National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal conversion process

  1. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

  2. PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two for the production of hydrogen from water and high temperature thermal energy are presented and compared. Increasing for the production of hydrogen from water has received considerable attention.1 High temperature thermal energy

  3. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat...

  4. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01

    M.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

  5. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)field of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot

  7. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    the consumed thermal energy, and this process can be greatlythermal energy to electric energy must be based on processesprocess of an indirect energy conversion system consists of multiple steps to convert thermal

  8. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    310, the Ocean the Ocean Energy Thermal Energy Conversionfor the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionOpen cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminary

  9. High conversion hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stine, L.O.; Reno, M.E.; Munro, W.H.; Hamper, S.J.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking a heavy hydrocarbon feed stream having a 10 percent boiling point above about 316{degrees} C. It comprises: passing the feedstream into a catalytic hydrocracking reaction zone in contact with hydrocracking catalyst comprising at least one metal selected from the group consisting of chromium, nickel, cobalt, platinum, palladium, tungsten and molybdenum, at a temperature above about 316{degrees} C. and a total pressure above 1480 kPa, the catalytic hydrocracking reaction zone operating at a feed stream conversion rate above 70 wt. percent with a hydrogen circulation rate in excess at 1777 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}, to produce a reaction zone effluent stream, subjecting the reaction zone effluent stream to cooling and a vapor-liquid separation to yield a recycle hydrogen stream and a liquid phase stream, heating the liquid phase stream recovered from the vapor-liquid separation to vaporize at least 90 volume percent of the liquid phase stream, passing the heated and at least partially vaporized liquid phase stream to a fractionation zone wherein the stream is separated into at least a net bottoms stream, a heavy distillate stream, and at least one light distillate stream which is removed as the distillate product stream, removing all of the net bottoms stream from the process, and recycling substantially all of the heavy distillate stream to the catalytic hydrocracking zone.

  10. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature...

  11. Assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Shylesh

    2012-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising renewable energy technology to generate electricity and has other applications such as production of freshwater, seawater air-conditioning, marine culture and chilled-soil ...

  12. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  13. HELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    with the term "solar flare" dominate our thinking about energy conversion from magnetic storage to other formsHELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES edited by CAROLUS J. SCHRIJVER Lockheed Martin of a solar flare 11 2.3.1 Flare luminosity and mechanical energy 11 2.3.2 The impulsive phase (hard X

  14. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries Christina M Comfort Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large will unavoidably affect pelagic fish... ­ Noise and water pollution ­ FAD effects ­ Entrainment and Impingement

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    demand due to emerging economies like China, India, and Brazil. Coal and natural gas resources 7296 OOcean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, School of Ocean the OTEC plant. The difference between gross power and in-plant power consumption needed to run all sweater

  16. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    making direct thermal energy storage methods, e.g. thosethermal shorting, that limits the energy conversion efficiency of direct thermoelectric energy conversion methods.

  17. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next-Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion...

  18. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, M.Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  19. A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT BY OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    nental Assessment, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)Impact Assessment Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC),Intake Screens for Ocean Thermal Energy M.S. Thesis. Oregon

  20. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

  1. The high conversion LC-Fining process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanDriesen, R.P.; Strangio, V.A.; Rhoe, A.; Kolstad, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Residual oil hydrocracking has been practiced at moderate conversions for many years on a wide range of feedstocks. Processes utilizing expanded bed reactors have been proven to be effective in the hydrocracking of these heavy residual feedstocks. Conversions up to 60% vacuum bottoms to distillates were routinely obtained in several commercial units. More recently Amoco has been operating an LC-Fining unit in their Texas City refinery at conversions as high as 80%. Normal conversion in this plant however is 60-65%. LC-Fining is an expanded bed resid hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization process developed by Cities Service and Lummus Crest. There are a number of factors which may limit the conversion in any given plant site. These include compatibility problems with the liquid product, settling out of heavy hydrocarbons in downstream equipment or fouling of the catalyst in the reactor which in the extreme results in coking of the catalyst bed. The operator of a residual hydrocracker maintains conversion at a sufficiently low level to avoid these problems. Recent advances in the LC-Fining technology have led to the development of the High Conversion LC-Fining Process which is capable of operation at conversions of 95% and higher without any of these problems.

  2. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    storage and direct solar energy conversion to work. FocusManagement and Solar Energy Conversion Applications By DusanThermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

  3. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Mostly about USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to all US Island Territories. #12;OTEC 11 Other Applications: AC Cold deep water as the chiller fluid ? #12;Thermal Resource Temperature Difference between Surface Water and 1,000 m Water (want > 20 °C: Truisms · OTEC plants could supply all the electricity and potable water consumed in the State, {but

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons:...

  5. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into...

  6. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  7. Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC ) Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC ) Introduction to the...

  8. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  9. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and Economics for Biochemical...

  10. Exceeding the solar cell Shockley-Queisser limit via thermal up-conversion of low-energy photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boriskina, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    Maximum efficiency of ideal single-junction photovoltaic (PV) cells is limited to 33% (for one sun illumination) by intrinsic losses such as band edge thermalization, radiative recombination, and inability to absorb below-bandgap photons. This intrinsic thermodynamic limit, named after Shockley and Queisser (S-Q), can be exceeded by utilizing low-energy photons either via their electronic up-conversion or via thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion process. However, electronic up-conversion systems have extremely low efficiencies, and practical temperature considerations limit the operation of TPV converters to the narrow-gap PV cells. Here we develop a conceptual design of a hybrid TPV platform, which exploits thermal up-conversion of low-energy photons and is compatible with conventional silicon PV cells by using spectral and directional selectivity of the up-converter. The hybrid platform offers sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiency exceeding that imposed by the S-Q limit on the corresponding PV cells ...

  11. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of...

  12. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    ocean thermal energy, distributed solar thermal energy,heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demand

  13. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

  14. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, M.Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant acccrmplishments in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power within this decade with subsequent large scale commercialization following by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, the Oceanic Engineering Operations of Interstate Electronics Corporation has prepared several OTEC Environmental Assessments over the past years, in particular, the OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment. The Programmatic EA considers several technological designs (open- and closed-cycle), plant configuratlons (land-based, moored, and plant-ship), and power usages (baseload electricity, ammonia and aluminum production). Potential environmental impacts, health and safetv issues and a status update of the institutional issues as they influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  15. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of Wasted Energy : Thermal to Electrical EnergyRecycling of Wasted Energy : Thermal to Electrical Energyelectric energy generation and thermal energy conduction

  16. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    and nuclear power plants, solar thermal energy, geothermalpower plants, distributed solar thermal energy, geo/ocean-power plants and concentrated solar thermal energy farms.

  17. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels February 7, 2013 Fuels synthesis insight forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. The team led by Los Alamos published the research. Trash to Treasure "Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical

  18. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  19. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  20. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-10-21

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation.

  1. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  2. Quantum-coupled single-electron thermal to electric conversion scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, D. M.

    Thermal to electric energy conversion with thermophotovoltaics relies on radiation emitted by a hot body, which limits the power per unit area to that of a blackbody. Microgap thermophotovoltaics take advantage of evanescent ...

  3. Comparison of Biological and Thermal (Pyrolysis) Pathways for Conversion of Lignocellulose to Biofuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imam, Tahmina 1983-

    2012-11-30

    Because of the limited supply of imported crude oil and environmental degradation, renewable energy is becoming commercially feasible and environmentally desirable. In this research, biological and thermal (pyrolysis) conversion pathways for biofuel...

  4. Ocean thermal energy conversion plants : experimental and analytical study of mixing and recirculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirka, Gerhard H.

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a method of generating power using the vertical temperature gradient of the tropical ocean as an energy source. Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to determine ...

  5. Quantum-coupled single-electron thermal to electric conversion scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dennis M. (Dennis Meng-Jiao)

    2008-01-01

    A new thermal to electric conversion scheme based on an excitation transfer and tunneling mechanism is studied theoretically. Coulomb coupling dominates when the hot side and the cold side are very close. Two important ...

  6. FRONTIERS ARTICLE Fundamentals of energy transport, energy conversion, and thermal properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malen, Jonathan A.

    FRONTIERS ARTICLE Fundamentals of energy transport, energy conversion, and thermal properties, thermoelectrics, and photovoltaics. However, energy transport and conversion, at the organic­inorganic interface on fundamental transport properties of metal­ molecule­metal junctions that are related to thermoelectric energy

  7. Energy conversion using thermal transpiration : optimization of a Knudsen compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Toby A. (Toby Anna)

    2012-01-01

    Knudsen compressors are devices without any moving parts that use the nanoscale phenomenon of thermal transpiration to pump or compress a gas. Thermal transpiration takes place when a gas is in contact with a solid boundary ...

  8. Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

  9. Thermochemical Conversion Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs,Department of EnergyPROGRAM The StateTheThe-Processes

  10. Continuous process for conversion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Willson, Warrack G. (Grand Forks, ND); Baker, Gene G. (Grand Forks, ND); Sondreal, Everett A. (Grand Forks, ND); Farnum, Sylvia A. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for converting coal to liquid and gaseous products wherein the liquid products predominate and wherein reactor, tubing, and valve plugging due to carbonate salt formation is reduced by reacting crushed low-rank coal containing about 12 to 30% by weight of water in a solvent at a temperature in the range of about 455.degree. to 500.degree. C., under about 2000 to 5000 psi pressure of a H.sub.2 /CO mixture for a liquid residence time of about 20 to 60 minutes. The solvent is a fraction of liquid product defined on a weight basis as being made up of about 55% of which distills at less than 250.degree. C./lmm, about 20% of which is soluble in THF, and about 25% of which is carbon polymer and indigenous inorganic matter. The solvent is further defined as containing at least about 5 weight % of partially hydrogenated aromatics and/or fully hydrogenated aromatics and little or no alkylated aromatics or higher alkanes.

  11. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    electrode surfaces, and electric energy is stored as surfacetemperature end and electric energy is generated, thermalbeing the generated electric energy and the consumed thermal

  12. Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion Riccardo Messina to a photovoltaic cell can be largely enhanced because of the contribution of evanescent photons, in particular important source of energy. By approaching a photovoltaic (PV) cell3 in proximity of a thermal emitter

  13. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Working Fluid Process Product Process Requirement FuelNo fuel in a conventional sense 1S used. working fluid is

  14. Quantum Matter-Photonics Framework: Analyses of Chemical Conversion Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Tapia

    2014-10-29

    A quantum Matter-Photonics framework is adapted to help scrutinize chemical reaction mechanisms and used to explore a process mapped from chemical tree topological model. The chemical concept of bond knitting/breaking is reformulated via partitioned base sets leading to an abstract and general quantum presentation. Pivotal roles are assigned to entanglement, coherence,de-coherence and Feshbach resonance quantum states that permit apprehend gating states in conversion processes. A view from above in the state energy eigenvalue ladder, belonging to full system spectra complement the standard view from ground state. A full quantum physical view supporting chemical change obtains.

  15. High conversion residuum hydrocracking with the Canmet process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menzies, M.A.; Hepton, J.; Silva, A.; Logie, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    CANMET is a new residuum hydrocracking process, capable of achieving high conversion on difficult feedstocks. A description is given of the process and detailed performance data are presented for the upgrading of Laguna vacuum bottoms. The economic performance of the technology is evaluated in a case study where CANMET unit for upgrading vacuum bottoms is incorporated into a conventional refinery. CANMET is shown to offer an excellent route for upgrading heavy vacuum residues, yielding a 25.5% DCF return with a payout time of 4.2 years. 5 refs.

  16. Process for refractory compound conversion in a hydrocracker recycle liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruia, A.J.

    1992-08-18

    This patent describes a catalytic hydrocracking process. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock; partially condensing the hydrocarbon effluent from the hydrocracking zone; introducing at least a portion of the unconverted hydrocarbon stream boiling above about 400{degrees} F and comprising trace quantities of 11{sup +} ring heavy polynuclear aromatic compounds into a 11{sup +} ring heavy polynuclear aromatic compound conversion zone; admixing at least a portion of the effluent from the conversion zone with the lower boiling hydrocarbon stream and partially condensing the resulting admixture; separating the partially condensed admixture to provide a hydrogen-rich gaseous stream and a liquid stream; separating the liquid stream comprising unconverted hydrocarbons boiling above about 400{degrees} F and lower boiling hydrocarbon products; and recycling at least a portion of the unconverted hydrocarbon stream boiling above about 400{degrees} F to the hydrocracking zone as at least a portion of the liquid recycle stream.

  17. On the transition from photoluminescence to thermal emission and its implication on solar energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) is a fundamental light-matter interaction, which conventionally involves the absorption of energetic photon, thermalization and the emission of a red-shifted photon. Conversely, in optical-refrigeration the absorption of low energy photon is followed by endothermic-PL of energetic photon. Both aspects were mainly studied where thermal population is far weaker than photonic excitation, obscuring the generalization of PL and thermal emissions. Here we experimentally study endothermic-PL at high temperatures. In accordance with theory, we show how PL photon rate is conserved with temperature increase, while each photon is blue shifted. Further rise in temperature leads to an abrupt transition to thermal emission where the photon rate increases sharply. We also show how endothermic-PL generates orders of magnitude more energetic photons than thermal emission at similar temperatures. Relying on these observations, we propose and theoretically study thermally enhanced PL (TEPL) for highly eff...

  18. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) A New Secure Renewable Energy Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) A New Secure Renewable Energy Source For Defense load renewable energy system to achieve energy security for DoD facilities and bases Schofield Barracks and Commercial Applications 1 Dr. Ted Johnson Director of Alternative Energy Programs Development Lockheed Martin

  19. Review of pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting and new MEMs based resonant energy conversion techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Mostafa, Salwa [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Harvesting electrical energy from thermal energy sources using pyroelectric conversion techniques has been under investigation for over 50 years, but it has not received the attention that thermoelectric energy harvesting techniques have during this time period. This lack of interest stems from early studies which found that the energy conversion efficiencies achievable using pyroelectric materials were several times less than those potentially achievable with thermoelectrics. More recent modeling and experimental studies have shown that pyroelectric techniques can be cost competitive with thermoelectrics and, using new temperature cycling techniques, has the potential to be several times as efficient as thermoelectrics under comparable operating conditions. This paper will review the recent history in this field and describe the techniques that are being developed to increase the opportunities for pyroelectric energy harvesting. The development of a new thermal energy harvester concept, based on temperature cycled pyroelectric thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, are also outlined. The approach uses a resonantly driven, pyroelectric capacitive bimorph cantilever structure that can be used to rapidly cycle the temperature in the energy harvester. The device has been modeled using a finite element multi-physics based method, where the effect of the structure material properties and system parameters on the frequency and magnitude of temperature cycling, and the efficiency of energy recycling using the proposed structure, have been modeled. Results show that thermal contact conductance and heat source temperature differences play key roles in dominating the cantilever resonant frequency and efficiency of the energy conversion technique. This paper outlines the modeling, fabrication and testing of cantilever and pyroelectric structures and single element devices that demonstrate the potential of this technology for the development of high efficiency thermal-to-electrical energy conversion devices.

  20. Task 3.3: Warm Syngas Cleanup and Catalytic Processes for Syngas Conversion to Fuels Subtask 3: Advanced Syngas Conversion to Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Li, J.; Taylor, Charles E.; Wang, Yong; Dagle, Robert A.; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-03-31

    This collaborative joint research project is in the area of advanced gasification and conversion, within the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Memorandum of Understanding. The goal for this subtask is the development of advanced syngas conversion technologies. Two areas of investigation were evaluated: Sorption-Enhanced Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Syngas The conversion of synthetic gas (syngas) to synthetic natural gas (SNG) is typically catalyzed by nickel catalysts performed at moderate temperatures (275 to 325°C). The reaction is highly exothermic and substantial heat is liberated, which can lead to process thermal imbalance and destruction of the catalyst. As a result, conversion per pass is typically limited, and substantial syngas recycle is employed. Commercial methanation catalysts and processes have been developed by Haldor Topsoe, and in some reports, they have indicated that there is a need and opportunity for thermally more robust methanation catalysts to allow for higher per-pass conversion in methanation units. SNG process requires the syngas feed with a higher H2/CO ratio than typically produced from gasification processes. Therefore, the water-gas shift reaction (WGS) will be required to tailor the H2/CO ratio. Integration with CO2 separation could potentially eliminate the need for a separate WGS unit, thereby integrating WGS, methanation, and CO2 capture into one single unit operation and, consequently, leading to improved process efficiency. The SNG process also has the benefit of producing a product stream with high CO2 concentrations, which makes CO2 separation more readily achievable. The use of either adsorbents or membranes that selectively separate the CO2 from the H2 and CO would shift the methanation reaction (by driving WGS for hydrogen production) and greatly improve the overall efficiency and economics of the process. The scope of this activity was to develop methods and enabling materials for syngas conversion to SNG with readily CO2 separation. Suitable methanation catalyst and CO2 sorbent materials were developed. Successful proof-of-concept for the combined reaction-sorption process was demonstrated, which culminated in a research publication. With successful demonstration, a decision was made to switch focus to an area of fuels research of more interest to all three research institutions (CAS-NETL-PNNL). Syngas-to-Hydrocarbon Fuels through Higher Alcohol Intermediates There are two types of processes in syngas conversion to fuels that are attracting R&D interest: 1) syngas conversion to mixed alcohols; and 2) syngas conversion to gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline process developed by Exxon-Mobil in the 1970s. The focus of this task was to develop a one-step conversion technology by effectively incorporating both processes, which is expected to reduce the capital and operational cost associated with the conversion of coal-derived syngas to liquid fuels. It should be noted that this work did not further study the classic Fischer-Tropsch reaction pathway. Rather, we focused on the studies for unique catalyst pathways that involve the direct liquid fuel synthesis enabled by oxygenated intermediates. Recent advances made in the area of higher alcohol synthesis including the novel catalytic composite materials recently developed by CAS using base metal catalysts were used.

  1. The Third Way of Thermal-Electric Conversion beyond Seebeck and Pyroelectric Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Jie

    2014-02-14

    Thermal-electric conversion is crucial for smart energy control and harvesting, such as thermal sensing and waste heat recovering. So far, people are aware of only two ways of direct thermal-electric conversion, Seebeck and pyroelectric effects, each with distinct working conditions and limitations. Here, we report the third way of thermal-electric conversion beyond Seebeck and pyroelectric effects. In contrast to Seebeck effect that requires spatial temperature difference, the-third-way converts the time-dependent ambient temperature fluctuation into electricity, similar to the behavior of pyroelectricity. However, the-third-way is also distinct from pyroelectric effect in the sense that it does not require polar materials but applies to general conducting systems. We demonstrate that the-third-way results from the temperature-fluctuation-induced dynamical charge redistribution. It is a consequence of the fundamental nonequilibrium thermodynamics and has a deep connection to the topological phase in quantum mechanics. Our findings expand our knowledge and provide new means of thermal-electric energy harvesting.

  2. Process for refractory compound conversion in a hydrocracker recycle liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruia, A.J.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a catalytic hydrocracking process. It includes contacting a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock having a propensity to form 11{sup +} ring heavy polynuclear aromatic compounds and a liquid recycle stream in a hydrocracking zone with added hydrogen and a metal promoted hydrocracking catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure sufficient to gain a substantial conversion to lower boiling products; partially condensing the hydrocarbon effluent from the hydrocracking zone and separating the same into a hydrocarbonaceous stream comprising lower boiling hydrocarbons, unconverted hydrocarbons boiling above about 400{degrees} F (204{degrees} C) and trace quantities of 11{sup +} ring heavy polynuclear aromatic compounds, and a vaporous hydrocarbonaceous stream comprising the lower boiling hydrocarbons.

  3. Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, Zaida (Katy, TX); Del Paggio, Alan Anthony (Spring, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX)

    2011-12-06

    A method of producing methane is described. The method includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ conversion process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. At least the olefins in the first gas stream are contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more catalysts and steam to produce a second gas stream. The second gas stream is contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more additional catalysts to produce a third gas stream. The third gas stream includes methane.

  4. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX); Clavenna, LeRoy R. (Baytown, TX); Gorbaty, Martin L. (Fanwood, NJ); Tsou, Joe M. (Galveston, TX)

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  5. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Fields, Paul R. (Chicago, IL)

    1981-04-21

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  6. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating support vessel.

  7. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 20, NO. 1, MARCH 2005 25 Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 20, NO. 1, MARCH 2005 25 Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators Sai Chun Tang, Member, IEEE, Thomas A. Keim, and David J. Perreault, Member, IEEE Abstract--Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lun- dell

  8. LABORATORY VI ENERGY AND THERMAL PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VI ENERGY AND THERMAL PROCESSES Lab VI - 1 The change of the internal energy of a system temperature. In this lab you will concentrate on quantifying the changes in internal energy within the framework of conservation of energy. In the problems of this lab, you will master the relation

  9. Research on the external fluid mechanics of ocean thermal energy conversion plants : report covering experiments in a current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fry, David J. (David James)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a set of experiments in a physical model study to explore plume transport and recirculation potential for a range of generic Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant designs and ambient conditions. ...

  10. Near and far field models of external fluid mechanics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez Buño, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The world is facing the challenge of finding new renewable sources of energy - first, in response to fossil fuel reserve depletion, and second, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) can ...

  11. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical feedstocks could reduce society's dependence on...

  12. Process for thermal hydrocracking of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, K.; Kimura, M.

    1983-11-01

    A process for liquefying and gasifying coal by thermal treatment in the presence of hydrogen gas for hydrocracking is disclosed. The process comprises a sequence of the following two steps: (1) coal fines are injected into a heated hydrogen gas stream at a pressure of from 35 to 250 kg/cm G such that they are rapidly heated to a temperature of from 750/sup 0/ to 1100/sup 0/ C. for thermal cracking thereof; and (2) the resulting liquid product is subjected to hydrocracking for a period of from 1.0 to 60 seconds at a temperature that is lower than the temperature used in the first step and which is in the range of from 570/sup 0/ to 850/sup 0/ C.

  13. Solar Thermal Process Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium deEnergyCompany Limited SPCSolar Thermal Process Heat

  14. Kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, J.M.

    1984-04-15

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module has been estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses have been shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration has been given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs have not been considered here.

  15. Role of acid catalysis in dimethyl ether conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Acidity plays an important role in the conversion of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) to hydrocarbons and oxygenates. In the conversion to hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst, Broensted acidity is the main contributor to the first hydrocarbon formed. Here, acidity is also an important factor in determining olefin, paraffin, and aromatic content in the final product distribution. Catalyst life has also been found to be related to acidity content in zeolites. DME conversion to oxygenates is especially dependent on high acidity catalysts. Superacids like BF{sub 3}, HF-BF{sub 3}, and CF{sub 3}COOH have been used in the past for conversion of DME in carbonylation reactions to form methyl acetate and acetic acid at high pressures. Recently, heteropoly acids and their corresponding metal substituted salts have been used to convert DME to industrially important petrochemicals resulting in shorter reaction times and without the use of harsh operating conditions.

  16. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    This report contains a description of technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project (ACCP). This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5500--9000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,0 00 Btu/lb. The 45 ton/hr unit will be located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near the town of Colstrip in southeastern Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercia; facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently commercial size.

  17. Definitional mission report: NAPCOR thermal-power-conversion project, Philippines. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The National Power Corporation (NAPCOR) of Philippines has requested the Trade and Development Program (TDP) to fund a study to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of converting its existing oil and coal fired power plants to natural gas. The decision to undertake the study resulted from preliminary information on a large gas find off the coast of Palawan island. However, a second exploration well has come up dry. Now, the conversion of the existing power plants to natural gas seems very questionable. Even if the proven gas reserves prove to be commercially viable, the gas will not be available until 1998 or later for utilization. At that time several of NAPCOR's plants would have aged further, the political and economic situation in Philippines could have altered significantly, possibly improved, private power companies might be able to use the gas more efficiently by building state-of-the-art combined cycle power plants which will make more economic sense than converting existing old boilers to natural gas. In addition, most of the existing power equipment was manufactured by Japanese and/or European firms. It makes sense for NAPCOR to solicit services from these firms if it decides to go ahead with the implementation of the power plant conversion project. The potential for any follow on work for U.S. businesses is minimal to zero in the thermal conversion project. Therefore, at this time, TDP funding for the feasibility would be premature and not recommended.

  18. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX)

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  19. Articulatory-based Speech Processing Methods for Foreign Accent Conversion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felps, Daniel

    2012-10-19

    individual. The second method of accent conversion selects segments of speech from a corpus of non-native speech based on their acoustic or articulatory similarity to segments from a native speaker. We predict that articulatory features provide a more speaker...

  20. Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holladay, Jonathan E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2006-05-23

    The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PNNL-23227 Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction (BETO) is to enable the development of biomass technologies to: Reduce dependence on foreign oil

  2. Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Messina; Philippe Ben-Abdallah

    2012-07-05

    Thermophotovoltaic devices are energy-conversion systems generating an electric current from the thermal photons radiated by a hot body. In far field, the efficiency of these systems is limited by the thermodynamic Schockley-Queisser limit corresponding to the case where the source is a black body. On the other hand, in near field, the heat flux which can be transferred to a photovoltaic cell can be several orders of magnitude larger because of the contribution of evanescent photons. This is particularly true when the source supports surface polaritons. Unfortunately, in the infrared where these systems operate, the mismatch between the surface-mode frequency and the semiconductor gap reduces drastically the potential of this technology. Here we show that graphene-based hybrid photovoltaic cells can significantly enhance the generated power paving the way to a promising technology for an intensive production of electricity from waste heat.

  3. Harvesting thermal fluctuations: Activation process induced by a nonlinear chain in thermal equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galán, Antonio Sarmiento

    Harvesting thermal fluctuations: Activation process induced by a nonlinear chain in thermal of a bistable system is a molecular chain which in turn is connected to a thermal environment of the Langevin. The distribution, intensity, and mobility of thermal fluctuations in these chains is strongly dependent

  4. Thermal challenges in MEMS applications: phase change phenomena and thermal bonding processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Thermal challenges in MEMS applications: phase change phenomena and thermal bonding processes Liwei, MC 1740, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract Two thermal challenges for current and next generation generate single, spherical and controllable thermal bubbles with diameters between 2 and 500 mm. Both

  5. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNew scholarship supportsFeet) UndergroundArgonneConversion of

  6. STRIPPING OF PROCESS CONDENSATES FROM SOLID FUEL CONVERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Joel David

    2013-01-01

    Water Stripping of Coal Gasification Waste Water", U. S.to completion in a coal gasification process. Water usagecondensate for a typical coal gasification process are shown

  7. Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Vogel, Fredreric (Villigen PSI, CH); Steffin, Carsten R. (Herne, DE)

    2009-02-24

    A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

  8. Thermal Plasma Systems for Industrial Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fey, M. G.; Meyer, T. N.; Reed, W. H.; Philbrook, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    , metallurgical, and specialty materials areas. The applications for plasma systems to be discussed in this paper include: blast furnace conversions, direct reduction or iron ore, hot blast superheating and hydrocarbon pyrolysis. Both the technical and economic...

  9. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri (Houston, TX)

    2009-08-18

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  10. STRIPPING OF PROCESS CONDENSATES FROM SOLID FUEL CONVERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Joel David

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous luents from In Situ Oil Shale Processing", Proc. ofStudy of An In Situ Oil Shale Process Water'', Lawrenceand from the Omega-9 in situ oil shale retorting test (Rock

  11. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    reclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [as geothermal energy [55], solar thermal energy [41], wastetemperature geothermal and solar thermal energy. His results

  12. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    Nanotubes as High-Energy Density Solar Thermal Fuels,” Nanolatent heat energy storage and solar thermal applications,[for Storage of Solar Thermal Energy,” Solar Energy, 18 (3),

  13. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    concentrated solar thermal energy and low grade waste heatreclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"

  14. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    2002, “Survey of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic TroughChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage,” Renewable andTemperature Thermal Energy Storage for Power Generation.

  15. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    S. a. , 2004, “Solar Thermal Collectors and Applications,”86] Schnatbaum L. , 2009, “Solar Thermal Power Plants,” Thefor Storage of Solar Thermal Energy,” Solar Energy, 18 (3),

  16. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    for Storage of Solar Thermal Energy,” Solar Energy, 18 (3),Toward Molecular Solar-Thermal Energy Storage,” Angewandtescale molecular solar thermal energy storage system, in

  17. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    reclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"

  18. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    SA Kalogirou, "Solar thermal collectors and applications,"axis concentrating solar thermal (collectors such as linearof non- concentrated solar thermal collectors also operate

  19. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

    2012-06-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai�¢����i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

  20. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    doing so would reduce thermal pollution and overall planthave been wasted. Thermal pollution and the production of

  1. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    industrial waste heat; (b) Distribution of rejected utility waste heat. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier: Energy Conversion and Management,industrial waste heat; (b) Distribution of rejected utility waste heat. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier: Energy Conversion and Management,

  2. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  3. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  4. Pulse thermal processing of functional materials using directed plasma arc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Ronald D. (Knoxville, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Harper, David C. (Kingston, TN)

    2007-05-22

    A method of thermally processing a material includes exposing the material to at least one pulse of infrared light emitted from a directed plasma arc to thermally process the material, the pulse having a duration of no more than 10 s.

  5. Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

    1990-01-01

    between water and entering air for thermal comfort. This hybrid system outperforms the two-stage evaporative cooler without employing a complicated heat exchanger (indirect system), if the temperature of underground water is lower than the ambient wet...

  6. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    waste heat reclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [K Lovegrove and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems inK Lovegrove and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in

  7. Thermally Activated Processes in Polymer Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Parihar; D. Drosdoff; A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava

    2005-12-03

    A derivation is given for the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law for the glassy state of a bulk polymer. Our microscopic considerations involve the entropy of closed polymer molecular chains (i.e. polymer closed strings). For thin film polymer glasses, one obtains open polymer strings in that the boundary surfaces serve as possible string endpoint locations. The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law thereby holds true for a bulk polymer glass but is modified in the neighborhood of the boundaries of thin film polymers.

  8. Process and continuous apparatus for chemical conversion of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rugg, Barry (New York, NY); Stanton, Robert (Ramsey, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the acid hydrolysis of waste cellulose to glucose of the type wherein waste cellulose is continuously fed into an inlet port of a twin screw extruder, water is continuously fed into reaction zone in the extruder, downstream of the inlet port, the cellulose is continuously reacted with water in the presence of an acid catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure in the reaction zone while being continuously conveyed to an outlet port of the extruder having a given diameter and the reacted cellulose is discharged from the extruder while the elevated temperature and pressure in the reaction zone is maintained. The elevated pressure is maintained by forming a dynamic seal zone at the upstream end of the reaction and continuously discharging the reacted material downstream of the outlet port at a predetermined volume rate of flow to maintain the pressure by passing the discharge through an orifice pipe having a smaller diameter than the given diameter of the outlet port.

  9. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Research," in Sandia National Laboratory Science and Engineering Exposition 2011, Albuquerque, New Mexico,

  10. Two Experiments Comparing Reading with Listening for Human Processing of Conversational Telephone Speech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Two Experiments Comparing Reading with Listening for Human Processing of Conversational Telephone of no experiment that directly compares Switchboard and Fishertype CTS transcripts with audio in terms of human. Abstract We report on results of two experiments designed to compare subjects' ability to extract

  11. Thermal Phenomena in Fiber-reinforced Thermoplastic Tape Winding Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Thermal Phenomena in Fiber-reinforced Thermoplastic Tape Winding Process: Computational Simulations-reinforced thermoplastic tapes, thermal simulation, convective coefficient of gas torches, fiber-reinforced thermoplastic a pre-impregnated fiber-reinforced thermoplastic tape is bounded on-line to the substrate. The bonding

  12. Process and apparatus for thermal enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrill, Jr., Charles E. (Billerica, MA); Smirlock, Martin E. (Brimfield, MA); Krepchin, Ira P. (Newton Upper Falls, MA)

    1984-06-26

    Thermal treatment apparatus for downhole deployment comprising a combustion stage with an elongated hot wall combustion zone for the substantially complete combustion of the fuel-air mixture and an ignition zone immediately upstream from the combustion zone in which a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and air at or below stoichiometric ratio is ignited; together with a water injection stage immediately downstream from the combustion zone through which essentially partuculate free high temperature combustion products flow from the combustion zone and into which water is sprayed. The resulting mixture of steam and combustion products is injected into an oil formation for enhancing the speed and effectiveness of reservoir response due to physical, chemical, and/or thermal stimulation interactions.

  13. Modeling and analysis of hybrid geothermal-solar thermal energy conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhut, Andrew David

    2010-01-01

    Innovative solar-geothermal hybrid energy conversion systems were developed for low enthalpy geothermal resources augmented with solar energy. The goal is to find cost-effective hybrid power cycles that take advantage of ...

  14. Thermal hydraulic design and analysis of a large lead-cooled reactor with flexible conversion ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikiforova, Anna S., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation Project, a part of the Nuclear Cycle Technology and Policy Program funded by the Department of Energy through the Nuclear Energy ...

  15. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    high-temperature metallic materials for use in process heating applications such as burners, electrical heating elements, material handling, load support, and heater tubes, etc....

  16. Kinetic simulation of the O-X conversion process in dense magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali Asgarian, M. [Physics Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Physics Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824-1226 (United States); Verboncoeur, J. P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824-1226 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824-1226 (United States); Parvazian, A. [Physics Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Physics Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Trines, R. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)] [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    One scheme for heating a dense magnetized plasma core, such as in a tokamak, involves launching an ordinary (O) electromagnetic wave at the low density edge. It is converted to a reflected extraordinary (X) electromagnetic wave under certain conditions, and then transformed into an electron Bernstein wave able to reach high density regions inaccessible to most other waves. The O-X mode conversion is important in heating and diagnostic processes in different devices such as tokamaks, stellarators, and some types of pinches. The goal of this study has been to demonstrate that the kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) scheme is suitable for modeling the O-X conversion process as the first step toward a more complete simulation of O-X-B heating. The O-X process is considered and simulated with a kinetic particle model for parameters of the TJ-II stellarator using the PIC code, XOOPIC. This code is able to model the non-monotonic density and the magnetic profile of the TJ-II stellarator. It can also statistically represent the self-consistent distribution function of the plasma, which has not been possible in previous fluid models. By considering the electric and magnetic components of launched and reflected waves, the O-mode and X-mode waves can be detected, and the O-X conversion can be demonstrated. In this work, the optimum angle for conversion efficiency, as predicted by the previous theory and experimentally confirmed, is used. Via considering the power of the launched O-mode wave and the converted X-mode wave, the efficiency of 63% for O-X conversion for the optimum theoretical launch angle of 47{sup ?} is obtained, which is in good agreement with efficiencies computed via full-wave simulations.

  17. Solar thermal aerosol flow reaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Pitts, J. Roland; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Tamburini, Joseph R.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention provides an environmentally beneficial process using concentrated sunlight to heat radiation absorbing particles to carry out highly endothermic gas phase chemical reactions ultimately resulting in the production of hydrogen or hydrogen synthesis gases.

  18. Non-thermal emission processes in massive binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. De Becker

    2007-09-26

    In this paper, I present a general discussion of several astrophysical processes likely to play a role in the production of non-thermal emission in massive stars, with emphasis on massive binaries. Even though the discussion will start in the radio domain where the non-thermal emission was first detected, the census of physical processes involved in the non-thermal emission from massive stars shows that many spectral domains are concerned, from the radio to the very high energies. First, the theoretical aspects of the non-thermal emission from early-type stars will be addressed. The main topics that will be discussed are respectively the physics of individual stellar winds and their interaction in binary systems, the acceleration of relativistic electrons, the magnetic field of massive stars, and finally the non-thermal emission processes relevant to the case of massive stars. Second, this general qualitative discussion will be followed by a more quantitative one, devoted to the most probable scenario where non-thermal radio emitters are massive binaries. I will show how several stellar, wind and orbital parameters can be combined in order to make some semi-quantitative predictions on the high-energy counterpart to the non-thermal emission detected in the radio domain. These theoretical considerations will be followed by a census of results obtained so far, and related to this topic... (see paper for full abstract)

  19. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    128] V Minea, "Using Geothermal Energy and Industrial Wastesuch as solar thermal and geothermal energy will become ansolar field, and geothermal energy, where energy is obtained

  20. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    energy source stream transfers energy to the ORC workingmatching to the energy reservoir stream during heat additionenergy in the thermal energy source stream is discarded or

  1. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    lowers cycle efficiency based on Carnot considerations.of the cycle and poor efficiency results based on Carnotand lowers cycle thermal efficiencies based on Carnot

  2. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    focus only on the solar collector and catalytic converterfluid, a microfluidic solar collector, and a catalytic heatS. a. , 2004, “Solar Thermal Collectors and Applications,”

  3. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    low and mid temperature solar collectors," Journal of SolarSA Kalogirou, "Solar thermal collectors and applications,"analysis of the solar collector system is presented. Results

  4. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    such as nuclear, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), and coal,energies, such as concentrated solar power (CSP) [165]. CSPand non- concentrated solar thermal, vapor power cycles

  5. Technical resource document for assured thermal processing of wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrow, R.L.; Fisk, G.A.; Hartwig, C.M.; Hurt, R.H.; Ringland, J.T.; Swansiger, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    This document is a concise compendium of resource material covering assured thermal processing of wastes (ATPW), an area in which Sandia aims to develop a large program. The ATPW program at Sandia is examining a wide variety of waste streams and thermal processes. Waste streams under consideration include municipal, chemical, medical, and mixed wastes. Thermal processes under consideration range from various incineration technologies to non-incineration processes such as supercritical water oxidation or molten metal technologies. Each of the chapters describes the element covered, discusses issues associated with its further development and/or utilization, presents Sandia capabilities that address these issues, and indicates important connections to other ATPW elements. The division of the field into elements was driven by the team`s desire to emphasize areas where Sandia`s capabilities can lead to major advances and is therefore somewhat unconventional. The report will be valuable to Sandians involved in further ATPW program development.

  6. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  7. Where solar thermal meets photovoltaic for high-efficiency power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierman, David M. (David Matthew)

    2014-01-01

    To develop disruptive techniques which generate power from the Sun, one must understand the aspects of existing technologies that limit performance. Solar thermal and solar photovoltaic schemes dominate today's solar market ...

  8. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    Storage of Solar Thermal Energy,” Solar Energy, 18 (3), pp.Nocera D. G. , 2010, “Solar Energy Supply and Storage forof Abiotic Photo-chemical Solar Energy Storage Systems,”

  9. Thermal Insulation Performance in the Process Industries: Facts and Fallacies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tye, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-85-05-54.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 24703 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-85-05-54.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 THERMAL INSULATION... PERFORMANCE IN 'mE PROCESS INDUSTRIES: FACTS AND FALLACIES R.P. Tye Dynatech RID Company, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A. ABSTRACT The efficient use of thermal insulation materials and systems for design of cryogenic and elevated temperature process...

  10. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

    1999-07-27

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

  11. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, James A. (Woodridge, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  12. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiencies of 2.5% using Benzothiadiazole/Imide-Based Acceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiencies of 2.5% using achieved 0.1% power-conversion efficiency. KEYWORDS: organic electronics, solar cells, photovoltaic devices significantly different behav- iors in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT

  13. Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1984-01-01

    A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

  14. Catalytic conversion of solar thermal produced pyrolysis gases to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, T.R.; Benham, C.B.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of a simulated pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas using a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst system in a fluidized-bed reactor is investigated. Liquid fuels were produced between 550 and 660/sup 0/F (288 and 349/sup 0/C) for the simulated pyrolysis gas feed. An analysis of both liquid and gaseous product streams is performed. This investigation indicates a need for more extensive research with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon-monoxide usage ratios and with respect to the role of alkenes in fuel production.

  15. Novel Biomass Conversion Process Results in Commercial Joint Venture; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describing DuPont/NREL cooperative research and development agreement that resulted in biomass-to-ethanol conversion process used as a basis for DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol, LLC and cellulosic ethanol demonstration plant.

  16. New membranes could speed the biofuels conversion process and reduce cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Michael

    2014-07-23

    ORNL researchers have developed a new class of membranes that could enable faster, more cost efficient biofuels production. These membranes are tunable at the nanopore level and have potential uses in separating water from fuel and acid from bio-oils. The membrane materials technology just won an R&D 100 award. ORNL and NREL are partnering, with support from the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, to determine the best uses of these membranes to speed the biofuels conversion process. Development of the membranes was funded by DOE BETO and ORNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  17. New membranes could speed the biofuels conversion process and reduce cost

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hu, Michael

    2014-08-06

    ORNL researchers have developed a new class of membranes that could enable faster, more cost efficient biofuels production. These membranes are tunable at the nanopore level and have potential uses in separating water from fuel and acid from bio-oils. The membrane materials technology just won an R&D 100 award. ORNL and NREL are partnering, with support from the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, to determine the best uses of these membranes to speed the biofuels conversion process. Development of the membranes was funded by DOE BETO and ORNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  18. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; Sakadjian, B. B.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the costmore »and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.« less

  19. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  20. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  1. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  2. Method and apparatus for thermal processing of semiconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiss, CA); Mattson, Brad S. (Los Gatos, CA); Savas, Stephen E. (Alameda, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. The apparatus and method provide the temperature stability and uniformity of a conventional batch furnace as well as the processing speed and reduced time-at-temperature of a lamp-heated rapid thermal processor (RTP). Individual wafers are rapidly inserted into and withdrawn from a furnace cavity held at a nearly constant and isothermal temperature. The speeds of insertion and withdrawal are sufficiently large to limit thermal stresses and thereby reduce or prevent plastic deformation of the wafer as it enters and leaves the furnace. By processing the semiconductor wafer in a substantially isothermal cavity, the wafer temperature and spatial uniformity of the wafer temperature can be ensured by measuring and controlling only temperatures of the cavity walls. Further, peak power requirements are very small compared to lamp-heated RTPs because the cavity temperature is not cycled and the thermal mass of the cavity is relatively large. Increased speeds of insertion and/or removal may also be used with non-isothermal furnaces.

  3. Method and apparatus for thermal processing of semiconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiss, CA); Mattson, Brad S. (Los Gatos, CA); Savas, Stephen E. (Alameda, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. The apparatus and method provide the temperature stability and uniformity of a conventional batch furnace as well as the processing speed and reduced time-at-temperature of a lamp-heated rapid thermal processor (RTP). Individual wafers are rapidly inserted into and withdrawn from a furnace cavity held at a nearly constant and isothermal temperature. The speeds of insertion and withdrawal are sufficiently large to limit thermal stresses and thereby reduce or prevent plastic deformation of the wafer as it enters and leaves the furnace. By processing the semiconductor wafer in a substantially isothermal cavity, the wafer temperature and spatial uniformity of the wafer temperature can be ensured by measuring and controlling only temperatures of the cavity walls. Further, peak power requirements are very small compared to lamp-heated RTPs because the cavity temperature is not cycled and the thermal mass of the cavity is relatively large. Increased speeds of insertion and/or removal may also be used with non-isothermal furnaces.

  4. Solar Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Synthesis Gas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-00335

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netter, J.

    2013-08-01

    The CRADA is established to facilitate the development of solar thermal technology to efficiently and economically convert biomass into useful products (synthesis gas and derivatives) that can replace fossil fuels. NREL's High Flux Solar Furnace will be utilized to validate system modeling, evaluate candidate reactor materials, conduct on-sun testing of the process, and assist in the development of solar process control system. This work is part of a DOE-USDA 3-year, $1M grant.

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Scarlata, C.; Tan, E. C. D.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Sexton, D.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  6. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  7. Modelling aging effects on a thermal cycling absorption process column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laquerbe, C.; Contreras, S.; Demoment, J.

    2008-07-15

    Palladium coated on alumina is used in hydrogen separation systems operated at CEA/Valduc, and more particularly in Thermal Cycling Absorption Process columns. With such materials, tritium decay is known to induce aging effects which have direct side effects on hydrogen isotopes absorption isotherms. Furthermore in a TCAP column, aging occurs in an heterogeneous way. The possible impacts of these intrinsic material evolutions on the separation performances are investigated here through a numerical approach. (authors)

  8. Economics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Luis A. Vega Ph.D., National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Hawai'i

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .D., National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Hawai'i Copyright 2010, Offshore TechnologyOTC 21016 Economics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): An Update Luis A. Vega Ph for the production of electricity, desalinated water and energy intensive products. It is postulated that the US

  9. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  10. Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvador, James R.; Cho, Jung Y; Ye, Zuxin; Moczygemba, Joshua E.; Thompson, Alan; Sharp, Jeff W.; Konig, Jan; Maloney, Ryan; Thompson, Travis; Sakamoto, Jeff; Wang, Hsin; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Meisner, G P

    2013-01-01

    The performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials has improved tremendously over the past decade. The intrinsic thermal and electrical properties of state-of-the-art TE materials demonstrate that the potential for widespread practical TE applications is very large and includes TE generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. TE materials for automotive TEG applications must have good intrinsic performance, be thermomechanically compatible, and be chemically stable in the 400 K to 850 K temperature range. Both n-type and p-type varieties must be available at low cost, easily fabricated, and durable. They must also form robust junctions and develop good interfaces with other materials to permit efficient flows of electrical and thermal energy. Among the TE materials of interest for automotive waste heat recovery systems are the skutterudite compounds, which are the antimony-based transition-metal compounds RTE4Sb12, where R can be an alkali metal (e.g., Na, K), alkaline earth (e.g., Ba), or rare earth (e.g., La, Ce, Yb), and TE can be a transition metal (e.g., Co, Fe). We synthesized a considerable quantity of n-type and p-type skutterudites, fabricated TE modules, incorporated these modules into a prototype TEG, and tested the TEG on a production General Motors (GM) vehicle. We discuss our progress on skutterudite TE module fabrication and present module performance data for electrical power output under simulated operating conditions for automotive waste heat recovery systems. We also present preliminary durability results on our skutterudite modules.

  11. Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman 2 769 Eqn for i 30.7 should be 30.8 #12;Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Third Ed

  12. Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, K.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3--7%, a burnup of 20,000--40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2--6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

  13. Experiments on oxygen desorption from surface warm seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A.

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports the results of scoping deaeration experiments conducted with warm surface seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in seawater at three locations (in the supply water, water leaving a predeaerator, and discharge water from an evaporator) were measured and used to estimate oxygen desorption levels. The results suggest that 7% to 60% of dissolved oxygen in the supply water was desorbed from seawater in the predeaerator for pressures ranging from 9 to 35 kPa. Bubble injection in the upcomer increased the oxygen desorption rate by 20% to 60%. The dependence of oxygen desorption with flow rate could not be determined. The data also indicated that at typical OC-OTEC evaporator pressures when flashing occurred, 75% to 95% of dissolved oxygen was desorbed overall from the warm seawater. The uncertainty in results is larger than one would desire. These uncertainties are attributed to the uncertainties and difficulties in the dissolved oxygen measurements. Methods to improve the measurements for future gas desorption studies for warm surface and cold deep seawater under OC-OTEC conditions are recommended. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Results of scoping tests for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) components operating with seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zangrando, F; Bharathan, D; Green, H J; Link, H F; Parsons, B K; Parsons, J M; Pesaran, A A [Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA); Panchal, C B [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1990-09-01

    This report presents comprehensive documentation of the experimental research conducted on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components operating with seawater as a working fluid. The results of this research are presented in the context of previous analysis and fresh-water testing; they provide a basis for understanding and predicting with confidence the performance of all components of an OC-OTEC system except the turbine. Seawater tests have confirmed the results that were obtained in fresh-water tests and predicted by the analytical models of the components. A sound technical basis has been established for the design of larger systems in which net power will be produced for the first time from OC-OTEC technology. Design and operation of a complete OC-OTEC system that produces power will provide sufficient confidence to warrant complete transfer of OC-OTEC technology to the private sector. Each components performance is described in a separate chapter written by the principal investigator responsible for technical aspects of the specific tests. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Conceptual design of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.; Link, H.F.; Parsons, B.K.; Parsons, J.M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. 71 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs.

  16. Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    1 Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock tanks and reducing thermal mass. A companion paper, Energy Efficiency Process Heating: Managing Air Flow of the oven/furnace. Reducing the quantity of energy lost to thermal mass in a process heating system saves

  17. Analysis of Zinc 65 Contamination after Vacuum Thermal Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, Paul S.; Tosten, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive contamination with a gamma energy emission consistent with {sup 65}Zn was detected in a glovebox following a vacuum thermal process. The contaminated components were removed from the glovebox and subjected to examination. Selected analytical techniques were used to determine the nature of the precursor material, i.e., oxide or metallic, the relative transferability of the deposit and its nature. The deposit was determined to be borne from natural zinc and was further determined to be deposited as a metallic material from vapor.

  18. Thermally stable booster explosive and process for manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinlin, William T. (Amarillo, TX); Thorpe, Raymond (Amarillo, TX); Lightfoot, James M. (Amarillo, TX)

    2006-03-21

    A thermally stable booster explosive and process for the manufacture of the explosive. The product explosive is 2,4,7,9-tetranitro-10H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-b]indole (TNBFI). A reactant/solvent such as n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) or dimethyl formamide (DMF) is made slightly basic. The solution is heated to reduce the water content. The solution is cooled and hexanitrostilbene is added. The solution is heated to a predetermined temperature for a specific time period, cooled, and the product is collected by filtration.

  19. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-05-09

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

  20. Feasibility study to evaluate plasma quench process for natural gas conversion applications. [Quarterly report], July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Kong, P.C.; Detering, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this work was to conduct a feasibility study on a new process, called the plasma quench process, for the conversion of methane to acetylene. FY-1993 efforts were focused on determining the economic viability of this process using bench scale experimental data which was previously generated. This report presents the economic analysis and conclusions of the analysis. Future research directions are briefly described.

  1. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    defects thermal conductivity drops significantly We aim to fabricate a continuous film with high thermal conductivity by disentangling and aligning polymer chains ...

  2. Thermal casting process for the preparation of membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caneba, G.T.M.; Soong, D.S.

    1985-07-10

    Disclosed is a method for providing anisotropic polymer membrane from a binary polymer/solvent solution using a thermal inversion process. A homogeneous binary solution is cast onto a support and cooled in such a way as to provide a differential in cooling rate across the thickness of the resulting membrane sheet. Isotropic or anisotropic structures of selected porosities can be produced, depending on the initial concentration of polymer in the selected solvent and on the extent of the differential in cooling rate. This differential results in a corresponding gradation in pore size. The method may be modified to provide a working skin by applying a rapid, high-temperature pulse to redissolve a predetermined thickness of the membrane at one of its faces and then freezing the entire structure.

  3. Nanostructural engineering of vapor-processed organic photovoltaics for efficient solar energy conversion from any Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macko, Jill Annette (Jill Annette Rowehl)

    2014-01-01

    More than two billion people in the world have little or no access to electricity. To be empowered they need robust and lightweightrenewable energy conversion technologies that can be easily transported with high yield ...

  4. RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL C. R. Wilke, R. D. Yang,of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. References Wilke,of Hydrolyzate to Ethanol and Single Cell Protein,"

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  6. Thermal Analysis of Novel Underfill Materials with Optimum Processing Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    - date the morphology of these composites. © 2005 Wiley Peri- odicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 98: 1300 chip. Polymers are thermally insulating mate- rials; the thermal conductivity of a typical polymer the compos- ite thermal conductivity up to 32.5 W/m K at the maximum filler loading of 78 vol %. Polymer

  7. Thermal hydraulic limits analysis for the MIT Research Reactor low enrichment uranium core conversion using statistical propagation of parametric uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Keng-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is evaluating the conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. In addition to the fuel element re-design from 15 to 18 plates per element, a reactor ...

  8. Conversion of electromagnetic energy in Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays at 1.5 MA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liangping, Wang; Mo, Li; Juanjuan, Han; Ning, Guo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Key State Laboratory of Simulation and Effect for Intense Pulse Radiation, Xi'an 710024 (China); Jian, Wu [Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Aici, Qiu [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-06-15

    The electromagnetic energy conversion in the Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays was studied on Qiangguang generator (1.5 MA, 100?ns). Electrical diagnostics were established to monitor the voltage of the cathode-anode gap and the load current for calculating the electromagnetic energy. Lumped-element circuit model of wire arrays was employed to analyze the electromagnetic energy conversion. Inductance as well as resistance of a wire array during the Z-pinch process was also investigated. Experimental data indicate that the electromagnetic energy is mainly converted to magnetic energy and kinetic energy and ohmic heating energy can be neglected before the final stagnation. The kinetic energy can be responsible for the x-ray radiation before the peak power. After the stagnation, the electromagnetic energy coupled by the load continues increasing and the resistance of the load achieves its maximum of 0.6–1.0 ? in about 10–20?ns.

  9. Automated Process for the Fabrication of Highly Customized Thermally...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Highly Customized Thermally Insulated Cladding Systems Addthis 1 of 2 Resin casting prototype Image: Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2 of 2 A project member completes...

  10. Automated Process for the Fabrication of Highly Customized Thermally...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    older buildings therefore consume significant amounts of energy for heating and cooling in the US. Adding thermal insulation to the external facades of a building is one...

  11. Solar-thermal fluid-wall reaction processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Buechler, Karen J.; Grothe, Willy

    2006-04-25

    The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In the methods of the invention where hydrocarbon containing gases are dissociated, fine carbon black particles are also produced. The present invention also provides solar-thermal reactors and solar-thermal reactor systems.

  12. Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, A. W.; Dahl, J. K.; Lewandowski, A. A.; Bingham, C.; Raska Buechler, K. J.; Grothe, W.

    2006-04-25

    The present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal dissociation reactions requiring rapid-heating and short residence times using solar energy. In particular, the present invention provides a method for carrying out high temperature thermal reactions such as dissociation of hydrocarbon containing gases and hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and dry reforming of hydrocarbon containing gases with carbon dioxide. In the methods of the invention where hydrocarbon containing gases are dissociated, fine carbon black particles are also produced. The present invention also provides solar-thermal reactors and solar-thermal reactor systems.

  13. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  14. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  15. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy Biological Conversion of Sugars...

  16. SiNx:Tb3+--Yb3+, an efficient down-conversion layer compatible with a silicon solar cell process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Lucile; Benzo, Patrizio; Carrada, Marzia; Labbe, Christophe; Richard, Andrea L; Ingram, David C; Jadwisienczak, Wojciech M; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    SiN x : Tb 3+-Yb 3+, an efficient down-conversion layer compatible with silicon solar cell process Abstract Tb 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped SiN x down-conversion layers compatible with silicon Photovoltaic Technology were prepared by reactive magnetron co-sputtering. Efficient sensitization of Tb 3+ ions through a SiN x host matrix and cooperative energy transfer between Tb 3+ and Yb 3+ ions were evidenced as driving mechanisms of the down-conversion process. In this paper, the film composition and microstructure are investigated alongside their optical properties, with the aim of maximizing the rare earth ions incorporation and emission efficiency. An optimized layer achieving the highest Yb 3+ emission intensity was obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering in a nitride rich atmosphere for 1.2 W/cm${}^2$ and 0.15 W/cm${}^2$ power density applied on the Tb and Yb targets, respectively. It was determined that depositing at 200 {\\textdegree}C and annealing at 850 {\\textdegree}C leads to comparable Yb 3+ emission inten...

  17. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and...

  18. Monitoring of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes with electromagnetic methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Research in applying electromagnetic methods for imaging thermal enhanced oil recovery has progressed significantly during the past eighteen months. Working together with researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and supported by a group of industrial sponsors we have focused our effort on field system development and doing field surveys connected with EOR operations. Field surveys were recently completed at the Lost Hills No.3 oil field and at UC Richmond Field station. At Lost Hills, crosshole EM data sets were collected before a new phase of steam injection for EOR and again four months after the onset of steaming. The two data sets were nearly identical suggesting that very little steam had been injected into this borehole. This is in accord with the operators records which indicate injectivity problems with this particular well. At Richmond we conducted a salt water injection monitoring experiment where 50,000 gallons of salt water were injected in a shallow aquifer and crosshole EM data were collected using the injection well and several observation wells. We applied the imaging code to some of the collected data and produced an image showing that the salt water slug has propagated 8--10 m from the injector into the aquifer. This result is partially confirmed by prior calculations and well logging data. Applying the EM methods to the problem of oil field characterization essentially means extending the borehole resistivity log into the region between wells. Since the resistivity of a sedimentary environment is often directly dependent on the fluids in the rock the knowledge of the resistivity distribution within an oil field can be invaluable for finding missed or bypassed oil or for mapping the overall structure. With small modification the same methods used for mapping EOR process can be readily applied to determining the insitu resistivity structure.

  19. Representation of thermal energy in the design process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Shaun

    1995-01-01

    The goal of thermal design is to go beyond the comfort zone. In spatial design architects don't just look up square footage requirements and then draw a rectangle that satisfies the givens. There must be an interpretation. ...

  20. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leppäniemi, J. Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.

    2014-09-15

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100?°C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250?°C with FUV for 5?min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ?1?cm{sup 2}/(V·s). Amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films annealed for 15?min with FUV at temperatures of 180?°C and 200?°C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2?cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and 7.5?cm{sup 2}/(V·s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160?nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  1. thermochemical conversion (TCC) process of swine manure as an alternative means of waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Brian

    (Mielenz, 1996). A commercial Biomass Gasification Facility (BGF) in Paia, Hawaii, has a capability demonstration of biomass gasification. It has over 20,000 h of successful operation at Battelle Columbus Labs gas produced by the thermal gasification biomass (Farris and Weeks, 1996). The NREL currently

  2. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing at realistic conditions (e.g., elevated pressures) and differential conversions (to measure true kinetics, to avoid deactivation, and to avoid condensable concentrations of products in the outlet gas).

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE UAV POSITION BY AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF THERMAL IMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindler, Konrad

    DETERMINATION OF THE UAV POSITION BY AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF THERMAL IMAGES Wilfried Hartmann.hartmann, sebastian.tilch, henri.eisenbeiss, konrad.schindler)@geod.baug.ethz.ch KEY WORDS: Thermal, UAV, Camera, Calibration, Bundle, Photogrammetry, GPS/INS ABSTRACT: If images acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

  4. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams The Kinetics of Coal Liquefaction Distillation Resid Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.Campbell; D.G. Nichols; D.J. Pazuchanics; H.Huang; M.T.Klein; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes; S.Wang; W.H. Calkins

    1998-06-04

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (DOE Contract N o. DE- AC22- 94PC93054), the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. Th e program at Delaware was conducted be tween August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivit y toward hydrocracking of coal- derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An Introduction and Summary of th e project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here. INTRODUCTION Resid hydrocracking is a key reaction of modern (i. e., distillate- producing) coal liquefactio n processes. Coals are readily converted to resid a nd lighter products in the liquefaction process. The resid is combined with fr esh coal in a ratio often greater than 1: 1, and some vacuum gas oil and is recycled to be further converted. Understanding the chemistry of resids and resi d reactivity is important to improve direct liquefaction process design and to achieve economi c objectives for direct coal liquefaction. Computational models that predict resid conversion from the chemical characteristics of the resids and reaction conditions would be a cost- efficient way to explore process variables. Implementation of such models could aid in the design an d operation of liquefaction facilities.

  5. Fabrication and testing of an infrared spectral control component for thermophotovoltaic power conversion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis M. (Francis Martin), 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion is the direct conversion of thermal radiation to electricity. Conceptually, TPV power conversion is a very elegant means of energy conversion. A thermal source emits a radiative ...

  6. RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    rights. LBL-7847 RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESSABSTRACT A range of cellulosic raw materials in the form ofas a representative raw material for a preliminary process

  7. Ocean thermal energy conversion preliminary data report for the November 1977 GOTEC-02 cruise to the Gulf of Mexico Mobile Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commins, M. L; Duncan, C. P.; Estrella, D. J.; Frisch, J. D.; Horne, A. J.; Jones, K.; Johnson, P. W.; Oldson, J. C.; Quinby-Hunt, M. S.; Ryan, C. J.; Sandusky, J. C.; Tatro, M.; Wilde, P.

    1980-03-01

    This is the second in a series of preliminary data reports from cruises to potential Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites in the Gulf of Mexico. The data are from the GOTEC-02 cruise to a site at approximately 29/sup 0/N, 88/sup 0/W, the Mobile Site. Twelve oceanographic stations were visited. Due to bad weather, the results are scanty. The reader will note that much of the data is questionable. Current meter results are presented elsewhere (Molinari, Hazelworth and Ortman, 1979). Determinations of the biomass indicators - chlorophyll a, phaeophytins and adenosine triphosphate - and zooplankton, are presented. Results were generally those that might have been predicted from previous studies in the area.

  8. Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-06-23

    A method is disclosed for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N[sub 2] is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation. 7 figs.

  9. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, Paul T. (Arlington Heights, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for the production of branched C.sub.4+ oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  10. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, P.T.

    1996-09-24

    A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  11. Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

    2012-06-20

    Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

  12. Monetization of Nigeria coal by conversion to hydrocarbon fuels through Fischer-Tropsch process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oguejiofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Given the instability of crude oil prices and the disruptions in crude oil supply chains, this article offers a complementing investment proposal through diversification of Nigeria's energy source and dependence. Therefore, the following issues were examined and reported: A comparative survey of coal and hydrocarbon reserve bases in Nigeria was undertaken and presented. An excursion into the economic, environmental, and technological justifications for the proposed diversification and roll-back to coal-based resource was also undertaken and presented. The technology available for coal beneficiation for environmental pollution control was reviewed and reported. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and its advances into Sasol's slurry phase distillate process were reviewed. Specifically, the adoption of Sasol's advanced synthol process and the slurry phase distillate process were recommended as ways of processing the products of coal gasification. The article concludes by discussing all the above-mentioned issues with regard to value addition as a means of wealth creation and investment.

  13. Conversion of MixAlco Process Sludge to Liquid Transportation Fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teiseh, Eliasu 1973-

    2012-02-15

    gas using the process of pyrolysis. The hydrogen component of the product synthesis gas may be separated by pressure swing adsorption and used in the hydrogenation of ketones into fuels and chemicals. The synthesis gas may also be catalytically...

  14. Processing and thermal properties of molecularly oriented polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skow, Erik (Erik Dean)

    2007-01-01

    High molecular weight polymers that are linear in molecular construction can be oriented such that some of their physical properties in the oriented direction are enhanced. For over 50 years polymer orientation and processing ...

  15. Optimization of PZT processing using thermal ink-jet printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Jessie Sungyun

    2008-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been known for its strong piezoelectric property for micro-sensors and actuators. Yet, its use in MEMS has been constrained by limitations in processing PZT with current MEMS fabrication ...

  16. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  17. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Refining and upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The refinery and upgrade process development unit (PDU) is designed to upgrade liquid hydrocarbon products from the direct and indirect liquefaction PDU`s to transportation fuels. The refinery will comprise of the following reactor systems: (a) Hydrotreating (b) Hydrocracking (c) Reforming. The three reactor systems will share common feed preparation, product separation and fractionation sections. The refinery is being designed to operate independently of the other PDU`s. The use of common feed and product handling systems will permit operation of one process reactor system at a time in the refinery. In addition, the hydrotreater and hydrocracker will be operable in series. The process is designed to utilize intermediate storage and maximize the use of equipment.

  18. Catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive in a continuous flow reactor: Process optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    . The use of methanol as solvent at the optimal conditions proved to be potential in making the system more. Introduction The world biodiesel production has been boosted in recent years owing to an increasing demand of renewable and sustainable energy. Glycerol is produced as a byproduct in the process of biodiesel production

  19. Aalborg Universitet Thermodynamic modelling of CatLiq biomass conversion process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosendahl, Lasse

    and Biorefineries, Düsseldorf, Germany. General rights Copyright and moral rights for the publications made, S. S.1, Rosendahl, L.1, Rudolf, A.2 1Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, DK-9220: A second generation catalytic liquefaction process for the production of bio-oil. Raw Material: DDGS (Dried

  20. Matrials technology for coal-conversion processes. Progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, W.A.

    1980-10-01

    The twelfth 500-h slag-refractory test run, which involved a high-iron-content acidic coal slag, was completed. High chromia content and high density were again identified as important factors in minimizing corrosion of refractories. Results from the high-temperature nondestructive erosion-scanner installation at the Solvent Refined Coal plant has revealed the presence of a hard film composed of Cr, Fe, S and O/sub 2/, which seems to reduce erosive wear but is acoustically transparent. Further improvements in the erosion-scanner data-acquisition system through employment of a correction for through-wall thermal gradients have reduced data scatter to < +- 0.05 mm. Quantitative detection of internal liquid leaks past critical valves in coal liquefaction plants seems possible through use of low-velocity ultrasonic or strain-sensitive flowmeters together with passive acoustic systems. Studies of high-temperature gaseous corrosion in low-Btu environments show that the potential exists for sulfide attack even in high-chromium alloys such as 310 SS. Recent results show that the oxygen partial pressure threshold above which a protective oxide film forms is 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/ (at 1144 and 923 K, respectively) times the oxygen partial pressure for Cr oxide/Cr sulfide equilibrium. Four of the seven special thermowells installed at IGT's U-gas plant have shown no significant degradation after an additional 500-h run. Failure-analysis activities this period included analysis of a failed internal transfer line and a thermocouple sheath, both from the HYGAS coal-gasification pilot plant. A complete summary of the more important coal-gasification failures analyzed at Argonne is included in this report.

  1. A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling rates of chondrules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connolly Jr, Harold C.

    A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling for the thermal processing of particles in shock waves typical of the solar nebula. This shock model improves are accounted for in their ef fects on the mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Also, besides thermal exchange

  2. PVD thermal barrier coating applications and process development for aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigney, D.V.; Viguie, R.; Wortman, D.J.; Skelly, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) have been developed for application to aircraft engine components to improve the life in an increasingly hostile thermal environment. The choice of TBC type is related to the component, intended use and economics. The selection of electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB PVD) processing for turbine blades is due in part to part size, surface finish requirements, thickness control needs, and hole closure issues. Process development of PVD TBC`s has been carried out at several different sites including GEAE. Some of the influences of processing variables on microstructure are discussed. The GEAE development coater and initial experiences of pilot line operation are discussed.

  3. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  4. CFD Modeling of Thermal Effects of Nuclear Waste Vitrification Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, Chris; Soltani, Mehdi; Barringer, Chris; Knight, Kelly

    2006-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at Hanford, WA will vitrify nuclear waste stored at the DOE Hanford facility. The vitrification process will take place in two large concrete buildings where the glass is poured into stainless steel canisters or containers and allowed to cool. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used extensively to calculate the effects of the heat released by molten glass as it is poured and cooled, on the HVAC system and the building structure. CFD studies of the glass cooling in these facilities were used to predict canister temperatures, HVAC air temperatures, concrete temperatures and insulation requirements, and design temperatures for canister handling equipment and instrumentation at various stages of the process. These predictions provided critical input in the design of the HVAC system, specification of insulation, the design of canister handling equipment, and the selection of instrumentation. (authors)

  5. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, N.J.; Davidson, H.L.; Kerns, J.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1998-07-21

    A process is disclosed for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost. 7 figs.

  6. Turbulent thermalization process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jürgen Berges; Björn Schenke; Sören Schlichting; Raju Venugopalan

    2014-09-05

    We discuss the onset of the thermalization process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions from a weak coupling perspective, using classical-statistical real-time lattice simulations as a first principles tool to study the pre-equilibrium dynamics. Most remarkably, we find that the thermalization process is governed by a universal attractor, where the space-time evolution of the plasma becomes independent of the initial conditions and exhibits the self-similar dynamics characteristic of wave turbulence. We discuss the consequences of our weak coupling results for the thermalization process in heavy-ion experiments and briefly comment on the use of weak coupling techniques at larger values of the coupling.

  7. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  8. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  10. The conversion of solar energy to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process that includes electron transport and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    The conversion of solar energy to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process of stress are covered in Chapter 26. The impact of the environment on photosynthesis is of interest to plant on environmental conditions is also important to agronomists because plant productivity, and hence crop yield, de

  11. Thermal Equilibrium in Nebulae1 For an ionized nebula under steady conditions, heating and cooling processes that in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Markus

    processes that in isolation would change the thermal energy content of the gas are in balance to as a "photoelectron"). This kinetic energy represents an addition to the thermal energy of the gas bookkeeping for ionization. II. Cooling. Cooling occurs when thermal energy in the gas particles is converted

  12. Application of flash-assist rapid thermal processing subsequent to low-temperature furnace anneals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Application of flash-assist rapid thermal processing subsequent to low-temperature furnace anneals and then implanted with 1 keV, 1 1015 cm-2 B. Low-temperature furnace anneals are performed at 500 °C for 30 minV. Implants were per- formed at a standard tilt of 7° and twist of 27°. Low- temperature furnace anneals were

  13. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  14. Effects Of Thermal Exchange On Material Flow During Steel Thixoextrusion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Eric; Gu Guochao; Langlois, Laurent; Bigot, Regis; Pesci, Raphael

    2011-01-17

    Semisolid processing is an innovative technology for near net-shape production of components, where the metallic alloys are processed in the semisolid state. Taking advantage of the thixotropic behavior of alloys in the semisolid state, significant progress has been made in semisolid processing. However, the consequences of such behavior on the flow during thixoforming are still not completely understood. To explore and better understand the influence of the different parameters on material flow during thixoextrusion process, thixoextrusion experiments were performed using the low carbon steel C38. The billet was partially melted at high solid fraction. Effects of various process parameters including the initial billet temperature, the temperature of die, the punch speed during process and the presence of a Ceraspray layer at the interface of tool and billet were investigated through experiments and simulation. After analyzing the results thus obtained, it was identified that the aforementioned parameters mainly affect thermal exchanges between die and part. The Ceraspray layer not only plays a lubricant role, but also acts as a thermal barrier at the interface of tool and billet. Furthermore, the thermal effects can affect the material flow which is composed of various distinct zones.

  15. A new continuous-flow process for catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive: Catalyst screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    in acetone/glycerol molar ratio or a decrease in WHSV enhanced the glycerol conversion as expected promoter as the addition of ketals and ethers in gasoline engines improve the octane number, cold flow

  16. Harvesting nanoscale thermal radiation using pyroelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin; Frederich, Hugo; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    the other hand, energy transfer by thermal radiation betweenit was shown that energy transfer by thermal radi- ationpyroelectric energy conversion and nanoscale thermal

  17. Modeling of thermally driven hydrological processes in partially saturated fractured rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, Yvonne; Birkholzer, Jens; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit

    2009-03-15

    This paper is a review of the research that led to an in-depth understanding of flow and transport processes under strong heat stimulation in fractured, porous rock. It first describes the anticipated multiple processes that come into play in a partially saturated, fractured porous volcanic tuff geological formation, when it is subject to a heat source such as that originating from the decay of radionuclides. The rationale is then given for numerical modeling being a key element in the study of multiple processes that are coupled. The paper outlines how the conceptualization and the numerical modeling of the problem evolved, progressing from the simplified to the more realistic. Examples of numerical models are presented so as to illustrate the advancement and maturation of the research over the last two decades. The most recent model applied to in situ field thermal tests is characterized by (1) incorporation of a full set of thermal-hydrological processes into a numerical simulator, (2) realistic representation of the field test geometry, in three dimensions, and (3) use of site-specific characterization data for model inputs. Model predictions were carried out prior to initiation of data collection, and the model results were compared to diverse sets of measurements. The approach of close integration between modeling and field measurements has yielded a better understanding of how coupled thermal hydrological processes produce redistribution of moisture within the rock, which affects local permeability values and subsequently the flow of liquid and gases. The fluid flow in turn will change the temperature field. We end with a note on future research opportunities, specifically those incorporating chemical, mechanical, and microbiological factors into the study of thermal and hydrological processes.

  18. Experimental investigation for hydrogen and deuterium separation by thermal cycling absorption process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guangda, L.; Guoqiang, J.; Cansheng, S.

    1995-10-01

    The Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) is a semicontinuous gas chromatographic process for hydrogen isotope separation by which the experiment for hydrogen-deuterium separation has been carried out. The main operating parameters for optimum separation were obtained. On manual operation conditions the concentrations of product and raffinate gas were better than 99.5% simultaneously at a feed rate of 12.0% for a 1:1 hydrogen-deuterium mixture. Besides, TCAP is a good process for trace heavier isotope enriching from hydrogen. The concentration of deuterium can be reduced from 0.5% to less than 50ppm in hydrogen in ten cycles. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Thermal barrier coating deposition by rarefied gas jet assisted processes: Simulations of deposition on a stationary airfoil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Thermal barrier coating deposition by rarefied gas jet assisted processes: Simulations) The uniform coating of a complex shaped substrate, such as a gas turbine airfoil, by collisionless physical thermal barrier coating are used to investigate fundamental aspects of the deposition process, including

  20. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion (SICWC): Arc Lamp, InfraRed (IR) Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Sebright, J.

    2007-12-15

    The primary goal of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) betwe1311 UT-Battelle (Contractor) and Caterpillar Inc. (Participant) was to develop the plasma arc lamp (PAL), infrared (IR) thermal processing technology 1.) to enhance surface coating performance by improving the interfacial bond strength between selected coatings and substrates; and 2.) to extend this technology base for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant. Completion of the following three key technical tasks (described below) was necessary in order to accomplish this goal. First, thermophysical property data sets were successfully determined for composite coatings applied to 1010 steel substrates, with a more limited data set successfully measured for free-standing coatings. These data are necessary for the computer modeling simulations and parametric studies to; A.) simulate PAL IR processing, facilitating the development of the initial processing parameters; and B.) help develop a better understanding of the basic PAL IR fusing process fundamentals, including predicting the influence of melt pool stirring and heat tnmsfar characteristics introduced during plasma arc lamp infrared (IR) processing; Second, a methodology and a set of procedures were successfully developed and the plasma arc lamp (PAL) power profiles were successfully mapped as a function of PAL power level for the ORNL PAL. The latter data also are necessary input for the computer model to accurately simulate PAL processing during process modeling simulations, and to facilitate a better understand of the fusing process fundamentals. Third, several computer modeling codes have been evaluated as to their capabilities and accuracy in being able to capture and simulate convective mixing that may occur during PAL thermal processing. The results from these evaluation efforts are summarized in this report. The intention of this project was to extend the technology base and provide for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant.

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  2. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

    2013-01-01

    In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

  3. Thermal wave image processing for characterization of subsurface of flaws in materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, K.; Gopalsami, N.

    1993-08-01

    Infrared images resulting from back-scattered thermal waves in composite materials are corrupted by instrument noise and sample heat-spread function. This paper demonstrates that homomorphic deconvolution and {open_quotes}demultiplication{close_quotes} result in enhanced image quality for characterization of subsurface flaws in Kevlar and graphics composites. The choice of processing depends on the material characteristics and the extent of noise in the original image.

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  5. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence from {sup 3}n?* to {sup 1}n?* up-conversion and its application to organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Qisheng; Nomura, Hiroko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Functional Materials Laboratory, Nippon Steel and Sumikin Chemical Co., Ltd, 46–80 Nakabaru, Sakinohama, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804–8503 (Japan); Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    Intense n?* fluorescence from a nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compound, 2,5,8-tris(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)-1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene (HAP-3MF), is demonstrated. The overlap-forbidden nature of the n?* transition and the higher energy of the {sup 3}??* state than the {sup 3}n?* one lead to a small energy difference between the lowest singlet (S{sub 1}) and triplet (T{sub 1}) excited states of HAP-3MF. Green-emitting HAP-3MF has a moderate photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.26 in both toluene and doped film. However, an organic light-emitting diode containing HAP-3MF achieved a high external quantum efficiency of 6.0%, indicating that HAP-3MF harvests singlet excitons through a thermally activated T{sub 1} ? S{sub 1} pathway in the electroluminescent process.

  6. Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat into electrical energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carati, Andrea

    into electrical energy by means of a distiller and an electrochemical cell. A. Caratia , M. Marinoa , D. Brogiolib) Abstract We analyse a device aimed at the conversion of heat into electrical energy, based on a closed with different concentrations can be tapped and converted into electrical energy, e.g. by means

  7. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  8. Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

  9. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

  10. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)] [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)] [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-02-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  12. HYDRODYNAMIC THERMAL MODELING OF 9-CELL ILC CAVITY ELECTROPOLISHING AND IMPLICATIONS FOR IMPROVING THE EP PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Reece; John Mammosser; Jun Ortega

    2008-02-12

    Multi-cell niobium cavities often obtain the highest performance levels after having been subjected to an electropolishing (EP) process. The horizontal EP process first developed at KEK/Nomura Plating for TRISTAN[1] cavities is being applied to TESLA-style cavities and other structures for the XFEL and ILC R&D. Jefferson Lab is presently carrying this activity in the US. Because the local electropolishing current density is highly temperature dependent, we have created using CFDesign™ a full-scale hydrodynamic model which simulates the various thermal conditions present during 9-cell cavity electropolishing. The results of these simulations are compared with exterior surface temperature data gathered during ILC cavity EP at JLab. Having benchmarked the simulation, we explore the affect of altered boundary conditions in order to evaluate potentially beneficial modifications to the current standard process.

  13. Recent Advances in SRS on Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Xin; Sessions, Henry T.; Heung, L. Kit

    2015-02-01

    The recent Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) advances at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compressor-free concept for heating/cooling, push and pull separation using an active inverse column, and compact column design. The new developments allow significantly higher throughput and better reliability from 1/10th of the current production system’s footprint while consuming 60% less energy. Various versions are derived in the meantime for external customers to be used in fusion energy projects and medical isotope production.

  14. Transition from cool flame to thermal flame in compression ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzaki, Kotaro; Goto, Yuichi; Tezaki, Atsumu

    2008-07-15

    The mechanism that initiates thermal flames in compression ignition has been studied. Experimentally, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was used with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane. Arrhenius plots of the heat release rate in the HCCI experiments showed that rates of heat release with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane exhibited a certain activation energy that is identical to that of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition reaction. The same feature was observed in diesel engine operation using ordinary diesel fuel with advanced ignition timing to make ignition occur after the end of fuel injection. These experimental results were reproduced in nondimensional simulations using kinetic mechanisms for DME, n-heptane, and n-decane, the last being developed by extending the n-heptane mechanism. Methanol addition, which suppresses low-temperature oxidation (LTO) and delays the ignition timing, had no effect on the activation energy obtained from the Arrhenius plot of heat release rate. Nevertheless, methanol addition lowered the heat release rates during the prethermal flame process. This is because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation during cool flame was reduced by adding methanol. The mechanism during the transition process from cool flame to thermal flame can be explained quantitatively using thermal explosion theory, in which the rate-determining reaction is H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, assuming that heat release in this period is caused by partial oxidation of DME and HCHO initiated with the reaction with OH produced though H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition. (author)

  15. Vaporization of actinide oxides in thermal treatment processes for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Krikorian, O.H.; Adamson, M.G.

    1994-10-04

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the volatilities of U, Pu, and Am in thermal treatment processes for mixed wastes. The thermodynamics of vaporization U and Pu oxides in the presence of oxygen and water vapor and of U oxide in the presence of oxygen and chlorine were studied. Experimental studies of U oxide volatilities by previous authors have also been reviewed. For species where data are unavailable estimation methods were used to obtain free energies of formation of the gaseous species, The data are applied to thermal treatment processes in general and then more specifically to conditions representative of the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Unit. (RFP FBU), molten salt oxidizer, and an incinerator. U volatilities are greatest ranging from 2.67 x 10{sup -7} gU/h in the RFP FBU to 4. 00 gU/h for typical incinerator conditions. Pu volatilities are almost 5 orders of magnitude less than U and Am volatilities are about 3 orders of magnitude less than Pu.

  16. Effect of composition and processing on the thermal fatigue and toughness of high performance die steels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, J.F.; Wang, Y.; Schwam, D.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this study was to improve average die life by optimizing die steel composition and the die processing. Four different steels, K,Q,C and Premium Grade H-13 have been investigated for thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Optimum heat treatment processing has been determined for each steel with respect to austenitizing temperature and tempering conditions. The effect of the quenching rate on the thermal fatigue resistance and toughness of the die steels and the effect of Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) on the thermal fatigue resistance were also determined. The immersion thermal fatigue specimen developed at CWRU was used to determine the thermal fatigue resistance as characterized by the two parameters of average maximum crack length and total crack area. The Charpy V-notch impact test was used over a -100{degrees}F to 450{degrees}F testing temperature range to evaluate the toughness and the brittle-ductile transition behavior. K steel has been identified as superior in performance compared to Premium Grade H-13. Q and C provide lower toughness and thermal fatigue resistance than H-13. Faster cooling rates provide higher thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Higher austenitizing temperatures such as 1925{degrees}F compared to 1875{degrees}F provide better thermal fatigue resistance, but lower austenitizing temperatures of 1875{degrees}F provide better toughness. Higher hardness improves thermal fatigue resistance, but reduces toughness. A minimum of Rc 46 hardness is desired for aluminum die casting dies. EDM reduces the thermal fatigue resistance compared to conventional machining operations. When the EDM process of multiple small steps of decreasing energy and post-EDM treatments are employed, the effect can be reduced to a very slight amount. Preliminary evidence of the superior performance of the K steel has been provided by ongoing field testing of inserts in multiple cavity dies.

  17. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Sahir, Asad; Tan, Eric; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Meyer, Pimphan; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  18. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

  19. Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2014-10-28

    Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 125–1000?Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6?kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

  20. Thermal casting process for the preparation of anisotropic membranes and the resultant membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caneba, Gerard T. M. (Albany, CA); Soong, David S. (Albany, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method for providing anisotropic polymer membranes from a binary polymer/solvent solution using a thermal inversion process. A homogeneous binary solution is cast onto a support and cooled in such a way as to provide a differential in cooling rate across the thickness of the resulting membrane sheet. Isotropic or anisotropic structures of selected porosities can be produced, depending on the initial concentration of polymer in the selected solvent and on the extent of the differential in cooling rate. This differential results in a corresponding gradation in pore size. The method may be modified to provide a working skin by applying a rapid, high-temperature pulse to redissolve a predetermined thickness of the membrane at one of its faces and then freezing the entire structure.

  1. A study of the ignition processes in a center-hole-fired thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The ignition processes that take place during activation of a 16 cell, center hole fired thermal battery were examined by monitoring the voltage of each cell during activation. The average rise time of each cell to a voltage of 1.125 V was determined for the LiSi/LiCl-LiBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. The effects of heat pellet composition, center hole diameter, and the load on the activation parameters were examined for three different igniters. A large variability in individual cell performance was evident along with cell reversal, depending on the location of the cell in the stack. It was not possible to draw detailed statistical information of the relative ignition sequence due to the intrinsic large scatter in the data.

  2. Improvement of thermal properties of low-rank coals treated by hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X.F.; Ohki, A.; Maeda, S.

    1999-07-01

    Australian low-rank coals, Loy Yang coal, Yallourn coal and Indonesian Adaro coal are hydrothermally treated at 200-350 C. The simultaneous TG/DTA is used to investigate the thermal properties, which include the volatile release profile under a nitrogen atmosphere and the burning profile under an air atmosphere. It is found that the temperature of volatile matter combustion (Ti1) of the hot water dried coals (upgraded coals) increases with heat treatment temperature (HTT), whereas the temperature of char combustion (Ti2), the temperature of maximum reaction (Tmax) and the temperature of char burn out (Tout) do not have large increase on the HTT. These results suggest that the HWD process can raise the volatile matter ignition temperature, resulting in improving the spontaneous ignition temperature, but it still maintains the original combustion behavior. Results from TG-DTA measurements are consistent with those determined by FTIR and solid state {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR.

  3. Storage and retrieval of nonclassical photon pairs and conditional single photons generated by parametric down-conversion process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Akiba; K. Kashiwagi; M. Arikawa; M. Kozuma

    2009-02-03

    Storage and retrieval of parametric down-conversion (PDC) photons are demonstrated with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Extreme frequency filtering is performed for THz order of broadband PDC light and the frequency bandwidth of the light is reduced to MHz order. Storage and retrieval procedures are carried out for the frequency filtered PDC photons. Since the filtered bandwidth [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) = 9 MHz] is within the EIT window (FWHM = 12.6 MHz), the flux of the PDC light is successfully stored and retrieved. The nonclassicality of the retrieved light is confirmed by using photon counting method, where the classical inequality which is only satisfied for classical light fields is introduced. Since the PDC photons can be utilized for producing the single photon state conditionally, storage and retrieval procedures are also performed for the conditional single photons. Anti-correlation parameter used for checking the property of single photon state shows the value less than 1, which means the retrieved light is in a non-classical region.

  4. Yellowstone as an Analog for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. F. Dobson; T. J. Kneafsey; A. Simmons; J. Hulen

    2001-05-29

    Enhanced water-rock interaction resulting from the emplacement of heat-generating nuclear waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, may result in changes to fluid flow (resulting from mineral dissolution and precipitation in condensation and boiling zones, respectively). Studies of water-rock interaction in active and fossil geothermal systems (natural analogs) provide evidence for changes in permeability and porosity resulting from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes. The objective of this research is to document the effects of coupled THC processes at Yellowstone and then examine how differences in scale could influence the impact that these processes may have on the Yucca Mountain system. Subsurface samples from Yellowstone National Park, one of the largest active geothermal systems in the world, contain some the best examples of hydrothermal self-sealing found in geothermal systems. We selected core samples from two USGS research drill holes from the transition zone between conductive and convective portions of the geothermal system (where sealing was reported to occur). We analyzed the core, measuring the permeability, porosity, and grain density of selected samples to evaluate how lithology, texture, and degree of hydrothermal alteration influence matrix and fracture permeability.

  5. Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.

  6. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to DME, which is subsequently converted via homologation reactions to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon products.

  7. Quantum conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Mazilu

    2015-08-06

    The electromagnetic momentum transferred transfered to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ($\\hbar k$) does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the transformation, including units, of the classical fields to wave-function equivalent fields.

  8. Thermal plasma process for recovering monomers and high value carbons from polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard (Philadelphia, PA); Grossmann, Elihu D. (Narberth, PA); Guddeti, Ravikishan R. (Philadelphia, PA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of recycling polymeric waste products into monomers and high value forms of carbon by pyrolytic conversion using an induction coupled RF plasma heated reactor.

  9. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  10. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  11. Automated Thermal Image Processing for Detection and Classification of Birds and Bats - FY2012 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Matzner, Shari; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Virden, Daniel J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.

    2012-09-01

    Surveying wildlife at risk from offshore wind energy development is difficult and expensive. Infrared video can be used to record birds and bats that pass through the camera view, but it is also time consuming and expensive to review video and determine what was recorded. We proposed to conduct algorithm and software development to identify and to differentiate thermally detected targets of interest that would allow automated processing of thermal image data to enumerate birds, bats, and insects. During FY2012 we developed computer code within MATLAB to identify objects recorded in video and extract attribute information that describes the objects recorded. We tested the efficiency of track identification using observer-based counts of tracks within segments of sample video. We examined object attributes, modeled the effects of random variability on attributes, and produced data smoothing techniques to limit random variation within attribute data. We also began drafting and testing methodology to identify objects recorded on video. We also recorded approximately 10 hours of infrared video of various marine birds, passerine birds, and bats near the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) at Sequim, Washington. A total of 6 hours of bird video was captured overlooking Sequim Bay over a series of weeks. An additional 2 hours of video of birds was also captured during two weeks overlooking Dungeness Bay within the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Bats and passerine birds (swallows) were also recorded at dusk on the MSL campus during nine evenings. An observer noted the identity of objects viewed through the camera concurrently with recording. These video files will provide the information necessary to produce and test software developed during FY2013. The annotation will also form the basis for creation of a method to reliably identify recorded objects.

  12. 912 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH, AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 18, NO. 5, JULY 2010 Voice Conversion Using Partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virtanen, Tuomas

    Processing, Tampere University of Technology, 33720 Tampere, Finland (e-mail: elina.helander@tut.fi; tuomas 2006-2011). The work of E. Helander was supported by the graduate school of the Tampere University of Technology. The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication

  13. Hybridizing Energy Conversion and Storage in a Mechanical-to-Electrochemical Process for Self-Charging Power Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Information ABSTRACT: Energy generation and energy storage are two distinct processes that are usually, such as piezoelectric nanogenerator and Li-ion battery; the former converts mechanical energy into electricity, and the latter stores electric energy as chemical energy. Here, we introduce a fundamental mechanism

  14. The conversion of corn stover and pig manure to carboxylic acids with the MixAlco process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Amanda Spring

    2013-02-22

    into carboxylate salts (e. g. , calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate). These carboxylate salts can be chemically manipulated to produce ketones or alcohols, both of which have a marketable value. Benefits of the process include the positive value of its..., it is necessary to specify an optimal combination of biomass types. Lime Treatment Much of the candidate biomass is lignocellulose, a material consisting of cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose (Holtzapple, 1997). Lignocellulose has a characteristically low...

  15. Process for the conversion of and aqueous biomass hydrolyzate into fuels or chemicals by the selective removal of fermentation inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Sluiter, Amie D. (Arvada, CO); Hayward, Tammy K. (Broomfield, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

    2004-05-18

    A process of making a fuel or chemical from a biomass hydrolyzate is provided which comprises the steps of providing a biomass hydrolyzate, adjusting the pH of the hydrolyzate, contacting a metal oxide having an affinity for guaiacyl or syringyl functional groups, or both and the hydrolyzate for a time sufficient to form an adsorption complex; removing the complex wherein a sugar fraction is provided, and converting the sugar fraction to fuels or chemicals using a microorganism.

  16. Proceedings of the NSF Workshop on Research Needs in Thermal Aspects of Material Removal Processes, edited Ranga Komanduri, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, June 10-12, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    Proceedings of the NSF Workshop on Research Needs in Thermal Aspects of Material Removal Processes laser energy has enough time to be transferred to lattice, electron and lattice can reach thermal, edited Ranga Komanduri, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, June 10-12, 2003 247 Thermal Aspects

  17. Characterization of oxygen and nitrogen rapid thermal annealing processes for ultra-low-k SiCOH films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Characterization of oxygen and nitrogen rapid thermal annealing processes for ultra-low-k Si is suggested and characterized in this work for improvement of SiCOH ultra-low-k (k 2.4) film properties. Low is decreased, and the ultra-low-k films (k

  18. Modeling of thermally driven hydrological processes in partially saturated fractured rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Waste isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) research and developmentIsolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural InteractionWaste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project in New Mexico,

  19. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  20. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  1. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  2. Observation of an incoherent thermally activated proton hopping process in calix-[4]-arene by means of anelastic spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Paolone; R. Cantelli; R. Caciuffo; A. Arduini

    2002-03-04

    The anelastic spectrum of calix[4]arene was measured at two different vibrational frequencies. Three thermally activated peaks were detected. The lowest temperature peak can be described considering a continous distribution function of activation energies for the relaxation. This anelastic peak can be ascribed to a thermally activated hopping process of H atoms of the OH groups, corresponding to a flip-flop of the OH bond. From the results of the present study, it seems that anelastic spectroscopy is a good experimental technique to study atomic motion inside molecules at a mesoscopic (few molecules) level.

  3. On the thermal neutron transport processes in liquid H/sub 2/O-D/sub 2/O mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnsal, R.M.; Tewari, S.P.

    1983-06-01

    Using the recently developed thermal neutron scattering kernels for water and heavy water, which incorporate both the collective and the molecular modes present in water and heavy water, the thermal neutron transport studies of asymptotic decay constants lambda/sub 0/, diffusion coefficient D/sub 0/, diffusion cooling coefficient C, and the transport mean-free-path lambda /SUB tr/ are studied for liquid H/sub 2/O-D/sub 2/O mixtures with varying molecular contents and for various assembly sizes at 21 and 5/sup 0/C. The calculated values of the physical constants, lambda/sub 0/, D/sub 0/, C, and lambda /SUB tr/ are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. Both the collective motion and the molecular modes present in the liquid H/sub 2/O-D/sub 2/O mixtures play significant roles in the thermal neutron transport processes.

  4. Thermal spray vitrification process for the removal of lead oxide contained in organic paints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthikeyan, J.; Chen, J.; Bancke, G.A.; Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.; Breslin, V.T.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) regulations have necessitated the removal and containment of toxic lead from lead oxide containing paints. The Thermal Spray Vitrification Process (TSVP) is a novel technique in which a glass powder of appropriate composition is flame sprayed onto the painted surface to achieve removal and vitrification of the lead. Two different glass systems, i.e., alkali silicate and ferrous silicate, were chosen for detailed study. Appropriate amounts of raw materials were mixed, fused, quenched, ground and sieved to obtain the spray quality powders. Grit blasted mild steel coupons were used as test substrates for the spray parameter optimization studies; while those coupons with lead oxide containing organic paint were used for the lead removal experiments. The powders and deposits were investigated using Microtrac particle size analysis (for powders), optical microscopy, XRD and SEM. The remnant lead in the panel was measured using a specially prepared X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) system. The lead leach rate was recorded as per US-EPA approved Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The results of this study have shown that lead oxide can be successfully removed form the paint by flame spraying a maximum of three layers of glass onto the painted surface. It is possible to obtain much higher lead removal rate with ferrous silicate glass as compared to alkali silicate glass is much higher than the ferrous silicate glass. The in situ vitrification has not been completely optimized; however, the lead containing glass coating can be remelted in situ or on site to enhance the vitrification of the lead which had been absorbed in the glass coating.

  5. Study on Commissioning Process for Control Logic of Thermal Storage System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shioya, M.; Tsubaki, M.; Nakahara, N.

    2004-01-01

    and measurements of the control output, the CLT can detect faults relating to operation. The present paper reports the result of commissioning of a heat exchanger secondary control in a thermal storage system in an actual building using the CLT....

  6. Advanced nanofabrication of thermal emission devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurley, Fergus (Fergus Gerard)

    2008-01-01

    Nanofabricated thermal emission devices can be used to modify and modulate blackbody thermal radiation. There are many areas in which altering thermal radiation is extremely useful, especially in static power conversion, ...

  7. Conversational Processes in Television Commercials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunold, Karen

    1987-01-01

    We'll see. Don't forget the energy saver. woman: Now do youthe Kitchenaid commercial. Don’t forget the energy saver.the product feature "energy saver" to viewers. One final

  8. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.

  9. EFFECT OF THERMAL PROCESSES ON COPPER-TIN ALLOYS FOR ZINC GETTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Golyski, M.

    2013-11-01

    A contamination mitigation plan was initiated to address the discovery of radioactive zinc‐65 in a glovebox. A near term solution was developed, installation of heated filters in the glovebox piping. This solution is effective at retaining the zinc in the currently contaminated area, but the gamma emitting contaminant is still present in a system designed for tritium beta. A project was initiated to develop a solution to contain the {sup 65}Zn in the furnace module. Copper and bronze (a Cu/Sn alloy) were found to be candidate materials to combine with zinc‐65 vapor, using thermodynamic calculations. A series of binary Cu/Sn alloys were developed (after determining that commercial alloys were unacceptable), that were found to be effective traps of zinc vapor. The task described in this report was undertaken to determine if the bronze substrates would retain their zinc gettering capability after being exposed to simulated extraction conditions with oxidizing and reducing gases. Pure copper and three bronze alloys were prepared, exposed to varying oxidation conditions from 250 to 450{degree}C, then exposed to varying reduction conditions in He-H{sub 2} from 250-450{degree}C, and finally exposed to zinc vapor at 350{degree}C for four hours. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass change, and visual observation. It was observed that the as fabricated samples and the reduced samples all retained their zinc gettering capacity while samples in the "as-oxidized" condition exhibited losses in zinc gettering capacity. Over the range of conditions tested, i.e., composition, oxidation temperature, and reduction temperature, no particular sample composition appeared better. Samples reduced at 350{degree}C exhibited the greatest zinc capacity, although there were some testing anomalies associated with these samples. This work clearly demonstrated that the zinc gettering was not adversely affected by exposure to simulated process conditions and a full scale lithium and zinc trap should be fabricated for testing in the Tritium Extraction Facility.

  10. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Hydrocarbon conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koepke, J.W.; Abdo, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a hydrocracking process. It comprises: catalyzing a hydrocracking reaction by contacting a hydrocarbon feedstock with a hydrocracking catalyst under hydrocracking conditions to produce a product hydrocarbon having an increased octane number than the hydrocarbon feedstock. The hydrocracking catalyst consists essentially of at least one niobium component, at least one Group VIII metal component and at least one cracking component.

  12. The origin of thermal component in the transverse momentum spectra in high energy hadronic processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bylinkin, Alexander A.; Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Brookhaven National Lab.; Rostovtsev, Andrei A.

    2014-12-15

    The transverse momentum spectra of hadrons produced in high energy collisions can be decomposed into two components: the exponential ("thermal") and the power ("hard") ones. Recently, the H1 Collaboration has discovered that the relative strength of these two components in Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) depends drastically upon the global structure of the event - namely, the exponential component is absent in the diffractive events characterized by a rapidity gap. We discuss the possible origin of this effect and speculate that it is linked to confinement. Specifically, we argue that the thermal component is due to the effective event horizon introducedmore »by the confining string, in analogy to the Hawking-Unruh effect. In diffractive events, the t-channel exchange is color-singlet and there is no fragmenting string - so the thermal component is absent. The slope of the soft component of the hadron spectrum in this picture is determined by the saturation momentum that drives the deceleration in the color field, and thus the Hawking-Unruh temperature. We analyze the data on non-diffractive pp collisions and find that the slope of the thermal component of the hadron spectrum is indeed proportional to the saturation momentum.« less

  13. Enhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic field processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    Enhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube CNT -polymer composites are significantly enhanced. INTRODUCTION The addition of small quantities of carbon nanotubes CNTs to polymer composites is known to cause

  14. The origin of thermal component in the transverse momentum spectra in high energy hadronic processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander A. Bylinkin; Dmitri E. Kharzeev; Andrei A. Rostovtsev

    2014-07-15

    The transverse momentum spectra of hadrons produced in high energy collisions can be decomposed into two components: the exponential ("thermal") and the power ("hard") ones. Recently, the H1 Collaboration has discovered that the relative strength of these two components in Deep Inelastic Scattering depends drastically upon the global structure of the event - namely, the exponential component is absent in the diffractive events characterized by a rapidity gap. We discuss the possible origin of this effect, and speculate that it is linked to confinement. Specifically, we argue that the thermal component is due to the effective event horizon introduced by the confining string, in analogy to the Hawking-Unruh effect. In diffractive events, the $t$-channel exchange is color-singlet and there is no fragmenting string -- so the thermal component is absent. The slope of the soft component of the hadron spectrum in this picture is determined by the saturation momentum that drives the deceleration in the color field, and thus the Hawking-Unruh temperature. We analyze the data on non-diffractive $pp$ collisions and find that the slope of the thermal component of the hadron spectrum is indeed proportional to the saturation momentum.

  15. The origin of thermal component in the transverse momentum spectra in high energy hadronic processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bylinkin, Alexander A.; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Rostovtsev, Andrei A.

    2014-12-15

    The transverse momentum spectra of hadrons produced in high energy collisions can be decomposed into two components: the exponential ("thermal") and the power ("hard") ones. Recently, the H1 Collaboration has discovered that the relative strength of these two components in Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) depends drastically upon the global structure of the event - namely, the exponential component is absent in the diffractive events characterized by a rapidity gap. We discuss the possible origin of this effect and speculate that it is linked to confinement. Specifically, we argue that the thermal component is due to the effective event horizon introduced by the confining string, in analogy to the Hawking-Unruh effect. In diffractive events, the t-channel exchange is color-singlet and there is no fragmenting string - so the thermal component is absent. The slope of the soft component of the hadron spectrum in this picture is determined by the saturation momentum that drives the deceleration in the color field, and thus the Hawking-Unruh temperature. We analyze the data on non-diffractive pp collisions and find that the slope of the thermal component of the hadron spectrum is indeed proportional to the saturation momentum.

  16. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?thermal absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaobai; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Juchuan

    2014-08-21

    Metal oxidation at high temperatures has long been a challenge in cermet solar thermal absorbers, which impedes the development of atmospherically stable, high-temperature, high-performance concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. In this work, we demonstrate solution-processed Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?thermal absorbers that exhibit a strong anti-oxidation behavior up to 600?°C in air. The thermal stability is far superior to previously reported Ni nanoparticle-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} selective solar thermal absorbers, which readily oxidize at 450?°C. The SiO{sub x} (x?processed by low-cost solution-chemical methods for future generations of CSP systems.

  17. Controlled etching of hexagonal ZnO architectures in an alcohol thermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Junshu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    An alcohol thermal technique was applied to the controlled growth of hexagonal ZnO architectures via selective chemical etching. ZnO microdisks were produced first under mild alcohol thermal conditions in presence of formamide. Due to a higher surface energy/atomic density of Zn{sup 2+} {l_brace}0 0 0 1{r_brace} than that of the other faces, hexagonal ZnO microring was obtained by selectively etching positive polar surface of disk-like precursor with a high density of planar defects at the center. The selective etching of ZnO is related to its crystallographic characteristics of surface polarity and chemical activities, which opens a new opportunity for the shape-controlled synthesis of wurtzite-structured materials.

  18. SPS energy conversion and power management workshop. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    In 1977 a four year study, the concept Development and Evaluation Program, was initiated by the US Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. As part of this program, a series of peer reviews were carried out within the technical community to allow available information on SPS to be sifted, examined and, if need be, challenged. The SPS Energy Conversion and Power Management Workshop, held in Huntsville, Alabama, February 5 to 7, 1980, was one of these reviews. The results of studies in this particular field were presented to an audience of carefully selected scientists and engineers. This first report summarizes the results of that peer review. It is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the subject. Rather, it is designed to look at the SPS energy conversion and power management options in breadth, not depth, to try to foresee any troublesome and/or potentially unresolvable problems and to identify the most promising areas for future research and development. Topics include photovoltaic conversion, solar thermal conversion, and electric power distribution processing and power management. (WHK)

  19. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1988-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  1. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  2. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  3. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01

    boch open- and closed-power cycles in land-based, moored andopen- and closed-power cycle), plant configurations (land-demonstration. The closed-power cycle may be used for land-

  4. Natural gas/diesel conversions - the outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiore, V.B.; Joyce, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    High conversion costs and technical inadequacies of available equipment have limited diesel to compressed natural gas (CNG) conversions, a process which can use either fumigation, pilot oil injection, or spark-ignition for vehicle ignition. An overview of Gas Research Institute conversion research projects includes a summary of major problems associated with performance, cost, and reliability of the systems. A summary table identifies projects by organization and location, then provides project objectives, funding, future plans, and comments where the information is available.

  5. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd M. Francis, Paul R. Lichty, Christopher Perkins, Melinda Tucker, Peter B. Kreider, Hans H. Funke, Allan Lewandowski, and Alan W. Weimer

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar�driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  6. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  7. Turbulent thermalization process in heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Berges; K. Boguslavski; S. Schlichting; R. Venugopalan

    2014-03-02

    The non-equilibrium evolution of heavy-ion collisions is studied in the limit of weak coupling at very high energy employing lattice simulations of the classical Yang-Mills equations. Performing the largest classical-statistical simulations to date, we find that the dynamics of the longitudinally expanding plasma becomes independent of the details of the initial conditions. After a transient regime dominated by plasma instabilities and free streaming, the subsequent space-time evolution is governed by a nonthermal fixed point, where the system exhibits the self-similar dynamics characteristic of wave turbulence. This allows us to distinguish between different kinetic scenarios in the classical regime. Within the accuracy of our simulations, the scaling behavior found is consistent with the ``bottom-up" thermalization scenario.

  8. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYZER CONFIGURATION AND PERFORMANCE ON HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2007-03-16

    Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

  9. The Chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx Process: A Review of the Technology's Possible Application to control of NOx from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, Richard

    2001-08-05

    This paper presents a review of the Thermal DeNOx process with respect to its application to control of NOx emissions from diesel engines. The chemistry of the process is discussed first in empirical and then theoretical terms. Based on this discussion the possibilities of applying the process to controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines is considered. Two options are examined, modifying the requirements of the chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx process to suit the conditions provided by diesel engines and modifying the engines to provide the conditions required by the process chemistry. While the former examination did not reveal any promising opportunities, the latter did. Turbocharged diesel engine systems in which the turbocharger is a net producer of power seem capable of providing the conditions necessary for NOx reduction via the Thermal DeNOx reaction.

  10. Nanocrystallization of LiCoO2 Cathodes for Thin Film Batteries Utilizing Pulse Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose focus is on the nanocrystallization of the LiCoO2 cathode thin films on polyimide substrates and evaluate the microstructural evolution and resistance as a function of PTP processing conditions.

  11. Controlled Thermal-Mechanical Processing of Tubes and Pipes for Enhanced Manufacturing and Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolarik, Robert V.

    2005-11-11

    The Alloy Steel Business of The Timken Company won an award for the controlled thermo-mechanical processing (CTMP) project and assembled a strong international public/private partnership to execute the project. The premise of the CTMP work was to combine Timken's product understanding with its process expertise and knowledge of metallurgical and deformation fundamentals developed during the project to build a predictive process design capability. The CTMP effort succeeded in delivering a pc-based capability in the tube optimization model, with a virtual pilot plant (VPP) feature to represent the desired tube making process to predict the resultant microstructure tailored for the desired application. Additional tasks included a system for direct, online measurement of grain size and demonstration of application of CTMP via robotically enhanced manufacturing.

  12. High-temperature microfluidic systems for thermally-efficient fuel processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arana, Leonel R

    2003-01-01

    Miniaturized fuel cell systems have the potential to outperform batteries in powering a variety of portable electronics. The key to this technology is the ability to efficiently process an easily-stored, energy-dense fuel. ...

  13. Thermal tolerant cellulase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  14. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of...

  15. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  16. Thermal tolerant mannanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant mannanase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  17. Heat to electricity thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, A A

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a new concept for the conversion of heat into electricity is presented. The conversion is based on the combined effects of a thermoacoustic prime mover coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic generator, using different working fluids in each process. The results of preliminary experiments are also presented.

  18. Heat to electricity thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Castrejon-Pita; G. Huelsz

    2006-10-12

    In this work, a new concept for the conversion of heat into electricity is presented. The conversion is based on the combined effects of a thermoacoustic prime mover coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic generator, using different working fluids in each process. The results of preliminary experiments are also presented.

  19. Limits in high efficiency quantum frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolás Quesada; J. E. Sipe

    2015-08-13

    Frequency conversion is an enabling process in many quantum information protocols. In this letter we study fundamental limits to high efficiency frequency conversion imposed by time ordering corrections. Using the Magnus expansion, we argue that these corrections, which are usually considered detrimental, can be used to increase the efficiency of conversion under certain circumstances. The corrections induce a nonlinear behaviour in the probability of upconversion as a function of the pump intensity, significantly modifying the sinusoidal Rabi oscillations that are otherwise expected. Finally, by using a simple scaling argument, we explain why cascaded frequency conversion devices attenuate time ordering corrections, allowing the construction of near ideal quantum pulse gates.

  20. Iron-Based Amorphous Coatings Produced by HVOF Thermal Spray Processing-Coating Structure and Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beardsley, M B

    2008-03-26

    The feasibility to coat large SNF/HLW containers with a structurally amorphous material (SAM) was demonstrated on sub-scale models fabricated from Type 316L stainless steel. The sub-scale model were coated with SAM 1651 material using kerosene high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) torch to thicknesses ranging from 1 mm to 2 mm. The process parameters such as standoff distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow, were optimized in order to improve the corrosion properties of the coatings. Testing in an electrochemical cell and long-term exposure to a salt spray environment were used to guide the selection of process parameters.

  1. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-03-30

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors.

  2. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    solar energy conversion .This new paradigm of solar energy conversion, based on theon this field, solar energy conversion aimed at photovoltaic

  3. Sandia Energy - Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wavelength Conversion Materials Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Overview Wavelength Conversion Materials Wavelength Conversion MaterialsAlyssa...

  4. A fast hybrid start-up process for thermally self-sustained catalytic n-butane reforming in micro-SOFC power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    A fast hybrid start-up process for thermally self-sustained catalytic n-butane reforming in micro at the investigation and optimization of a hybrid start-up process for a self-sustained reactor for n-butane to syngas

  5. 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1/124 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium (Introduction to Thermodynamics) Ron and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland 2/124 3.1: Energy Åbo Akademi University | Thermal and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland #12;3/124 What is energy? /1 "Energy is any quantity that changes

  6. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, David G.

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale ...

  7. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    environmentally sound method of using thermal energy storageconcept of thermal energy of energy conversion methods tothermal energy, particularly cavern storage, appears to offer a promising near-term method

  8. Thermoelectrics and aerogels for solar energy conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEnaney, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about climate change, the world's growing energy needs, and energy independence are driving demand for solar energy conversion technologies. Solar thermal electricity generation has the potential to ll this demand. ...

  9. Study of the effect of plasma-striking atmosphere on Fe-oxidation in thermal dc arc-plasma processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, I.; Khollam, Y. B.; Mahapatra, S. K.; Das, A. K.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of plasma-striking atmosphere: air and air+Ar-gas on the crystallization of Fe-oxide phases was studied using dc thermal arc-plasma processing route. The powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, transmission electron microscopy, and Moessbauer spectroscopy techniques. At room temperature and O{sub 2} rich atmosphere, arc-evaporated Fe{sup 2+} ions oxidize into either {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} depending upon the combining ratio of Fe with molecular O{sub 2}. Fe/O ratio could be adjusted using proper flow rate of Ar gas to crystallize the pure {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  10. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1990-08-21

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications is disclosed. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  11. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1990-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  12. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B. (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)); Rivas, O. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1991-10-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  13. Recent development in process integration for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    conversion units - ORC-ORC thermally driven heat pumps - Hybrid SOFC-GT with CO2 separation - Hybrid SOFC

  14. Thermal and Economic Analyses of Energy Saving by Enclosing Gas Turbine Combustor Section 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Wang, T.; Day, B.

    2006-01-01

    of Energy Saving by Enclosing Gas Turbine Combustor Section Xianchang Li, Ting Wang Benjamin Day ? Research Engineer Professor Engineer Energy Conversion and Conservation Center Venice Natural Gas... a high-temperature area (500~560°F) at the combustor section of the GE Frame 5 gas turbine of Dynegy Gas Processing Plant at Venice, Louisiana. To improve the thermal efficiency and reduce energy cost, thermal and economic analyses are conducted...

  15. Photothermal investigation of the thermal shock behavior of alumina ceramics for engine components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Photothermal investigation of the thermal shock behavior of alumina ceramics for engine components of alumina ceramic materials (96% Al2O3/3% SiO2/0.9% MgO) treated by applying high temperature and high pressure, a process known as ASPRO conversion technology. Alumina ceramics subjected to ASPRO treatment

  16. Thermal Energy Storage/Heat Recovery and Energy Conservation in Food Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, R. S.; Boykin, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    this hot water to the plant drain, a heat A project conducted by the Georgia Tech exchanger was installed at the Gold Kist plant to Engineering Experiment Station to demonstrate preheat scald tank makeup water by screening, col waste heat recovery... in the Gold Kist, Inc. poultry lecting and pumping the overflow from the scald tank processing plant located in Ellijay, Georgia will through the heat exchanger counterflow to the incom 436 ESL-IE-80-04-83 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy...

  17. New insight into $nd\\rightarrow$ $^3H?$ process at thermal energy with pionless effective field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Moeini Arani; H. Nematollahi; N. Mahboubi; S. Bayegan

    2014-06-25

    We take a new look at the neutron radiative capture by a deuteron at thermal energy with the pionless effective field theory (EFT($\\pi\\!\\!\\!/$)) approach. We present in detail the calculation of $nd\\rightarrow$ $^3H\\gamma$ amplitudes for incoming doublet and quartet channels leading to the formation of a triton fully in the projection method based on the cluster-configuration space approach. In the present work, we consider all possible one-body and two-body photon interaction diagrams. In fact, additional diagrams that make significant changes in the results of the calculation of the total cross section in the $nd\\rightarrow$ $^3H\\gamma$ process are included in this study. The properly normalized triton wave function is calculated and taken into consideration. We compare the cross section of the dominant magnetic M1-transition of $nd\\rightarrow$ $^3H\\gamma$ up to next-to-next-to-leading order $\\textrm{N}^2\\textrm{LO}$ with the results of the previous model-dependent theoretical calculations and experimental data. The more acceptable results for cross section $\\sigma^{(2)}_{tot}=0.297\\;(\\textrm{LO})+0.124\\;(\\textrm{NLO})+0.048\\;(\\textrm{N}^2\\textrm{LO})=[0.469\\pm0.033]\\:\\textrm{mb}$ show order by order convergence and cutoff independence. No three-body currents are needed to renormalize observables up to $\\textrm{N}^2\\textrm{LO}$ in this process.

  18. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 31 for fourth quarter FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foral, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

  19. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 19 for first quarter FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foral, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

  20. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 23 for second quarter FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foral, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

  1. The National Conversion Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process.

  2. Amorphous oxide semiconductors are promising new materials for various optoelectronic applications. In this study, improved electrical and optical properties upon thermal and microwave processing of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors are promising new materials for various optoelectronic applications. In this study, improved electrical and optical properties upon thermal and microwave processing of mixed-oxide semiconductors are reported. First, arsenic-doped silicon was used as a model system to understand susceptor

  3. 12.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/32 4. Refrigeration process comparison;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    12.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/32 4 Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Kylteknik ("KYL and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/32 4.1 Refrigeration process comparison #12;12.11.2014Åbo

  4. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Partners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    them for specific reductive or energy-generating processes. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  5. Modeling Thermal-Hydrologic Processes for a Heated Fractured Rock System: Impact of a Capillary-Pressure Maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Y.; Buscheck, T. A.; Lee, K. H.; Hao, Y.; James, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    drift-scale thermal test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Lawrencemechanical analyses of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test–emplacement tunnels at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. Contam.

  6. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

  7. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  8. Oxidation Behavior of In-Flight Molten Aluminum Droplets in the Twin-Wire Electric Arc Thermal Spray Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Brian G. Williams

    2005-05-01

    This paper examines the in-flight oxidation of molten aluminum sprayed in air using the twin-wire electric arc (TWEA) thermal spray process. The oxidation reaction of aluminum in air is highly exothermic and is represented by a heat generation term in the energy balance. Aerodynamic shear at the droplet surface enhances the amount of in-flight oxidation by: (1) promoting entrainment and mixing of the surface oxides within the droplet, and (2) causing a continuous heat generation effect that increases droplet temperature over that of a droplet without internal circulation. This continual source of heat input keeps the droplets in a liquid state during flight. A linear rate law based on the Mott-Cabrera theory was used to estimate the growth of the surface oxide layer formed during droplet flight. The calculated oxide volume fraction of an average droplet at impact agrees well with the experimentally determined oxide content for a typical TWEA-sprayed aluminum coating, which ranges from 3.3 to 12.7%. An explanation is provided for the elevated, nearly constant surface temperature (~ 2000 oC) of the droplets during flight to the substrate and shows that the majority of oxide content in the coating is produced during flight, rather than after deposition.

  9. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  10. Transparency in nonlinear frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of wave scattering and the realization of transparency effects in engineered optical media and surfaces have attracted great attention in the past recent years. In this work the problem of transparency is considered for optical wave propagation in a nonlinear dielectric medium with second-order $\\chi^{(2)}$ susceptibility. Because of nonlinear interaction, a reference signal wave at carrier frequency $\\omega_1$ can exchange power, thus being amplified or attenuated,when phase matching conditions are satisfied and frequency conversion takes place. Therefore, rather generally the medium is not transparent to the signal wave because of 'scattering' in the frequency domain. Here we show that broadband transparency, corresponding to the full absence of frequency conversion in spite of phase matching, can be observed for the signal wave in the process of sum frequency generation whenever the effective susceptibility $\\chi^{(2)}$ along the nonlinear medium is tailored following a suitable spatial apodiza...

  11. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  12. Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9, CCTP; Dodson, Rustin

    1998-01-01

    UNIT 9: SPATIAL DATA CONVERSION Written by Rustin Dodson,Programs Page 1 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion freezingPrograms Page 2 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion Export USGS

  13. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  14. Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a next-generation thermionic solar energy conversion project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Stanford University, seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of photon-enhanced, microfabricated thermionic energy converters as a high-efficiency topping cycle for CSP electricity generation. With the potential to double the electricity output efficiency of solar-thermal power stations, this topping cycle application can significantly reduce the cost of solar-thermal electricity below that of the lowest-cost, fossil-fuel generated electricity.

  15. Solid-state power conversion handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarter, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    This new handbook is the first to be devoted to the field of solid-state power conversion. The material in this book is to be used in engineering practice and is oriented toward application rather than theory. The purpose of the book is to assemble in a single volume all the pertinent and comprehensive information necessary to meet the growing demands placed upon solid-state power conversion equipment. These demands include increased efficiency, improved reliability, higher packaging density, improved performance, and meeting safety and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements. The material presented includes a thorough analysis of fundamental electrical and magnetic aspects of power conversion plus thermal, protection, and reliability considerations. Attention is focused on semi-conductor and magnetic components and on analysis of various topologies. The handbook is organized into four sections. (1) Chapters 1-3 present the relations of various waveforms, transient components with emphasis on power semiconductors and magnetic components. (2) Chapters 4-12 deal with single-level conversion of rectifier circuits, filters, inverters and converters, feedback and stability analysis, and modulators and pulse-forming networks. (3) Chapters 13-16 discuss ancillary topics related to safety, EMC, thermal management, and reliability. (4) Chapters 17-19 cover design and operation of power supplies and systems from a detailed building block standpoint.

  16. Biochemical Conversion: Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-26

    This fact sheet describes the Bioenergy Technologies Office's biochemical conversion work and processes. BETO conducts collaborative research, development, and demonstration projects to improve several processing routes for the conversion of cellulosic biomass.

  17. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrderNATIONALof Energy Proceedings ofEnergy ProcessProcess

  18. DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RISØ and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RISØ) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

  19. Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

  20. Preparation of silica aerogels with improved mechanical properties and extremely low thermal conductivities through modified sol-gel process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Yanjia

    2010-01-01

    Reported silica aerogels have a thermal conductivity as low as 15 mW/mK. The fragility of silica aerogels, however, makes them impractical for structural applications. The purpose of the study is to improve the ductility ...

  1. Development of Spatio-Temporal Wavelet Post Processing Techniques for Application to Thermal Hydraulic Experiments and Numerical Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salpeter, Nathaniel

    2012-07-16

    This work focuses on both high fidelity experimental and numerical thermal hydraulic studies and advanced frequency decomposition methods. The major contribution of this work is a proposed method for spatio-temporal decomposition of frequencies...

  2. Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Volume 5 is organized under the following headings: Photovoltaics I, Photovoltaics II, Geothermal power, Thermochemical conversion of biomass, Energy from waste and biomass, Solar thermal systems for environmental applications, Solar thermal low temperature systems and components, Solar thermal high temperature systems and components, Wind systems, Space power sterling technology Stirling cooler developments, Stirling solar terrestrial I, Stirling solar terrestrial II, Stirling engine generator sets, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling engine loss understanding, Novel engine concepts, Coal conversion and utilization, Power cycles, MHD water propulsion I, Underwater vehicle powerplants - performance, MHD underwater propulsion II, Nuclear power, Update of advanced nuclear power reactor concepts.

  3. Energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F.E.

    1981-06-30

    A thermal-mechanical energy converting device is disclosed that has at least two rotatably supported wheels and with one or more endless transmission elements of a material having a memory effect capable in the bending mode of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy when heated from a temperature below its transition temperature to a temperature above its transition temperature; the transmission elements serve to drive one wheel from the other wheel upon application of thermal energy to the transmission elements, whereby the thermal energy is transferred from the other wheel to the transmission elements over at least a major portion of the circumferential contact of the transmission elements with the other wheel.

  4. Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

  5. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  6. Numerical Study Of Melted Particles Crush Metallic Substrates And The Interaction Between Particles And A Plasma Beam In The Thermal Projection Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriba, Ilhem; Djebaili, A.

    2008-09-23

    Plasma spray processes have been widely used to produce high performance coatings of a wide range of Materials (metallic, non-metallic, ceramics), offering protection from, eg. wear, extreme temperature, chemical attack and environmental corrosion. To obtain good quality coatings, spray parameters must be carefully selected. Due to the large variety in process parameters, it is difficult to optimize the process for each specific coating and substrate combinations. Furthermore modelling the spray process allows a better understanding of the process sequences during thermal spraying. Good agreement of the virtual spraying process with the real coating formation is achieved by modelling the particular process steps. The simulation of coating formation to estimate the process parameters is an important tool to develop new coating structures with defined properties. In this work, the process of plasma sprayed coating has been analyzed by numerical simulation. Commercial code is used to predict the plasma jet characteristics, plasma--particle interaction, and coating formation. Using this model we can obtain coating microstructure and characteristics which form a foundation for further improvement of an advanced ceramic coating build up model.

  7. Thermal stability of nano-structured selective emitters for thermophotovoltaic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Heon Ju, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in solar-thermal-electrical energy conversion is the thermal stability of materials and devices at high operational temperatures. This study focuses on the thermal stability of tungsten selective ...

  8. The United States pit disassembly and conversion project -- Meeting the MOX fuel specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, T.O.; James, C.A.; Kolman, D.G.

    1998-12-31

    The US is actively involved in demonstrating the disassembly of nuclear weapons pits to an unclassified form readied for disposition. The MOX option is the most likely path forward for plutonium that originated from nuclear weapon pits. The US demonstration line for pit disassembly and conversion is known as ARIES, the advanced recovery and integrated extraction system. The ARIES demonstration line is being used to gather data in an integrated fashion of the technologies needed for pit disassembly and conversion. These activities include the following modules: pit bisection, hydride-dehydride, oxide conversion, canning, electrolytic decontamination, and nondestructive assay (NDA). Pit bisection swages in a pit in half. Hydride-dehydride converts the pit plutonium metal to an unclassified metal button. To convert the plutonium metal to an oxide the US is investigating a number of options. The primary oxide conversion approach involves variations of combining plutonium hydriding and subsequent oxidation. Another approach is to simply oxidize the metal under controlled conditions-direct metal oxidation (DMO). To remove the gallium from the plutonium oxide, a thermal distillation approach is being used. These pyrochemical approaches will substantially reduce the wastes produced for oxide conversion of weapon plutonium, compared to traditional aqueous processing. The packaging of either the plutonium metal or oxide to long term storage criteria involves the canning and electrolytic decontamination modules. The NDA suite of instruments is then used to assay the material in the containers, which enables international verification without the need to open the containers and repackage them. All of these processes are described.

  9. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel Electrode Valence Band Conduction Band Fermi Level I- /I3 - Redox Potential Dye 1D 3D* 1D* Energy Levels Counter Electrode Valence Band Conduction Band Fermi Level I- /I3 - Redox Potential Dye 1D 3D* 1D* Energy

  10. ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    , 5th Edition Michael J. Moran and Howard N. Shapiro, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, NY, 2004, John Willey 2010. 3) Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, by B.K. Hodge, John Willey 2010. 41 ENSC 461 ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011 Instructor: Dr. Majid Bahrami 4372 Email

  11. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  12. Analysis of a direct energy conversion system using medium energy helium ions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse James

    2006-08-16

    A scaled direct energy conversion device was built to convert kinetic energy of singly ionized helium ions into an electric potential by the process of direct conversion. The experiments in this paper aimed to achieve higher potentials and higher...

  13. Laboratory Scale Dip-Coating and Vacuum Conversion of Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratory Scale Dip-Coating and Vacuum Conversion of Solution Deposited YBCO SANDIA NATIONAL) and $100K (ORNL) #12;FY 2003 Plans · Develop rapid solvent pyrolysis for the TFA-YBCO dip-coating process · Demonstrate continuous dip coating and solvent pyrolysis for meter length tapes · Investigate the conversion

  14. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  15. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, S.D.

    1997-10-14

    A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO{sub 2} are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO{sub 2} present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs.

  16. Processing and Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvesting inServices »About UsAboutManagement »

  17. Wind energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longrigg, Paul (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  18. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

  19. Computer code in support of the manuscript "Phase field model for coupled displacive and diffusive microstructural processes under thermal loading"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, G N; Maraldi, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info heat_treatment_solver.py.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 14746 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name heat_treatment_solver.py.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 """This... T = 2.0e-2 # thermal conductivity delta = case_data['delta'] # heat boundary flux coefficient T_ext = case_data['T_ext'] # external temperature # Mechanical parameters rho = 5.0e-7 # solid mass density eta = 5.0e-8 # viscous stress parameter # Mass...

  20. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850��������C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys���¢�������� weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation on Cr-carbide on the graphite surface. Ni-electroplating dramatically reduced corrosion of alloys, although some diffusion of Fe and Cr were observed occur through the Ni plating. A pyrolytic carbon and SiC (PyC/SiC) CVD coating was also investigated and found to be effective in mitigating corrosion. The KCl-MgCl2 molten salt was less corrosive than FLiNaK fluoride salts for corrosion tests performed at 850oC. Cr dissolution in the molten chloride salt was still observed and consequently Ni-201 and Hastelloy N exhibited the least depth of attack. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (as measured by weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. Because Cr dissolution is an important mechanism of corrosion, molten salt electrochemistry experiments were initiated. These experiments were performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Using this technique, the reduction potential of Cr was determined against a Pt quasi-reference electrode as well as against a Ni(II)-Ni reference electrode in molten FLiNaK at 650 oC. The integrated current increased linearly with Cr-content in the salt, providing for a direct assessment of the Cr concentration in a given salt of unknown Cr concentration. To study heat transfer mechanisms in these molten salts over the forced and mixed convection regimes, a forced convective loop was constructed to measure heat transfer coefficients, friction factors and corrosion rates in different diameter tubes in a vertical up flow configuration in the laminar flow regime. Equipment and instrumentation for the forced convective loop was designed, constructed, and tested. These include a high temperature centrifugal pump, mass flow meter, and differential pressure sensing capabilities to an uncertainty of < 2 Pa. The heat transfer coefficient for the KCl-MgCl2 salt was measured in t

  1. A Personalized System for Conversational Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goker, M H; Thompson, C A; 10.1613/jair.1318

    2011-01-01

    Searching for and making decisions about information is becoming increasingly difficult as the amount of information and number of choices increases. Recommendation systems help users find items of interest of a particular type, such as movies or restaurants, but are still somewhat awkward to use. Our solution is to take advantage of the complementary strengths of personalized recommendation systems and dialogue systems, creating personalized aides. We present a system -- the Adaptive Place Advisor -- that treats item selection as an interactive, conversational process, with the program inquiring about item attributes and the user responding. Individual, long-term user preferences are unobtrusively obtained in the course of normal recommendation dialogues and used to direct future conversations with the same user. We present a novel user model that influences both item search and the questions asked during a conversation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system in significantly reducing the time and nu...

  2. Development and Analysis of Advanced High-Temperature Technology for Nuclear Heat Transport and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Per F. Peterson

    2010-03-01

    This project by the Thermal Hydraulics Research Laboratory at U.C. Berkeley Studied advanced high-temperature heat transport and power conversion technology, in support of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative and Generation IV.

  3. Evaluation of ethane as a power conversion system working fluid for fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    A supercritical ethane working fluid Brayton power conversion system is evaluated as an alternative to carbon dioxide. The HSC® chemical kinetics code was used to study thermal dissociation and chemical interactions for ...

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF AN {sup 84}Sr-DEPLETED CARRIER IN PRIMITIVE METEORITES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THERMAL PROCESSING IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paton, Chad; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin E-mail: schiller@snm.ku.dk

    2013-02-01

    The existence of correlated nucleosynthetic heterogeneities in solar system reservoirs is now well demonstrated for numerous nuclides. However, it has proven difficult to discriminate between the two disparate processes that can explain such correlated variability: incomplete mixing of presolar material or secondary processing of a well-mixed disk. Using stepwise acid-leaching of the Ivuna CI-chondrite, we show that unlike other nuclides such as {sup 54}Cr and {sup 50}Ti, Sr-isotope variability is the result of a carrier depleted in {sup 84}Sr. The carrier is most likely presolar SiC, which is known to have both high Sr-concentrations relative to solar abundances and extremely depleted {sup 84}Sr compositions. Thus, variability in {sup 84}Sr in meteorites and their components can be attributed to varying contributions from presolar SiC. The observed {sup 84}Sr excesses in calcium-aluminum refractory inclusions (CAIs) suggest their formation from an SiC-free gaseous reservoir, whereas the {sup 84}Sr depletions present in differentiated meteorites require their formation from material with an increased concentration of SiC relative to CI chondrites. The presence of a positive correlation between {sup 84}Sr and {sup 54}Cr, despite being hosted in carriers of negative and positive anomalies, respectively, is not compatible with incomplete mixing of presolar material but instead suggests that the solar system's nucleosynthetic heterogeneity reflects selective thermal processing of dust. Based on vaporization experiments of SiC under nebular conditions, the lack of SiC material in the CAI-forming gas inferred from our data requires that the duration of thermal processing of dust resulting in the vaporization of CAI precursors was extremely short-lived, possibly lasting only hours to days.

  5. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  6. The effects of thermal processing on properties of fundamental food polymers in commercial Asian and experimental sorghum noodles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach, Michelle R

    2013-02-22

    Processing variables of 100% sorghum noodles were evaluated. A dough was made, extruded to create noodles then dried. Structural, physical, and cooking characteristics of the experimental sorghum noodles, as well as thin ...

  7. Evaluation and Optimization of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Conversion Cycle for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-05-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550°C and 750°C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550°C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550°C versus 850°C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression Cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550°C and 750°C. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the critical point. The UniSim model was then optimized to maximize the power cycle thermal efficiency at the different maximum power cycle operating temperatures. The results of the analyses showed that power cycle thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved.

  8. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    one-day workshop focused on new materials and processes for overcoming the Shockley-Queisser limit of solar energy conversion efficiency. event website download flyer 05.23.12...

  9. Energy conversion Subject Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greff, Isabelle

    The purpose of this course is to study the different ways of converting energy resources into useful energy thermal energy system. Wave energy: available resource, Wave energy converters (Oscillating water column from geothermal resources. Efficiency of power production from geothermal resources, economic aspects

  10. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    webinarcarbohydratesproduction.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

  11. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels...

  12. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conversion Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lawrence Berkeley...

  13. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  14. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  15. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  16. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.N.

    1986-10-14

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

  17. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); LaPointe, M.A. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Ganguly, A. K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.

  19. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _LBL-11902 UC-61a BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

  20. Moderate pressure hydrocracking: A profitable conversion alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, M.G. (M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Pappal, D.A. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)); Pesek, C.L. (Akzo Chemicals, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Moderate Pressure Hydrocracking (MPHC) is a once-through hydrocracking process for the conversion of heavy gas oils to low-sulfur distillates and unconverted oil which is highly upgraded relative to the raw feed. Operating at lower pressure significantly reduces capital investment and results in substantially less hydrogen consumption. Furthermore, the process requirements for MPHC are within the range of many existing vacuum gas oil desulfurization units. Mobil Research and Development Corporation and Akzo Chemicals have been actively engaged in Moderate Pressure Hydrocracking research for more than ten years. Mobil's first commercial MPHC installation was successfully started up in 1983. Mobil operates five hydrocrackers, two of which are partial conversion MPHC designs that process heavy vacuum gas oils into middle distillate products. This research and operating experience has led to an advanced capability to apply hydrocracking conversion technology to heavy feedstocks under moderate pressure conditions. Akzo has commercialized a family of hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts which are combined to achieve the optimal balance between activity and selectivity for each specific refining application. The M.W. Kellogg Co. is a leading technology based international Engineering Construction company and has experience in the design, engineering and construction of 22 hydrocrackers. Mobil, Akzo and Kellogg have formed a partnership to offer MAK-MPHC and other full conversion hydrocracking technologies for license to the refining industry. This paper will present pilot plant and commercial results for Akzo catalysts in Moderate Pressure Hydrocracking applications. Specific process design features, typical refinery applications and the economic incentives for selecting MAK-MPHC will also be discussed.

  1. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  2. Thermal radiation Ron Zevenhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .00032, similarly for 2·T = 0.7·2500 = 1750 µmK4 this gives f0-2 = 0.03392. Thus for 0.4 - 0.7 µm, f1-2 = 0Thermal radiation revisited Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Process Engineering

  3. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koh, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    thermal energy from evaporation and the energy imparted by the ionization process.energy imparted into the isolated ion pair upon thermal vaporization and minimizes reactive processes.

  4. Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Presentation...

  5. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  6. Thermal, tensile and rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) processed and irradiated by gamma-ray in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferreto, H. F. R. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, A. C. F. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Parra, D. F. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Lugão, A. B. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Gaia, R.

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate structural changes of high density polyethylene (HDPE) modified by ionizing radiation (gamma rays) in different atmospheres. The gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals which can induce chain scission or recombination, providing its annihilation, branching or crosslinking. This polymer was irradiated with gamma source of {sup 60}Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h. The changes in molecular structure of HDPE, after gamma irradiations were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile machine and oscillatory rheology. The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the dose at each atmosphere.

  7. Using Heat and Chemistry to Make Products, Fuels, and Power: Thermochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    Information about the Biomass Program's collaborative projects exploring thermochemical conversion processes that use heat and chemistry to convert biomass into a liquid or gaseous intermediate.

  8. Asia/Pacific refineries spark growth in conversion capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-12-18

    Led by refiners in the Asia/Pacific region, worldwide capacity for conversion processes, such as fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, and coking, increased at a faster pace this year than did crude oil distillation capacity. Crude capacity showed only a small gain of 0.4% to 74.5 million b/d according to the Journal`s most recent survey of refining capacity. This article summarizes data from the survey on the largest refiners, capacities, conversion processes, fuel processes, processing comparison, and refinery size.

  9. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siamidis, John [Thermal Energy Conversion Branch, Analex Corporation, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH, 44135 (United States); Mason, Lee [Thermal Energy Conversion Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH, 44135 (United States)

    2006-01-20

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H2O for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed excel analytical model, HRS{sub O}pt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids.

  10. Catalytic conversion of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

  11. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of gas hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburg, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburg, PA); Bockrath, Bradley C. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method for converting methane hydrates to methanol, as well as hydrogen, through exposure to light. The process includes conversion of methane hydrates by light where a radical initiator has been added, and may be modified to include the conversion of methane hydrates with light where a photocatalyst doped by a suitable metal and an electron transfer agent to produce methanol and hydrogen. The present invention operates at temperatures below 0.degree. C., and allows for the direct conversion of methane contained within the hydrate in situ.

  12. Optical characterization of thermal transport from the nanoscale to the macroscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    The thermal properties of thin films and material interfaces play an important role in many technologies such as microelectronics and solid-state energy conversion. This thesis examines the characterization of thermal ...

  13. Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  14. World crude capacity, conversion capability inch upward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-12-19

    Reported world crude capacity increased almost 1 million b/d, while conversion processes--fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydrocracking, coking--increased more than 1.7 million b/d or 8.3%, according to the Journal's most recent survey of world refining capacity. As a measure of capacity growth in the past year, changes in distillation capacities (atmospheric plus vacuum) were calculated for three major refining regions. The year-to-year comparison indicates: for the US, an increase of 293,000 b/d, or 1.3%; for the European Economic Community (E.E.C.), an increase of 431,000 b/d, or 2.6%; and for Asia/Pacific, excluding China, an increase of 122,000 b/d, or 1.1%. In addition to the compiled data the paper describes the survey layout, regional changes, conversion units, hydroprocessing, company size, oxygenates, and construction.

  15. Sandia Energy - Tutorial on FMEA Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tutorial on FMEA Process Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics PV Systems Reliability Tutorial on FMEA Process Tutorial on FMEA ProcessTara...

  16. Lithium modified zeolite synthesis for conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayoub, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.ayoub@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi, E-mail: chzuhairi@usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Inayat, Abrar, E-mail: abrar.inayat@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Basic zeolite has received significant attention in the catalysis community. These zeolites modified with alkaline are the potential replacement for existing zeolite catalysts due to its unique features with added advantages. The present paper covers the preparation of lithium modified zeolite Y (Li-ZeY) and its activity for solvent free conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol via etherification process. The modified zeolite was well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen Adsorption. The SEM images showed that there was no change in morphology of modified zeolite structure after lithium modification. XRD patterns showed that the structure of zeolite was sustained after lithium modification. The surface properties of parent and modified zeolite was also observed N{sub 2} adsortion-desorption technique and found some changes in surface area and pore size. In addition, the basic strength of prepared materials was measured by Hammet indicators and found that basic strength of Li-ZeY was highly improved. This modified zeolite was found highly thermal stable and active heterogamous basic catalyst for conversion of solvent free glycerol to polyglycerol. This reaction was conducted at different temperatures and 260 °C was found most active temperature for this process for reaction time from 6 to 12 h over this basic catalyst in the absence of solvent.

  17. Novel, Integrated Reactor / Power Conversion System (LMR-AMTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pablo Rubiolo, Principal Investigator

    2003-03-21

    The main features of this project were the development of a long life (up to 10 years) Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) and a static conversion subsystem comprising an Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric (AMTEC) topping cycle and a ThermoElectric (TE) Bottom cycle. Various coupling options of the LMR with the energy conversion subsystem were explored and, base in the performances found in this analysis, an Indirect Coupling (IC) between the LMR and the AMTEC/TE converters with Alkali Metal Boilers (AMB) was chosen as the reference design. The performance model of the fully integrated sodium-and potassium-AMTEC/TE converters shows that a combined conversion efficiency in excess of 30% could be achieved by the plant. (B204)

  18. Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

    2009-01-01

    Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

  19. Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide Email conversations that include multiple replies and sent messages can be viewed simultaneously using Conversation View. In Exchange 2010 Outlook Web App

  20. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01

    include the choice of power cycle (open or closed), plat-both closed- and open-power cycles and 1~volve. land-based,

  1. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    of open and hybrid OTEC power cycles. Pages VII 45 - VII 67.6 ALTERNATIVES 6 • 1 POWER CYCLE 6.2 PLATFORM CONFIGURATION.features of a closed power cycle include: Release of trace

  2. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    Microgrid: A Conceptual Solution”, 35th Annul IEEE Power Elecrronics Specialisrs Conference (2004) [60] R.J. Krane, Energy Storage

  3. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    p 540 [99] D. Tanner, Renewable Energy, Vol. 6 (3), pp. 367-K. Mahkamov, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.S. Wongwises, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.

  4. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    3). The counties of Hawaii, Maui and Kauai, comprise 9%, 7%,POPULATION = 33,800) KAUAI HAWAII COUNTY -------. ; (Hawaii and Maui will increase to 10% to 12%, and 8% to 9%, respectively, and Kauai

  5. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    LIST OF FIGURES Fig.1.1. Schematic of the Organic Rankineis achieved by using Organic Rankine Cycle or Sterlingtechnologies such as Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) mahines,

  6. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    possible Plate-Type Heat Exchanger Estimated Relationshipseawater plate-type heat exchanger design is illustrated in6. One possible Plate Type Heat Exchanger Source: Berndt and

  7. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    U. M. Khan, Surface Electrochemistry, Springer, New York [Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 21, pp.1103- [15]M. Gamboa-Aldeco, Modern Electrochemistry 2A, 2 nd edition,

  8. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    This programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of OTEC technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization; it is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties.

  9. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    KILOMETERS () = FOSSIL GENERATING PLANT NUMBER WITHIN PLANTKaupo o () = FOSSIL GENERATING PLANT NUMBER WITHIN PLANTSea o = o FOSSIL GENERATING PLANT HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING

  10. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    fauna associated with offshore platforms in Mexico. Fish.aspects of siting OTEC plants offshore the United States onthe high seas, and offshore other countries. In G. L.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    fauna associated with offshore platforms in the northeasternaspects of siting OTEC plants offshore the United States onthe high seas, and offshore other countries. In G. L.

  12. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Mexico. Energy Research and Development Administration, Division of SolarMexico. Energy Research and Development Administration, Division of Solar

  13. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    a) Schematic of Sterling engine (b) P-V plot of the SterlingSterling engines. Organic Rankine Cycle or Sterling Engines. On the one hand,

  14. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Sperm whale E Dugong E Caribbean manatee Hawaiian monk sealCaribbean monk seal E E Northwest Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) E

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Caribbean Monachus schauinslandi Hawaiian monk seal EHawaiian Islands Monachus troeicalis Caribbean monk seal E

  16. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    manatee E Off Florida, Caribbean Hawaiian monk seal ENorthwest Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Caribbean monk seal E

  17. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    respectively; ? c is the Carnot cycle efficiency; and ? Z iswhere ? c = ?T/T h is the Carnot cycle limit and ? s is theT of LGH is small, the Carnot cycle limit becomes low and,

  18. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    pumps. The numerous moving parts also increase the installation, operational, and maintenance costs.maintenance, and operational costs associated with the expensive supporting components and moving parts, such as pumps,

  19. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    as Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) mahines, Sterling engines,Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system or Sterling Engine (SE)an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system generates electricity

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) | Seawater Cooling - Depth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Author National Renewable Energy Laboratory Maintainer Nicholas Langle bureaucode 019:20 Catalog DOE harvestobjectid 3ba3acfd-d54a-4a3d-a971-1cf4ac97fcb0 harvestsourceid...

  1. Thermal-to-electric energy conversion using ferroelectric film capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyrev, A. B.; Platonov, R. A.; Soldatenkov, O. I. [Saint-Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, 5 Professor Popov Street, St-Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-28

    The capacitive ferroelectric thermoelectric converter harvesting electrical energy through non-linear capacitance variation caused by changes in temperature is analyzed. The ferroelectric material used was the thin (0.5??m) Ba{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 0.7}TiO{sub 3} film. On the basis of experimental dependencies of the ferroelectric film permittivity on temperature ranging from 100?K to 350?K under different electric fields up to 80?V/?m, the optimum values of operating temperatures and electric field for the energy harvesting optimization were determined. For the temperature oscillations of ±15?K around room temperature and electric field about 40?V/?m, the harvested energy was estimated as 30 mJ/cm{sup 3}. It is shown that the use of thin ferroelectric films for rapid capacitance variation versus temperature and microelectromechanical systems for fast temperature modulations may be a relevant solution for creation of small power scale generators for portable electronics.

  2. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    skipjack tuna, Katsuwonnus pelamis, in an offshore area oflittle tuna), Katsuwonus pelamis (skipj ack), spp. ,

  3. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    various types of Stirling engine have been developed, whichThermogalvanic cell Stirling Engine ORC Internal Combustionof Sterling engine [17] year inventor Robert Stirling John

  4. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    to electrical energy by turbine engines. Organic Rankineheat and rotating turbine engines. Figure 1.1 is a schematicthe gas stream rotates the turbine engine. The gas stream is

  5. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    treatment As above eFederal Aviation Administration Heliport licensing Point source discharge See Safety/Health Section 5 Federal Water Pollution

  6. NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name:NREL's RenewableOpenOcean

  7. News - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide captureTransportationCSTEC Newsletters Fall 2013

  8. News - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide captureTransportationCSTEC Newsletters Fall

  9. Papers Published - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxideUser Careers/Research TeamArchival, Peer-Reviewed

  10. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashomeResearchResearch

  11. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashomeResearchResearchIn the

  12. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashomeResearchResearchIn theWe

  13. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashomeResearchResearchIn theWeThe

  14. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment Top LDRDUniversitySchedulesScience Highlights

  15. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce CarbonEnergyDepartment13Department of EnergyMEAs

  16. Advisory Board - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery Act RecoveryTechnologies |AppliancesWater

  17. Contact - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecoveryplanningCoalSocial mediahome / Contact To contact

  18. Directors - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find what you were lookingAboutDirectorAssociate Directors Prof.

  19. Directors - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find what you were lookingAboutDirectorAssociate Directors

  20. Facilities - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGasEnergy Technologies | Blandinenewsand Privacy

  1. Investigators - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat PumpsfacilityviaGasfor Gasdiffusivities

  2. Management Council - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat PumpsTechnologiesTechnologies

  3. Welcome - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonforsupernovae modelsearch this siteSearch Go! US ITER ABOUT

  4. Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographic courtesy of the White House. PushingLoanRulemakingof

  5. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque| Stanford SynchrotronVideo-ContestHighlights High Energy0 Click

  6. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque| Stanford SynchrotronVideo-ContestHighlights High Energy0 Click1

  7. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque| Stanford SynchrotronVideo-ContestHighlights High Energy0 Click12

  8. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque| Stanford SynchrotronVideo-ContestHighlights High Energy0

  9. Tidal Conversion by Supercritical Topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balmforth, Neil J.

    Calculations are presented of the rate of energy conversion of the barotropic tide into internal gravity waves above topography on the ocean floor. The ocean is treated as infinitely deep, and the topography consists of ...

  10. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, BasicS. Pillai and M. A. Green, Solar Energy Materials and SolarPlasmonic conversion of solar energy César Clavero Plasma

  11. Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion March 23, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Jim Collett and Mark Butcher PNNL This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

  12. Unit Conversions and Formulas to Know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rroames

    2007-12-06

    Math 139. Unit Conversions and Formulas to Memorize. Fall 2007. Unit Conversions to know: 1 foot = 12 inches. 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters. 1 yard = 3 feet.

  13. THERMALLY ACTIVATED MARTENSITE: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO NON-THERMALLY ACTIVATED (ATHERMAL) MARTENSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    THERMALLY ACTIVATED MARTENSITE: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO NON-THERMALLY ACTIVATED (ATHERMAL) MARTENSITE Keywords: Thermal Activation, Isothermal, Athermal, Activation Energy Abstract The classification of no thermal activation. Processes with no thermal activation do not depend on time, as there is no need

  14. Room-temperature thermally induced relaxation effect in a two-dimensional cyano-bridged Cu-Mo bimetal assembly and thermodynamic analysis of the relaxation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umeta, Yoshikazu; Ozaki, Noriaki; Tokoro, Hiroko; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2013-04-15

    We observed a photo-switching effect in [Cu{sup II}(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclodecane)]{sub 2}[Mo{sup IV}(CN){sub 8}]{center_dot}10H{sub 2}O by irradiation with 410-nm light around room temperature using infrared spectroscopy. This photo-switching is caused by the photo-induced charge transfer from Mo{sup IV} to Cu{sup II}. The photo-induced phase thermally relaxed to the initial phase with a half-life time of 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1}, 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1}, and 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} s at 293, 283, and 273 K, respectively. The relaxation process was analyzed using Hauser's equation, k=k{sub 0}exp[-(E{sub a}+E{sub a}{sup *}{gamma}) /k{sub B}T], where k is the rate constant of relaxation, k{sub 0} is the frequency factor, E{sub a} is the activation energy, E{sub a}{sup *} is the additional activation energy due to the cooperativity, and {gamma} is the fraction of the photo-induced phase. k{sub 0}, E{sub a}, and E{sub a}{sup *} were evaluated as 1.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}{+-} 2.6 s{sup -1}, 4002 {+-} 188 cm{sup -1}, and 546 {+-} 318 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The value of E{sub a} is much larger than that of the relaxation process for the typical light-induced spin crossover effect (E{sub a} Almost-Equal-To 1000 cm{sup -1}). Room-temperature photo-switching is an important issue in the field of optical functional materials. The present system is useful for the demonstration of high-temperature photo-switching material.

  15. Investigation of nanoscale thermal radiation : theory and experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanaswamy, Arvind

    2007-01-01

    The ability to control the radiative properties of objects is of prime importance in diverse areas like solar and thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, narrowband thermal emitters, and camouflage in military applications. ...

  16. Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwak, Yunki

    2010-10-12

    Thermal properties of one dimensional nanostructures are of interest for thermoelectric energy conversion. Thermoelectric efficiency is related to non dimensional thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT=S^2 o T/k, where S ,o , k and T are Seebeck...

  17. Solar-thermal reaction processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W; Dahl, Jaimee K; Lewandowski, Allan A; Bingham, Carl; Raska Buechler, Karen J; Grothe, Willy

    2014-03-18

    In an embodiment, a method of conducting a high temperature chemical reaction that produces hydrogen or synthesis gas is described. The high temperature chemical reaction is conducted in a reactor having at least two reactor shells, including an inner shell and an outer shell. Heat absorbing particles are included in a gas stream flowing in the inner shell. The reactor is heated at least in part by a source of concentrated sunlight. The inner shell is heated by the concentrated sunlight. The inner shell re-radiates from the inner wall and heats the heat absorbing particles in the gas stream flowing through the inner shell, and heat transfers from the heat absorbing particles to the first gas stream, thereby heating the reactants in the gas stream to a sufficiently high temperature so that the first gas stream undergoes the desired reaction(s), thereby producing hydrogen or synthesis gas in the gas stream.

  18. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  19. Interfacial electron and phonon scattering processes in high-powered nanoscale applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2011-10-01

    The overarching goal of this Truman LDRD project was to explore mechanisms of thermal transport at interfaces of nanomaterials, specifically linking the thermal conductivity and thermal boundary conductance to the structures and geometries of interfaces and boundaries. Deposition, fabrication, and post possessing procedures of nanocomposites and devices can give rise to interatomic mixing around interfaces of materials leading to stresses and imperfections that could affect heat transfer. An understanding of the physics of energy carrier scattering processes and their response to interfacial disorder will elucidate the potentials of applying these novel materials to next-generation high powered nanodevices and energy conversion applications. An additional goal of this project was to use the knowledge gained from linking interfacial structure to thermal transport in order to develop avenues to control, or 'tune' the thermal transport in nanosystems.

  20. Methane conversion to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, R.D.; Falconer, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane. The specific goals are to demonstrate that we can improve product yield, demonstrate the optimal conditions for membrane reactor operation, determine the transport properties of the membrane, and provide demonstration of the process at the pilot plant scale. The last goal will be performed by Unocal, Inc., our industrial partner, upon successful completion of this study.

  1. Methane conversion to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, R.D.; Falconer, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane. The specific goals are to demonstrate that we can improve product yield, demonstrate the optimal conditions for membrane reactor operation, determine the transport properties of the membrane, and provide demonstration of the process at the pilot plant scale. The last goal will be performed by Unocal, Inc., our industrial partner, upon successful completion of this study.

  2. Thermal Flipping of Interstellar Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph C. Weingartner

    2008-08-27

    In interstellar dust grains, internal processes dissipate rotational kinetic energy. The dissipation is accompanied by thermal fluctuations, which transfer energy from the vibrational modes to rotation. Together, these processes are known as internal relaxation. For the past several years, internal relaxation has been thought to give rise to thermal flipping, with profound consequences for grain alignment theory. I show that thermal flipping is not possible in the limit that the inertia tensor does not vary with time.

  3. Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal 21st August - 2nd September 2011 on the principles of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be complemented with practical workshops of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be comple- mented with practical workshops

  4. Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The lattice thermal conductivities ( ) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure, P, using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of . This anomalous P dependence of arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. This work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.

  5. Photonic Crystals for Enhancing Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LIN, SHAWN-YU; FLEMING, JAMES G.; MORENO, JOSEPH A.

    2003-03-01

    Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) converts the radiant energy of a thermal source into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells. TPV has a number of attractive features, including: fuel versatility (nuclear, fossil, solar, etc.), quiet operation, low maintenance, low emissions, light weight, high power density, modularity, and possibility for cogeneration of heat and electricity. Some of these features are highly attractive for military applications (Navy and Army). TPV could also be used for distributed power and automotive applications wherever fuel cells, microturbines, or cogeneration are presently being considered if the efficiencies could be raised to around 30%. This proposal primarily examine approaches to improving the radiative efficiency. The ideal irradiance for the PV cell is monochromatic illumination at the bandgap. The photonic crystal approach allows for the tailoring of thermal emission spectral bandwidth at specific wavelengths of interest. The experimental realization of metallic photonic crystal structures, the optical transmission, reflection and absorption characterization of it have all been carried out in detail and will be presented next. Additionally, comprehensive models of TPV conversion has been developed and applied to the metallic photonic crystal system.

  6. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Thermochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details the accomplishments of the Biomass Program Thermochemical Conversion Platform in 2007.

  7. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Biochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details accomplishments of the Biomass Program Biochemical Conversion Platform accomplishments in 2007.

  8. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant capabilities and resources at NREL.

  9. Thermophotovoltaic conversion using selective infrared line emitters and large band gap photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandhorst, Jr., Henry W. (Auburn, AL); Chen, Zheng (Auburn, AL)

    2000-01-01

    Efficient thermophotovoltaic conversion can be performed using photovoltaic devices with a band gap in the 0.75-1.4 electron volt range, and selective infrared emitters chosen from among the rare earth oxides which are thermally stimulated to emit infrared radiation whose energy very largely corresponds to the aforementioned band gap. It is possible to use thermovoltaic devices operating at relatively high temperatures, up to about 300.degree. C., without seriously impairing the efficiency of energy conversion.

  10. Conversion of above- and below-bandgap photons via InAs quantum dot media embedded into GaAs solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sablon, K.; Little, J. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Vagidov, N. [Optoelectronic Nanodevices LLC, Amherst, New York 14226 (United States); Li, Y.; Mitin, V.; Sergeev, A. [EE Department, University at Buffalo—SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    Quantum dots (QDs) provide photovoltaic conversion of below-bandgap photons due to multistep electron transitions. QDs also increase conversion efficiency of the above-bandgap photons due to extraction of electrons from QDs via Coulomb interaction with hot electrons excited by high-energy photons. Nanoscale potential profile (potential barriers) and nanoscale band engineering (AlGaAs atomically thin barriers) allow for suppression of photoelectron capture to QDs. To study these kinetic effects and to distinguish them from the absorption enhancement due to light scattering on QDs, we investigate long, 3-?m base GaAs devices with various InAs QD media with 20 and 40 QD layers. Quantum efficiency measurements show that, at least at low doping, the multistep processes in QD media are strongly affected by the wetting layer (WL). The QD media with WLs provide substantial conversion of below-bandgap photons and for devices with 40 QD layers the short circuit current reaches 29.2?mA/cm{sup 2}. The QD media with band-engineered AlGaAs barriers and reduced wetting layers (RWL) enhance conversion of high-energy photons and decrease the relaxation (thermal) losses.

  11. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 22, 980986 (2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    in their temperature. The results have consequences for thermally sensitive hydroecological processes and implications, especially when several sources of thermal energy are present, such as groundwater flow (Webb and Zhang, 1999 complexity in thermal regimes of surface water and their implications for ecological processes. A useful

  12. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Kaufman, A. N. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tracy, E. R. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  13. Energy Conversion and Storage Program. 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  14. Direct conversion technology: Annual summary report CY 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Bankston, C.P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L.D.

    1988-12-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown. These tabulations are included herein as figures. 43 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  15. MUTUAL CONVERSION SOLAR AND SIDEREAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roegel, Denis

    TABLES FOR THE MUTUAL CONVERSION OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TIME BY EDWARD SANG, F.R.S.E. EDINBURGH in the third example. Sang converts 3.27 seconds of solar time into 3.26 seconds of sidereal time. But sidereal time elapses faster than solar time, and the correct value is 3.28 sec- onds. In the fourth example

  16. Rationality and Conversation: A Thesis on Grice’s Theory of Conversation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoolfield, Matthew D

    2007-11-27

    H. P. Grice first presented his theory of conversational implicature in “Logic and Conversation.” This theory is comprised of conversational maxims that are based on the Cooperative Principle. Since then, it has become ...

  17. Thermal imaging of plasma with a phased array antenna in QUEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Kishore, E-mail: mishra@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Nagata, K.; Akimoto, R.; Banerjee, S. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Onchi, T.; Kuzmin, A. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Yamamoto, M. K. [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A thermal imaging system to measure plasma Electron Bernstein Emission (EBE) emanating from the mode conversion region in overdense plasma is discussed. Unlike conventional ECE/EBE imaging, this diagnostics does not employ any active mechanical scanning mirrors or focusing optics to scan for the emission cones in plasma. Instead, a standard 3 × 3 waveguide array antenna is used as a passive receiver to collect emission from plasma and imaging reconstruction is done by accurate measurements of phase and intensity of these signals by heterodyne detection technique. A broadband noise source simulating the EBE, is installed near the expected mode conversion region and its position is successfully reconstructed using phase array technique which is done in post processing.

  18. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Shi-You (Golden, CO); Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    2009-05-26

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  19. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Shi-You (Golden, CO); Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    2008-04-29

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  20. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

  1. Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (S. Hamilton, MA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a .sup.196 Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

  2. Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.

    1993-06-01

    The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a [sup 196]Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

  3. MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

  4. Thermal desorption for passive dosimeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen-Chen

    1981-01-01

    recovery of styrene and improved precision when compared with thermal desorption. In addition, thermal desorption tended to breakdown sty- rene, which is vulnerable to heat. The breakdown product may interfere with the analysis results if thermal desorp... of the activation processes. (12, 1&) The first step in the production of activated carbon is carbonization, which is the formation of a char from a source material. The source materials may be coconut shells, peach pits, sawdust, wood char, etc ~ Carbonization...

  5. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  6. The Role of Thermal Energy Storage in Industrial Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications is a major thrust of the Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. Utilizing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with process or reject heat recovery systems has been shown to be extremely...

  7. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  8. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal models power density cost lifetime Advanced Thermal Interface Materials Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies Air Cooling Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  9. How e cient will the energy conversion e ciency of solar cells be in 2010?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakhor, Avideh

    How e cient will the energy conversion e ciency of solar cells be in 2010? When will Moore's Law conversion e ciency of solar cells be in 2010? When will Moore's Law end? Will handsets replace laptops and Embedded Systems 410 Soda Hall Video and Image Processing Lab 307 Cory Hall How e cient will the energy

  10. THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    97505 THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant

  11. Statistics of multiphoton events in spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wojciech Wasilewski; Czeslaw Radzewicz; Robert Frankowski; Konrad Banaszek

    2008-05-12

    We present an experimental characterization of the statistics of multiple photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion realized in a nonlinear medium pumped by high-energy ultrashort pulses from a regenerative amplifier. The photon number resolved measurement has been implemented with the help of a fiber loop detector. We introduce an effective theoretical description of the observed statistics based on parameters that can be assigned direct physical nterpretation. These parameters, determined for our source from the collected experimental data, characterize the usefulness of down-conversion sources in multiphoton interference schemes that underlie protocols for quantum information processing and communication.

  12. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  13. Weather Ready Nation: A Vital Conversation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weather Ready Nation: A Vital Conversation on Tornadoes and Severe Weather A Community Report March;WeatherReady Nation: A Vital Conversation on Tornadoes and Severe Weather Report from the December 2011

  14. Address conversion unit for multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fava, T.F.; Lary, R.F.; Blackledge, R.

    1987-03-03

    An address conversion unit is described for use in one processor in a multi-processor data processing system including a common memory, the processors and common memory being interconnected by a common bus including means for transferring address signals defining a common address space. The processor includes private bus means including means for transferring signals including address signals defining a private address space. A processor unit means is connected to the private bus means and includes means for transmitting and receiving signals including address signals over the private bus means for engaging in data transfers thereover. The address conversion unit is connected to the private bus means and common bus means for receiving address signals over the private bus means from the processor unit means in the private address space. The unit comprises: A. pointer storage means for storing a pointer identifying a portion of the common bus memory space; B. pointer generation means connected to receive a common bus address and for generating a pointer in response thereto for storage in the pointer storage means; and C. common bus address generation means connected to the private bus and the pointer storage means for receiving an address from the processor unit means and for generating a common bus address in response thereto. The common bus address is used to initiate transfers between the processor unit means and the common memory over the common bus.

  15. New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashima, Takumi; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Doi, Takuya ); Kamoshida, Junji ); Tani, Tatsuo ); Horigome, Takashi )

    1994-03-01

    One of the most effective methods of utilizing solar energy is to use the sunlight and solar thermal energy such as a photovoltaic-thermal panel (PV/T panel) simultaneously. From such a viewpoint, systems using various kinds of PV panels were constructed in the world. In these panels, solar cells are set up at an absorber collecting solar thermal energy. Therefore, temperature of solar cell increases up to the prescribed temperature of thermal energy use, although it is lower than the cell temperature when using only solar cell panel. For maintaining cell conversion efficiency at the standard conditions, it is necessary to keep the cell at lower temperature. In this paper, electric and thermal energy obtained form a PV/T panel is evaluated in terms of energy. BAsed on this evaluation, the method of not to decrease cell conversion efficiency with collecting solar thermal energy was proposed.

  16. Optomechanical conversion by mechanical turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kneževi?, Miloš; Warner, Mark

    2014-10-30

    has mov- ing parts gives it a disadvantage over conventional photo- voltaics, though rubber is highly durable and tough — for instance car tyres survive long use in harsh, abra- sive conditions. Another difficulty, that could perhaps be solved... ’effect du frottement dans l’equilibre,” Mem. Acad. Sci. , pp. 265 (1762). 7[14] L. R. G. Treloar, The Physics of Rubber Elasticity (Ox- ford University Press, Oxford, 2005). [15] M. Knez?evic´ and M. Warner, “Photoferroelectric solar to electrical conversion...

  17. Thermochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report15 MeetingDevelopmentDepartmentof EnergyTheConversion

  18. Research Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  19. Conversion of Nuclear Waste into Nuclear Waste Glass: Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hrma, Pavel

    2014-12-18

    The melter feed, slurry, or calcine charged on the top of a pool of molten glass forms a floating layer of reacting material called the cold cap. Between the cold-cap top, which is covered with boiling slurry, and its bottom, where bubbles separate it from molten glass, the temperature changes by up to 1000 K. The processes that occur over this temperature interval within the cold cap include liberation of gases, conduction and consumption of heat, dissolution of quartz particles, formation and dissolution of intermediate crystalline phases, and generation of foam and gas cavities. These processes have been investigated usingmore »thermal analyses, optical and electronic microscopies, x-ray diffraction, as well as other techniques. Properties of the reacting feed, such as heat conductivity and density, were measured as functions of temperature. Investigating the structure of quenched cold caps produced in a laboratory-scale melter complemented the crucible studies. The cold cap consists of two main layers. The top layer contains solid particles dissolving in the glass-forming melt and open pores through which gases are escaping. The bottom layer contains bubbly melt or foam where bubbles coalesce into larger cavities that move sideways and release the gas to the atmosphere. The feed-to-glass conversion became sufficiently understood for representing the cold-cap processes via mathematical models. These models, which comprise heat transfer, mass transfer, and reaction kinetics models, have been developed with the final goal to relate feed parameters to the rate of glass melting.« less

  20. Conversion of Nuclear Waste into Nuclear Waste Glass: Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel

    2014-12-18

    The melter feed, slurry, or calcine charged on the top of a pool of molten glass forms a floating layer of reacting material called the cold cap. Between the cold-cap top, which is covered with boiling slurry, and its bottom, where bubbles separate it from molten glass, the temperature changes by up to 1000 K. The processes that occur over this temperature interval within the cold cap include liberation of gases, conduction and consumption of heat, dissolution of quartz particles, formation and dissolution of intermediate crystalline phases, and generation of foam and gas cavities. These processes have been investigated using thermal analyses, optical and electronic microscopies, x-ray diffraction, as well as other techniques. Properties of the reacting feed, such as heat conductivity and density, were measured as functions of temperature. Investigating the structure of quenched cold caps produced in a laboratory-scale melter complemented the crucible studies. The cold cap consists of two main layers. The top layer contains solid particles dissolving in the glass-forming melt and open pores through which gases are escaping. The bottom layer contains bubbly melt or foam where bubbles coalesce into larger cavities that move sideways and release the gas to the atmosphere. The feed-to-glass conversion became sufficiently understood for representing the cold-cap processes via mathematical models. These models, which comprise heat transfer, mass transfer, and reaction kinetics models, have been developed with the final goal to relate feed parameters to the rate of glass melting.