10. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project...

  11. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  12. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  13. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling[ Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC ] | Department of Energy Modeling[ Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC ] Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling[ Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC ] Discusses results from TE HVAC project to add detail to a human thermal comfort model and further allow load reduction in the climate control energy through a distributed TE network PDF icon

  14. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  15. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  16. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  17. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized

  18. Distribution Category:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the Product Distribution from a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Heavy-Duty NOx ...

  20. Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) Via Borehole and Aquifer...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Conductivity Test (LTCT) or Distributed Thermal Response Test (DTRT) * Marines Corps Logistics Base, Albany GA (MCLB) * 110 m u-bend borehole heat exchanger * A 72 hours LTCT was...

  1. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited OCEAN THERMAL EXTRACTABLE ENERGY VISUALIZATION Award # DE-EE0002664 October 28, 2012 Final Technical Report Prepared by Lockheed Martin Mission Systems & Sensors (MS2) DE-EE0002664 Ocean Thermal Energy Resource Assessment Final Draft i 10/28/2012 Project Title: Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization Recipient: Lockheed Martin Corporation Award #: DE-0002664 Working Partners Project Lead: Matthew Ascari - Lockheed Martin

  2. DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY uc-11 I A W E N C E LIVERMORE IABORATORY University of Cahfmia/Livermore, California/94550 UCRL-52658 CALCULATION OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND MINERALS: THE EQ3/6 - - SOFTWARE PACKAGE T. J. Wolery MS. date: February 1, 1979 . . - . . - . Tho rcpon rn prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United Stater Government. Seither Lhc Urutcd Stater nor the Umted Stater Department of Energy, nor any of their employees. nor any of their E O ~ ~ ~ B C I

  3. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  4. Performance of a drain-back solar heating and hot water system with auxiliary heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaki, S.

    1984-03-01

    The principal objective of the project was to test and evaluate the BNL collectors in a space heating system. When the BNL collectors delaminated under stagnation conditions, they were replaced with the Chamberlain collectors which were previously used on solar house III, and tests were continued to evaluate performance of a drain-back system. Results leading to the following conclusions are discussed. (1) The Chamberlain collectors have deteriorated in performance compared to previous seasons. Where daily efficiency of 41% were attained in 1978 to 1979 and 1979 to 1980, efficiency was 37%. System efficiency of 29% compares to 30% in prior years. (2) Solar contribution to DHW heating is low, and is probably the result of the artificially imposed load profile and the low recovery rate of the double-wall heat exchanger. (3) System efficiency can be improved by reducing thermal losses from storage.

  5. DRACS thermal performance evaluation for FHR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Q.; Lin, H. C.; Kim, I. H.; Sun, X.; Christensen, R. N.; Blue, T. E.; Yoder, G. L.; Wilson, D. F.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-03-01

    Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive decay heat removal system proposed for the Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that combines coated particle fuel and a graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three coupled natural circulation/convection loops, relying completely on buoyancy as the driving force. These loops are coupled through two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS Heat Exchanger and the Natural Draft Heat Exchanger. In addition, a fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow into the DRACS primary loop and correspondingly the heat loss to the DRACS during normal operation of the reactor, and to keep the DRACS ready for activation, if needed, during accidents. To help with the design and thermal performance evaluation of the DRACS, a computer code using MATLAB has been developed. This code is based on a one-dimensional formulation and its principle is to solve the energy balance and integral momentum equations. By discretizing the DRACS system in the axial direction, a bulk mean temperature is assumed for each mesh cell. The temperatures of all the cells, as well as the mass flow rates in the DRACS loops, are predicted by solving the governing equations that are obtained by integrating the energy conservation equation over each cell and integrating the momentum conservation equation over each of the DRACS loops. In addition, an intermediate heat transfer loop equipped with a pump has also been modeled in the code. This enables the study of flow reversal phenomenon in the DRACS primary loop, associated with the pump trip process. Experimental data from a High-Temperature DRACS Test Facility (HTDF) are not available yet to benchmark the code. A preliminary code validation is performed by using natural circulation experimental data available in the literature, which are as closely relevant as possible. The code is subsequently applied to the HTDF that is under construction at the Ohio State University.

  6. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  7. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  8. Sandia Thermal Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-23

    Thermal analysis in 1-D planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries using control volume finite element spatial discretization with 1st and 2nd order implicit time integrators.

  9. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  10. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  11. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  12. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  13. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... based on standard IEC 60076- 7:2005 "Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers" 4. ... M. Lehtonen, H. Nordman, Effect of Harmonics on Transformers Loss of life, IEEE, ...

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 1999 Energy Efficient Motors, Replacements and Sales, by Horsepower Class | Units in Use Horsepower | Energy Efficient Horsepower Range (10^6) | % Retired 1 - 5 | 17% 5.1 - 20 | 29% 21 - 50 | 45% 51 - 100 | 52% 101 - 200 | 65% Source(s): Electrical Apparatus Service Association, Past Trends and Probable Future Changes in the Electric Motor Industry 1990-1999, 2001, p. 18 for existing stock and retirements and p. 28 for energy efficient motor sales. 738 59.6 1.0% 412 56.5 0.8% 6,927 81.8 2.0%

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 1999 AC Adjustable-Speed Drive Population Horsepower Range 1 - 5 70% 5.1 - 20 23% 21 - 50 4% 51 - 100 1% 101 - 200 1% 200 + 1% Total 100% Source(s): Electrical Apparatus Service Association, Past Trends and Probable Future Changes in the Electric Motor Industry 1990-1999, 2001, p. 30.

  16. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  17. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  18. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  20. Integrated Thermal Analysis of the FRIB Cryomodule Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Xu, M. Barrios, F. Casagrande, M.J. Johnson, M. Leitner, D. Arenius, V. Ganni, W.J. Schneider, M. Wiseman

    2012-07-01

    Thermal analysis of the FRIB cryomodule design is performed to determine the heat load to the cryogenic plant, to minimize the cryogenic plant load, to simulate thermal shield cool down as well as to determine the pressure relief sizes for failure conditions. Static and dynamic heat loads of the cryomodules are calculated and the optimal shield temperature is determined to minimize the cryogenic plant load. Integrated structural and thermal simulations of the 1100-O aluminium thermal shield are performed to determine the desired cool down rate to control the temperature profile on the thermal shield and to minimize thermal expansion displacements during the cool down. Pressure relief sizing calculations for the SRF helium containers, solenoids, helium distribution piping, and vacuum vessels are also described.

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from TE HVAC project to add detail to a human thermal comfort model and further allow load reduction in the climate control energy through a distributed TE network PDF icon...

  2. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling | Department of Energy Develop distributed HVAC components to supplement the central HVAC system to reduce the energy required by current compressed gas air conditioners by at least one-third. PDF icon deer09_yang_1.pdf More Documents & Publications Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for

  3. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  4. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales are important and provide additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  5. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-07-16

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  6. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances to current land-based turbines are directly linked to our country's economic and energy security. Technical advancement for any type of gas turbine generally implies better performance, greater efficiency, and extended component life. From the standpoint of cycle efficiency and durability, this suggests that a continual

  7. Underhood Thermal Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underhood Thermal Performance This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background As vehicle technology advances, automakers need a better understanding of underhood heat loads, especially as they relate to emissions and fuel efficiency. Manufacturers of heavy-duty vehicles and off-road machines have similar concerns. Ineffective underhood thermal management can lead to higher emissions, reduced

  8. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  9. Simulation of the passive condensation cooling tank of the PASCAL test facility using the component thermal-hydraulic analysis code CUPID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, H. K.; Lee, S. J.; Kang, K. H.; Yoon, H. Y.

    2012-07-01

    For the analysis of transient two-phase flows in nuclear reactor components, a three-dimensional thermal hydraulics code, named CUPID, has been being developed. In the present study, the CUPID code was applied for the simulation of the PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop) test facility constructed with an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System). The PAFS is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor +), which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. This paper presents the preliminary simulation results of the PASCAL facility performed with the CUPID code in order to verify its applicability to the thermal-hydraulic phenomena inside the system. A standalone calculation for the passive condensation cooling tank was performed by imposing a heat source boundary condition and the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviors inside the system, such as the water level, temperature and velocity, were qualitatively investigated. The simulation results verified that the natural circulation and boiling phenomena in the water pool can be well reproduced by the CUPID code. (authors)

  10. Auxiliary Ligand-Dependent Assembly of Several Ni/Ni-Cd Compounds with N2O2 Donor Tetradentate Symmetrical Schiff Base Ligand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Ying Ying; Li, Guo-Bi; Fang, Hua-Cai; Zhan, Xu Lin; Gu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Jin Hao; Sun, Feng; Cai, Yue-Peng; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-09-18

    Several low-dimensional Ni/Ni-Cd complexes containing N2O2 donor tetradentate symmetrical Schiff base ligand bis(acetylacetone)ethylene-diamine (sy-H2L2), namely, [Ni(sy-L2)]2?HLa?ClO4 (2), (HLa)2?(ClO4)?(NO3) (3), [Ni(sy-L2)X]2](4,4-bipy) (where La = 5,7-dimethyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-diazepine, X = ClO4 (4), X=NO3 (5), [Ni(sy-L2)Cd(SCN)2]n (6) and [Ni(sy-L2)?Cd(N3)2]n (7) have been synthesized from [Ni(sy-L2)]2?H2O (1). Complex 2, is three component discrete assembly generated from (HLa)+ moiety bridged with [Ni(sy-L2)] unit and ClO4- anion. A solution containing complex 2 and Cd(NO3)2 results in a mixture of 1 and 3. Further re-crystallization of 1 and 3 with various auxiliary ligands, provides coordination complexes 4 7 stabilized by weak hydrogen bonds in which 6 and 7 represent the first 1D heteronuclear complexes based on symmetric acacen-base Schiff base ligand.

  11. Research and Development of a New Field Enhanced Low Temperature Thermionic Cathode that Enables Fluorescent Dimming and Loan Shedding without Auxiliary Cathode Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng Jin

    2009-01-07

    This is the final report for project entitled 'Research and development of a new field enhanced low temperature thermionic cathode that enables fluorescent dimming and load shedding without auxiliary cathode heating', under Agreement Number: DE-FC26-04NT-42329. Under this project, a highly efficient CNT based thermionic cathode was demonstrated. This cathode is capable of emitting electron at a current density two order of magnitude stronger then a typical fluorescent cathode at same temperatures, or capable of emitting at same current density but at temperature about 300 C lower than that of a fluorescent cathode. Detailed fabrication techniques were developed including CVD growth of CNTs and sputter deposition of oxide thin films on CNTs. These are mature technologies that have been widely used in industry for large scale materials processing and device fabrications, thus, with further development work, the techniques developed in this project can be scaled-up in manufacturing environment. The prototype cathodes developed in this project were tested in lighting plasma discharge environment. In many cases, they not only lit and sustain the plasma, but also out perform the fluorescent cathodes in key parameters such like cathode fall voltages. More work will be needed to further evaluate more detailed and longer term performance of the prototype cathode in lighting plasma.

  12. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin

  13. Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Account Sectors, May 2003 | Department of Energy Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account Sectors, May 2003 Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account Sectors, May 2003 Potential distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States cover a broad spectrum of market segments, from nursing homes requiring a few hundred kilowatts (kW) of power and an economical hot water source

  14. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  15. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  16. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  17. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  18. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  19. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  20. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  1. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  2. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  3. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  4. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  5. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: March 9, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2016 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination

  6. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  7. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  8. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  9. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems New Efficient Insulation for Pipes Allows for the Use of Less Material with High-Temperature Durability Thermal loss through steam distribution systems is a significant source of wasted energy in the U.S. industrial sector. Traditional pipe insulation employs mineral wool, fiberglass, calcium silicate, perlite, and various foams. Annular

  10. Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Validation » Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects Stationary power is the most mature application for fuel cells. Stationary fuel cell units are used for backup power, power for remote locations, stand-alone power plants for towns and cities, distributed generation for buildings, and co-generation (in which excess thermal energy from electricity generation is used for heat). Approximately, 600 systems that produce 10 kilowatts or more

  11. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production | Department of Energy High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042413_obrey.pdf More Documents & Publications A Method for Evaluating Fire After Earthquake Scenarios for Single

  12. Thermal Degradation Studies of Polyurethane/POSS Nanohybrid Elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J P; Pielichowski, K; TremblotDeLaCroix, P; Janowski, B; Todd, D; Liggat, J J

    2010-03-05

    Reported here is the synthesis of a series of Polyurethane/POSS nanohybrid elastomers, the characterization of their thermal stability and degradation behavior at elevated temperatures using a combination of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Thermal Volatilization Analysis (TVA). A series of PU elastomers systems have been formulated incorporating varying levels of 1,2-propanediol-heptaisobutyl-POSS (PHIPOSS) as a chain extender unit, replacing butane diol. The bulk thermal stability of the nanohybrid systems has been characterized using TGA. Results indicate that covalent incorporation of POSS into the PU elastomer network increase the non-oxidative thermal stability of the systems. TVA analysis of the thermal degradation of the POSS/PU hybrid elastomers have demonstrated that the hybrid systems are indeed more thermally stable when compared to the unmodified PU matrix; evolving significantly reduced levels of volatile degradation products and exhibiting a {approx}30 C increase in onset degradation temperature. Furthermore, characterization of the distribution of degradation products from both unmodified and hybrid systems indicate that the inclusion of POSS in the PU network is directly influencing the degradation pathways of both the soft and hard block components of the elastomers: The POSS/PU hybrid systems show reduced levels of CO, CO2, water and increased levels of THF as products of thermal degradation.

  13. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | Revision/Correction Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report 2013 data The 2013 Annual Coal Distribution Report has been republished to include final 2013 electric power sector data as well as domestic and foreign distribution data. Contact:

  14. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  15. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  16. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  17. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  18. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  19. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, Donald M.; Shires, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  20. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  1. thermal energy power conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermal energy power conversion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  2. Solar Thermal Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Electric Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarThermalEl...

  3. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management

  4. Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies),

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 2004 | Department of Energy Characterization (Desiccant Technologies), January 2004 Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies), January 2004 The purpose of this report is to characterize desiccant technology and applications, and to show how these technologies can be designed to utilize the available thermal energy from a combined heat and power (CHP) system. This technology characterization is intended to provide decision-makers and system developers

  5. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  6. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical cookoff modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    A Thermally Reactive, Elastic-plastic eXplosive code, TREX, has been developed to analyze coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical effects associated with cookoff simulation of confined or unconfined energetic materials. In confined systems, pressure buildup precedes thermal runaway, and unconfined energetic material expands to relieve high stress. The model was developed based on nucleation, decomposition chemistry, and elastic/plastic mechanical behavior of a material with a distribution of internal defects represented as clusters of spherical inclusions. A local force balance, with mass continuity constraints, forms the basis of the model requiring input of temperature and reacted gas fraction. This constitutive material model has been incorporated into a quasistatic mechanics code SANTOS as a material module which predicts stress history associated with a given strain history. The thermal-chemical solver XCHEM has been coupled to SANTOS to provide temperature and reacted gas fraction. Predicted spatial history variables include temperature, chemical species, solid/gas pressure, solid/gas density, local yield stress, and gas volume fraction. One-Dimensional Time to explosion (ODTX) experiments for TATB and PBX 9404 (HMX and NC) are simulated using global multistep kinetic mechanisms and the reactive elastic-plastic constitutive model. Pressure explosions, rather than thermal runaway, result in modeling slow cookoff experiments of confined conventional energetic materials such as TATB. For PBX 9404, pressure explosions also occur at fast cookoff conditions because of low temperature reactions of nitrocellulose resulting in substantial pressurization. A demonstrative calculation is also presented for reactive heat flow in a hollow, propellant-filled, stainless steel cylinder, representing a rocket motor. This example simulation show

  7. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Distribution Grid Integration Distribution Grid...

  8. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Cameron, Christopher Stan

    2012-03-13

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  9. Chaos vs thermalization in the nuclear shell model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V.; Brown, B.A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States)] [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 (United States); [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    1995-06-26

    Generic signatures of quantum chaos found in realistic shell model calculations are compared with thermal statistical equilibrium. We show the similarity of the informational entropy of individual eigenfunctions in the mean-field basis to the thermodynamical entropy found from the level density. Mean occupation numbers of single-particle orbitals agree with the Fermi-Dirac distribution despite the strong nucleon interaction.

  10. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  11. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling [Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC] | Department of Energy [Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC] Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling [Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC] 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace048_bozeman_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Improving Energy Efficiency by

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling | Department of Energy Discusses comfort model enhancement/validation, climate system efficiency parameters and system trade off, and powertrain mode operation changes to further vehicle energy saving while preserving occupant comfort. PDF icon deer12_chen.pdf More Documents & Publications Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling[ Thermoelectric (TE)

  13. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  14. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  15. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  16. Response microcantilever thermal detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Joseph P.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Evans III, Boyd M.

    2004-10-19

    A "folded leg" thermal detector microcantilever constructed of a substrate with at least one leg interposed between a fixed end and a deflective end, each leg having at least three essentially parallel leg segments interconnected on alternate opposing ends and aligned in a serpentine pattern with only the first leg segment attached to the fixed end and only the last leg segment attached to the deflective end. Alternate leg segment are coated on the pentalever with coating applied to the top of the first, third, and fifth leg segments of each leg and to the bottom of the second and fourth leg segments of each leg.

  17. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  18. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Vresk, Josip

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  19. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  20. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  1. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  2. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  3. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Systems (VTMS) Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Characterization and Development of Advanced...

  4. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide ...

  5. Doubly Distributed Transactions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-25

    Doubly Distributed Transactions (D2T) offers a technique for managing operations from a set of parallel clients with a collection of distributed services. It detects and manages faults. Example code with a test harness is also provided

  6. Distributed Wind 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Distributed Wind 2015 is committed to the advancement of both distributed and community wind energy. This two day event includes a Business Conference with sessions focused on advancing the...

  7. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  8. What is Distributed Wind?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Wind? Distributed wind energy systems are commonly installed on residential, agricultural, commercial, institutional, and industrial sites connected either physically or virtually on the customer side of the meter (to serve on-site load) or directly to the local distribution or micro grid (to support local grid operations or offset nearby loads). Because the definition is based on a wind project's location relative to end-use and power-distribution infrastructure, rather than on

  9. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  10. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  11. Overview of solar thermal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar-thermal overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  12. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2010-05-01

    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  13. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  14. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  15. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  16. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  17. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  18. Phase-change thermal energy storage: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The research and development described in this document was conducted within the US Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program. The goal of this program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and to establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options for introduction into the competitive energy market. Solar thermal technology concentrates the solar flux using tracking mirrors or lenses onto a receiver where the solar energy is absorbed as heat and converted into electricity or incorporated into products as process heat. The two primary solar thermal technologies, central receivers and distributed receivers, employ various point and line-focus optics to concentrate sunlight. Current central receiver systems use fields of heliostats (two-axes tracking mirrors) to focus the sun's radiant energy onto a single, tower-mounted receiver. Point focus concentrators up to 17 meters in diameter track the sun in two axes and use parabolic dish mirrors or Fresnel lenses to focus radiant energy onto a receiver. Troughs and bowls are line-focus tracking reflectors that concentrate sunlight onto receiver tubes along their focal lines. Concentrating collector modules can be used alone or in a multimodule system. The concentrated radiant energy absorbed by the solar thermal receiver is transported to the conversion process by a circulating working fluid. Receiver temperatures range from 100{degree}C in low-temperature troughs to over 1500{degree}C in dish and central receiver systems. 12 refs., 119 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  20. Distribution of Correspondence

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-30

    Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

  1. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  2. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  3. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  4. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Carbide Thyristors Read More Permalink ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, ...

  5. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  6. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM); Fulcher, Clay W. G. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2012-07-31

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  7. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  8. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with ??Kalwall?? building panels. An added feature of the ??Kalwall? system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  9. Motor Thermal Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Control Motor Thermal Control 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape030_bennion_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermal Management of PHEV / EV Charging Systems Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration

  10. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  11. Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_coker.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance Why Light Duty Diesels Make Sense in the North American Market Scalable, Low-Cost, High

  12. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  13. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  14. Advanced Wellbore Thermal Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-04

    GEOTEMP2, which is based on the earlier GEOTEMP program, is a wellbore thermal simulator designed for geothermal well drilling and production applications. The code treats natural and forced convection and conduction within the wellbore and heat conduction within the surrounding rock matrix. A variety of well operations can be modeled including injection, production, forward and reverse circulation with gas or liquid, gas or liquid drilling, and two-phase steam injection and production. Well completion with severalmore » different casing sizes and cement intervals can be modeled. The code allows variables, such as flow rate, to change with time enabling a realistic treatment of well operations. Provision is made in the flow equations to allow the flow areas of the tubing to vary with depth in the wellbore. Multiple liquids can exist in GEOTEMP2 simulations. Liquid interfaces are tracked through the tubing and annulus as one liquid displaces another. GEOTEMP2, however, does not attempt to simulate displacement of liquids with a gas or two-phase steam or vice versa. This means that it is not possible to simulate an operation where the type of drilling fluid changes, e.g. mud going to air. GEOTEMP2 was designed primarily for use in predicting the behavior of geothermal wells, but it is flexible enough to handle many typical drilling, production, and injection problems in the oil industry as well. However, GEOTEMP2 does not allow the modeling of gas-filled annuli in production or injection problems. In gas or mist drilling, no radiation losses are included in the energy balance. No attempt is made to model flow in the formation. Average execution time is 50 CP seconds on a CDC CYBER170. This edition of GEOTEMP2 is designated as Version 2.0 by the contributors.« less

  15. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  16. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Solar Energy/Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)/National Solar Thermal Test Facility - National Solar Thermal Test Facilityadmin2016-02-25T20:11:27+00:00 Operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) is the only test facility of this type in the United States. The NSTTF's primary goal is to provide experimental engineering data for the design, construction, and

  17. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  18. Thermal properties of soils and soils testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-17

    The thermal properties of soils are reviewed with reference to the use of soils as heat sources, heat sinks, or thermal storage. Specific heat and thermal conductivity are discussed. (ACR)

  19. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Variable distributed generation Dispatchable distributed generation Electric vehicle charging and electrolyzers Energy storage Building and industrial loads and demand response ...

  20. Radiography used to image thermal explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October » Radiography used to image thermal explosions Radiography used to image thermal explosions Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the explosion. October 9, 2012 Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the

  1. WINDExchange: Distributed Wind

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Distributed Wind Photo of a small wind turbine next to a farm house with a colorful sunset in the background. The distributed wind market includes wind turbines and projects of many sizes, from small wind turbines less than 1 kilowatt (kW) to multi-megawatt wind farms. The term "distributed wind" describes off-grid or grid-connected wind turbines at homes, farms and ranches, businesses, public and industrial facilities, and other sites. The turbines can provide all of the power used at

  2. Electron transfer statistics and thermal fluctuations in molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Himangshu Prabal; Harbola, Upendra

    2015-02-28

    We derive analytical expressions for probability distribution function (PDF) for electron transport in a simple model of quantum junction in presence of thermal fluctuations. Our approach is based on the large deviation theory combined with the generating function method. For large number of electrons transferred, the PDF is found to decay exponentially in the tails with different rates due to applied bias. This asymmetry in the PDF is related to the fluctuation theorem. Statistics of fluctuations are analyzed in terms of the Fano factor. Thermal fluctuations play a quantitative role in determining the statistics of electron transfer; they tend to suppress the average current while enhancing the fluctuations in particle transfer. This gives rise to both bunching and antibunching phenomena as determined by the Fano factor. The thermal fluctuations and shot noise compete with each other and determine the net (effective) statistics of particle transfer. Exact analytical expression is obtained for delay time distribution. The optimal values of the delay time between successive electron transfers can be lowered below the corresponding shot noise values by tuning the thermal effects.

  3. Analysis of Gas Turbine Thermal Performances | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Gas Turbine Thermal Performances

  4. Amulaire Thermal Technology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Amulaire Thermal Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Amulaire Thermal Technology Address: 11555 Sorrento Valley Road Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92121 Region:...

  5. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment:...

  6. Thermal-Mechanical Technologies | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of thermal-mechanical research includes: Single and two phase heat transfer Nanomaterial synthesis Heat transfer fluids Engine and power electronics cooling Thermal energy...

  7. Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program ...

  8. Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  9. turbine thermal index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances...

  10. Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc Place: North Carolina Zip: 27709-3981 Product: String representation "Manufactures...

  11. Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation ...

  12. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Report about the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization project, which focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy from the world's ocean thermal ...

  13. Stewart Thermal Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Stewart Thermal Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: Provides specialist advice in the field of biomass energy....

  14. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Thermal Management Infrared image of rectangular battery cell. Infrared thermal image of a lithium-ion battery cell with poor terminal design. Graph of relative ...

  15. Transient thermal analysis of a translucent thermal barrier coating on a metal wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, R.

    1999-05-01

    A common ceramic used for thermal barrier coatings is zirconia, and it is partially transparent for radiative energy at wavelengths up to approximately 5 {micro}m. Hence, at elevated temperatures such as in a turbine engine combustor, the temperature distribution in a coating can be affected by absorption of incident radiation, by internal emission, and by scattering which is large for zirconia. Transient temperatures are needed of evaluating thermal stresses, and for translucent materials numerical procedures can be used to solve the transient energy equation coupled with radiative transfer relations. For radiation, both exact and approximate equations have been used. With general external conditions of convection and radiation for a translucent layer with diffuse surfaces, it was demonstrated in Siegel (1996) that the two-flux method compares well with more exact methods for predicting transient temperature distributions and heat fluxes, including large scattering as needed in a material such as zirconia. The two-flux differential equation for the internal radiative source is solved here with a Green`s function as in Siegel (1997), including two-band spectral property variations for zirconia. Finite difference relations are developed for transient temperatures in a translucent coating on a metal substrate. Illustrative results for heating a coated wall in a turbine engine combustor demonstrate transient heating behavior with translucent effects as compared with an opaque coating.

  16. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility - Sandia's Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle Receiver Placed Atop the Solar Tower Sandia began first-of-its-kind testing using its continuously recirculating falling-particle receiver atop the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The falling-particle receiver drops sand-like ceramic particles through NSTTF's concentrated sunlight beam, capturing and storing the heated particles in an insulated tank. Compared to conventional molten-salt

  17. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  18. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  19. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  20. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting Americas wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  1. Distributed Energy Resource Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: A series of orders issued on July 15, 2015 in  Docket 2015-53-E, Docket 2015-54-E, and Docket 2015-55-E approved the incentive programs for South Carolina's Distributed Energy Resource...

  2. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  3. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  4. Distributed Wind Energy Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join instructor Brent Summerville for a fun and interactive workshop at Appalachian State University's Small Wind Research and Demonstration Site. Learn about a variety of distributed wind energy...

  5. Domestic and Foreign Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 Final May 2010 Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 (Thousand Short Tons) State Region Domestic Foreign...

  6. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austins thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  7. Distributed generation hits market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it`s highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can`t handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities.

  8. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes of this WD&R model (CRWMS M&O 2000b) are to quantify and evaluate the distribution and drainage of seepage water within emplacement drifts during the period of compliance for post-closure performance. The model bounds the fraction of water entering the drift that will be prevented from contacting the waste by the combined effects of engineered controls on water distribution and on water removal. For example, water can be removed during pre-closure operation by ventilation and after closure by natural drainage into the fractured rock. Engineered drains could be used, if demonstrated to be necessary and effective, to ensure that adequate drainage capacity is provided. This report provides the screening arguments for certain Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) that are related to water distribution and removal in the EBS. Applicable acceptance criteria from the Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs) developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1999a; 1999b; 1999c; and 1999d) are also addressed in this document.

  9. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdollahy, Shahin; Lavrova, Olga; Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building.more » Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.« less

  10. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline silicon test structures, as well as uncontrolled nonuniform changes in this quantity over time and during operation.

  11. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  12. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon vss028_thornton_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Management of PHEV / EV Charging Systems Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration

  13. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beatty, Ronald L. (Farragut, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  14. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach, assess the impacts of duct system improvements in California large commercial buildings, over a range of building vintages and climates. This assessment will provide a solid foundation for future efforts that address the energy efficiency of large commercial duct systems in Title 24. This report describes our work to address Objective 1, which includes a review of past modeling efforts related to duct thermal performance, and recommends near- and long-term modeling approaches for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings.

  15. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  16. Device for thermal transfer and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Arik, Mehmet (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-04-19

    A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

  17. Distributed data transmitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne (Grain Valley, MO); Dunson, David (Kansas City, MO)

    2008-06-03

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  18. Distributed data transmitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne (Grain Valley, MO); Dunson, David (Kansas City, MO)

    2006-08-08

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  19. COBRA-SFS: A thermal-hydraulic analysis code for spent fuel storage and transportation casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michener, T.E.; Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Dodge, R.E.; Enderlin, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    COBRA-SFS is a general thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code for prediction of material temperatures and fluid conditions in a wide variety of systems. The code has been validated for analysis of spent fuel storage systems, as part of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program of the US Department of Energy. The code solves finite volume equations representing the conservation equations for mass, moment, and energy for an incompressible single-phase heat transfer fluid. The fluid solution is coupled to a finite volume solution of the conduction equation in the solid structure of the system. This document presents a complete description of Cycle 2 of COBRA-SFS, and consists of three main parts. Part 1 describes the conservation equations, constitutive models, and solution methods used in the code. Part 2 presents the User Manual, with guidance on code applications, and complete input instructions. This part also includes a detailed description of the auxiliary code RADGEN, used to generate grey body view factors required as input for radiative heat transfer modeling in the code. Part 3 describes the code structure, platform dependent coding, and program hierarchy. Installation instructions are also given for the various platform versions of the code that are available.

  20. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional one-size-fits-all (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected have-it-your-way (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupants thermal dissatisfaction below a given threshold. The DECS energy usage was calculated using the simplified thermal model. OSFA control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected HIYW control with a thermostat at each workstation were implemented for 3 cities representing 3 different climatic regions and control scenarios. It is shown that optimization allows DECS to deliver a higher level of individual and population thermal comfort while achieving annual energy savings between 14 and 26% compared to OSFA. The optimization model also allowed us to study the influence of the partitions thermal resistance and the variability of internal loads at each office. These influences didnt make significant changes in the optimized energy consumption relative to OSFA. The results show that it is possible to provide thermal comfort for each occupant while saving energy compared to OSFA Furthermore, to simplify the implementation of this approach, a fuzzy logic system has been developed to generalize the overall optimization strategy. Its performance was almost as good as the gradient system. The fuzzy system provided thermal comfort to each occupant and saved energy compared to OSFA. The energy savings of the fuzzy system were not as high as for the gradient-optimized system, but the fuzzy system avoided complete connectivity, and the optimization did not have to be repeated for each population. 3. We employed a detailed CFD model of adjacent occupied cubicles to extend the thermal-circuit model in three significant ways: (a) relax the office wall requirement by allowing energy to flow between zones via advection as well as conduction, (b) improve the comfort model to account both for radiation as well as convection heat transfer, and (c) support ventilation systems in which the temperature is stratified, such as in underfloor air distribution systems. Initially, three-dimensional CFD simulations of several cubicle configurations, with an adjoining corridor, were performed both to understand the advection between cubicles and the resulting temperature stratification. These simulations showed that the advective flow between cubicles is very significant and severely limits the occupants ability to control the personal micro-environments by simply controlling the temperature of the incoming air. Subsequently, the existing thermal-circuit model was extended to include the phenomena described above. The modifications to the thermal-circuit model, which were incorporated such that the simulation time was only slightly impacted, showed that accounting for room stratification resulting from the use of floor swirl diffusers could lead to 10%-26% reduction in the annual energy consumed for HVAC in non-temperate climates. This trend was evident in both OSFA and HIYW scenarios. However, the ratio of energy usage in the two scenarios was little affected by the enhancements in the thermal model.

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transient and Steady State Conditions | Department of Energy Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and Steady State Conditions Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and Steady State Conditions 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Delphi Corporation PDF icon 2002_deer_bonadies.pdf More Documents & Publications A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the Product Distribution from a

  2. Distributed Sensors Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-08-30

    The Distributed Sensors Simulator (DSS) is an infrastructure that allows the user to debug and test software for distributed sensor networks without the commitment inherent in using hardware. The flexibility of DSS allows developers and researchers to investigate topological, phenomenological, networking, robustness, and scaling issues; explore arbitrary algorithms for DSNs; and is particularly useful as a proof-of-concept tool. The user provides data on node location and specifications, defines event phenomena, and plugs in the application(s)more » to run. DSS in turn provides the virtual environmental embedding — but exposed to the user like no true embedding could ever be.« less

  3. Thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, H.A.; Jury, S.H.; McElroy, D.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The three-region approximate solution for coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer and an exact solution for uncoupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in a grey semitransparent medium bounded by infinite parallel isothermal plates are employed to establish the dependence of the apparent thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials on other material properties and boundary conditions. An application of the analyses which uses apparent thermal conductivity versus density data to predict the dependence of apparent thermal conductivity on temperature is demonstrated. The predictions for seven sets of R-11 fiberglass and rock wool insulations agree with published measured values to within the limits of experimental error (+- 3%). Agreement for three sets of R-19 fiberglass insulations was, however, not good.

  4. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  5. Patent: MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester | DOEpatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester Citation Details Title: MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester

  6. Distributed Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Wind Distributed Wind The Wind Program's activities in wind technologies in distributed applications-or distributed wind-address the performance and reliability challenges associated with smaller turbines by focusing on technology development, testing, certification, and manufacturing. What is Distributed Wind? Photo of a turbine behind a school. The Wind Program defines distributed wind in terms of technology application, based on a wind plant's location relative to end-use and

  7. Distribution Category: Water R

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution Category: Water R e a c t o r Safety- R e s e a r c h - - A n a l y s i s ... 8 10 I TOTAL VOLUMETRIC FLUX, ms Fig. 9. Fully Developed Air-Water Flow Data.30 ANL Neg. ...

  8. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143...

  9. Particle-in-cell simulations on spontaneous thermal magnetic field fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simes, F. J. R. Jr.; Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R.; Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.

    2013-10-15

    In this paper an electromagnetic particle code is used to investigate the spontaneous thermal emission. Specifically we perform particle-in-cell simulations employing a non-relativistic isotropic Maxwellian particle distribution to show that thermal fluctuations are related to the origin of spontaneous magnetic field fluctuation. These thermal fluctuations can become seed for further amplification mechanisms and thus be considered at the origin of the cosmological magnetic field, at microgauss levels. Our numerical results are in accordance with theoretical results presented in the literature.

  10. Coupled Monte Carlo neutronics and thermal hydraulics for power reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernnat, W.; Buck, M.; Mattes, M.; Zwermann, W.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K.

    2012-07-01

    The availability of high performance computing resources enables more and more the use of detailed Monte Carlo models even for full core power reactors. The detailed structure of the core can be described by lattices, modeled by so-called repeated structures e.g. in Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP5 or MCNPX. For cores with mainly uniform material compositions, fuel and moderator temperatures, there is no problem in constructing core models. However, when the material composition and the temperatures vary strongly a huge number of different material cells must be described which complicate the input and in many cases exceed code or memory limits. The second problem arises with the preparation of corresponding temperature dependent cross sections and thermal scattering laws. Only if these problems can be solved, a realistic coupling of Monte Carlo neutronics with an appropriate thermal-hydraulics model is possible. In this paper a method for the treatment of detailed material and temperature distributions in MCNP5 is described based on user-specified internal functions which assign distinct elements of the core cells to material specifications (e.g. water density) and temperatures from a thermal-hydraulics code. The core grid itself can be described with a uniform material specification. The temperature dependency of cross sections and thermal neutron scattering laws is taken into account by interpolation, requiring only a limited number of data sets generated for different temperatures. Applications will be shown for the stationary part of the Purdue PWR benchmark using ATHLET for thermal- hydraulics and for a generic Modular High Temperature reactor using THERMIX for thermal- hydraulics. (authors)

  11. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-07-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  12. HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE THERMAL LANDSLIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vantine, J.

    1985-01-22

    The large Thermal Landslide overlies the initial area of geothermal development at The Geysers. The landslide is waterbearing while the underlying Franciscan formation bedrock units are essentially non-waterbearing except where affected by hydrothermal alteration. Perched ground water moving through the landslide is heated prior to discharge as spring flow.

  13. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is reviewed briefly. The two types of OTEC system (open and closed) are described and limitations are pointed out. A bibliography of 148 references on OTEC is given for the time period 1975 to 1980. Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the author's name. (MJJ)

  14. Modeling the thermal deformation of TATB-based explosives. Part 1: Thermal expansion of neat-pressed polycrystalline TATB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Darby J.

    2014-05-08

    We detail a modeling approach to simulate the anisotropic thermal expansion of polycrystalline (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) TATB-based explosives that utilizes microstructural information including porosity, crystal aspect ratio, and processing-induced texture. This report, the first in a series, focuses on nonlinear thermal expansion of neat-pressed polycrystalline TATB specimens which do not contain any binder; additional complexities related to polymeric binder and irreversible ratcheting behavior are briefly discussed, however detailed investigation of these aspects are deferred to subsequent reports. In this work we have, for the first time, developed a mesoscale continuum model relating the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB specimens to their microstructural characteristics. A self-consistent homogenization procedure is used to relate macroscopic thermoelastic response to the constitutive behavior of single-crystal TATB. The model includes a representation of grain aspect ratio, porosity, and crystallographic texture attributed to the consolidation process. A quantitative model is proposed to describe the evolution of preferred orientation of graphitic planes in TATB during consolidation and an algorithm constructed to develop a discrete representation of the associated orientation distribution function. Analytical and numerical solutions using this model are shown to produce textures consistent with previous measurements and characterization for isostatic and uniaxial die-pressed specimens. Predicted thermal strain versus temperature for textured specimens are shown to be in agreement with corresponding experimental measurements. Using the developed modeling approach, several simulations have been run to investigate the influence of microstructure on macroscopic thermal expansion behavior. Results from these simulations are used to identify qualitative trends. Implications of the identified trends are discussed in the context of thermal deformation of engineered components whose consolidation process is generally more complex than isostatic or die-pressed specimens. Finally, an envisioned application of the modeling approach to simulating thermal expansion of weapon systems and components is outlined along with necessary future work to introduce the effects of binder and ratcheting behavior. Key conclusions from this work include the following. Both porosity and grain aspect ratio have an influence on the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB considering realistic material variability. Thepreferred orientation of the single crystal TATB [001] poles within a polycrystal gives rise to pronounced anisotropy of the macroscopic thermal expansion. The extent of this preferred orientation depends on the magnitude of deformation, and consequently, is expected to vary spatially throughout manufactured components much like porosity. The modeling approach presented here has utility toward bringing spatially variable microstructural features into macroscale system engineering modelsAbstract Not Provided

  15. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  16. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-10-08

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codesmore » for single phase fluid analysis, and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form Cycle 2. Cycle 3., the newest version of COBRA-SFS, has been validated and verified for transient applications, such as a storage cask thermal response to a pool fire.« less

  17. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume (Sections 1 through 5).

  18. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  19. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  20. Properly Understanding the Impacts of Distributed Resources on Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Adhikari, Sarina; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    The subject paper discusses important impacts of distributed resources on distribution networks and feeders. These include capacity, line losses, voltage regulation, and central system support (such as volt/var via central generators and substation) as the number, placement and penetration levels of distributed resources are varied. Typically, the impacts of distributed resources on the distribution system are studied by using steady-state rather than dynamic analysis tools. However, the response time and transient impacts of both system equipment (such as substation/feeder capacitors) and distributed resources needs to be taken into account and only dynamic analysis will provide the full impact results. ORNL is wrapping up a study of distributed resources interconnected to a large distribution system considering the above variables. A report of the study and its results will be condensed into a paper for this panel session. The impact of distributed resources will vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system. The question is how high of a penetration of distributed resource can be accommodated on the distribution feeder/system without any major changes to system operation, design and protection. The impacts most surely will vary depending upon load composition, distribution and level. Also, it is expected that various placement of distributed resources will impact the distribution system differently.

  1. Symmetric generalized binomial distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, H.; Curado, E. M. F.; Instituto Nacional de Cincia e Tecnologia - Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ ; Gazeau, J. P.; APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 75205 Paris ; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S. E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br

    2013-12-15

    In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

  2. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Buildings Technologies Program Date: November 8, 2011 Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 1:00 PM Eastern Time Be sure that you are also dialed into the telephone conference call: Dial-in number: 800-779-8694; Pass code: 2506667 Download the presentation at: www.buildingamerica.gov/meetings.html Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov * Reduce energy use in new and existing residential buildings * Promote

  3. MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    * Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 December 20, 2007 MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION FROM: MICHAEL W. OWEN /<f /c / DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF LEGACY MANAGEM.ENT SUBJECT: Compliance with Established Policies and Guidance for Contractor Work Force Restructuring As you know, the Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the Department's fical point for all work force restructuring actions. As a reminder of policies and guidance that should continue to be followed when implementing work force

  4. Distributed generation implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzy, L.; O`Sullivan, J.B.; Jacobs, K.; Major, W.

    1999-11-01

    The overall economics of a distributed generation project is based on cost elements which include: Equipment and financing, fuel, displaced electricity cost, operation and maintenance. Of critical importance is how the facility is managed, including adequate provision for a comprehensive operator training program. Proper equipment maintenance and fuel procurement policy will also lead to greater system availability and optimal system economics. Various utility tariffs are available which may be economically attractive, with an added benefit to the utility of providing a peak shaving resource during peak periods. Changing modes of operation of the distributed generation system may affect staff readiness, require retraining and could affect maintenance costs. The degree of control and oversight that is provided during a project`s implementation and construction phases will impact subsequent maintenance and operating costs. The long term effect of siting impacts, such as building facades that restrict turbine inlet airflow will affect subsequent operations and require supplemental maintenance action. It is possible to site a variety of distributed generation technologies in settings which vary from urban to remote unattended locations with successful results from both an economic and operational perspective.

  5. KAPPA DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR HARD X-RAY CORONAL SOURCES OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-02-10

    Solar flares produce hard X-ray emission, the photon spectrum of which is often represented by a combination of thermal and power-law distributions. However, the estimates of the number and total energy of non-thermal electrons are sensitive to the determination of the power-law cutoff energy. Here, we revisit an 'above-the-loop' coronal source observed by RHESSI on 2007 December 31 and show that a kappa distribution model can also be used to fit its spectrum. Because the kappa distribution has a Maxwellian-like core in addition to a high-energy power-law tail, the emission measure and temperature of the instantaneous electrons can be derived without assuming the cutoff energy. Moreover, the non-thermal fractions of electron number/energy densities can be uniquely estimated because they are functions of only the power-law index. With the kappa distribution model, we estimated that the total electron density of the coronal source region was {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. We also estimated without assuming the source volume that a moderate fraction ({approx}20%) of electrons in the source region was non-thermal and carried {approx}52% of the total electron energy. The temperature was 28 MK, and the power-law index {delta} of the electron density distribution was -4.3. These results are compared to the conventional power-law models with and without a thermal core component.

  6. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  8. Interaction of nonthermal muon beam with electron-positron-photon plasma: A thermal field theory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noorian, Zainab; Eslami, Parvin; Javidan, Kurosh

    2013-11-15

    Interaction of a muon beam with hot dense QED plasma is investigated. Plasma system contains electrons and positrons with Fermi-Dirac distribution and Bose-Einstein distributed photons while the beam particles have nonthermal distribution. The energy loss of the beam particles during the interaction with plasma is calculated to complete leading order of interaction in terms of the QED coupling constant using thermal field theory approach. The screening effects of the plasma are computed consistently using resummation of perturbation theory with hard thermal loop approximation according to the Braaten-Pisarski method. Time evolution of the plasma characteristics and also plasma identifications during the interaction are investigated. Effects of the nonthermal parameter of the beam distribution on the energy exchange and the evolution of plasma-beam system are also explained.

  9. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  10. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  11. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B. (Boulder, CO); Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith M. (Boulder, CO)

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  12. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  13. Thermal synthesis apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-11-23

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  14. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  15. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  16. Tunable Thermal Link - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tunable Thermal Link Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThermal links are incorporated into everything from frying pans to internal combustion engine spark plugs and heat sinks on integrated circuit boards. Typically, the link's thermal resistance is fixed and cannot be tuned after manufacture. While the ability to tune electrical resistors is widespread, virtually no tunable thermal resistance link exists, which has held back the

  17. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  18. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  19. Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

  20. NREL: Transportation Research - Vehicle Thermal Management Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicle Thermal Management Facilities Image of a building with two semi truck cabs in front of it. The VTIF is used for thermal testing of every class of on-road vehicle. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses research and testing facilities to develop advanced thermal management technologies for vehicles. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility The Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility features a test pad to conduct vehicle thermal soak testing

  1. Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. Due to the coupling of thermal and mechanical behaviors at small scales, a Campaign 6 project was created to investigate thermomechanical phenomena in microsystems. This report documents experimental measurements conducted under the auspices of this project. Since thermal and mechanical measurements

  2. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  3. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  4. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  5. Distributed Optimization System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurtado, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Dohrmann, Clark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2004-11-30

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  6. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  7. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  8. Overview of Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Management Overview of Thermal Management 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon vss_13_routbort.pdf More Documents & Publications Nanofluids for Thermal Conditions … Underhood Heat Transfer Nanofluid Development for Engine Cooling Systems Erosion of Radiator Materials by Nanofluids

  9. Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ape030_bennion_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

  10. Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ape030_bennion_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management

  11. Development of a Thermal Transport Database for Air Plasma Sprayed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Due to the complicated microstructure and other processing related parameters, thermal ... thermal diffusivity and thermal barrier coating Word Cloud More Like This Full Text ...

  12. Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) AgencyCompany Organization: Biomass Thermal Energy...

  13. Thermal Multi-layer Coating Analysis | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Multi-layer Coating Analysis Key to Argonne's thermal multi-layer analysis method is the numerical algorithm used for automated analysis of thermal imaging data for...

  14. Sandia Energy - Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership News EC Concentrating Solar Power Solar National Solar Thermal Test Facility Thermal Pulses for...

  15. Linearly Polarized Thermal Emitter for More Efficient Thermophotovolta...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Linearly Polarized Thermal Emitter for More Efficient Thermophotovoltaic Devices...

  16. Development of an Airless Thermal Enhancer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Thermal Enhancer for Combined Partial Range Burning and Hydrocarbon Dosing Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device SCR...

  17. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D.; Nagaraj, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  18. Loss and thermal noise in plasmonic waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syms, R. R. A. Solymar, L.

    2014-06-07

    Rytov's theory of thermally generated radiation is used to find the noise in two-dimensional passive guides based on an arbitrary distribution of lossy isotropic dielectric. To simplify calculations, the Maxwell curl equations are approximated using difference equations that also permit a transmission-line analogy, and material losses are assumed to be low enough for modal losses to be estimated using perturbation theory. It is shown that an effective medium representation of each mode is valid for both loss and noise and, hence, that a one-dimensional model can be used to estimate the best achievable noise factor when a given mode is used in a communications link. This model only requires knowledge of the real and imaginary parts of the modal dielectric constant. The former can be found by solving the lossless eigenvalue problem, while the latter can be estimated using perturbation theory. Because of their high loss, the theory is most relevant to plasmonic waveguides, and its application is demonstrated using single interface, slab, and slot guide examples. The best noise performance is offered by the long-range plasmon supported by the slab guide.

  19. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

  20. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance Bragg reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, K.L.

    1996-10-22

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method are disclosed. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors. 16 figs.

  1. Thermal wake/vessel detection technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nandy, Prabal (Albuquerque, NM); Post, Brian N (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-10

    A computer-automated method for detecting a vessel in water based on an image of a portion of Earth includes generating a thermal anomaly mask. The thermal anomaly mask flags each pixel of the image initially deemed to be a wake pixel based on a comparison of a thermal value of each pixel against other thermal values of other pixels localized about each pixel. Contiguous pixels flagged by the thermal anomaly mask are grouped into pixel clusters. A shape of each of the pixel clusters is analyzed to determine whether each of the pixel clusters represents a possible vessel detection event. The possible vessel detection events are represented visually within the image.

  2. Liquid-phase thermal diffusion isotope separation apparatus and method having tapered column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rutherford, W.M.

    1985-12-04

    A thermal diffusion counterflow method and apparatus for separating isotopes in solution in which the solution is confined in a long, narrow, vertical slit which tapers from bottom to top. The variation in the width of the slit permits maintenance of a stable concentration distribution with relatively long columns, thus permitting isotopic separation superior to that obtained in the prior art.

  3. Liquid-phase thermal diffusion isotope separation apparatus and method having tapered column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rutherford, William M.

    1988-05-24

    A thermal diffusion counterflow method and apparatus for separating isotopes in solution in which the solution is confined in a long, narrow, vertical slit which tapers from bottom to top. The variation in the width of the slit permits maintenance of a stable concentration distribution with relatively long columns, thus permitting isotopic separation superior to that obtainable in the prior art.

  4. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  5. Integrated Distribution Planning Concept Paper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Planning Concept Paper www.irecusa.org A Proactive Approach for Accommodating High Penetrations of Distributed Generation Resources May 2013 Integrated Distribution Planning Concept Paper A Proactive Approach for Accommodating High Penetrations of Distributed Generation Resources Tim Lindl and Kevin Fox Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. Abraham Ellis and Robert Broderick Sandia National Laboratories May 2013 IREC enables greater use of clean energy in a sustainable way by

  6. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cements resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  7. Thermal effect on prebunched two-beam free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirian, N. S.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-08-15

    A numerical simulation in one-dimension is conducted to study the two-beam free electron laser. The fundamental resonance of the fast electron beam coincides with the fifth harmonic of the slow electron beam in order to generate extreme ultraviolet radiation. Thermal effect in the form of the longitudinal velocity spread is included in the analysis. In order to reduce the length of the wiggler, prebunched slow electron beam is considered. The evaluation of the radiation power, bunching parameter, distribution function of energy, and the distribution function of the pondermotive phase is studied. Sensitivity of the power of the fifth harmonic to the jitter in the energy difference between the two beams is also studied. A phase space is presented that shows the trapped electrons at the saturation point.

  8. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  9. Thermal Analysis of Closed Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-10-01

    TAP-LOOP is a finite-difference program designed for steady-state and transient thermal analysis of recirculating fluid loops and associated heat transfer equipment; however, it is not limited to loop analysis. TAP-LOOP was developed to perform scoping and conceptual design analyses for closed test loops in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), but it can handle a variety of problems which can be described in terms of potentials, sources, sinks, and storage including, in addition to heatmore » transfer problems, studies of potential fluid flow, electrical networks, and stress analysis.« less

  10. Neutrino Physics with Thermal Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nucciotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2009-11-09

    The investigation of fundamental neutrino properties like its mass and its nature calls for the design of a new generation of experiments. High sensitivity, high energy resolution, and versatility together with the possibility of a simple multiplexing scheme are the key features of future detectors for these experiments. Thermal detectors can combine all these features. This paper reviews the status and the perspectives for what concerns the application of this type of detectors to neutrino physics, focusing on direct neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  11. Effect of point defects on the thermal conductivity of UO2: molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang; Stanek, Christopher Richard; Andersson, Anders David Ragnar

    2015-07-21

    The thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel is an important materials property that affects fuel performance since it is a key parameter determining the temperature distribution in the fuel, thus governing, e.g., dimensional changes due to thermal expansion, fission gas release rates, etc. [1] The thermal conductivity of UO2 nuclear fuel is also affected by fission gas, fission products, defects, and microstructural features such as grain boundaries. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to determine quantitatively, the effect of irradiation induced point defects on the thermal conductivity of UO2, as a function of defect concentrations, for a range of temperatures, 300 1500 K. The results will be used to develop enhanced continuum thermal conductivity models for MARMOT and BISON by INL. These models express the thermal conductivity as a function of microstructure state-variables, thus enabling thermal conductivity models with closer connection to the physical state of the fuel [2].

  12. Thermal Interface Materials for Power Electronics Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.; Mihalic, M.; Kelly, K.; Eesley, G.

    2008-07-01

    The thermal resistance of the thermal interface material layer greatly affects the maximum temperature of the power electronics.

  13. Develop and Evaluate Materials and Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & ...

  14. Next-Generation LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally Conductive Transparent Encapsulants Next-Generation LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally Conductive Transparent ...

  15. Develop and Evaluate Materials and Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse High Voltage ...

  16. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  17. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B.sub.2 O.sub.3, has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210.times.10-7/.degree.C. and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2.times.10.sup.- 7 and 2.times.10.sup.-9 g/cm.sup.2 -min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  18. Measurement of Species Distributions in Operating Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Parks, II, James E; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2004-10-01

    Measurement and understanding of transient species distributions across and within fuel cells is a critical need for advancing fuel cell technology. The Spatially Resolved Capillary Inlet Mass Spectrometer (SpaciMS) instrument has been applied for in-situ measurement of transient species distributions within operating reactors; including diesel catalyst, air-exhaust mixing systems, and non-thermal plasma reactors. The work described here demonstrates the applicability of this tool to proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) research. Specifically, we have demonstrated SpaciMS measurements of (1) transient species dynamics across a PEM fuel cell (FC) associated with load switching, (2) intra-PEM species distributions, and transient species dynamics at SOFC temperatures associated with FC load switching.

  19. Distributed Merge Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  20. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, Santosh Y. (1440 Sandpiper Cir. #38, Salt Lake City, UT 84117)

    1996-01-01

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4 P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.2X O.sub.24, .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-2X Y.sub.2X P.sub.6 O.sub.24 and .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-X Y.sub.X P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.X O.sub.24 wherein .phi. is either Strontium or Barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures.

  1. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-01-30

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub 2X}O{sub 24}, {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}2X}Y{sub 2X}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} and {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}X}Y{sub X}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub X}O{sub 24} wherein {phi} is either strontium or barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures. 7 figs.

  2. AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GAMMA-RAY BURSTS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Recent observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and non-thermal components in the prompt photon spectra of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi

  3. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  4. Plasma-Thermal Synthesis - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Synthesis Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's Plasma-Thermal Synthesis process improves the conversion process for natural gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Description This process provides a method and apparatus for increasing acetylene yield from the thermal conversion of natural gas. The reactants inserted into the reactor chamber are applied at a high temperature of ionized gas. At this time, the reactants are changed to

  5. A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. Measurements of the electrical and thermal transport properties of one-dimensional nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes and nanowires) typically are obtained without detailed knowledge of the specimen's atomic-scale structure or defects. To address this deficiency we have developed a microfabricated, chip-based characterization

  6. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show

  7. ARM - Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Expansion of Water Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water Objective The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the concept of thermal expansion of water when heated. Materials Each student or group of students will need the

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Motor Thermal Management A photo of a piece of laboratory testing equipment. NREL research in electric motors is helping to improve the performance and reliability of electric-drive vehicles. Photo by Kevin Bennion, NREL NREL's electric motor thermal management research generates experimental data and simulation processes for the modeling, analysis, design, and construction of new electric motors. Electric motor thermal management involves a multifaceted interaction of motor operating

  9. NREL: Transportation Research - Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Electronics Thermal Management A photo of water boiling in liquid cooling lab equipment. Power electronics thermal management research aims to help lower the cost and improve the performance of electric-drive vehicles. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL investigates and develops thermal management strategies for power electronics systems that use wide-bandgap technology, which enables the development of devices that are smaller than those based on other materials, demonstrating

  10. NREL: Transportation Research - Thermal Performance Benchmarking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Performance Benchmarking A photo of the internal components of an automotive inverter. NREL thermal performance benchmarking of state-of-the-art power electronics and electric motors helps guide future R&D efforts as well as industry product-development efforts. Photo by Scot Waye, NREL NREL's thermal performance benchmarking research focuses on state-of-the-art technologies used in electric-drive vehicle (EDV) systems. Benchmarks are shared with industry so that systems can be

  11. NREL: Transportation Research - Vehicle Thermal Management Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Explore NREL's recent publications about light- and heavy-duty vehicle thermal management. For the complete collection of NREL's vehicle thermal management publications, search the NREL Publications Database. All Light-Duty Electric-Drive Light-Duty Conventional Heavy-Duty 2015 Combined Fluid Loop Thermal Management for Electric Drive Vehicle Range Improvement. Leighton, D. (2015). SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 8(2):711-720. (Presented at the SAE 2015 World Congress and

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Thermal Gradient Holes Details Activities (67) Areas (48) Regions (4) NEPA(33) Exploration...

  13. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  14. Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes...

  15. Thermal Scout Software - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Thermal Scout Software National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications:...

  16. Thermal Waters of Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Report: Thermal Waters of Nevada Abstract Abstract unavailable. Authors Larry J. Garside and John H. Schilling Organization Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Published...

  17. Thermal tolerant avicelase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase that is a member of the...

  18. Thermal tolerant mannanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant mannanase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  19. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  20. Thermal tolerant cellulase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  1. Thermal tolerant cellulase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  2. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of...

  3. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  4. Thermal tolerant mannanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant mannanase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  5. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Integrated Power Module Cooling Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Power Electronics R&D Annual Progress Report

  6. Trinity Thermal Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Place: Texas Zip: 75028 Product: Trinity Thermal Systems provides power storage products aimed a shifting energy use from air conditioning systems to off-peak times....

  7. Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Sessions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    THERMAL MANAGEMENT EV Everywhere Workshop July 24, 2012 Breakout Session 1 - Discussion of Performance Targets and Barriers Comments on the Achievability of the Targets *...

  8. ThermalSoul | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Austin, Texas-based parabolic trough-based solar thermal electrical generation systems maker. Coordinates: 30.267605, -97.742984 Show Map Loading...

  9. NRG Thermal LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: NRG Thermal LLC Place: Minneapolis, Minnesota Zip: 55402-2200 Product: A subsidiary of NRG Energy that specialises in district energy systems...

  10. Thermal Ion Dispersion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dispersion Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Thermal Ion Dispersion Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) NEPA(0)...

  11. Solar Thermal Success Stories - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Success Stories 1 Success Stories Category Title and Abstract Company Laboratories Date Solar Thermal NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy Huge ...

  12. Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - PACCAR Integrated Underhood Thermal and External Aerodynamics- Cummins Cummins SuperTruck Program - Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,...

  13. Design method addresses subsea pipeline thermal stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suman, J.C.; Karpathy, S.A. )

    1993-08-30

    Managing thermal stresses in subsea pipelines carrying heated petroleum requires extensive thermal-stress analysis to predict trouble spots and to ensure a design flexible enough to anticipate stresses and expansions. Explored here are various methods for resolving predicaments posed by thermal loads and resulting deformations by keeping the stresses and deformations in the pipeline system within allowable limits. The problems posed by thermal stresses are not unique; the solutions proposed here are. These methods are based on recent work performed for a major Asian subsea pipeline project currently under construction.

  14. Thermal Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thermal Energy Systems Place: London, United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: UK based company that constructs and installs boilers...

  15. Southside Thermal Services Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Southside Thermal Services Ltd Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: SW7 2AZ Product: String representation "Southside...

  16. Radiography used to image thermal explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and have created a model that captures both the gas-phase convection and subsonic solid-state combustion. Understanding the thermal response of energetic materials to...

  17. Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Raft River Geothermal Area (1974-1976) Areas (1) Raft River Geothermal Area Regions (0)...

  18. Thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2012-11-13

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  19. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capossela, Harry J. (Schenectady, NY); Dwyer, Joseph R. (Albany, NY); Luce, Robert G. (Schenectady, NY); McCoy, Daniel F. (Latham, NY); Merriman, Floyd C. (Rotterdam, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  20. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrie, Robert B

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  1. Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Chester S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, William R. (Maynardville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    Thermal shock resistant cermet insulators containing 0.1-20 volume % metal present as a dispersed phase. The insulators are prepared by a process comprising the steps of (a) providing a first solid phase mixture of a ceramic powder and a metal precursor; (b) heating the first solid phase mixture above the minimum decomposition temperature of the metal precursor for no longer than 30 minutes and to a temperature sufficiently above the decomposition temperature to cause the selective decomposition of the metal precursor to the metal to provide a second solid phase mixture comprising particles of ceramic having discrete metal particles adhering to their surfaces, said metal particles having a mean diameter no more than 1/2 the mean diameter of the ceramic particles, and (c) densifying the second solid phase mixture to provide a cermet insulator having 0.1-20 volume % metal present as a dispersed phase.

  2. Propagation of Reactions in Thermally-damaged PBX-9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, J W; Glascoe, E A; Kercher, J R; Willey, T M; Springer, H K; Greenwood, D W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Henson, B F; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-05

    A thermally-initiated explosion in PBX-9501 (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is observed in situ by flash x-ray imaging, and modeled with the LLNL multi-physics arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALE3D. The containment vessel deformation provides a useful estimate of the reaction pressure at the time of the explosion, which we calculate to be in the range 0.8-1.4 GPa. Closely-coupled ALE3D simulations of these experiments, utilizing the multi-phase convective burn model, provide detailed predictions of the reacted mass fraction and deflagration front acceleration. During the preinitiation heating phase of these experiments, the solid HMX portion of the PBX-9501 undergoes a {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition which damages the explosive and induces porosity. The multi-phase convective burn model results demonstrate that damaged particle size and pressure are critical for predicting reaction speed and violence. In the model, energetic parameters are taken from LLNL's thermochemical-kinetics code Cheetah and burn rate parameters from Son et al. (2000). Model predictions of an accelerating deflagration front are in qualitative agreement with the experimental images assuming a mode particle diameter in the range 300-400 {micro}m. There is uncertainty in the initial porosity caused by thermal damage of PBX-9501 and, thus, the effective surface area for burning. To better understand these structures, we employ x-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to examine the microstructure of PBX-9501 before and after thermal damage. Although lack of contrast between grains and binder prevents the determination of full grain size distribution in this material, there are many domains visible in thermally damaged PBX-9501 with diameters in the 300-400 {micro}m range.

  3. Imaging Fluid Flow in Geothermal Wells Using Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: A New Geothermal Well Imaging Tool. 1.To develop a robust and easily deployable DTPS for monitoring in geothermal wells; and 2. Develop the associated analysis methodology for flow imaging; and„when possible by wellbore conditions„to determine in situthermal conductivity and basal heat flux.

  4. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-09-30

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution`s concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the `Poisoned Tube Tank` because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service.

  5. Distribution of Clokey's Eggvetch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson

    1998-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Division of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office implements the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This program ensures compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, delineates and describes NTS ecosystems, and provides ecological information for predicting and evaluating potential impacts of proposed projects on those ecosystems. Over the last several decades, has taken an active role in providing information on the tatus of plant species proposed for protection under the Endangered Species Act(ESA). One such species is Clokey's eggvetch (Astragalus oophorus var. clokeyanus), which is a candidate species under the listing guidelines of the ESA. Surveys for this species were conducted on the NTS in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Field surveys focused on potential habitat for this species in the southern Belted range and expanded to other areas with similar habitat. Over 30 survey day s were completed; five survey days in 1996, 25 survey days in 1997, and three survey days in 1998. Clokey's eggvetch was located at several sites in the southern Belted Range. It was found through much of the northern section of Kawich Canyon, one site at the head of Gritty Gulch, and a rather extensive location in Lambs Canyon. It was also located further south at Captain Jack Springs in the Eleana Range, in much of Falcon Canyon and around Echo Peak on Pahute Mesa, and was also found in the Timber and Shoshone Mountains. Overall, the locations of Clokey's eggvetch on the NTS appears to form a distinct bridge between populations of the species located further north in the Belted and Kawich Ranges and the population located in the Spring Mountains. Clokey's eggvetch was commonly found along washes and small draws, and typically in sandy loam soils with a covering of light tuffaceous rock. It occurs primarily above 1830 meters (6000 feet) in association with single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla), Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata). Overall, the populations of Clokey's eggvetch on the NTS appear to be vigorous and do not appear threatened. It is estimated that there are approximately 2300 plants on the NTS. It should be considered as a species of concern because of its localized distribution, but it does not appear to warrant protection under the ESA.

  6. Singularities of Generalized Parton Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2012-05-14

    The basic ideas of the theory of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) are reviewed. Recent developments in the study of singularities of GPDs are discussed.

  7. Distribution Drive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Distribution Drive Place: Dallas, Texas Zip: 75205 Product: Biodiesel fuel distributor. Coordinates: 32.778155, -96.795404 Show Map Loading map......

  8. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, A. C.

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the status of the U.S. distributed wind industry in 2013; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  9. AGENDA: PETROLEUM PRODUCT TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The agenda for the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) public stakeholder meeting in New Orleans on petroleum product transmission, distribution, and storage.

  10. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the status of the U.S. distributed wind market in 2013; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  11. Distributed Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    facility's anaerobic digesters. Photo from Kathryn Craddock, NREL 16710 Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve...

  12. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2006-06-16

    Electricity produced by distributed energy resources (DER)located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumerrequirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid.Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associatedwith transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricitydelivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities topurchase energy when attractive. On-site, single-cycle thermal powergeneration is typically less efficient than central station generation,but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and by utilizing combinedheat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scaleon-site thermal generation to displace fuel purchases, DER can becomeattractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts,the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressedusing a mixed-integer linear program, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, andinformation (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies,DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selectingthe units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. Inthis paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion ofthe option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep aninventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lowercosts even further by reducing lucrative peak-shaving generation whilerelying on storage to meet heat loads. This and other effects of storageare demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in SanFrancisco, California, USA, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacityof heat storage is calculated.

  13. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energys Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspens best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XTs commercial success has been driven by its 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  14. Computer modeling of electrical and thermal performance during bipolar pulsed radiofrequency for pain relief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pérez, Juan J.; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan J.; Muñoz, Víctor; Berjano, Enrique

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Pulsed RF (PRF) is a nonablative technique for treating neuropathic pain. Bipolar PRF application is currently aimed at creating a “strip lesion” to connect the electrode tips; however, the electrical and thermal performance during bipolar PRF is currently unknown. The objective of this paper was to study the temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF. Methods: The authors developed computer models to study temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF and to assess the possible ablative thermal effect caused by the accumulated temperature spikes, along with any possible electroporation effects caused by the electrical field. The authors also modeled the bipolar ablative mode, known as bipolar Continuous Radiofrequency (CRF), in order to compare both techniques. Results: There were important differences between CRF and PRF in terms of electrical and thermal performance. In bipolar CRF: (1) the initial temperature of the tissue impacts on temperature progress and hence on the thermal lesion dimension; and (2) at 37 °C, 6-min of bipolar CRF creates a strip thermal lesion between the electrodes when these are separated by a distance of up to 20 mm. In bipolar PRF: (1) an interelectrode distance shorter than 5 mm produces thermal damage (i.e., ablative effect) in the intervening tissue after 6 min of bipolar RF; and (2) the possible electroporation effect (electric fields higher than 150 kV m{sup −1}) would be exclusively circumscribed to a very small zone of tissue around the electrode tip. Conclusions: The results suggest that (1) the clinical parameters considered to be suitable for bipolar CRF should not necessarily be considered valid for bipolar PRF, and vice versa; and (2) the ablative effect of the CRF mode is mainly due to its much greater level of delivered energy than is the case in PRF, and therefore at same applied energy levels, CRF, and PRF are expected to result in same outcomes in terms of thermal damage zone dimension.

  15. Microsoft Word - PNNL 24125 Probative Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Wastes Involved in February 2014 WIPP Waste Dru

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PNNL-24125 Limited Distribution Probative Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Wastes Involved in February 2014 WIPP Waste Drum Breach Event March 2015 RD Scheele JM Schwantes BK McNamara MJ Minette DT Hobbs (SRNL) CA Barrett PNNL-24125 Limited Distribution Probative Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Wastes Involved in February 2014 WIPP Waste Drum Breach Event RD Scheele JM Schwantes BK McNamara MJ Minette DT Hobbs (SRNL) CA Barrett March 2015 Prepared for the U.S. Department of

  16. Distributed Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributed Power Inc Place: Lime Rock, Connecticut Zip: 6039 Product: Focused on distributed generation power technology. References: Distributed Power Inc1 This article is a...

  17. Articles about Distributed Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Articles about Distributed Wind Articles about Distributed Wind Below are stories about distributed wind featured by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program. October 1,...

  18. Fiber optic thermal/fast neutron and gamma ray scintillation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN); Mihalczo, John T (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-10-30

    A system for detecting fissile and fissionable material originating external to the system includes: a .sup.6Li loaded glass fiber scintillator for detecting thermal neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays; a fast scintillator for detecting fast neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays, the fast scintillator conjoined with the glass fiber scintillator such that the fast scintillator moderates fast neutrons prior to their detection as thermal neutrons by the glass fiber scintillator; and a coincidence detection system for processing the time distributions of arriving signals from the scintillators.

  19. Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, Bert Clayton; Brindza, Paul Daniel

    2014-03-04

    A thermal neutron shield comprising boron shielding panels with a high percentage of the element Boron. The panel is least 46% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of boron shielding panels which includes enriching the pre-cursor mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.

  20. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1985-03-29

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  1. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George; Armijo, James Rudolph; Frear, Darrel Richard

    2000-01-01

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  2. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Redding, Arnold H. (Export, PA)

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant.

  3. Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Metzger, Bert Clayton

    2013-05-28

    A thermal neutron shield comprising concrete with a high percentage of the element Boron. The concrete is least 54% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of Boron loaded concrete which includes enriching the concrete mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.

  4. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L. (Del Mar, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  5. Thermal dissolution of solid fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov

    2007-10-15

    The use of oil shales and coals in the processes of thermal dissolution is considered. It is shown that thermal dissolution is a mode of liquefaction of solid fossil fuels and can be used both independently and in combination with liquefaction of coals and processing of heavy petroleum residues.

  6. Analysis of thermally-degrading, confined HMX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, M.L.; Schmitt, R.G.; Renlund, A.M.

    1996-12-01

    The response of a thermally-degrading, confined HMX pellet is analyzed using a Reactive Elastic-Plastic (REP) constitutive model which is founded on the collapse and growth of internal inclusions resulting from physical and chemical processes such as forced displacement, thermal expansion, and/or decomposition. Axial stress predictions compare adequately to data. Deficiencies in the model and future directions are discussed.

  7. In Situ NDA Conformation Measurements Performed at Auxiliary Charcoal Bed and Other Main Charcoal Beds After Uranium Removal from Molten Salt Reactor Experiment ACB at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haghighi, M. H.; Kring, C. T.; McGehee, J. T.; Jugan, M. R.; Chapman, J.; Meyer, K. E.

    2002-02-26

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The MSRE was run by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the desirable features of the molten-salt concept in a practical reactor that could be operated safely and reliably. It introduced the idea of a homogeneous reactor using fuel salt media and graphite moderation for power and breeder reactors. The MSRE reactor and associated components are located in cells beneath the floor in the high-bay area of Building 7503. The reactor was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. When the reactor was shut down, fuel salt was drained from the reactor circuit to two drain tanks. A ''clean'' salt was then circulated through the reactor as a decontamination measure and drained to a third drain tank. When operations ceased, the fuel and flush salts were allowed to cool and solidify in the drain tanks. At shutdown, the MSRE facility complex was placed in a surveillance and maintenance program. Beginning in 1987, it was discovered that gaseous uranium (U-233/U-232) hexafluoride (UF6) had moved throughout the MSRE process systems. The UF6 had been generated when radiolysis in the fluorine salts caused the individual constituents to dissociate to their component atoms, including free fluorine. Some of the free fluorine combined with uranium fluorides (UF4) in the salt to produce UF6. UF6 is gaseous at slightly above ambient temperatures; thus, periodic heating of the fuel salts (which was intended to remedy the radiolysis problems) and simple diffusion had allowed the UF6 to move out of the salt and into the process systems of MSRE. One of the systems that UF6 migrated into due to this process was the offgas system which is vented to the MSRE main charcoal beds and MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). Recently, the majority of the uranium laden-charcoal material residing within the ACB was safely and successfully removed using the uranium deposit removal system and equipment. After removal a series of NDA measurements was performed to determine the amount of uranium material remaining in the ACB, the amount of uranium material removed from the ACB, and the amount of uranium material remaining in the uranium removal equipment due to removal activities.

  8. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  9. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  10. Low thermal stress ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA); Bagheri, Hamid (San Diego, CA); Fierstein, Aaron R. (San Diego, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of vanes therebetween. Each of the plurality of vanes have a device for heating and cooling a portion of each of the plurality of vanes. Furthermore, the inner shroud has a plurality of bosses attached thereto. A cylindrical member has a plurality of grooves formed therein and each of the plurality of bosses are positioned in corresponding ones of the plurality of grooves. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  11. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orell, A.; Foster, N.

    2015-08-01

    The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report.According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment across 24 states. In 2014, America's distributed wind energy industry supported a growing domestic industrial base as exports from United States-based small wind turbine manufacturers accounted for nearly 80% of United States-based manufacturers' sales.

  12. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  13. Parallel Computing Environments and Methods for Power Distribution System Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Chassin, David P.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Studham, Scott S.

    2005-11-10

    The development of cost-effective high-performance parallel computing on multi-processor super computers makes it attractive to port excessively time consuming simulation software from personal computers (PC) to super computes. The power distribution system simulator (PDSS) takes a bottom-up approach and simulates load at appliance level, where detailed thermal models for appliances are used. This approach works well for a small power distribution system consisting of a few thousand appliances. When the number of appliances increases, the simulation uses up the PC memory and its run time increases to a point where the approach is no longer feasible to model a practical large power distribution system. This paper presents an effort made to port a PC-based power distribution system simulator (PDSS) to a 128-processor shared-memory super computer. The paper offers an overview of the parallel computing environment and a description of the modification made to the PDSS model. The performances of the PDSS running on a standalone PC and on the super computer are compared. Future research direction of utilizing parallel computing in the power distribution system simulation is also addressed.

  14. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  15. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization project, which focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy from the world's ocean thermal resources. PDF icon Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization More Documents & Publications OTEC resource assessment NELHA Creates the 'Green Energy

  16. On the breaking of a plasma wave in a thermal plasma. I. The structure of the density singularity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; Califano, Francesco; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2012-11-15

    The structure of the singularity that is formed in a relativistically large amplitude plasma wave close to the wave breaking limit is found by using a simple waterbag electron distribution function. The electron density distribution in the breaking wave has a typical 'peakon' form. The maximum value of the electric field in a thermal breaking plasma is obtained and compared to the cold plasma limit. The results of computer simulations for different initial electron distribution functions are in agreement with the theoretical conclusions. The after-wavebreak regime is then examined, and a semi-analytical model of the density evolution is constructed. Finally the results of two dimensional particle in cell simulations for different initial electron distribution functions are compared, and the role of thermal effects in enhancing particle injection is noted.

  17. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May...

  18. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Solar Distributed Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Solar Distributed Grid Integration Projects Photo of a man working on a solar photovoltaic array outdoors. NREL's solar distributed grid integration research finds solutions to enable greater penetration of solar electricity on the power grid. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL Energy System Basics Video Series Learn the essential facts on energy systems in this six-part video series sponsored by the DOE SunShot Initiative and hosted by Dr. Ravel Ammerman. NREL provides grid

  19. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  20. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modificationmore » of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.« less

  1. Thermal properties of organic and inorganic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Material Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Aerogels are open-cell foams that have already been shown to be among the best thermal insulating solid materials known. This paper examines the three major contributions to thermal transport through porous materials; solid, gaseous, and radiative, to identify how to reduce the thermal conductivity of air-filled aerogels. We find that significant improvements in the thermal insulation property of aerogels are possible by; (i) employing materials with a low intrinsic solid conductivity, (ii) reducing the average pore size within aerogels, and (iii) affecting an increase of the infrared extinction in aerogels. Theoretically, polystyrene is the best of the organic materials and zirconia is the best inorganic material to use for the lowest achievable conductivity. Significant reduction of the thermal conductivity for all aerogel varieties is predicted with only a modest decrease of the average pore size. This might be achieved by modifying the sol-gel chemistry leading to aerogels. For example, a thermal resistance value of [ital R]=20 per inch would be possible for an air-filled resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel at a density of 156 kg/m[sup 3], if the average pore size was less than 35 nm. An equation is included which facilitates the calculation of the optimum density for the minimum total thermal conductivity, for all varieties of aerogels.

  2. The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkery, J. W. Sabbagh, S. A.; Betti, R.; Guazzotto, L.; Manickam, J.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability in tokamak fusion plasmas is derived through kinetic theory and assessed through calculation with the MISK code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 0?57301 (2005)]. The fluid anisotropy is treated as a small perturbation on the plasma equilibrium and modeled with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function. A complete stability treatment without an assumption of high frequency mode rotation leads to anisotropic kinetic terms in the dispersion relation in addition to anisotropy corrections to the fluid terms. With the density and the average pressure kept constant, when thermal particles have a higher temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field than parallel, the fluid pressure-driven ballooning destabilization term is reduced. Additionally, the stabilizing kinetic effects of the trapped thermal ions can be enhanced. Together these two effects can lead to a modest increase in resistive wall mode stability.

  3. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  4. Quantum chaos and thermalization in gapped systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigol, Marcos [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Santos, Lea F. [Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the onset of thermalization and quantum chaos in finite one-dimensional gapped systems of hard-core bosons. Integrability in these systems is broken by next-nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions, which also generate a superfluid to insulator transition. By employing full exact diagonalization, we study chaos indicators and few-body observables. We show that with increasing system size, chaotic behavior is seen over a broader range of parameters and, in particular, deeper into the insulating phase. Concomitantly, we observe that, as the system size increases, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis extends its range of validity inside the insulating phase and is accompanied by the thermalization of the system.

  5. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  6. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  7. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  8. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  9. ARM - Evaluation Product - Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsMultispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) The Multispectral Thermal Imager is a space-based research and development project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nonproliferation and National

  10. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Russick, Edward M. (Rio Rancho, NM); McElhanon, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Saunders, Randall S. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  11. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Flowers, Larry T.; Gagne, Matthew N.; Pro, Boyd H.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this report is to quantify and summarize the 2013 U.S. distributed wind market to help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry stakeholders, utilities, state and federal agencies, and other interested parties.

  12. Assessment of Hypothermia Blankets Using an Advanced Thermal Manikin: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Barazanji, K.

    2009-07-01

    A thermal manikin developed at NREL helped to assess thermal blankets used to treat U.S. Army personnel suffering from hypothermia. The chemical blanket showed the best thermal performance.

  13. Annual Emergency Preparedness Grant Distributed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 2, 2013 Annual Emergency Preparedness Grant Distributed The Emergency Preparedness Working Group (EPWG) recently came together to distribute approximately $415,000 in grant funding for emergency response resources. The funds, which were collected in 2012, are part of an annual U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) community grant program benefitting rural Nevada communities. "This year's grant is going toward responder equipment, personal protective clothing, like helmets and coats, and

  14. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Photo of two men in safety glasses working with electric equipment in a laboratory. NREL's distributed grid integration projects develop and test technologies, systems, and methods to interconnect variable renewable energy with the electric power grid. NREL's distributed energy projects support the integration of new technologies into the electric power grid. This work involves industry, academia, other national laboratories, and various standards organizations. Learn more about our

  15. Heat distribution ceramic processing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

  16. Anisotropic Azimuthal Power and Temperature distribution on FuelRod. Impact on Hydride Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, Arthur; Ivanov, Kostadin; Arramova, Maria; Hales, Jason

    2015-04-29

    The degradation of the zirconium cladding may limit nuclear fuel performance. In the high temperature environment of a reactor, the zirconium in the cladding corrodes, releasing hydrogen in the process. Some of this hydrogen is absorbed by the cladding in a highly inhomogeneous manner. The distribution of the absorbed hydrogen is extremely sensitive to temperature and stress concentration gradients. The absorbed hydrogen tends to concentrate near lower temperatures. This hydrogen absorption and hydride formation can cause cladding failure. This project set out to improve the hydrogen distribution prediction capabilities of the BISON fuel performance code. The project was split into two primary sections, first was the use of a high fidelity multi-physics coupling to accurately predict temperature gradients as a function of r, ? , and z, and the second was to use experimental data to create an analytical hydrogen precipitation model. The Penn State version of thermal hydraulics code COBRA-TF (CTF) was successfully coupled to the DeCART neutronics code. This coupled system was verified by testing and validated by comparison to FRAPCON data. The hydrogen diffusion and precipitation experiments successfully calculated the heat of transport and precipitation rate constant values to be used within the hydrogen model in BISON. These values can only be determined experimentally. These values were successfully implemented in precipitation, diffusion and dissolution kernels that were implemented in the BISON code. The coupled output was fed into BISON models and the hydrogen and hydride distributions behaved as expected. Simulations were conducted in the radial, axial and azimuthal directions to showcase the full capabilities of the hydrogen model.

  17. Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance The thermal interface resistance at the macro scale is mainly described by the physical gap between two

  18. Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TIAX reviewed the status of various Thermally Activated Technologies (TATs). This 2004 review includes both fuel-fired and waste-heat-fired applications of thermally-driven cooling systems, thermally-driven heat pumps, and thermally-driven bottoming cycles, primarily for use in commercial

  19. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1984-03-01

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  20. Solar electric thermal hydronic (SETH) product development project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Sindelar, A.

    2000-10-01

    Positive Energy, Inc. received a second Technology Maturation and Commercialization Project Subcontract during the 1999 round of awards. This Subcontract is for the purpose of further aiding Positive Energy, Inc. in preparing its Solar Electric Thermal Hydronic (SETH) control and distribution package for market introduction. All items of this subcontracted project have been successfully completed. This Project Report contains a summary of the progress made during the SETH Development Project (the Project) over the duration of the 1999 Subcontract. It includes a description of the effort performed and the results obtained in the pursuit of intellectual property protection and development of product documentation for the end users. This report also summarizes additional efforts taken by and for the SETH project outside of the Subcontract. It presents a chronology of activities over the duration of the Subcontract, and includes a few selected sample copies of documents offered as evidence of their success.

  1. Thermal Imaging Technologies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Thermal Imaging Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on...

  2. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  3. Made in Minnesota Solar Thermal Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in 2014, the Department of Commerce is offering a Made in Minnesota Solar Thermal Rebate program, pursuant to H.F. 729 enacted in 2013. Rebates are 25% of installed costs, with a $2,500...

  4. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  5. Colorado thermal spring water geothermometry (public dataset...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    chemical geothermometers for Colorado thermal springs. Data citations include Barrett, J. K. and Pearl, R. H. (1976), George, R. D., Curtis, H. A., Lester, O. C., Crook, J. K.,...

  6. Thermal Simulation of Advanced Powertrain Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under this project, the Volvo complete vehicle model was modified to include engine and exhaust system thermal outputs and cooling system to enable WHR simulations from a system perspective.

  7. Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger waste packages. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management...

  8. Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code - Building America Top Innovation Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy ...

  9. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust particulates and NOx Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust...

  10. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treatment. A recent advance in thermal imaging allows more rapid, yet still non-invasive, detection. The process, called three-dimensional thermal tomography, or 3DTT, is...

  11. Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology 2005 Diesel...

  12. Simulation Tools for Modeling Thermal Spallation Drilling on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation Tools for Modeling Thermal Spallation Drilling on Multiple Scales Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation Tools for Modeling Thermal Spallation Drilling on ...

  13. IN SEARCH FOR THERMAL ANOMALIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AND FIELD DATA Abstract We attempt to identify thermal anomalies using thermal infrared (TIR) data collected over the Coso Geothermal Power Project with the spaceborne ASTER...

  14. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  15. Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS...

  16. Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight efficiency Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight efficiency Discusses technological ...

  17. List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 211 Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 211) Incentive...

  18. U.S. CHP Installations Incorporating Thermal Energy Storage ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP Installations Incorporating Thermal Energy Storage (TES) andor Turbine Inlet Cooling (TIC), September 2003 U.S. CHP Installations Incorporating Thermal Energy Storage (TES) ...

  19. Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile Strain Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile...

  20. Microsoft Word - PNNL 24125 Probative Investigation of the Thermal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Cronin, JT, et al. 1988. "Thermal decomposition of energetic materials 29-The fast thermal decomposition characteristics of a multicomponent material: liquid gun propellant 1845". ...

  1. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power...

  2. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  3. Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal Upgrade Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal Upgrade 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  4. Project Profile: Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat Transfer Fluid Containment Materials Project Profile: Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat Transfer ...

  5. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in EGS reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures ...

  6. Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS ...

  7. Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling and Strategy Development Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal ... More Documents & Publications Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal ...

  8. In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling during Arc Welding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and ...

  9. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in ... result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). ...

  10. Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers ...

  11. California PRC 25120, Definition for Thermal Powerplant | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of "Thermal powerplant" as provided in Chapter 2 (Definitions) of Division 15 - Energy Conservation and Development of the California Public Resources Code: "'Thermal...

  12. Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug-in Vehicle Converters and Inverters Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation...

  13. Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Corning...

  14. Project Profile: Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Project Profile: Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Infinia logo Infinia,...

  15. Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Presentation...

  16. Measuring Thermal Conductivity with Raman:Capability Uncertainty...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measuring Thermal Conductivity with Raman:Capability Uncertainty and Strain Effects. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring Thermal Conductivity with Raman:Capability...

  17. Inherent Errors Associated with Raman Based Thermal Conductivity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inherent Errors Associated with Raman Based Thermal Conductivity Measurements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inherent Errors Associated with Raman Based Thermal...

  18. Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES), under the Thermal Storage FOA, created a composite thermal energy storage material by embedding nanoparticles in a molten salt base material.

  19. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

  20. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric ...

  1. EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report Presentation given at the ...

  2. Advanced Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Power Electronics Advanced Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Power Electronics 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  3. Butterfly-Inspired Thermal Imaging | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal imaging for advanced medical diagnosis-to better visualize inflammation in the body and understand changes in a patient's health earlier Advanced thermal vision-to see...

  4. Thermal initiation of explosive materials using photon-based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal initiation of explosive materials using photon-based active interrogation methods (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal initiation of explosive materials...

  5. Category:Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in category "Thermal Gradient Holes" This category contains only the following page. T Thermal Gradient Holes Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:T...

  6. Sticky Thermals: Evidence for a Dominant Balance Between

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by studying thousands of cloud thermals in a high- resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) of deep convection. Schematically, the acceleration of a cloud thermal can be written...

  7. The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine Poster ...

  8. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance of a Thermally...

  9. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling Home Renewable Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling Previous...

  10. Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account Sectors, May 2003 Market Potential for Advanced Thermally Activated BCHP in Five National Account ...

  11. Clustering and Mechanics in Dense Depletion and Thermal Gels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Clustering and Mechanics in Dense Depletion and Thermal Gels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Clustering and Mechanics in Dense Depletion and Thermal Gels Authors: ...

  12. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling Title: Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling Dish-Stirling systems provide ...

  13. Anyang Lingrui Thermal Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  14. Beijing Tianyin Thermal Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianyin Thermal Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Tianyin Thermal Development Co Ltd Place: Beijing, China Zip: 100000 Sector: Geothermal energy Product:...

  15. Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV...

  16. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on...

  17. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

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    Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 ...

  18. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; ...

  19. Wujiang Oasis Environment Thermal Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wujiang Oasis Environment Thermal Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wujiang Oasis Environment Thermal Co Ltd Place: Wujiang, Jiangsu Province, China Sector: Biomass Product:...

  20. MESO-SCALE MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERGRANULAR GAS BUBBLES ON EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks

    2011-06-01

    Using a mesoscale modeling approach, we have investigated how intergranular fission gas bubbles, as observed in high-burnup nuclear fuel, modify the effective thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline material. The calculations reveal that intergranular porosity has a significantly higher resistance to heat transfer compared to randomly-distributed porosity. A model is developed to describe this conductivity reduction that considers an effective grain boundary Kapitza resistance as a function of the fractional coverage of grain boundaries by bubbles.