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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Effects of axial heat conduction and material properties on the performance characteristics of a thermal transient anemometer probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an investigation of the axial heat transfer within a thermal transient anemometer probe. A previous study, evaluated the performance characteristics of a thermal transient anemometer system. The study revealed discrepancies between a simplified theory and test results in the development of a universal calibration curve for probes of varying diameters. Although the cause of these discrepancies were left uncertain due to an inadequate theoretical model, the study suggested that axial conduction within the probe could account for the deviations. In this paper, computer simulations are used to further investigate axial heat conduction within the probes. The effect on calibration of axial variations of material properties along the probes is also discussed. Results from the computer simulation are used in lieu of the theoretical model used in the previous study to develop a satisfactory universal calibration curve. The computer simulations provide evidence that there is significant axial heat conduction within the probes, and that this was the cause of the discrepancies noted in the previous study.

Bailey, J.L.; Page, R.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Acharya, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Fluid Dynamics Research Center

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Thermal conductivity of aqueous foam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity plays an important part in the response of aqueous foams used as geothermal drilling fluids. The thermal conductivity of these foams was measured at ambient conditions using the thermal conductivity probe technique. Foam densities studied were from 0.03 to 0.2 g/cm/sup 3/, corresponding to liquid volume fractions of the same magnitude. Microscopy of the foams indicated bubble sizes in the range 50 to 300 ..mu..m for nitrogen foams, and 30 to 150 ..mu..m for helium foams. Bubble shapes were observed to be polyhedral at low foam densities and spherical at the higher densities. The measured conductivity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.12 W/m-K for the foams studied. The predicted behavior in foam conductivity caused by a change in the conductivity of the discontinuous gas phase was observed using nitrogen or helium gas in the foams. Analysis of the probe response data required an interpretation using the full intergral solution to the heat conduction equation, since the thermal capacity of the foam was small relative to the thermal mass of the probe. The measurements of the thermal conductivity of the foams were influenced by experimental effects such as the probe input power, foam drainage, and the orientation of the probe and test cell. For nitrogen foams, the thermal conductivity vs liquid volume fraction was observed to fall between predictions based on the parallel ordering and Russell models for thermal conduction in heterogeneous materials.

Drotning, W.D.; Ortega, A.; Havey, P.E.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Thermally Conductive Graphite Foam  

oriented graphite planes, similar to high performance carbon fibers, which have been estimated to exhibit a thermal conductivity greater than 1700 ...

5

Cylindrical thermal contact conductance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal contact conductance is highly important in a wide variety of applications, from the cooling of electronic chips to the thermal management of spacecraft. The demand for increased efficiency means that components need to withstand higher temperatures and heat transfer rates. Many situations call for contact heat transfer through nominally cylindrical interfaces, yet relatively few studies of contact conductance through cylindrical interfaces have been undertaken. This study presents a review of the experimental and theoretical investigations of the heat transfer characteristics of composite cylinders, presenting data available in open literature in comparison with relevant correlations. The present investigation presents a study of the thermal contact conductance of cylindrical interfaces. The experimental investigation of sixteen different material combinations offers an opportunity to develop predictive correlations of the contact conductance, in conjunction with an analysis of the interface pressure as a function of the thermal state of the individual cylindrical shells. Experimental results of the present study are compared with previously published conductance data and conductance models.

Ayers, George Harold

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Nanoscale thermal transport and the thermal conductance of interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorption depends on temperature of the nanotube · Assume heat capacity is comparable to graphite · Cooling conductance · Pump probe apparatus · Transient absorption ­ Carbon nanotubes and thermal transport at hard optical absorption of nanoparticles and nanotubes in liquid suspensions. ­ Measure the thermal relaxation

Braun, Paul

7

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels  

SciTech Connect

the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

8

Thermal conductivity Measurements of Kaolite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing was performed to determine the thermal conductivity of Kaolite 1600, which primarily consists of Portland cement and vermiculite. The material was made by Thermal Ceramics for refractory applications. Its combination of light weight, low density, low cost, and noncombustibility made it an attractive alternative to the materials currently used in ES-2 container for radioactive materials. Mechanical properties and energy absorption tests of the Kaolite have been conducted at the Y-12 complex. Heat transfer is also an important factor for the application of the material. The Kaolite samples are porous and trap moisture after extended storage. Thermal conductivity changes as a function of moisture content below 100 C. Thermal conductivity of the Kaolite at high temperatures (up to 700 C) are not available in the literature. There are no standard thermal conductivity values for Kaolite because each sample is somewhat different. Therefore, it is necessary to measure thermal conductivity of each type of Kaolite. Thermal conductivity measurements will help the modeling and calculation of temperatures of the ES-2 containers. This report focuses on the thermal conductivity testing effort at ORNL.

Wang, H

2003-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

9

Thermal Conduction in Graphene and Graphene Multilayers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 1.2 Thermal transport atxv Introduction xii 1.1 Thermal conductivity and65 4.13 Thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of

Ghosh, Suchismita

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Experimental investigations of solid-solid thermal interface conductance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding thermal interface conductance is important for nanoscale systems where interfaces can play a critical role in heat transport. In this thesis, pump and probe transient thermoreflectance methods are used to ...

Collins, Kimberlee C. (Kimberlee Chiyoko)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Invert Effective Thermal Conductivity Calculation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the temperature-dependent effective thermal conductivities of a repository-emplaced invert steel set and surrounding ballast material. The scope of this calculation analyzes a ballast-material thermal conductivity range of 0.10 to 0.70 W/m {center_dot} K, a transverse beam spacing range of 0.75 to 1.50 meters, and beam compositions of A 516 carbon steel and plain carbon steel. Results from this calculation are intended to support calculations that identify waste package and repository thermal characteristics for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 1, ICN 0, Calculations.

M.J. Anderson; H.M. Wade; T.L. Mitchell

2000-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

12

3 omega method for specific heat and thermal conductivity measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a 3 omega method for simultaneously measuring the specific heat and thermal conductivity of a rod- or filament-like specimen using a way similar to a four-probe resistance measurement. The specimen in this method needs to be electrically conductive and with a temperature-dependent resistance, for acting both as a heater to create a temperature fluctuation and as a sensor to measure its thermal response. With this method we have successfully measured the specific heat and thermal conductivity of platinum wire specimens at cryogenic temperatures, and measured those thermal quantities of tiny carbon nanotube bundles some of which are only 10^-9 g in mass.

L. Lu; W. Yi; D. L. Zhang

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

13

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF GASES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent describes apparatus for the quantitative analysis of a gaseous mixture at subatmospheric pressure by measurement of its thermal conductivity. A heated wire forms one leg of a bridge circuit, while the gas under test is passed about the wire at a constant rate. The bridge unbalance will be a measure of the change in composition of the gas, if compensation is made for the effect due to gas pressure change. The apparatus provides a voltage varying with fluctuations of pressure in series with the indicating device placed across the bridge, to counterbalance the voltage change caused by fluctuations in the pressure of the gaseous mixture.

Clark, W.J.

1949-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Correlation Between Thermal Conductivity and Microstructural ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of MOX fuel pellets by Photothermal microscopy Correlation Between Thermal Conductivity and Microstructural Evolutions in CeO2 Upon...

15

Electron thermal conduction in LASNEX  

SciTech Connect

This report is a transcription of hand-written notes by DM dated 29 January 1986, transcribed by SW, with some clarifying comments added and details specific to running the LASNEX code deleted. Reference to the esoteric measurement units employed in LASNEX has also been deleted by SW (hopefully, without introducing errors in the numerical constants). The report describes the physics equations only, and only of electron conduction. That is, it does not describe the numerical method, which may be finite difference or finite element treatment in space, and (usually) implicit treatment in time. It does not touch on other electron transport packages which are available, and which include suprathermal electrons, nonlocal conduction, Krook model conduction, and modifications to electron conduction by magnetic fields. Nevertheless, this model is employed for the preponderance of LASNEX simulations.

Munro, D.; Weber, S.

1994-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

16

Dynamic Response of Single Electrode Conductivity Probes in Slow Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four designs of single electrode conductivity probes, three of them new, were tested for response characteristics in conditions simulating laboratory internal wave flows. Two of the new designs were shown to be significantly superior in sensing ...

William F. Simmons; Barry R. Ruddick

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design  

SciTech Connect

Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 [97% TD]. This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

Jamil A. Khan

2009-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

18

Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures  

SciTech Connect

A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

19

Method for determining thermal conductivity and thermal capacity per unit volume of earth in situ  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the thermal conductivity of the earth in situ is based upon a cylindrical probe (10) having a thermopile (16) for measuring the temperature gradient between sets of thermocouple junctions (18 and 20) of the probe after it has been positioned in a borehole and has reached thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, and having means (14) for heating one set of thermocouple junctions (20) of the probe at a constant rate while the temperature gradient of the probe is recorded as a rise in temperature over several hours (more than about 3 hours). A fluid annulus thermally couples the probe to the surrounding earth. The recorded temperature curves are related to the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and to the thermal capacity per unit volume, (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin., by comparison with calculated curves using estimates of k.sub..infin. and (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin. in an equation which relates these parameters to a rise in the earth's temperature for a known and constant heating rate.

Poppendiek, Heinz F. (LaJolla, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

High Thermal Conductivity AlN Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AlN has replaced BeO as the high thermal conductivity ceramic of choice due to the adverse health effects associated with BeO. The development of high...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Thermal conductivity modeling of building faade materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental research has been conducted to assess the thermo-physical properties of three building materials in both dry and moist state: beech wood, autoclaved aerated concrete and brick. The objectives of the paper envisage the measurement of the ... Keywords: building materials, contact temperature, determining method, finite element, numerical modeling, thermal conductivity

Monica Chereches; Nelu-Cristian Chereches; Catalin Popovici

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael Ray (Knoxville, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Thermal Conductivity of Cubic and Hexagonal Mesoporous Silica Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K.L. Fang, Anisotropic thermal conductivity of nanoporousmesoporous silica as a thermal isolation layer, Ceramicsand V. Wittwer, Some thermal and optical properties of a

Coquil, Thomas; Richman, Eric K.; Hutchinson, Neal J.; Tolbert, S H; Pilon, Laurent

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Thermal conduction in cosmological SPH simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal conduction in the intracluster medium has been proposed as a possible heating mechanism for offsetting central cooling losses in rich clusters of galaxies. In this study, we introduce a new formalism to model conduction in a diffuse ionised plasma using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), and we implement it in the parallel TreePM/SPH-code GADGET-2. We consider only isotropic conduction and assume that magnetic suppression can be described in terms of an effective conductivity, taken as a fixed fraction of the temperature-dependent Spitzer rate. We also account for saturation effects in low-density gas. Our formulation manifestly conserves thermal energy even for individual and adaptive timesteps, and is stable in the presence of small-scale temperature noise. This allows us to evolve the thermal diffusion equation with an explicit time integration scheme along with the ordinary hydrodynamics. We use a series of simple test problems to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of our method. We then ...

Jubelgas, M; Dolag, K

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Enhancing Thermal Conductivity and Reducing Friction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory currently has several projects underway to develop advanced fluids, films, coatings, and Laboratory currently has several projects underway to develop advanced fluids, films, coatings, and processes to improve thermal conductivity and reduce friction. These measures are helping to increase energy efficiency for next-generation transportation applications. Superhard and Slick Coating (SSC) Opportunity: Friction, wear, and lubrication strongly affect the energy efficiency, durability, and environmental compatibility of

26

Thermal conductivity of mass-graded graphene flakes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this letter we investigate thermal conductions in mass-graded graphene flakes by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It shows mass-graded graphene flakes reveal no thermal rectification effect in thermal conduction process. Dependences of thermal conductivity upon the heat fluxes and the mass gradients are studied. It is found that thermal conductivity would be dramatically decreased by increasing the mass gradients. We also discuss the influence of thermal curvatures and thermal expansions upon the thermal conduction process in mass-graded graphene flakes.

Cheh, Jigger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Effects of air infiltration on the effective thermal conductivity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of air infiltration on the effective thermal conductivity of internal fiberglass insulation and on the delivery of thermal capacity via ducts Title Effects of air...

28

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that evaporative cooling is an effective and logical substitute for mechanical cooling in hot-arid climates. This paper explores the application of evaporative coolers to the hot-humid climates using a controlled temperature of the incoming water. With exploitation of the effect of the thermal conduction between cool underground water and entering air, the performance of an evaporative cooler can be enhanced and its use in hot and moderately humid climates should also be considered. Usually the dry-bulb depression performed by an evaporative cooler depends solely on the ambient wet-bulb temperature. The cool underground water in an evaporative cooler can cause not only adiabatic evaporation but also sensible heat transfer between water and entering air for thermal comfort. This hybrid system outperforms the two-stage evaporative cooler without employing a complicated heat exchanger (indirect system), if the temperature of underground water is lower than the ambient wet-bulb temperature. Several areas in the southern hot-humid parts of the U.S. meet this condition.

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Silicon Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alpha1=k1/(density1*cp1); %Thermal diffusivity of PMMA B1=Simon R. Phillpot, Nanoscale Thermal Transport, Journal of9] E.T. Swartz, R.O. Pohl, Thermal Boundary Resistance,

Yuen, Taylor S.

30

Effect of heat treatment temperature on binder thermal conductivities  

SciTech Connect

The effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivities of a pitch and a polyfurfuryl alcohol binder residue was investigated. Graphites specially prepared with these two binders were used for the experiments. Measured thermal conductivities were treated in terms of a two-component system, and the binder thermal conductivities were calculated. Both binder residues showed increased thermal conductivity with increased heat treatment temperature. (auth)

Wagner, P.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Ab-Initio Thermal Conductivity for Thermoelectric Nanostructured ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Energy Nanomaterials. Presentation Title, Ab-Initio Thermal Conductivity for...

32

Thermal Conduction in Graphene and Graphene Multilayers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. , and Ju, Y. S. , Heat conduction in novel electronicBalandin, A. A. , Heat conduction in graphene: experimentalD. , Simulation of heat conduction in suspended graphene

Ghosh, Suchismita

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Silicon Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chen, Coherent Phonon Heat Conduction in Superlattices,1 Chapter 1: Heat Conduction in Nanostructured Materialsfindings. Chapter 1: Heat Conduction in Nanostructured

Yuen, Taylor S.

34

Optimal detection of losses by thermal probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the discrimination of lossy bosonic channels and focus to the case when one of the values for the loss parameter is zero, i.e., we address the detection of a possible loss against the alternative hypothesis of an ideal lossless channel. This discrimination is performed by inputting one-mode or two-mode squeezed thermal states with fixed total energy. By optimizing over this class of states, we find that the optimal inputs are pure, thus corresponding to single- and two-mode squeezed vacuum states. In particular, we show that for any value of the damping rate smaller than a critical value there is a threshold on the energy that makes the two-mode squeezed vacuum state more convenient than the corresponding single-mode state, whereas for damping larger than this critical value two-mode squeezed vacua are always better. We then consider the discrimination in realistic conditions, where it is unlikely to have pure squeezing. Thus by fixing both input energy and squeezing, we show that two-mode squeezed thermal states are always better than their single- mode counterpart when all the thermal photons are directed into the dissipative channel. Besides, this result also holds approximately for unbalanced distribution of the thermal photons. Finally, we also investigate the role of correlations in the improvement of detection. For fixed input squeezing (single-mode or two-mode), we find that the reduction of the quantum Chernoff bound is a monotone function of the two-mode entanglement as well as the quantum mutual information and the quantum discord. We thus verify that employing squeezing in the form of correlations (quantum or classical) is always a resource for loss detection whenever squeezed thermal states are taken as input.

Carmen Invernizzi; Matteo G. A. Paris; Stefano Pirandola

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

35

Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Thermoelectric Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... which allow solid-state conversion of thermal to electrical energy, have a ... and exhaust system, which can run either an electric motor or accessories ...

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Breaking the Thermal Conductivity Glass Limit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO2-KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salt System for Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Generation.

37

Effects of Composition and Granulometry on Thermal Conductivity of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been observed that thermal conductivity of cover material is strongly ... Experimental Investigation of Single Bubble Characteristics in a Cold Model of a ... Creep on Potroom Busbars and Electrical Insulation: Thermal-Electrical Aspects.

38

Thermal Conductivity Prediction of Nano Fluid Using ANN/GA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thermal conductivities of nano fluid in a two-phase having different compositions of both base fluid as well as nano particles in a closed...

39

Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Powder Insulation at Cryogenic Temperatures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? A device to measure bulk effective thermal conductivity of powder insulation at cryogenic temperatures has been designed and tested. The design consists of two (more)

Barrios, Matthew Nicklas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Law for Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline Nanoporous Silicon Using Molecular Dynamic Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G. A. , 2007. Lattice thermal conductivity of nanoporousPore-size dependence of the thermal conductivity of porousand Chen, G. , 2004. Thermal conductivity of nanoporous

Fang, Jin; Pilon, Laurent

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Thermal Conduction and Multiphase Gas in Cluster Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the role of thermal conduction and magnetic fields in cores of galaxy clusters through global simulations of the intracluster medium (ICM). In particular, we study the influence of thermal conduction, both isotropic and anisotropic, on the condensation of multiphase gas in cluster cores. Previous hydrodynamic simulations have shown that cold gas condenses out of the hot ICM in thermal balance only when the ratio of the cooling time ($t_{\\rm cool}$) and the free-fall time ($t_{\\rm ff}$) is less than $\\approx 10$. Since thermal conduction is significant in the ICM and it suppresses local cooling at small scales, it is imperative to include thermal conduction in such studies. We find that anisotropic (along local magnetic field lines) thermal conduction does not influence the condensation criterion for a general magnetic geometry, even if thermal conductivity is large. However, with isotropic thermal conduction cold gas condenses only if conduction is suppressed (by a factor $\\lesssim 0.3$) with respe...

Wagh, Baban; McCourt, Michael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Thermal conductivity and other properties of cementitious grouts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.

Allan, M.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.

ALLAN,M.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming minerals vary with both temperature and confining pressure, leading to substantial changes in the thermal properties of some rocks at the high temperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In areas with large geothermal gradients, the successful use of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict temperatures at depth depends upon accurate corrections for varying thermal conductivity. Previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of dry rock samples as a function of temperature were inadequate for porous rocks and susceptible to thermal cracking effects in nonporous rocks. We have developed an instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks at temperatures from 20 to 350 C and confining pressures up to 100 MPa. A transient line-source of heat is applied through a needle probe centered within the rock sample, which in turn is enclosed within a heated pressure vessel with independent controls on pore and confining pressure. Application of this technique to samples of Franciscan graywacke from The Geysers reveals a significant change in thermal conductivity with temperature. At reservoir-equivalent temperatures of 250 C, the conductivity of the graywacke decreases by approximately 25% relative to the room temperature value. Where heat flow is constant with depth within the caprock overlying the reservoir, this reduction in conductivity with temperature leads to a corresponding increase in the geothermal gradient. Consequently, reservoir temperature are encountered at depths significantly shallower than those predicted by assuming a constant temperature gradient with depth. We have derived general equations for estimating the thermal conductivity of most metamorphic and igneous rocks and some sedimentary rocks at elevated temperature from knowledge of the room temperature thermal conductivity. Application of these equations to geothermal exploration should improve estimates of subsurface temperatures derived from heat flow measurements.

Williams, Colin F.; Sass, John H.

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

46

Three Modes of Heat Transfer??Thermal Conduction, Thermal Convection,  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...).46, 44, 43, 42, 41, 40, 39, 38, 37, Ref 1In induction heating, all three modes of heat transfer??conduction,

47

Fiber/Matrix Interfacial Thermal Conductance Effect on the Thermal Conductivity of SiC/SiC Composites  

SciTech Connect

SiC/SiC composites used in fusion reactor applications are subjected to high heat fluxes and require knowledge and tailoring of their in-service thermal conductivity. Accurately predicting the thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites as a function of temperature will guide the design of these materials for their intended use, which will eventually include the effects of 14-MeV neutron irradiations. This paper applies an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach (EMTA) to compute the thermal conductivity of unirradiated SiC/SiC composites. The homogenization procedure includes three steps. In the first step EMTA computes the homogenized thermal conductivity of the unidirectional (UD) SiC fiber embraced by its coating layer. The second step computes the thermal conductivity of the UD composite formed by the equivalent SiC fibers embedded in a SiC matrix, and finally the thermal conductivity of the as-formed SiC/SiC composite is obtained by averaging the solution for the UD composite over all possible fiber orientations using the second-order fiber orientation tensor. The EMTA predictions for the transverse thermal conductivity of several types of SiC/SiC composites with different fiber types and interfaces are compared to the predicted and experimental results by Youngblood et al.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

48

Thermal Conductivity Database of Various Structural Carbon-Carbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced thermal protection materials envisioned for use on future hypersonic vehicles will likely be subjected to temperatures in excess of 1811 K (2800F) and, therefore, will require the rapid conduction of heat away from the stagnation regions of ...

Ohlhorst Craig W.; Vaughn Wallace L.; Ransone Philip O.; Tsou Hwa-Tsu

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Investigation on thermal conductivity and AC impedance of graphite suspension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade, some groups have reported that nanofluids, which are liquids containing suspensions of nanoparticles, have substantially higher thermal conductivity than that of the base fluids. However, the reported ...

Wang, Jianjian, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Raman Spectroscopy of High Thermal Conductivity AlN Ceramics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity of AlN ceramics was measured by laser flash method. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize oxygen related defects of AlN ... Transport in Co-Based Materials for Fuel Cells and Oxygen Separation Membranes.

51

A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or nanofluids, was ...

Buongiorno, Jacopo

52

An Empirical Model of UO2 Thermal Conductivity Based on Laser Flash Measurements of Thermal Diffusivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity of irradiated fuel materials, which can be derived from measured thermal diffusivity (TD), is a key consideration in thermal performance and design of a fuel rod. However, without interpretation, the measured TD data cannot be used directly to calculate fuel temperatures during irradiation. This report provides such interpretation and presents an empirical model for the degradation of UO2 thermal conductivity with burn-up.

1998-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Thermal conductivity of dense quark matter and cooling of stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal conductivity of the color-flavor locked phase of dense quark matter is calculated. The dominant contribution to the conductivity comes from photons and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with breaking of baryon number which are trapped in the quark core. Because of their very large mean free path the conductivity is also very large. The cooling of the quark core arises mostly from the heat flux across the surface of direct contact with the nuclear matter. As the thermal conductivity of the neighboring layer is also high, the whole interior of the star should be nearly isothermal. Our results imply that the cooling time of compact stars with color-flavor locked quark cores is similar to that of ordinary neutron stars.

Igor A. Shovkovy; Paul J. Ellis

2002-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

55

Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

N.S. Brodsky

2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

56

Thermal conductivity of rocks associated with energy extraction from hot dry rock geothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of thermal conductivity measurements are given for 14 drill core rock samples taken from two exploratory HDR geothermal wellbores (maximum depth of 2929 m (9608 ft) drilled into Precambrian granitic rock in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. These samples have been petrographically characterized and in general represent fresh competent Precambrian material of deep origin. Thermal conductivities, modal analyses, and densities are given for all core samples studied under dry and water-saturated conditions. Additional measurements are reported for several sedimentary rocks encountered in the upper 760 m (2500 ft) of that same region. A cut-bar thermal conductivity comparator and a transient needle probe were used for the determinations with fused quartz and Pyroceram 9606 as the standards. The maximum temperature range of the measurements was from the ice point to 250/sup 0/C. The measurements on wet, water-saturated rock were limited to the temperature range below room temperature. Conductivity values of the dense core rock samples were generally within the range from 2 to 2.9 W/mK at 200/sup 0/C. Excellent agreement was achieved between these laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity and those obtained by in situ measurements used in the HDR wellbores. By using samples of sufficient thickness to provide a statistically representative heat flow path, no difference between conductivity values and their temperature coefficients for orthogonal directions (heat flow parallel or perpendicular to core axis) was observed. This isotropic behavior was even found for highly foliated gneissic specimens. Estimates of thermal conductivity based on a composite dispersion analysis utilizing pure minerallic phase conductivities and detailed modal analyses usually agreed to within 9 percent of the experimental values.

Sibbitt, W.L.; Dodson, J.G.; Tester, J.W.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Thermal Conductivity and Shear Strength of K Basin Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hanford K Basin sludge contains metallic uranium and uranium oxides that will corrode, hydrate, and, consequently, generate heat and hydrogen gas during storage. Heat is generated within the K Basin sludge by radiolytic decay and the reaction of uranium metal with water. To maintain thermal stability, the sludge must be retrieved, staged, transported, and stored in systems designed to provide a rate of heat removal that prevents the temperature in the sludge from increasing beyond acceptable limits. To support the dispositioning of the sludge to T Plant, modeling and testing and analyses are being performed to predict the behavior of sludge when placed into the storage containers. Two physical properties of the sludge that are critical to the modeling and analyses efforts are thermal conductivity and the sludge shear strength (yield stress). This report provides the results of thermal conductivity and shear strength measurements performed on representative sludge samples from the K East Basin.

Poloski, Adam P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bredt, Paul R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schmidt, Andrew J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Swoboda, Robert G. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chenault, Jeffrey W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gano, Sue (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

58

Thermal Crosslinking of Organic Semiconducting Polythiophene Improves Transverse Hole Conductivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal crosslinking using a suitable radical initiator simultaneously improves electrical conductivity in the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) and makes the material insoluble. Crosslinked polythiophene shows as much as a fivefold increase in hole conductivity across the film thickness without any shift in spectral light absorption. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction reveals more in-plane polymer lamellae stacking with only a small decrease in film crystallinity. Improved transverse conductivity increases the performance of model planar solar cells by threefold, from 0.07% to 0.2%. The ability to render polythiophene insoluble without disrupting film structural order enables fabrication pathways to more complex device architectures.

Gearba, I.R.; Nam, C.-Y.; Pindak, R.; Black, C.T.

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

59

The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nagaraj, B.A. [General Electric Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Aircraft Engine Group

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

VALIDATION OF A THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FUEL COMPACTS  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow measurement system has been built to measure the thermal conductivity of a composite nuclear fuel compact. It is a steady-state measurement device designed to operate over a temperature range of 300 K to 1200 K. No existing apparatus is currently available for obtaining the thermal conductivity of the composite fuel in a non-destructive manner due to the compacts unique geometry and composite nature. The current system design has been adapted from ASTM E 1225. As a way to simplify the design and operation of the system, it uses a unique radiative heat sink to conduct heat away from the sample column. A finite element analysis was performed on the measurement system to analyze the associated error for various operating conditions. Optimal operational conditions have been discovered through this analysis and results are presented. Several materials have been measured by the system and results are presented for stainless steel 304, inconel 625, and 99.95% pure iron covering a range of thermal conductivities of 10 W/m*K to 70 W/m*K. A comparison of the results has been made to data from existing literature.

Jeff Phillips; Colby Jensen; Changhu Xing; Heng Ban

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

COSMOLOGICAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF CLUSTER FORMATION WITH ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTION  

SciTech Connect

The intracluster medium (ICM) has been suggested to be buoyantly unstable in the presence of magnetic field and anisotropic thermal conduction. We perform first cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation that simultaneously include magnetic fields, radiative cooling, and anisotropic thermal conduction. In isolated and idealized cluster models, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) tends to reorient the magnetic fields radially whenever the temperature gradient points in the direction opposite to gravitational acceleration. Using cosmological simulations of cluster formation we detect radial bias in the velocity and magnetic fields. Such radial bias is consistent with either the inhomogeneous radial gas flows due to substructures or residual MTI-driven field rearrangements that are expected even in the presence of turbulence. Although disentangling the two scenarios is challenging, we do not detect excess bias in the runs that include anisotropic thermal conduction. The anisotropy effect is potentially detectable via radio polarization measurements with LOFAR and the Square Kilometer Array and future X-ray spectroscopic studies with the International X-ray Observatory. We demonstrate that radiative cooling boosts the amplification of the magnetic field by about two orders of magnitude beyond what is expected in the non-radiative cases. This effect is caused by the compression of the gas and frozen-in magnetic field as it accumulates in the cluster center. At z = 0 the field is amplified by a factor of about 10{sup 6} compared to the uniform magnetic field that evolved due to the universal expansion alone. Interestingly, the runs that include both radiative cooling and thermal conduction exhibit stronger magnetic field amplification than purely radiative runs. In these cases, buoyant restoring forces depend on the temperature gradients rather than the steeper entropy gradients. Thus, the ICM is more easily mixed and the winding up of the frozen-in magnetic field is more efficient, resulting in stronger magnetic field amplification. We also demonstrate that thermal conduction partially reduces the gas accretion driven by overcooling despite the fact that the effective conductivity is suppressed below the Spitzer-Braginskii value.

Ruszkowski, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lee, D. [Department of Astronomy, ASC/Flash Center, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brueggen, M. [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen 05233 (Germany); Parrish, I. [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Oh, S. Peng, E-mail: mateuszr@umich.edu, E-mail: dongwook@flash.uchicago.edu, E-mail: m.brueggen@jacobs-university.de, E-mail: iparrish@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: peng@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

62

Simultaneous measurement of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of unconsolidated materials by the transient hot wire method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a new design for the transient hot wire method that can obtain the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of unconsolidated materials. In this method

Greg C. Glatzmaier; W. Fred Ramirez

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND VISCOSITY OF GAS MIXTURES (thesis)  

SciTech Connect

Correlations based upon empirical modified equations derived from kinetic theory were developed for the thermal conductivity and viscosity of gas mixtures. The conductivity equation was compared to 226 binary mixture conductivities in temperatures from 0 to 774 deg C from the literature and this work. The average deviation is 2.1%. In correlating conductivity data of mixtures of polyatomic molecules, the energy transport is considered in two parts, i.e., one protion transferred by collision and the other by diffusion. The proposed viscosity equation reproduces 103 binary data points with an average deviation of 1.3%. These equations are more consistent with experiment than existing correlations in the literature. the relation of the conductivity or viscosity to composition and temperature are discussed in the light of the proposed equations. It has been demonstrated that, at a given composition, the ratio of the measured conductivity to that calculated on the molar average basis for mixtures of most simple molecules and the ratio of the measured viscosity to that calculated on the molar average basis for mixtures of most gases should be nearly constant over a temperature range of 200 to 300 deg C. The thermal conductivity of ten gases and selected binary and ternary mixtures of them were measured in a concentric silver cylinder cell in the temperature range of 100 to 540 deg C The gases are He, A, N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/ H/sub 4/, C/sub 3/H/sub 8/, methyl ether , and methyl formats. (auth)

Cheung, H.

1958-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance  

SciTech Connect

The thermal interface resistance at the macro scale is mainly described by the physical gap between two interfaces and constriction resistance due to this gap. The small gaps between the two material faces makes up the majority of thermal interface resistance at the macro scale. So, most of the studies have been focused on characterizing effect of surface geometry and material properties to thermal interface resistance. This resistance is more widely known as thermal contact resistance, represented with Rc. There are various models to predict thermal contact resistance at macro scale. These models predict thermal resistance Rc for given two materials by utilizing their bulk thermomechanical properties. Although, Rc represents thermal resistance accurately for macro size contacts between two metals, it is not suitable to describe interface resistance of particles in modern TIMs, aka particulate composites. The particles inside recently available TIMs are micron size and with effort to further increase surface area this particle size is approaching nano scale. At this small scale, Rc does not accurately predict thermal interface, as it is very difficult to characterize the surface topography. The thermal discontinuity at perfectly bonded interface of two dissimilar materials is termed as thermal boundary resistance (Rb) or Kapitza resistance. The macroscopic assumptions that thermal discontinuity only exists due to gaps and surface geometry leads to substantial error in determining interface thermal properties at micron and nano scale. The phenomenon of thermal boundary resistance is an inherent material property and arises due to fundamental mechanism of thermal transport. For metal-matrix particulate composites, Rb plays more important role than Rc. The free flowing nature of the polymer would eliminate most of the gaps between the two materials at their interface. This means almost all of the thermal resistance at particle/matrix interface would occur due to Rb. The current study presents experimental study of thermal boundary resistance for silica nano particles embedded inside epoxy resin. The bulk conductivity of the sample is measured and Rc is back calculated using Hasselman-Johnson s (H-J) equation. The numerical validation of the equation is also presented, including extrapolation study to predict effective conductivity of the nanocomposite TIM.

Kothari, Rushabh M [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Electrical conductivity and thermal dilepton rate from quenched lattice QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a continuum extrapolation of the vector current correlation function for light valence quarks in the deconfined phase of quenched QCD. This is achieved by performing a systematic analysis of the influence of cut-off effects on light quark meson correlators at $T\\simeq 1.45 T_c$ using clover improved Wilson fermions. We discuss resulting constraints on the electrical conductivity and the thermal dilepton rate in a quark gluon plasma. In addition new results at 1.2 and 3.0 $T_c$ will be presented.

Olaf Kaczmarek; Anthony Francis

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

66

Electrical conductivity and thermal dilepton rate from quenched lattice QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a continuum extrapolation of the vector current correlation function for light valence quarks in the deconfined phase of quenched QCD. This is achieved by performing a systematic analysis of the influence of cut-off effects on light quark meson correlators at $T\\simeq 1.45 T_c$ using clover improved Wilson fermions. We discuss resulting constraints on the electrical conductivity and the thermal dilepton rate in a quark gluon plasma. In addition new results at 1.2 and 3.0 $T_c$ will be presented.

Kaczmarek, Olaf

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Role of Brownian Motion Hydrodynamics on Nanofluid Thermal Conductivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use a simple kinetic theory based analysis of heat flow in fluid suspensions of solid nanoparticles (nanofluids) to demonstrate that the hydrodynamics effects associated with Brownian motion have a minor effect on the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. Our conjecture is supported by the results of molecular dynamics simulations of heat flow in a model nanofluid with well-dispersed particles. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of the effective medium theory as well as with recent experimental results on well dispersed metal nanoparticle suspensions.

W Evans, J Fish, P Keblinski

2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Probing Chemical Reactions: Evidence for Exploration of an Excited Potential Energy Surface at Thermal Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Thermal Energies Author(s): Michael D. Barnes, Philip R. Brooks, R. F. Curl, Bruce R. Johnson SourceProbing Chemical Reactions: Evidence for Exploration of an Excited Potential Energy Surface

Brooks, Philip R.

69

Light beam dynamics in materials with radially-inhomogeneous thermal conductivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the properties of bright and vortex solitons in thermal media with nonuniform thermal conductivity and homogeneous refractive index, whereby the local modulation of the thermal conductivity strongly affects the entire refractive index distribution. While regions where the thermal conductivity is increased effectively expel light, self-trapping may occur in the regions with reduced thermal conductivity, even if such regions are located close to the material boundary. As a result, strongly asymmetric self-trapped beams may form inside a ring with reduced thermal conductivity and perform persistent rotary motion. Also, such rings are shown to support stable vortex solitons, which may feature strongly non-canonical shapes.

Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Experimental Investigation of Size Effects on the Thermal Conductivity of Silicon-Germanium Alloy Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We experimentally investigate the role of size effects and boundary scattering on the thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys. The thermal conductivities of a series of epitaxially grown Si[subscript 1-x] Ge[subscript ...

Cheaito, Ramez

71

Thermal interface conductance in Si/Ge superlattices by equilibrium molecular dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a derivation allowing the calculation of thermal conductance at interfaces by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and illustrate our approach by studying thermal conduction mechanisms in Si/Ge superlattices. ...

Esfarjani, Keivan

72

T I ENHANCING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF FLUIDS WITH NANOPARTICLES*  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

JAM 1 1 1935 JAM 1 1 1935 b T I ENHANCING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF FLUIDS WITH NANOPARTICLES* Stephen U. S. Choi 1 and J. A. Eastman 2 1 Energy Technology Division and ^Materials Science Division Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 October 1995 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsi-

73

Role of thermal conduction in an advective accretion with bipolar outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steady-state advective accretion flows in the presence of thermal conduction are studied. All three components of velocity in a spherical coordinates are considered and the flow displays both inflowing and outflowing regions according to our similarity solutions. Thermal conductivity provides latitudinal energy transport and so, the flow rotates more slowly and becomes hotter with increasing thermal conductivity coefficient. We also show that opening angle of the outflow region decreases as thermal conduction becomes stronger.

Khajenabi, Fazeleh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Composition-Dependent Thermal Conductivity of Several Binary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements using a pump-and-probe femtosecond laser system are employed to rapidly evaluate...

75

Universal properties of thermal and electrical conductivity of gauge theory plasmas from holography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that for CFT's admitting gravity duals, thermal conductivity is fixed by central charges in a universal manner. We also discuss possible bound on thermal conductivity. Using this universality relation exhibited by thermal conductivity, we show how to express electrical conductivity in terms of thermodynamical quantities even in the presence of chemical potential i.e. electrical conductivity can be calculated without writing down perturbation equations and solving them even at nonvanishing chemical potential.

Jain, Sachin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Spatially localized measurement of thermal conductivity using a hybrid photothermal technique  

SciTech Connect

A photothermal technique capable of measuring thermal conductivity with micrometer lateral resolution is presented. This technique involves measuring separately the thermal diffusivity, D, and thermal effusivity, e, to extract the thermal conductivity, k=(e2/D)1/2. To generalize this approach, sensitivity analysis was conducted for materials having a range of thermal conductivities. Experimental validation was sought using two substrate materials, SiO2 and CaF2, both coated with thin titanium films. The measured conductivities compare favorably with literature values.

David H Hurley; Marat Khafizov; Zilong Hua; Rory Kennedy; Heng Ban

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Near-field Microwave Scanning Probe Imaging of Conductivity Inhomogeneities in CVD Graphene  

SciTech Connect

We have performed near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. Due to the use of probe-sample capacitive coupling and a relatively high ac frequency of a few GHz, this scanning probe method allows mapping of local conductivity without a dedicated counter electrode, with a spatial resolution of about 50 nm. Here, the coupling was enabled by atomic layer deposition of alumina on top of graphene, which in turn enabled imaging both large-area films, as well as micron-sized islands, with a dynamic range covering a low sheet resistance of a metal film and a high resistance of highly disordered graphene. The structures of graphene grown on Ni films and Cu foils are explored, and the effects of growth conditions are elucidated. We present a simple general scheme for interpretation of the contrast in the SMM images of our graphene samples and other two-dimensional conductors, which is supported by extensive numerical finite-element modeling. We further demonstrate that combination of the SMM and numerical modeling allows quantitative information about the sheet resistance of graphene to be obtained, paving the pathway for characterization of graphene conductivity with a sub-100 nm special resolution.

Tselev, Alexander [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL; Briggs, Dayrl P [ORNL; Rutgers, Maarten [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Thermal conductivity of $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$ powder, intermediates, and dense fuel forms  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivities of porous $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$ powder (calcined oxalate), milled powder, and high-density granules were calculated from direct measurements of steady-state temperature profiles resulting from self- heating. Thermal conductivities varied with density, temperature, and gas content of the pores. Errors caused by thermocouple heat conduction were less than 5 percent when the dimensions of the thermal conductivity cell and the thermocouple were properly selected. (auth)

Bickford, D.F.; Crain, B. Jr.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Heat pipe thermal control of slender optics probes  

SciTech Connect

The thermal design for a stereographic viewing system is presented. The design incorporates an annular heat pipe and thermal isolation techniques. Test results are compared with design predictions for a prototype configuration. Test data obtained during heat pipe startup showing temperature gradients along the evaporator wall are presented. Correlations relating maximum wall temperature differences to a liquid Reynolds number were obtained at low power levels. These results are compared with Nusselt's Falling Film theory.

Prenger, F.C.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Thermal conductance and rectification of asymmetric tilt grain boundary in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the lattice thermal transport across the asymmetry tilt grain boundary between armchair and zigzag grains by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). We have observed significant temperature drop and ultralow temperature-dependent thermal boundary resistance. Importantly, we find an unexpected thermal rectification phenomenon, i.e, the thermal conductivity and Kapitza conductance is asymmetric with respect to the thermal transport direction. And the effect of thermal rectification could be amplified by increasing the difference of temperature imposed on two sides. Our results propose a new promising kind of thermal rectifier and phonon diodes from polycrystalline graphene without delicate manupulation of the atomic structures.

Cao, Hai-Yuan; Gong, Xin-Gao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Thermal bremsstrahlung probing the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of the analysis of the hard photon production in the $^{129}${Xe}+$^{\\rm nat}${Sn} at 50{\\it A} MeV system studied in the GANIL E300 experiment. The energy and angular hard photon distributions confirm the existence of a thermal component which follows the recently measured thermal bremsstrahlung systematics. Exploiting the performances of our complete detection system, consisting of TAPS and 3 charged particle multidetectors, we have also measured the hard photon multiplicity as a function of the charged particle multiplicity.

R. Ortega; D. d'Enterria; F. Fernandez; G. Martinez

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquidsolid phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce ...

Zheng, Ruiting

83

Thermal conductivity from first-principles in bulk, disordered, and nanostructured materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity is an important transport property that plays a vital role in applications such as high efficiency thermoelectric devices as well as in thermal management of electronics. We present a first-principles ...

Garg, Jivtesh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

High thermal conductivity connector having high electrical isolation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and article for providing a low-thermal-resistance, high-electrical-isolation heat intercept connection. The connection method involves clamping, by thermal interference fit, an electrically isolating cylinder between an outer metallic ring and an inner metallic disk. The connection provides durable coupling of a heat sink and a heat source.

Nieman, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL); Nicol, Thomas H. (St. Charles, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Thermal conduction and particle transport in strong MHD turbulence, with application to galaxy-cluster plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate field-line separation in strong MHD turbulence analytically and with direct numerical simulations. We find that in the static-magnetic-field approximation the thermal conductivity in galaxy clusters is reduced by a factor of about 5-10 relative to the Spitzer thermal conductivity of a non-magnetized plasma. We also estimate how the thermal conductivity would be affected by efficient turbulent resistivity.

Benjamin D. G. Chandran; Jason L. Maron

2003-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

86

Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area, Cassia County, Idaho (1974-1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report:...

87

Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 1. Measurement technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. Since ash deposit thermal conductivity is thought to be strongly dependent on deposit microstructure, the technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. Traditional techniques for measuring deposit thermal conductivity generally do not preserve the sample microstructure. Experiments are described that demonstrate the technique, quantify experimental uncertainty, and determine the thermal conductivity of highly porous, unsintered deposits. The average measured conductivity of loose, unsintered deposits is 0.14 {+-} 0.03 W/(m K), approximately midway between rational theoretical limits for deposit thermal conductivity.

A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Experimental investigation of plastic finned-tube heat exchangers, with emphasis on material thermal conductivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, two modified types of polypropylene (PP) with high thermal conductivity up to 2.3 W/m K and 16.5 W/m K are used to manufacture the finned-tube heat exchangers, which are prospected to be used in liquid desiccant air conditioning, heat recovery, water source heat pump, sea water desalination, etc. A third plastic heat exchanger is also manufactured with ordinary PP for validation and comparison. Experiments are carried out to determine the thermal performance of the plastic heat exchangers. It is found that the plastic finned-tube heat exchanger with thermal conductivity of 16.5 W/m K can achieve overall heat transfer coefficient of 34 W/m{sup 2} K. The experimental results are compared with calculation and they agree well with each other. Finally, the effect of material thermal conductivity on heat exchanger thermal performance is studied in detail. The results show that there is a threshold value of material thermal conductivity. Below this value improving thermal conductivity can considerably improve the heat exchanger performance while over this value improving thermal conductivity contributes very little to performance enhancement. For the finned-tube heat exchanger designed in this paper, when the plastic thermal conductivity can reach over 15 W/m K, it can achieve more than 95% of the titanium heat exchanger performance and 84% of the aluminum or copper heat exchanger performance with the same dimension. (author)

Chen, Lin; Li, Zhen; Guo, Zeng-Yuan [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Ion thermal conductivity for a pure tokamak plasma  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The neoclassical and Pfirsch-Schlueter component of the ion heat conduction for a pure hydrogen Tokamak plasma are recalculated without assuming large aspect ratio and without neglecting energy scattering collisions. Using a model collision operator the conductivity is determined numerically for various collision frequencies and aspect ratios. An approximate algebraic expression is fitted to the results. Even for comparatively large aspect ratios(approx. 10) energy scattering increases the conductivity in the banana regime by about 50% and for small aspect ratios(approx. 3.3) the Pfirsch-Schlueter contribution causes a further increase of approximately 60%.

Bolton, C.; Ware, A.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Thermal Conductivity Spectroscopy Technique to Measure Phonon Mean Free Paths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Size effects in heat conduction, which occur when phonon mean free paths (MFPs) are comparable to characteristic lengths, are being extensively explored in many nanoscale systems for energy applications. Knowledge of MFPs ...

Schmidt, A. J.

91

Technical Project Plan for The Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Oxide Fuels Through the Addition of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and Microstructural Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The commercial nuclear power industry is investing heavily in advanced fuels that can produce higher power levels with a higher safety margin and be produced at low cost. Although chemically stable and inexpensive to manufacture, the in-core performance of UO{sub 2} fuel is limited by its low thermal conductivity. There will be enormous financial benefits to any utility that can exploit a new type of fuel that is chemically stable, has a high thermal conductivity, and is inexpensive to manufacture. At reactor operating temperatures, UO{sub 2} has a very low thermal conductivity (<5 W/m {center_dot}K), which decreases with temperature and fuel burnup. This low thermal conductivity limits the rate at which energy can be removed from the fuel, thus limiting the total integrated reactor power. If the fuel thermal conductivity could be increased, nuclear reactors would be able to operate at higher powers and larger safety margins thus decreasing the overall cost of electricity by increasing the power output from existing reactors and decreasing the number of new electrical generating plants needed to meet base load demand. The objective of the work defined herein is to produce an advanced nuclear fuel based on the current UO{sub 2} fuel with superior thermal conductivity and structural integrity that is suitable for current and future nuclear reactors, using the existing fuel fabrication infrastructure with minimal modifications. There are two separate components to the research: (1) Enhanced Thermal Conductivity (ETC) - adding high conductivity fibers to the UO{sub 2} prior to sintering, which act as conduits for moving the heat energy generated within the pellet to the outer surface, (2) Microstructural Engineering (ME) - adding second phase particulates to UO{sub 2} bodies to retard grain growth and to increase thermal conductivity, as well as improve fracture and creep resistance. Different groups will perform the laboratory work for each of these research components with some overlap in personnel. The overlapping areas primarily involve computer simulations and final testing of the fuel in a reactor. The estimated cost and duration of this project is $5,000,000 over three years.

Hollenbach, Daniel F [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Becher, Paul F [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Serpentine Thermal Coupling Between a Stream and a Conducting Body  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Here we document the effect of flow configuration on the heat transfer performance of a serpentine shaped stream embedded in a conducting solid. Several configurations with fixed volume of fluid are considered: U-shaped with varying spacing between the parallel portions of the U, serpentine shapes with three elbows, and conducting soil with several parallelepipedal shapes. We show that the spacing must be greater than a critical value in order for the heat transfer density of the stream-solid configuration to be the highest that it can be. Spacings larger than this critical value do not yield improvements in heat transfer density. We also show that even though the heat transfer is time dependent, the stream-solid configuration has an effective number of heat transfer units Ntu that is nearly constant in time. The larger Ntu values correspond to the configurations with greater heat transfer density.

Kobayashi, H.; Lorente, S.; Anderson, R.; Bejan, A.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Computational Efficient Upscaling Methodology for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Nuclear Waste forms  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated different upscaling methods to predict thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form, a heterogeneous material system. The efficiency and accuracy of these methods were compared. Thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form is an important property specific to scientific researchers, in waste form Integrated performance and safety code (IPSC). The effective thermal conductivity obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. How the heat generated during storage is directly related to thermal conductivity, which in turn determining the mechanical deformation behavior, corrosion resistance and aging performance. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling models were developed and implemented. Due to the absence of experimental data, prediction results from finite element method (FEM) were used as reference to determine the accuracy of different upscaling models. Micrographs from different loading of nuclear waste were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (Taylor and Sachs model) are better than self consistent model, statistical upscaling method and FEM. Balancing the computation resource and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a computational efficient method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste form.

Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

94

Preliminary study on improvement of cementitious grout thermal conductivity for geothermal heat pump applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary studies were preformed to determine whether thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts used to backfill heat exchanger loops for geothermal heat pumps could be improved, thus improving efficiency. Grouts containing selected additives were compares with conventional bentonite and cement grouts. Significant enhancement of grout alumina grit, steel fibers, and silicon carbide increased the thermal conductivity when compared to unfilled, high solids bentonite grouts and conventional cement grouts. Furthermore, the developed grouts retained high thermal conductivity in the dry state, where as conventional bentonite and cement grouts tend to act as insulators if moisture is lost. The cementitious grouts studied can be mixed and placed using conventional grouting equipment.

Allan, M.L.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

EVALUATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INSTALLED-IN-PLACE POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION BY EXPERIMENT AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

In the thermal analysis of the 9977 package, it was found that calculated temperatures, determined using a typical thermal analysis code, did not match those measured in the experimental apparatus. The analysis indicated that the thermal resistance of the overpack in the experimental apparatus was less than that expected, based on manufacturer's reported value of thermal conductivity. To resolve this question, the thermal conductivity of the installed foam was evaluated from the experimental results, using a simplified analysis. This study confirmed that the thermal resistance of the experimental apparatus was lower than that which would result from the manufacturer's published values for thermal conductivity of the foam insulation. The test package was sectioned to obtain samples for measurement of material properties. In the course of the destructive examination a large uninsulated region was found at the bottom of the package, which accounted for the anomalous results. Subsequent measurement of thermal conductivity confirmed the manufacturer's published values. The study provides useful insight into the use of simplified, scoping calculations for evaluation of thermal performance of packages.

Smith, A; Bruce Hardy, B; Kurt Eberl, K; Nick Gupta, N

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

96

Estimation of in-situ thermal conductivities from temperature gradient measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model has been developed to study the effect of variable thermal conductivity of the formations, and the wellbore characteristics, on the fluid temperature behavior inside the wellbore during injection or production and after shut-in. During the injection or production period the wellbore fluid temperature is controlled mainly by the fluid flow rate and the heat lost from the fluid to the formation. During the shut-in period, the fluid temperature is strongly affected by differences in the formation thermal conductivities. Based on the results of the present analysis, two methods for estimating in-situ thermal conductivity were derived. First, the line source concept is extended to estimate values of the formation thermal conductivities utilizing the fluid temperature record during the transient period of injection or production and shut-in. The second method is applied when a well is under thermal equilibrium conditions. Values of the formation thermal conductivities can also be estimated by using a continuous temperature gradient log and by measuring the thermal conductivity of the formation at a few selected wellbore locations.

Hoang, V.T.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Theoretical investigation of the impact of grain boundaries and fission gases on UO2 thermal conductivity  

SciTech Connect

Thermal conductivity is one of the most important metrics of nuclear fuel performance. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the impact of microstructure features on thermal conductivity, especially since the microstructure evolves with burn-up or time in the reactor. For example, UO{sub 2} fuels are polycrystalline and for high-burnup fuels the outer parts of the pellet experience grain sub-division leading to a very fine grain structure. This is known to impact important physical properties such as thermal conductivity as fission gas release. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of different types of {Sigma}5 grain boundaries on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity and predicted the corresponding Kapitza resistances, i.e. the resistance of the grain boundary in relation to the bulk thermal resistance. There have been reports of pseudoanisotropic effects for the thermal conductivity in cubic polycrystalline materials, as obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, which means that the conductivity appears to be a function of the crystallographic direction of the temperature gradient. However, materials with cubic symmetry should have isotropic thermal conductivity. For this reason it is necessary to determine the cause of this apparent anisotropy and in this report we investigate this effect in context of our earlier simulations of UO{sub 2} Kapitza resistances. Another source of thermal resistance comes from fission products and fission gases. Xe is the main fission gas and when generated in sufficient quantity it dissolves from the lattice and forms gas bubbles inside the crystalline structure. We have performed studies of how Xe atoms dissolved in the UO{sub 2} matrix or precipitated as bubbles impact thermal conductivity, both in bulk UO{sub 2} and in the presence of grain boundaries.

Du, Shiyu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanek, Christopher R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

98

Thermal desorption treatability test conducted with VAC*TRAX Unit  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment standards. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, where off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed waste with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of mixed waste. DOE-AL manages nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment units (MTUs) to treat waste at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed wastes must remove the hazardous component (i.e., meet RCRA treatment standards) and contain the radioactive component in a form that will protect the worker, public, and environment. On the basis of the recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (DOE-GJPO) include thermal desorption (TD), evaporative oxidation, and waste water evaporation.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Cluster expansion and optimization of thermal conductivity in SiGe nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the parametrization and optimization of thermal conductivity in silicon-germanium alloy nanowires by the cluster-expansion technique. Si1?xGex nanowires are of interest for thermoelectric applications and ...

Chan, Maria K.

100

Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area, Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area, Cassia County, Idaho (1974-1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area, Cassia County, Idaho (1974-1976) Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Basin and Range Province; Cassia County Idaho; economic geology; exploration; geophysical surveys; geothermal energy; heat flow; heat flux; Idaho; North America; Raft River basin; south-central Idaho; surveys; temperature; thermal conductivity; United States; USGS Author(s): Urban, T.C.; Diment, W.H.; Nathenson, M.; Smith, E.P.; Ziagos, J.P.; Shaeffer, M.H. Published: Open-File Report - U. S. Geological Survey, 1/1/1986 Document Number: Unavailable

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Anisotropic Thermal Conduction and the Cooling Flow Problem in Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the long-standing cooling flow problem in galaxy clusters with 3D MHD simulations of isolated clusters including radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. The central regions of the intracluster medium (ICM) can have cooling timescales of ~200 Myr or shorter--in order to prevent a cooling catastrophe the ICM must be heated by some mechanism such as AGN feedback or thermal conduction from the thermal reservoir at large radii. The cores of galaxy clusters are linearly unstable to the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), which significantly changes the thermodynamics of the cluster core. The HBI is a convective, buoyancy-driven instability that rearranges the magnetic field to be preferentially perpendicular to the temperature gradient. For a wide range of parameters, our simulations demonstrate that in the presence of the HBI, the effective radial thermal conductivity is reduced to less than 10% of the full Spitzer conductivity. With this suppression of ...

Parrish, Ian J; Sharma, Prateek

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Thermal conductivity of self-assembled nano-structured ZnO bulk ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we describe the changes in thermal conductivity behavior of ZnO-Al micro- and nano-two-phase self-assembled composites with varying grain sizes. The reduction in thermal conductivity values of micro-composites was limited to {approx}15% for ZnO-4% Al. However, nano-composites exhibited large reduction, by a factor of about three, due to uniform distribution of nano-precipitates (ZnAl2O4) and large grain boundary area. Interestingly, the micro-composites revealed continuous decrease in thermal conductivity with increase in Al substitution while the nano-composites exhibited the lowest magnitudes for 2% Al concentration. Raman spectra indicated that phonon confinement in ZnO-Al nano-composites causes drastic decrease in the value of thermal conductivity.

Zhao, Yu [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Yan, Yongke [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Kumar, Ashok [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Effective thermal conductivity measurements relevant to deep borehole nuclear waste disposal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to measure the effective thermal conductivity of a number of materials (particle beds, and fluids) proposed for use in and around canisters for disposal of high level nuclear waste in deep ...

Shaikh, Samina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Thermal conductivity of fluids containing suspension of nanometer-sized particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanofluids, which are fluids containing suspension of nanometer-sized particles, have been reported to possess substantially higher thermal conductivity than their respective base fluids. This thesis reports on an experimental ...

Ma, Jack Jeinhao

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Thermal Conduction in Aligned Carbon NanotubePolymer Nanocomposites with High Packing Density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanostructured composites containing aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are very promising as interface materials for electronic systems and thermoelectric power generators. We report the first data for the thermal conductivity ...

Marconnet, Amy M.

106

The Effect of Soil Thermal Conductivity Parameterization on Surface Energy Fluxes and Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of sensible and latent heat fluxes and surface temperatures to the parameterization of the soil thermal conductivity is demonstrated using a soil vegetation atmosphere transfer scheme (SVATS) applied to intensive field campaigns (...

C. D. Peters-Lidard; E. Blackburn; X. Liang; E. F. Wood

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with graphite nanoparticles and carbon nanotube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluid media such as oil or water, and a selected effective amount of carbon nanomaterials necessary to enhance the thermal conductivity of the fluid. One of the preferred carbon nanomaterials is a high thermal conductivity graphite, exceeding that of the neat fluid to be dispersed therein in thermal conductivity, and ground, milled, or naturally prepared with mean particle size less than 500 nm, and preferably less than 200 nm, and most preferably less than 100 nm. The graphite is dispersed in the fluid by one or more of various methods, including ultrasonication, milling, and chemical dispersion. Carbon nanotubes with graphitic structure is another preferred source of carbon nanomaterial, although other carbon nanomaterials are acceptable. To confer long term stability, the use of one or more chemical dispersants is preferred. The thermal conductivity enhancement, compared to the fluid without carbon nanomaterial, is proportional to the amount of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and/or graphite) added.

Zhang, Zhiqiang (Lexington, KY); Lockwood, Frances E. (Georgetown, KY)

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

108

LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No.2 LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE' IN THEMINE AND, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST Lars Lundstrom and HakanSUMMARY REPORT Background TEST SITE Layout of test places

Lundstrom, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Thermal Conductivity of Wood-Derived Graphite and Copper-Graphite  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of wood-derived graphite and graphite/copper composites was studied both experimentally and using finite element analysis. The unique, naturally-derived, anisotropic porosity inherent to wood-derived carbon makes standard porosity-based approximations for thermal conductivity poor estimators. For this reason, a finite element technique which uses sample microstructure as model input was utilized to determine the conductivity of the carbon phase independent of porosity. Similar modeling techniques were also applied to carbon/copper composite microstructures and predicted conductivities were compared to those determined via experiment.

Johnson, M. T. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Childers, Amanda [Northwestern University, Evanston; Ramrez-Rico, J. [Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Spain; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Faber, K. T. [Northwestern University, Evanston

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Training: Probing Solar Photoconversion Using Flash-Photolysis Time-Resolved Microwave Conductivity (FP-TRMC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Probing solar photoconversion using flash---photolysis 6 me--- resolved microwave conduc6vity (FP---TRMC) Chemical & Nanosciences Group Chemical & Materials Science Center NREL is a na*onal laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. TRMC users ๏ PI: Garry Rumbles ๏ Current users - Rebecca Callahan (liquid crystal donor materials) - Ryan Crisp (semiconductor NC

111

Influence of the temperature dependence of thermal parameters of heat conduction models on the reconstruction of thermal history of igneous-intrusion-bearing basins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat conduction models are important tools for reconstructing the thermal history of sedimentary basins affected by magmatic intrusions. Accurate thermal properties of the intrusion and its wall rocks are crucial for accurate predictions of thermal history. ... Keywords: Igneous intrusion, Peak temperature, Specific heat, Thermal conductivity, Vitrinite reflectance

Dayong Wang; Xiancai Lu; Yongchen Song; Rong Shao; Tian Qi

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTION AND THE COOLING FLOW PROBLEM IN GALAXY CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We examine the long-standing cooling flow problem in galaxy clusters with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of isolated clusters including radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. The central regions of the intracluster medium (ICM) can have cooling timescales of {approx}200 Myr or shorter-in order to prevent a cooling catastrophe the ICM must be heated by some mechanism such as active galactic nucleus feedback or thermal conduction from the thermal reservoir at large radii. The cores of galaxy clusters are linearly unstable to the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), which significantly changes the thermodynamics of the cluster core. The HBI is a convective, buoyancy-driven instability that rearranges the magnetic field to be preferentially perpendicular to the temperature gradient. For a wide range of parameters, our simulations demonstrate that in the presence of the HBI, the effective radial thermal conductivity is reduced to {approx}<10% of the full Spitzer conductivity. With this suppression of conductive heating, the cooling catastrophe occurs on a timescale comparable to the central cooling time of the cluster. Thermal conduction alone is thus unlikely to stabilize clusters with low central entropies and short central cooling timescales. High central entropy clusters have sufficiently long cooling times that conduction can help stave off the cooling catastrophe for cosmologically interesting timescales.

Parrish, Ian J.; Sharma, Prateek; Quataert, Eliot, E-mail: iparrish@astro.berkeley.ed [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2009-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

113

Universal properties of thermal and electrical conductivity of gauge theory plasmas from holography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose that for conformal field theories admitting gravity duals, the thermal conductivity is fixed by the central charges in a universal manner. Though we do not have a proof as yet, we have checked our proposal against several examples. This proposal, if correct, allows us to express electrical conductivity in terms of thermodynamical quantities even in the presence of chemical potential.

Sachin Jain

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

114

Regulation of thermal conductivity in hot galaxy clusters by MHD turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of thermal conduction in regulating the thermal behavior of cooling flows in galaxy clusters is reexamined. Recent investigations have shown that the anisotropic Coulomb heat flux caused by a magnetic field in a dilute plasma drives a dynamical instability. A long standing problem of cooling flow theory has been to understand how thermal conduction can offset radiative core losses without completely preventing them. In this Letter we propose that magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the heat flux instability regulates field-line insulation and drives a reverse convective thermal flux, both of which may mediate the stabilization of the cooling cores of hot clusters. This model suggests that turbulent mixing should accompany strong thermal gradients in cooling flows. This prediction seems to be supported by the spatial distribution of metals in the central galaxies of clusters, which shows a much stronger correlation with the ambient hot gas temperature gradient than with the parent stellar population.

Steven A. Balbus; Christopher S. Reynolds

2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

115

FAST STATIC AND DYNAMIC GRID LEVEL THERMAL SIMULATION CONSIDERING TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SILICON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat diffusion equation has been conventionally handled by grid-grids and an approximate delta function simulating a point heatgrid size of 6464. To obtain transient thermal mask an impulse heat

Ziabari, Amirkoushyar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Novel Charging Station and Computational Modeling for High Thermal Conductivity Heat Pipe Thermal Ground Planes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thermal ground planes (TGPs) are planar, thin (thickness of 3 mm or less) heat pipes which use two-phase heat transfer. TGPs are innovative high-performance, integrated (more)

Ababneh, Mohammed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Determination of Thermal Contact Conductance of Metal Tabs for Battery Ultrasonic Welding Process  

SciTech Connect

A new experimental apparatus and data analysis algorithm were used to determine the thermal contact conductance between 0.2-mm-thick pure aluminum battery tabs as a function of contact pressure from 3.6 to 14.4 MPa. Specimens were sandwiched between one optically transparent and one infrared (IR) transparent glass windows, and heated up from one side by an intense short pulse of flash light. The temperature transient on the other side was measured by an IR camera. In order to determine the thermal contact conductance, two experiment configurations having different number of Al specimen layers were used. Numerical heat conduction simulations showed that the thermal contact conductance strongly depended on the ratio of the maximum temperature rise between the two configurations. Moreover, this ratio was not sensitive to the uncertainties of other thermal properties. Through the simulation results, a simple correlation between the gap conductance and the ratio was established. Therefore, once the ratio of the temperature rise between two configurations was experimentally measured, the thermal contact conductance could be readily determined from the correlation. The new method was fast and robust. Most importantly, the data analysis algorithm improved the measurement accuracy by considerably reducing the uncertainties associated with the thermophysical properties of materials and measurement system.

Chen, Jian [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Holographic electrical and thermal conductivity in strongly coupled gauge theory with multiple chemical potentials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study transport coefficients of strongly coupled gauge theory in the presence of multiple chemical potential which are dual to rotating D3, M2 and M5 brane. Using the general form of the perturbation equations, we compute DC-electrical conductivity at finite temperature as well as at zero temperature. We also study thermal conductivity for the same class of black holes and show that thermal conductivity and viscosity obeys Wiedemann-Franz like law even in the presence of multiple chemical potential.

Sachin Jain

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

119

An Analytical Study Of A 2-Layer Transient Thermal Conduction Problem As  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Analytical Study Of A 2-Layer Transient Thermal Conduction Problem As Analytical Study Of A 2-Layer Transient Thermal Conduction Problem As Applied To Soil-Temperature Surveys Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: An Analytical Study Of A 2-Layer Transient Thermal Conduction Problem As Applied To Soil-Temperature Surveys Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: The soil temperature survey is an inexpensive exploration method in groundwater and geothermal resource investigations. In its simplest form, temperatures measured in shallow holes are analyzed to deduce variations in material properties. Typical interpretation schemes are based on simple, one-layer solutions to the Fourier conduction equation using the annual solar cycle as a surface heat source. We present a solution to the

120

Frequency Response of a Thermistor Temperature Probe in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical study was conducted of the thermal frequency response of an atmospheric temperature probe consisting of a thermistor bead with two lead wires soldered to thin support posts. Such probes are used in aircraft temperature sensors and ...

P. L. Fuehrer; C. A. Friehe; D. K. Edwards

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

SELF-SIMILAR STRUCTURE OF A HOT MAGNETIZED FLOW WITH THERMAL CONDUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have explored the structure of a hot magnetized accretion flow with thermal conduction. The importance of thermal conduction in hot accretion flows has been confirmed by observations of the hot gas surrounding Sgr A* and a few other nearby galactic nuclei. For a steady state structure of such accretion flows, a set of self-similar solutions is presented. In this paper, we have actually tried to re-check the solution presented by Abbassi et al. using a physical constraint. In this study, we find that Equation (29) places a new constraint that limits answers presented by Abbassi et al. In that paper, the parameter space, which is established in the new constraint, was plotted. However, the new requirement makes up only a small parameter space with physically acceptable solutions. And now in this paper, we have followed the idea with more effort and tried to find out how thermal conduction influences the structure of the disks in a physical parameter space. We have found that the existence of thermal conduction will lead to the reduction of accretion and radial and azimuthal velocities as well as the vertical thickness of the disk, which is slightly reduced. Moreover, the surface density of the disk will increase when thermal conduction becomes important in hot magnetized flow.

Ghasemnezhad, M.; Khajavi, M. [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbassi, S., E-mail: abbassi@ipm.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, P.O. Box 36715-364, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Grout is used to seal the annulus between the borehole and heat exchanger loops in vertical geothermal (ground coupled, ground source, GeoExchange) heat pump systems. The grout provides a heat transfer medium between the heat exchanger and surrounding formation, controls groundwater movement and prevents contamination of water supply. Enhanced heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and reduced up-front loop installation costs can be achieved through optimization of the grout thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported was to characterize thermal conductivity and other pertinent properties of conventional and filled cementitious grouts. Cost analysis and calculations of the reduction in heat exchanger length that could be achieved with such grouts were performed by the University of Alabama. Two strategies to enhance the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts were used simultaneously. The first of these was to incorporate high thermal conductivity filler in the grout formulations. Based on previous tests (Allan and Kavanaugh, in preparation), silica sand was selected as a suitable filler. The second strategy was to reduce the water content of the grout mix. By lowering the water/cement ratio, the porosity of the hardened grout is decreased. This results in higher thermal conductivity. Lowering the water/cement ratio also improves such properties as permeability, strength, and durability. The addition of a liquid superplasticizer (high range water reducer) to the grout mixes enabled reduction of water/cement ratio while retaining pumpability. Superplasticizers are commonly used in the concrete and grouting industry to improve rheological properties.

Allan, M.L.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Impacts of Soil and Pipe Thermal Conductivity on Performance of Horizontal Pipe in a Ground-source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the composition and thermal property of soil are discussed. The main factors that impact the soil thermal conductivity and several commonly-used pipe materials are studied. A model of heat exchanger with horizontal pipes of ground-source heat pump is developed. The impact of soil thermal conductivity and pipe thermal conductivity on the soil temperature field around the buried pipe, and the thermal performance of the heat exchanger are simulated. The simulation results show that with the increase of soil thermal conductivity, heat transfer quantity obviously increases, and the temperature of soil around pipe decrease under winter conditions. The temperature field varies relatively faster with thermal conductivity in the site nearer to the buried pipe. With the increase of pipe thermal conductivity, heat transfer quantity and the mean temperature of the buried pipe's outside surface all increase.

Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Na, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Low-Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coating for Gas Turbines: Material Testing Status  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced gas turbines rely on air-cooled components protected by ceramic thermal barrier coatings to survive increasingly high operating temperatures. A new generation of coatings offers lower thermal conductivity, potentially further reducing component heat loading, which can improve durability, lower life cycle cost, and enable longer range efficiency gains. Testing improved coatings is a necessary step towards field demonstration.BackgroundAs gas turbine ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Thermal management of batteries using a Variable-Conductance Insulation (VCI) enclosure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proper thermal management is important for optimum performance and durability of most electric-vehicle batteries. For high-temperature cells such as sodium/sulphur, a very efficient and responsive thermal control system is essential. Heat must be removed during exothermic periods and retained when the batteries are not in use. Current thermal management approaches rely on passive insulation enclosures with active cooling loops that penetrate the enclosure. This paper presents the design, analysis, and testing of an enclosure with variable conductance insulation (VCI). VCI uses a hydride with an integral electric resistance heater to expel and retrieve a small amount of hydrogen gas into a vacuum space. By controlling the amount of hydrogen gas, the thermal conductance can be varied by more than 100:1, enabling the cooling loop (cold plate) to be mounted on the enclosure exterior. By not penetrating the battery enclosure, the cooling system is simpler and more reliable. Also, heat can be retained more effectively when desired. For high temperatures, radiation shields within the vacuum space are required. Ceramic spacers are used to maintain separation of the steel enclosure materials against atmospheric loading. Ceramic-to-ceramic thermal contact resistance within the spacer assembly minimizes thermal conductance. Two full-scale (0.8-m {times} 0.9-m {times} 0.3-m) prototypes were designed, built, and tested under high-temperature 200{degrees}-350{degrees}C battery conditions. With an internal temperature of 330{degrees}C (and 20{degrees}C ambient), the measured total-enclosure minimum heat loss was 80 watts (excluding wire pass-through losses). The maximum heat rejection was 4100 watts. The insulation can be switched from minimum to maximum conductance (hydrogen pressure from 2.0 {times} 10{sup -3} to 8 torr) in 3 minutes. Switching from maximum to minimum conductance was longer (16 minutes), but still satisfactory because of the large thermal mass of the battery.

Burch, S.D.; Parish, R.C.; Keyser, M.A.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Thermal Conductivity of Thermally-Isolating Polymeric and Composite Structural Support Materials Between 0.3 and 4 K  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present measurements of the low-temperature thermal conductivity of a number of polymeric and composite materials from 0.3 to 4 K. The materials measured are Vespel SP-1, Vespel SP-22, unfilled PEEK, 30% carbon fiber-filled PEEK, 30% glass-filled PEEK, carbon fiber Graphlite composite rod, Torlon 4301, G-10/FR-4 fiberglass, pultruded fiberglass composite, Macor ceramic, and graphite rod. These materials have moderate to high elastic moduli making them useful for thermally-isolating structural supports.

Runyan, M C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Thermal Conductivity of Thermally-Isolating Polymeric and Composite Structural Support Materials Between 0.3 and 4 K  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present measurements of the low-temperature thermal conductivity of a number of polymeric and composite materials from 0.3 to 4 K. The materials measured are Vespel SP-1, Vespel SP-22, unfilled PEEK, 30% carbon fiber-filled PEEK, 30% glass-filled PEEK, carbon fiber Graphlite composite rod, Torlon 4301, G-10/FR-4 fiberglass, pultruded fiberglass composite, Macor ceramic, and graphite rod. These materials have moderate to high elastic moduli making them useful for thermally-isolating structural supports.

M. C. Runyan; W. C. Jones

2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

128

Predicting Thermal Conductivity Evolution of Polycrystalline Materials Under Irradiation Using Multiscale Approach  

SciTech Connect

A multiscale methodology was developed to predict the evolution of thermal conductivity of polycrystalline fuel under irradiation. In the mesoscale level, phase field model was used to predict the evolution of gas bubble microstructure. Generation of gas atoms and vacancies were taken into consideration. In the macroscopic scale, a statistical continuum mechanics model was applied to predict the anisotropic thermal conductivity evolution during irradiation. Microstructure predicted by phase field model was fed into statistical continuum mechanics model to predict properties and behavior. Influence of irradiation intensity, exposition time and morphology were investigated. This approach provides a deep understanding on microstructure evolution and property prediction from a basic scientific viewpoint.

Li, Dongsheng; Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Phase-field modeling of temperature gradient driven pore migration coupling with thermal conduction  

SciTech Connect

Pore migration in a temperature gradient (Soret effect) is investigated by a phase-field model coupled with a heat transfer calculation. Pore migration is observed towards the high temperature domain with velocities that agree with analytical solution. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the pores, the temperature gradient across individual pores is increased, which in turn, accelerates the pore migration. In particular, for pores filled with xenon and helium, the pore velocities are increased by a factor of 2.2 and 2.1, respectively. A quantitative equation is then derived to predict the influence of the low thermal conductivity of pores.

Liangzhe Zhang; Michael R Tonks; Paul C Millett; Yongfeng Zhang; Karthikeyan Chockalingam; Bulent Biner

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Chandra constraints on the thermal conduction in the intracluster plasma of A2142  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this Letter, we use the recent Chandra observation of A2142 reported by Markevitch et al. to put constraints on thermal conduction in the intracluster plasma. We show that the observed sharp temperature gradient requires that classical conductivity has to be reduced at least by a factor of between 250 and 2500. The result provides a direct constraint on an important physical process relevant to the gas in the cores of clusters of galaxies.

S. Ettori; A. C. Fabian

2000-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

131

THE EFFECT OF ANISOTROPIC CONDUCTION ON THE THERMAL INSTABILITY IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect

Thermal instability (TI) can strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Milky Way and other disk galaxies. Thermal conduction plays an important role in the TI by stabilizing small scales and limiting the size of the smallest condensates. In the magnetized ISM, however, heat is conducted anisotropically (primarily along magnetic field lines). We investigate the effects of anisotropic thermal conduction on the nonlinear regime of the TI by performing two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We present models with magnetic fields of different initial geometries and strengths, and compare them to hydrodynamic models with isotropic conduction. We find that anisotropic conduction does not significantly alter the overall density and temperature statistics in the saturated state of the TI. However, it can strongly affect the shapes and sizes of cold clouds formed by the TI. For example, for uniform initial fields long filaments of cold gas are produced that are reminiscent of some observed H I clouds. For initially tangled fields, such filaments are not produced. We also show that anisotropic conduction suppresses turbulence generated by evaporative flows from the surfaces of cold blobs, which may have implications for mechanisms for driving turbulence in the ISM.

Choi, Ena; Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

132

The Dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor Stable and Unstable Contact Discontinuities with Anisotropic Thermal Conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effects of anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines on an accelerated contact discontinuity in a weakly collisional plasma. We first perform a linear stability analysis similar to that used to derive the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) dispersion relation. We find that anisotropic conduction is only important for compressible modes, as incompressible modes are isothermal. Modes grow faster in the presence of anisotropic conduction, but growth rates do not change by more than a factor of order unity. We next run fully non-linear numerical simulations of a contact discontinuity with anisotropic conduction. The non-linear evolution can be thought of as a superposition of three physical effects: temperature diffusion due to vertical conduction, the RTI, and the heat flux driven buoyancy instability (HBI). In simulations with RTI-stable contact discontinuities, the temperature discontinuity spreads due to vertical heat conduction. This occurs even for initially horizontal magnetic f...

Lecoanet, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Thermal conductivity of silicic tuffs: predictive formalism and comparison with preliminary experimental results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance of both near- and far-field thermomechanical calculations to assess the feasibility of waste disposal in silicic tuffs requires a formalism for predicting thermal conductivity of a broad range of tuffs. This report summarizes the available thermal conductivity data for silicate phases that occur in tuffs and describes several grain-density and conductivity trends which may be expected to result from post-emplacement alteration. A bounding curve is drawn that predicts the minimum theoretical matrix (zero-porosity) conductivity for most tuffs as a function of grain density. Comparison of experimental results with this curve shows that experimental conductivities are consistently lower at any given grain density. Use of the lowered bounding curve and an effective gas conductivity of 0.12 W/m{sup 0}C allows conservative prediction of conductivity for a broad range of tuff types. For the samples measured here, use of the predictive curve allows estimation of conductivity to within 15% or better, with one exception. Application and possible improvement of the formalism are also discussed.

Lappin, A. R.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Enhanced thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol with single-walled carbon nanotube inclusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the Hamilton-Crosser model, the Lu-Lin model, Nan`s effective medium theory and the Hashin-Strikman model to rest of the models. Networking of nanotubes to form a tri-dimensional structure was considered #12;models. Therefore, more studies need to be performed to measure the effective thermal conductivity

Maruyama, Shigeo

135

Temperature dependent thermal conductivity increase of aqueous nanofluid with single walled carbon nanotube inclusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the thermal conductivity at higher temperatures up to 6%. Computational modeling of SWCNTs in water using of water seeded with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) synthesized using the alcohol catalytic this fluid for practical applications. We compare experimental results with existing analytical models

Maruyama, Shigeo

136

Thermal Inertia of Conductivity Cells: Observations with a Sea-Bird Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have examined the magnitude and relaxation time of the thermal anomaly of the fluid flowing through the conductivity cell manufactured by Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) that is induced by the heat stored in the wall of this cell using oceanic data ...

Rolf G. Lueck; James J. Picklo

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

1973-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

138

Atomistic calculation of the thermal conductance of large scale bulk-nanowire junctions  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a stable and efficient kernel method to compute thermal transport in open systems, based on the scattering-matrix approach. This method is applied to compute the thermal conductance of a junction between bulk silicon and silicon nanowires with diameter up to 10 nm. We have found that beyond a threshold diameter of 7 nm, transmission spectra and contact conductances scale with the cross section of the contact surface, whereas deviations from this general trend are observed in thinner wires. This result allows us to predict the thermal resistance of bulk-nanowire interfaces with larger cross sections than those tractable with atomistic simulations, and indicate the characteristic size beyond which atomistic systems can in principle be treated accurately by mean-field theories. Our calculations also elucidate how dimensionality reduction and shape affect interfacial heat transport.

Duchemin, Ivan; Donadio, Davide [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

SIMULATIONS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS INSTABILITIES IN INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM INCLUDING ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTION  

SciTech Connect

We perform a suite of simulations of cooling cores in clusters of galaxies in order to investigate the effect of the recently discovered heat flux buoyancy instability (HBI) on the evolution of cores. Our models follow the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics of cooling cluster cores and capture the effects of anisotropic heat conduction along the lines of magnetic field, but do not account for the cosmological setting of clusters or the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our model clusters can be divided into three groups according to their final thermodynamical state: catastrophically collapsing cores, isothermal cores, and an intermediate group whose final state is determined by the initial configuration of magnetic field. Modeled cores that are reminiscent of real cluster cores show evolution toward thermal collapse on a timescale which is prolonged by a factor of approx2-10 compared with the zero-conduction cases. The principal effect of the HBI is to re-orient field lines to be perpendicular to the temperature gradient. Once the field has been wrapped up onto spherical surfaces surrounding the core, the core is insulated from further conductive heating (with the effective thermal conduction suppressed to less than 10{sup -2} of the Spitzer value) and proceeds to collapse. We speculate that, in real clusters, the central AGN and possibly mergers play the role of 'stirrers', periodically disrupting the azimuthal field structure and allowing thermal conduction to sporadically heat the core.

Bogdanovic, Tamara; Reynolds, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Balbus, Steven A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire de Radioastronomie, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris CEDEX 05 (France); Parrish, Ian J., E-mail: tamarab@astro.umd.ed, E-mail: chris@astro.umd.ed, E-mail: steven.balbus@lra.ens.f, E-mail: iparrish@astro.berkeley.ed [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2009-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

140

Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many-body systems in nature exhibit complexity and self-organization arising from seemingly simple laws. The long-range Coulomb interaction between electrical charges generates a plethora of bound states in matter, ranging from the hydrogen atom to complex biochemical structures. Semiconductors form an ideal laboratory for studying many-body interactions of quasi-particles among themselves and with lattice vibrations and light. Oppositely charged electron and hole quasi-particles can coexist in an ionized but correlated plasma, or form bound hydrogen-like pairs called excitons which strongly affect physical properties. The pathways between such states however remain elusive in near-visible optical experiments that detect a subset of excitons with vanishing center-of-mass momenta. In contrast, transitions between internal exciton levels which occur in the far-infrared at terahertz (10 s) frequencies are in dependent of this restriction suggesting their use as a novel pro be of pair dynamics. Here, we employ an ultrafast terahertz probe to directly investigate the dynamical interplay of optically-generated excitons and unbound electron-hole pairs in GaAs quantum wells. Our observations witness an unexpected quasi-instantaneous excitonic enhancement, reveal formation of insulating excitons on a hundred picosecond timescale and manifest conditions under which excitonic populations prevail.

Kaindl, Robert A.; Carnahan, Marc A.; Hagele, Daniel; Lovenich, Reinhold; Chemla, Daniel S.

2003-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Low Thermal Conductivity of RE4Si2O7N2 (RE=Y, Lu): A Systematic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work shows that identifying new low thermal conductivity ceramics can be realized by a combination approach of first-principles calculation and...

142

Structure, thermal expansion and electrical conductivity of Nb-substituted LaCoO{sub 3}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of Nb-substitution in LaCoO{sub 3} has been examined by evaluating the electrical conductivity, thermal expansion and crystal structure of the solid solutions LaCo{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0 to 1/3). It was demonstrated that Nb-substitution in LaCoO{sub 3} was mainly compensated by reduction of Co{sup 3+} to Co{sup 2+}, and that oxidation of Co{sup 2+} could destabilise the solid solution. The ambient crystal structure was shown to transform from rhombohedral R3{sup Macron }c perovskite (x=0) to orthorhombic Pbnm (x=0.15, 0.20) and finally to B-site ordered perovskite P2{sub 1}/n (x=0.25, 1/3) perovskite with increasing Nb-substitution. The thermal expansion of LaCo{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} was shown to be strongly depressed with increasing Nb-content, and significantly lower thermal expansion was observed for LaCo{sub 2/3}Nb{sub 1/3}O{sub 3} relative to LaCoO{sub 3}. The electrical conductivity was reduced with increasing Nb-content, and semi-conducting properties was demonstrated for LaCo{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} in contrast to the metallic behaviour of pure LaCoO{sub 3} at elevated temperature. The thermal expansion, electrical conductivity and the stability of the materials were discussed with emphasis on Co/Nb ordering, the oxidation state and spin transitions of Co. - Graphical abstract: Substitution of Nb in LaCoO{sub 3} increases the unit cell volume, reduces the symmetry of the unit cell and introduces cation ordering. The chemical substitution leads to suppression of the electronic conductivity and reduces the thermal expansion of the lattice. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cation ordering and crystal structure is reported for LaCo{sub x}Nb{sub 1-x}O{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substitution of Nb in LaCoO{sub 3} is compensated by reduction of Co{sup 3+} to Co{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal expansion of LaCoO{sub 3} is reduced by Nb-substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical conductivity of LaCoO{sub 3} is reduced by Nb-substitution.

Oygarden, Vegar; Lein, Hilde L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Grande, Tor, E-mail: grande@ntnu.no [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Development of a Test Technique to Determine the Thermal Conductivity of Large Refractory Ceramic Test Specimens  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed to utilize the High Intensity Infrared lamp located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the measurement of thermal conductivity of bulk refractory materials at elevated temperatures. The applicability of standardized test methods to determine the thermal conductivity of refractory materials at elevated temperatures is limited to small sample sizes (laser flash) or older test methods (hot wire, guarded hot plate), which have their own inherent problems. A new method, based on the principle of the laser flash method, but capable of evaluating test specimens on the order of 200 x 250 x 50 mm has been developed. Tests have been performed to validate the method and preliminary results are presented in this paper.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Loveland, Erick R [ORNL; Prigmore, Andre L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Dissipative instability of MHD tangential discontinuity in magnetized plasmas with anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The stability of the MHD tangential discontinuity is studied in compressible plasmas in the presence of anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity. The general dispersion equation is derived and solutions to this dispersion equation and stability criteria are obtained for the limiting cases of incompressible and cold plasmas. In these two limiting cases the effect of thermal conductivity vanishes and the solutions are only influenced by viscosity. The stability criteria for viscous plasmas are compared with those for ideal plasmas where stability is determined by the Kelvin-Helmholtz velocity VKH as a threshold for the difference in the equilibrium velocities. Viscosity turns out to have a destabilizing influence when the viscosity coefficient takes different values at the two sides of the discontinuity. Viscosity lowers the threshold velocity V c below the ideal KelvinHelmholtz velocity VKH , so that there is a range of velocities between V c and VKH where the overstability is of ...

Michael Ruderman; Erwin Verwichte; Robertus Erdelyi; Marcel Goossens; Elyiyy

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Measurement of probe displacement to the thermal resolution limit in photonic force microscopy using a miniature quadrant photodetector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A photonic force microscope comprises of an optically trapped micro-probe and a position detection system to track the motion of the probe. Signal collection for motion detection is often carried out using the backscattered light off the probe-however, this mode has problems of low S/N due to the small backscattering cross sections of the micro-probes typically used. The position sensors often used in these cases are quadrant photodetectors. To ensure maximum sensitivity of such detectors, it would help if the detector size matched with the detection beam radius after the condenser lens (which for backscattered detection would be the trapping objective itself). To suit this condition, we have used a miniature displacement sensor whose dimensions makes it ideal to work with 1:1 images of micrometer-sized trapped probes in the backscattering detection mode. The detector is based on the quadrant photo-integrated chip in the optical pick-up head of a compact disc player. Using this detector, we measured absolute displacements of an optically trapped 1.1 {mu}m probe with a resolution of {approx}10 nm for a bandwidth of 10 Hz at 95% significance without any sample or laser stabilization. We characterized our optical trap for different sized probes by measuring the power spectrum for each probe to 1% accuracy, and found that for 1.1 {mu}m diameter probes, the noise in our position measurement matched the thermal resolution limit for averaging times up to 10 ms. We also achieved a linear response range of around 385 nm with cross talk between axes {approx_equal}4% for 1.1 {mu}m diameter probes. The detector has extremely high bandwidth (few MHz) and low optical power threshold-other factors that can lead to its widespread use in photonic force microscopy.

Pal, Sambit Bikas; Haldar, Arijit; Roy, Basudev; Banerjee, Ayan [Department of Physical Sciences, IISER-Kolkata, West Bengal 741252 (India)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

147

Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

Christensen, Craig B. (Boulder, CO); Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith M. (Boulder, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Effective Thermal Conductivity of High Temperature Insulations for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental apparatus was designed to measure the effective thermal conductivity of various high temperature insulations subject to large temperature gradients representative of typical launch vehicle reentry aerodynamic heating conditions. The insulation sample cold side was maintained around room temperature, while the hot side was heated to temperatures as high as 1800F. The environmental pressure was varied from 1 x 10 -4 to 760 torr. All the measurements were performed in a dry gaseous nitrogen environment. The effective thermal conductivity of the following insulation samples were measured: Saffil at 1.5, 3, 6 lb/ft 3 , Q-Fiber felt at 3, 6 lb/ft 3 , Cerachrome at 6, 12 lb/ft 3 , and three multi-layer insulation configurations at 1.5 and 3 lb/ft 3 .. Introduction Metallic and refractory-composite thermal protection systems are being considered for a new generation of reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The main function of the thermal protection system (TPS) is to...

Kamran Daryabeigi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Effective Thermal Conductivity of High Temperature Insulations for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental apparatus was designed to measure the effective thermal conductivity of various high temperature insulations subject to large temperature gradients representative of typical launch vehicle reentry aerodynamic heating conditions. The insulation sample cold side was maintained around room temperature, while the hot side was heated to temperatures as high as 1800F. The environmental pressure was varied from 1 x 10 -4 to 760 torr. All the measurements were performed in a dry gaseous nitrogen environment. The effective thermal conductivity of the following insulation samples were measured: Saffil at 1.5, 3, 6 lb/ft 3 , Q-Fiber felt at 3, 6 lb/ft 3 , Cerachrome at 6, 12 lb/ft 3 , and three multi-layer insulation configurations at 1.5 and 3 lb/ft 3 .. Introduction Metallic and refractory-composite thermal protection systems are being considered for a new generation of reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The main function of the thermal protection system (TPS) is to mai...

Kamran Daryabeigi Langley

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Measurement of effective thermal conductivity of wheat as a function of moisture content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grain drying and storage are one of the main activities of agricultural industry. Increasing energy costs have stressed the importance of calculation of heat and mass transfer in a grain bulk in order to be able to optimize drying facilities. Another limitation during drying is the preservation of grain structure and its nutritional values, Muehlbauer and Christ have shown that damage to the grain structure and grain nutritional value is dependent upon grain temperature and drying time. Therefore, proper conditions during drying and storage of cereal grains require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the grains. The effective thermal conductivity of two varieties of Triticum durum wheat and a wheat product, bulgur, is determined at different moisture contents and at ambient temperature by the transient lime heat source method. The moisture contents of the samples ranged from 9.17 to 38.65% wet basis and the bulk densities ranged from 675 to 827 kg/m{sup 3}. Under those conditions, the measured effective thermal conductivities ranged from 0.159 to 0.201 W/m.K. The effective thermal conductivity is found to be linearly increasing with moisture content. The results are also in good agreement with literature values.

Tavman, S. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.] [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.; Tavman, I.H. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.] [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Thermal conductivity of diamond-loaded glues for the ATLAS particle physics detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ATLAS experiment is one of two large general-purpose particle detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. ATLAS has been collecting data from the collisions of protons since December 2009, in order to investigate the conditions that existed during the early Universe and the origins of mass, and other topics in fundamental particle physics. The innermost layers of the ATLAS detector will be exposed to the most radiation over the first few years of operation at the LHC. In particular, the layer closest to the beam pipe, the B-layer, will degrade over time due to the added radiation. To compensate for its degradation, it will be replaced with an Insertable B-Layer (IBL) around 2016. The design of and R&D for the IBL is ongoing, as the hope is to use the most current technologies in the building of this new sub-detector layer. One topic of interest is the use of more thermally conductive glues in the construction of the IBL, in order to facilitate in the dissipation of heat from the detector. In this paper the measurement and use of highly thermally conductive glues, in particular those that are diamond-loaded, will be discussed. The modified transient plane source technique for thermal conductivity is applied in characterizing the glues across a wide temperature range.

E. A. Ouellette; A. Harris

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

152

Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of sintered UO2 and UO2-Gd2O3. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash method on sintered uranium dioxide (O/U=2.003, density=10.48X10 kg/m, from 300 to 2773 K), and urania and gadolinia mixed fuel (2,4 and 6 Wt% Gd2O3 content, from 600 to 1850 K). An equation was suggested for near-stoichiometric uranium dioxide over the temperature range 500-3100 K: K=(1-aP)(1/(A+BT)+DTxexp(-E/kT)x(1+H(E/kT+2)(sup 2))), where K in W/(m)(K), P is the fraction of porosity, a=2.74-5.8X10(sup 4-)T, A=3.68X10(sup 2-)(m)(K)/W, B=2.25X10(sup 4-)m/W, D=5.31X10(sup 3-)W/mXK2, H=0.264, E=1.15 ev, k is the Boltzmann constant. The thermal conductivity of UO2-Gd2O3 samples as a function of temperature and Gd2O3 content, X, could be expressed by phonon conduction; K=1/(A+BT) in the temperature range from 600 to 1700 K, where A=2.50 X+0.044(m)(K)/W.

Ying, S.; Ji, Z.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus are described for fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites. A composition includes a vertically aligned nanotube array including a plurality of nanotubes characterized by a property across substantially all of the vertically aligned nanotube array. A method includes depositing a vertically aligned nanotube array that includes a plurality of nanotubes; and controlling a deposition rate of the vertically aligned nanotubes array as a function of an in situ monitored property of the plurality of nanotubes.

Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Ivanov, Ilya N. (Knoxville, TN); Puretzky,; Alexander A. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

154

A statistical method for estimating wood thermal diffusivity and probe geometry using in situ heat response curves from sap flow measurements  

SciTech Connect

The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by inferring the velocity of water through a porous medium from the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale; and consequently, to up-scale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for estimating the wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing simutaneously from in-situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio apparatus. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require known probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential to obtain reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests are conducted during different seasons and automated using the existing data logging system. The seasonality of wood thermal diffusivity is obtained as a by-product of the parameter estimation process, and it is shown to be affected by both moisture content and temperature. Empirical factors are often introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and they are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology can be applied for the calibration of existing heat ratio sap flow systems at other sites. It is especially useful when an alternative transpiration calibration device, such as a lysimeter, is not available.

Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R.; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

155

Experimental investigation of size effect on thermal conductivity for ultra-thin amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine whether a size effect phenomenon for one particular thermophysical property, thermal conductivity, actually exists for amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with thicknesses ranging from 40 nm to 2 ?m. This was done by using a non-contact, non-invasive, in-situ Transient Thermo-Reflectance (TTR) laser based technique. The results demonstrated that the intrinsic thermal conductivity of a 40 nm PMMA film deposited on native oxide of silicon increases by a factor of three over bulk PMMA values, and a distinct increase in the thermal conductivity of PMMA film was observed in ultra-thin (sub 100 nm) films. This confirmed the importance of film thickness for the through-plane thermal conductivity value of PMMA film on native oxide of silicon.

Kim, Ick Chan

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Preparation of silica aerogels with improved mechanical properties and extremely low thermal conductivities through modified sol-gel process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reported silica aerogels have a thermal conductivity as low as 15 mW/mK. The fragility of silica aerogels, however, makes them impractical for structural applications. The purpose of the study is to improve the ductility ...

Zuo, Yanjia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

PROBLEM 13.94 KNOWN: Diameter, temperature and emissivity of boiler tube. Thermal conductivity and emissivity of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROBLEM 13.94 KNOWN: Diameter, temperature and emissivity of boiler tube. Thermal conductivity of 0.5 mm), Td = 773 K nd the ash provides a significant resistance to heat transfer.a COMMENTS: Boiler

Rothstein, Jonathan

158

Experimental Determination of the Effect of Reactor Radiation on the Thermal Conductivity of Uranium-Impregnated Graphite  

SciTech Connect

Experiments are described in which the change in thermal conductivity of U-impregnated graphite under neutron irradiation was measured. Thermal resistivities relative to the thermal resistivity of undamaged impregnated graphite are reorted as functions of exposure. From applications of the expermental results to the North American Aviation low-power research reactor the peak tem. of the core is determined for a given reactor power and time of operation.

Hetrick, D.L.; McCarty, W.K.; Steele, G.N.; Brown, M.S.; Clark, E.V.; Holmes, F.R.; Howard, D.F.; McElroy, W.N.; Shields, B.L.

1953-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

159

Thermally conductive cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1998  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98. The developed thermally conductive grout consists of cement, water, a particular grade of silica sand, superplasticizer and a small amount of bentonite. While the primary function of the grout is to facilitate heat transfer between the U-loop and surrounding formation, it is also essential that the grout act as an effective borehole sealant. Two types of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests was conducted to evaluate the sealing performance of the cement-sand grout. Additional properties of the proposed grout that were investigated include bleeding, shrinkage, bond strength, freeze-thaw durability, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, Poisson`s ratio and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a borehole methodology to estimate formation thermal conductivity in situ with a spatial resolution of one meter. In parallel with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS), a resistance heater is deployed to create a controlled thermal perturbation. The transient thermal data is inverted to estimate the formation's thermal conductivity. We refer to this instrumentation as a Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensor (DTPS), given the distributed nature of the DTS measurement technology. The DTPS was deployed in permafrost at the High Lake Project Site (67 degrees 22 minutes N, 110 degrees 50 minutes W), Nunavut, Canada. Based on DTPS data, a thermal conductivity profile was estimated along the length of a wellbore. Using the thermal conductivity profile, the baseline geothermal profile was then inverted to estimate a ground surface temperature history (GSTH) for the High Lake region. The GSTH exhibits a 100-year long warming trend, with a present-day ground surface temperature increase of 3.0 {+-} 0.8 C over the long-term average.

Freifeld, B.M.; Finsterle, S.; Onstott, T.C.; Toole, P.; Pratt, L.M.

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Cross-plane lattice and electronic thermal conductivities of ErAs : InGaAs/InGaAlAs superlattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

should be noted that the lattice thermal conductivity should88, 242107 ?2006? Cross-plane lattice and electronic thermalWe studied the cross-plane lattice and electronic thermal

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Knoxville, TN

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

163

Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity  

SciTech Connect

A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael R. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Evaluation of the Thermal Performance for a Wire Mesh/Hollow Glass Microsphere Composite Structure as a Conduction Barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental investigation exploring the use of wire mesh/hollow glass microsphere combination for use as thermal insulation was conducted with the aim to conclude whether or not it represents a superior insulation technology to those on the market. Three primary variables, including number of wire mesh layers, filler material, and temperature dependence were studied using an apparatus that was part of L.I.C.H.E.N (LabVIEW Integrated Conduction Heat Experiment Network), a setup whose basic components allow three vertically stacked samples to be thermally and mechanically controlled. Knowing the temperature profile in the upper and lower samples allows for determination of thermal conductivity of the middle material through the use of Fourier?s law. The numbers of layers investigated were two, four, six, and eight, with each separated by a metallic liner. The filler materials included air, s15, s35 and s60HS 3MTM hollow glass microspheres. The experiments were conducted at four temperatures of 300, 330, 366, and 400K with an interface pressure of 20 Psi. The experimental results indicated the ?number of layers? used was the primary factor in determining the effective thermal conductivity value. The addition of hollow glass microspheres as filler material resulted in statistically insignificant changes in effective thermal conductivity. Increasing the number of wire mesh layers resulted in a corresponding increase in effective thermal conductivity of the insulation. Changes in temperature had little to no effect on thermal conductivity. The effective thermal conductivity values for the proposed insulation structure ranged from 0.22 to 0.65 W/m-K, the lowest of which came from the two layer case having air as filler material. The uncertainties associated with the experimental results fell between 10 to 20 percent in all but a few cases. In the best performing cases, when compared with existing insulation technologies, thermal conductivity was approximately 3 to 10 times higher than these methods of insulation. Thus, the proposed insulation scheme with hollow glass-sphere filler material does not represent superior technology, and would be deemed uncompetitive with those readily available in the insulation market.

Mckenna, Sean

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Design of a steady state thermal conductivity measurement device for CNT RET polymer composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fall within ~ 10%. Heat conduction through the TCs coulda 6% difference. To eliminate heat conduction effects, otherlaw formulation of heat conduction in materials. BASIC

Louie, Brian Ming

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Comparison of Different Upscaling Methods for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Complex Heterogeneous Materials System: Application on Nuclear Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

To develop a strategy in thermal conductivity prediction of a complex heterogeneous materials system, loaded nuclear waste forms, the computational efficiency and accuracy of different upscaling methods have been evaluated. The effective thermal conductivity, obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components, is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling method, were developed and implemented. Microstructure based finite element method (FEM) prediction results were used to as benchmark to determine the accuracy of the different upscaling methods. Micrographs from waste forms with varying waste loadings were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity in FEM and homogenization methods. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (e.g., Taylor model and Sachs model) are stronger than the self-consistent model, statistical upscaling method, and finite element method. However, when balancing computational efficiency and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a useful method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste forms.

Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

A method for the thermal characterization, visualization, and integrity evaluation of conducting material samples or complex structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is useful in thermal imaging of conducting materials, and is particularly useful in measuring thermal conductivity and thermal boundary conditions in composite anisotropic materials, in materials of irregular shape, and in materials for high-temperature applications. It also has utility in visualizing the integrity of complex structures such as a machine, power plant, or chemical plant. The method is for modeling a conducting material sample or structure (system) as an electrical network of resistances, for measuring electric resistance between selected leads attached to the surface of the system, and, using basic circuit theory, for translating measured resistances into temperatures or indications of integrity in corresponding regions of the system. 10 figs.

Ortiz, M.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Conduction Effect of Thermal Radiation in a Metal Shield Pipe in a Cryostat for a Cryogenic Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A large heat load caused by thermal radiation through a metal shield pipe was observed in a cooling test of a cryostat for a prototype of a cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector. The heat load was approximately 1000 times larger than the value calculated by the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We studied this phenomenon by simulation and experiment and found that it was caused by the conduction of thermal radiation in a metal shield pipe.

Takayuki Tomaru; Masao Tokunari; Kazuaki Kuroda; Takashi Uchiyama; Akira Okutomi; Masatake Ohashi; Hiroyuki Kirihara; Nobuhiro Kimura; Yoshio Saito; Nobuaki Sato; Takakazu Shintomi; Toshikazu Suzuki; Tomiyoshi Haruyama; Shinji Miyoki; Kazuhiro Yamamoto; Akira Yamamoto

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

169

The Stability of Dilute Plasmas with Thermal and Composition Gradients. I. The Slow Conduction Limit: Overstable Gravity Modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the stability of a dilute plasma with thermal and composition gradients in the limit where conduction is slow compared to the dynamical timescale. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for stability when the background magnetic field is either parallel or perpendicular to the thermal and composition gradients that are parallel to the gravitational field. We provide approximate solutions for all the relevant modes involved, which are driven by gravity, conduction, and diffusion. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our findings for a representative galaxy cluster where helium has sedimented.

Pessah, Martin E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Anomalously low thermal conductivity and thermoelectric properties of new cationic clathrates in the Sn-In-As-I system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-crystal samples of cationic clathrates in the Sn-In-As-I system with different indium contents have been synthesized. Their crystal structure has been analyzed and their thermoelectric properties have been measured. These compounds are found to be n-type semiconductors with high absolute values of the Seebeck coefficient (S = 400-600 {mu}V/K) and anomalously low thermal conductivity ({kappa} {materials. The reasons for the anomalously low thermal conductivity of these semiconductors are discussed and ways for optimizing their thermoelectric properties are shown.

Shevelkov, A. V.; Kelm, E. A.; Olenev, A. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kulbachinskii, V. A., E-mail: kulb@mig.phys.msu.ru; Kytin, V. G. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Heat Conduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Differential equations for heat conduction in solids...conduction in solids General form with variable thermal properties General form with constant thermal properties General form, constant properties, without heat

172

Thermal conductivity depth-profile reconstruction of multilayered cylindrical solids using the thermal-wave Green function method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a theoretical model for characterizing solid multi-layered cylindrical samples illuminated by a modulated uniform incident beam is developed by means of the Green function method. The specific Green function for the multi-layered cylindrical structure is derived and an analytical expression for the thermal-wave field in such a cylindrical sample is presented. The thermal-wave field of an inhomogeneous cylindrical sample irradiated with incident light of arbitrary angular and/or radial intensity distribution was obtained using this theoretical model. Furthermore, experimental validation is also presented in the form of experimental results with steel cylinders of various diameters.

Xie Guangxi [Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Modern Optical Technologies, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006 (China); Department of Physics, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122 (China); Zhang Jie; Liu Liwang; Wang Chinhua [Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Modern Optical Technologies, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006 (China); Mandelis, Andreas [Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies (CADIFT), Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto M5S 3G8, Ontario (Canada)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Hyper-resistivity and electron thermal conductivity due to destroyed magnetic surfaces in axisymmetric plasma equilibria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to model the effects of small-scale current-driven magnetic fluctuations in a mean-field theoretical description of a large-scale plasma magnetic field B(x,t), a space and time dependent hyper-resistivity {Lambda}(x,t) can be incorporated into the Ohm's law for the parallel electric field E Dot-Operator B. Using Boozer coordinates, a theoretical method is presented that allows for a determination of the hyper-resistivity {Lambda}({psi}) functional dependence on the toroidal magnetic flux {psi} for arbitrary experimental steady-state Grad-Shafranov axisymmetric plasma equilibria, if values are given for the parallel plasma resistivity {eta}({psi}) and the local distribution of any auxiliary plasma current. Heat transport in regions of plasma magnetic surfaces destroyed by resistive tearing modes can then be modeled by an electron thermal conductivity k{sub e}({psi})=({epsilon}{sub 0}{sup 2}m{sub e}/e{sup 2}){Lambda}({psi}), where e and m{sub e} are the electron charge and mass, respectively, while {epsilon}{sub 0} is the permittivity of free space. An important result obtained for axisymmetric plasma equilibria is that the {psi}{psi}-component of the metric tensor of Boozer coordinates is given by the relation g{sup {psi}{psi}}({psi}){identical_to}{nabla}{psi} Dot-Operator {nabla}{psi}=[{mu}{sub 0}G({psi})][{mu}{sub 0}I({psi})]/{iota}({psi}), with {mu}{sub 0} the permeability of free space, G({psi}) the poloidal current outside a magnetic surface, I({psi}) the toroidal current inside a magnetic surface, and {iota}({psi}) the rotational transform.

Weening, R. H. [Department of Radiologic Sciences, Thomas Jefferson University, 901 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107-5233 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Fabrication of nano-hole array patterns on transparent conducting oxide layer using thermally curable nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, periodic array of nano-sized holes was fabricated in an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, deposited onto a glass substrate with nanoimprint lithography. As a result of a thermally curing imprint process, hole array patterns with a diameter ... Keywords: Indium tin oxide (ITO), Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), Patterned transparent electrode, Photonic crystals, Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer

Kyeong-Jae Byeon; Seon-Yong Hwang; Heon Lee

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

The Effect of Silicon on the Thermal Conductivity of Al-Si Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to develop new die-cast aluminum alloys with adequate thermal ... Frequency Modulation Effect on the Solidification of Alloy 718 Fusion Zone.

176

IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT RESISTIVITY AND THERMAL CONDUCTION ON PLASMOID INSTABILITIES IN CURRENT SHEETS IN THE SOLAR CORONA  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate, by means of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, the impact of temperature-dependent resistivity and thermal conduction on the development of plasmoid instabilities in reconnecting current sheets in the solar corona. We find that the plasma temperature in the current-sheet region increases with time and it becomes greater than that in the inflow region. As secondary magnetic islands appear, the highest temperature is not always found at the reconnection X-points, but also inside the secondary islands. One of the effects of anisotropic thermal conduction is to decrease the temperature of the reconnecting X-points and transfer the heat into the O-points, the plasmoids, where it gets trapped. In the cases with temperature-dependent magnetic diffusivity, {eta} {approx} T {sup -3/2}, the decrease in plasma temperature at the X-points leads to (1) an increase in the magnetic diffusivity until the characteristic time for magnetic diffusion becomes comparable to that of thermal conduction, (2) an increase in the reconnection rate, and (3) more efficient conversion of magnetic energy into thermal energy and kinetic energy of bulk motions. These results provide further explanation of the rapid release of magnetic energy into heat and kinetic energy seen during flares and coronal mass ejections. In this work, we demonstrate that the consideration of anisotropic thermal conduction and Spitzer-type, temperature-dependent magnetic diffusivity, as in the real solar corona, are crucially important for explaining the occurrence of fast reconnection during solar eruptions.

Ni Lei; Roussev, Ilia I.; Lin Jun [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, CAS, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011, Yunnan (China); Ziegler, Udo, E-mail: leini@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: iroussev@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: uziegler@aip.de [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

177

Modeling Simulation Of Pyrolysis Of Biomass: Effect Of Thermal Conductivity, Reactor Temperature And Particle Size On Product Concentrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The simultaneous chemical kinetics and heat transfer model is used to predict the effects of the most important physical and thermal properties (thermal conductivity, reactor temperature and particle size) of the feedstock on the convective-radiant pyrolysis of biomass fuels. The effects of these parameters have been analyzed for different geometries such as slab, cylinder and sphere. Finite difference method is employed for solving heat transfer model equation while Runge-Kutta 4 th order method is used for solving chemical kinetics model equations. Simulations are carried out for equivalent radius ranging from 0.0000125 m to 0.02 m, and temperature ranging from 303 K to 2100 K.

Chaurasia And Babu; A. S. Chaurasia; B. V. Babu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Lattice Boltzmann modeling of the effective thermal conductivity for fibrous materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. , M. Wang, and Z. Li, A lattice Boltzmann algorithm forA novel thermal model for the lattice Boltzmann method inS. and Doolen G.D. , Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid

Wang, Moran; He, Jihuan; Yu, Jianyong; Pan, Ning

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

EE5, Growth and Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline GaAs ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple yet extensively used configuration for thermal management in high .... Microstructure and Properties of Colloidal ITO Films and Cold-Sputtered ITO Films .... Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Molecular Magnets on an Ultrathin Insulating Film.

180

Three-dimensional effect on the effective thermal conductivity of porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conductivity of multiphase random porous media. The energymorphology of multiphase random porous media. Wangsfor multiphase conjugate heat transfer through a porous

Wang, Moran R Dr.; Wang, J K; Pan, N; Chen, S Y; He, J H

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evaporation of Picolitre Droplets on Surfaces with a Range of Wettabilities and Thermal Conductivities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of inkjet droplets ranges between 10 m and 100 m. Evaporation should still be limited by dif- fusion at this scale. Convection occurs in evaporating sessile droplets [12] where, in order to conserve mass, evaporating liquid is replenished by a convective... at 10 W for 5 minutes at different lo- cations in the reactor, resulting in different roughnesses. S1 showed a root mean squared (rms) roughness of ?130 nm by AFM (Digital Instruments Nanoscope III scanning probe microscope), whereas S2 had an RMS...

Talbot, E.L.; Berson, A.; Brown, P.S.; Bain, C.D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Matter Wave Interferometry of a Levitated Thermal Nano-Oscillator Induced and Probed by a Spin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show how the interference between spatially separated states of the center of mass (COM) of a mesoscopic harmonic oscillator can be evidenced by coupling it to a spin and performing solely spin manipulations and measurements (Ramsey Interferometry). We propose to use an optically levitated diamond bead containing an NV center spin. The nano-scale size of the bead makes the motional decoherence due to levitation negligible. The form of the spin-motion coupling ensures that the scheme works for thermal states so that moderate feedback cooling suffices. No separate control or observation of the COM state is required and thereby one dispenses with cavities, spatially resolved detection and low mass-dispersion ensembles. The controllable relative phase in the Ramsey interferometry stems from a gravitational potential difference so that it uniquely evidences coherence between states which involve the whole nano-crystal being in spatially distinct locations.

M. Scala; M. S. Kim; G. W. Morley; P. F. Barker; S. Bose

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

183

Matter Wave Interferometry of a Levitated Thermal Nano-Oscillator Induced and Probed by a Spin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show how the interference between spatially separated states of the center of mass of a mesoscopic harmonic oscillator can be evidenced by coupling it to a spin and performing solely spin manipulations and measurements (Ramsey Interferometry). We propose to use an optically levitated diamond bead containing an NV center spin. The nano-scale size of the bead makes the motional decoherence due to levitation negligible. The form of the spin-motion coupling ensures that the scheme works for thermal states so that moderate feedback cooling suffices. No separate control or observation of the center of mass state is required and thereby one also dispenses with cavities, spatially resolved detection and low mass-dispersion ensembles. The controllable relative phase in the Ramsey interferometry stems from a gravitational potential difference so that it uniquely evidences coherence between spatially separated states of the center of mass of a massive object.

M. Scala; M. S. Kim; G. W. Morley; P. F. Barker; S. Bose

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

184

Thermal stability of proton conducting acid doped polybenzimidazole in simulated fuel cell environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, polybenzimidazole membrane doped with phosphoric acid (PBI) was found to have promising properties for use as a polymer electrolyte in a high temperature (ca. 150 to 200 C) proton exchange membrane direct methanol fuel cell. However, operation at 200 C in strongly reducing and oxidizing environments introduces concerns of the thermal stability of the polymer electrolyte. To simulate the conditions in a high temperature fuel cell, PBI samples were loaded with fuel cell grade platinum black, doped with ca. 480 mole percent phosphoric acid (i.e., 4.8 H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} molecules per PBI repeat unit) and heated under atmospheres of either nitrogen, 5% hydrogen, or air in a thermal gravimetric analyzer. The products of decomposition were taken directly into a mass spectrometer for identification. In all cases weight loss below 400 C was found to be due to loss of water. Judging from the results of these tests, the thermal stability of PBI is more than adequate for use as a polymer electrolyte in a high temperature fuel cell.

Samms, S.R.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model  

SciTech Connect

Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Thermal conductance of solid-liquid interfaces Scott Huxtable, Zhenbin Ge, David G. Cahill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-liquid interfaces: Two approaches · Transient optical absorption of nanoparticles and nanotubes in liquid substrate. #12;Nanotubes in surfactant in water: Transient absorption · Optical absorption depends · Cooling rate (RC time constant) gives interface conductance G = 12 MW m-2 K-1G = 12 MW m K #12;Application

Braun, Paul

187

Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with homogeneous thermal properties, to invert cooling data.thermal simulations of DTPS testing showing modeled coolingand cooling. The match between measured and modeled thermal

Freifeld, B.M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Spatial and temporal variations in streambed hydraulic conductivity quantified with time-series thermal methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conductivity Streambed seepage Heat as a tracer Surface water­ground water interaction Pajaro River s u m m a r was 62 m3 s?1 , with most of the loss occurring along the lower part of the experimental reach. Point and with time, with greater seepage occurring along the lower part of the reach and during the summer and fall

Fisher, Andrew

189

Reactive and internal contributions to the thermal conductivity of local thermodynamic equilibrium nitrogen plasma: The effect of electronically excited states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Internal and reactive contributions to the thermal conductivity of a local thermodynamic equilibrium nitrogen plasma have been calculated using the Chapman-Enskog method. Low-lying (LL) electronically excited states (i.e., states with the same principal quantum number of the ground state) and high-lying (HL) ones (i.e., states with principal quantum number n> 2) have been considered. Several models have been developed, the most accurate being a model that treats the LL states as separate species while disregarding the presence of HL states, on account of their enormous transport cross sections.

Bruno, D.; Colonna, G.; Laricchiuta, A. [CNR IMIP Bari, Bari (Italy); Capitelli, M. [CNR IMIP Bari, Bari (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Bari, Italy and CNR IMIP Bari, Bari (Italy)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Method for the thermal characterization, visualization, and integrity evaluation of conducting material samples or complex structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for modeling a conducting material sample or structure (herein called a system) as at least two regions which comprise an electrical network of resistances, for measuring electric resistance between at least two selected pairs of external leads attached to the surface of the system, wherein at least one external lead is attached to the surface of each of the regions, and, using basic circuit theory, for translating measured resistances into temperatures or thermophysical properties in corresponding regions of the system. 16 figs.

Ortiz, M.G.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

191

Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

Thermal dilepton rate and electrical conductivity: An analysis of vector current correlation functions in quenched lattice QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the vector current correlation function for light valence quarks in the deconfined phase of QCD. The calculations have been performed in quenched lattice QCD at T=1.45 Tc for four values of the lattice cut-off on lattices up to size 128^3x48. This allows to perform a continuum extrapolation of the correlation function in the Euclidean time interval tau*T -in [0.2, 0.5], which extends to the largest temporal separations possible at finite temperature, to better than 1% accuracy. In this interval, at the value of the temperature investigated, we find that the vector correlation function never deviates from the free correlator for massless quarks by more than 9%. We also determine the first two non-vanishing thermal moments of the vector meson spectral function. The second thermal moment deviates by less than 7% from the free value. With these constraints, we then proceed to extract information on the spectral representation of the vector correlator and discuss resulting consequences for the electrical conductivity and the thermal dilepton rate in the plasma phase.

H. -T. Ding; A. Francis; O. Kaczmarek; F. Karsch; E. Laermann; W. Soeldner

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

193

High temperature thermal conductivity measurements of UO/sub 2/ by Direct Electrical Heating. Final report. [MANTRA-III  

SciTech Connect

High temperature properties of reactor type UO/sub 2/ pellets were measured using a Direct Electrical Heating (DEH) Facility. Modifications to the experimental apparatus have been made so that successful and reproducible DEH runs may be carried out while protecting the pellets from oxidation at high temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements on the UO/sub 2/ pellets have been made before and after runs to assure that sample oxidation has not occurred. A computer code has been developed that will model the experiment using equations that describe physical properties of the material. This code allows these equations to be checked by comparing the model results to collected data. The thermal conductivity equation for UO/sub 2/ proposed by Weilbacher has been used for this analysis. By adjusting the empirical parameters in Weilbacher's equation, experimental data can be matched by the code. From the several runs analyzed, the resulting thermal conductivity equation is lambda = 1/4.79 + 0.0247T/ + 1.06 x 10/sup -3/ exp(-1.62/kT/) - 4410. exp(-3.71/kT/) where lambda is in w/cm K, k is the Boltzman constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

Bassett, B

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Influence of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution of nuclear reactor pressure vessel materials: An atom probe study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) investigations of the microstructure of unaged (as-fabricated) and long-term thermally aged ({approximately} 100,000 h at 280 C) surveillance materials from commercial reactor pressure vessel steels were performed. This combination of materials and conditions permitted the investigation of potential thermal-aging effects. This microstructural study focused on the quantification of the compositions of the matrix and carbides. The APFIM results indicate that there was no significant microstructural evolution after a long-term thermal exposure in weld, plate, or forging materials. The matrix depletion of copper that was observed in weld materials was consistent with the copper concentration in the matrix after the stress-relief heat treatment. The compositions of cementite carbides aged for 100,000 h were compared with the Thermocalc{trademark} prediction. The APFIM comparisons of materials under these conditions are consistent with the measured change in mechanical properties such as the Charpy transition temperature.

Pareige, P.; Russell, K.F.; Stoller, R.E.; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Thermal Mass Correction for the Evaluation of Salinity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper revisits the thermal mass inertia correction of Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc., (SBE4) conductivity probes for the calculation of salinity. In particular, it is shown that the standard parameters recommended for the correction method are ...

Vigan Mensah; Marc Le Menn; Yves Morel

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Improved 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity in liquid, gases, and powders using a metal-coated optical fiber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel 3?thermal conductivitymeasurement technique called metal-coated 3? is introduced for use with liquids

Scott N. Schiffres; Jonathan A. Malen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Braginskii model of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. I. Effects of self-generated magnetic fields and thermal conduction in two dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abridged) There exists a substantial disagreement between computer simulation results and high-energy density laboratory experiments of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability Kuranz et al. (2010). We adopt the Braginskii formulation for transport in hot, dense plasma, implement and verify the additional physics modules, and conduct a computational study of a single-mode RTI in two dimensions with various combinations of the newly implemented modules. We find that magnetic fields reach levels on the order of 11 MG in the absence of thermal conduction. We observe denting of the RT spike tip and generation of additional higher order modes as a result of these fields. Contrary to interpretation presented in earlier work Nishiguchi (2002), the additional mode is not generated due to modified anisotropic heat transport effects but due to dynamical effect of self-generated magnetic fields. The main effects of thermal conduction are a reduction of the RT instability growth rate (by about 20% for conditions considered here)...

Modica, Frank; Zhiglo, Andrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

hal-00111982,version2-9May2007 Effect of measurement probes upon the conductance of an interacting nano-system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nano-system: Detection of an attached ring by non local many body effects Axel Freyn and Jean-sur-Yvette Cedex, France We consider a nano-system connected to measurement probes via leads. When a magnetic flux is varied through a ring attached to one lead at a distance Lc from the nano-system, the effective nano

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

Indentation of a Punch with Chemical or Heat Distribution at Its Base into Transversely Isotropic Half-Space: Application to Local Thermal and Electrochemical Probes  

SciTech Connect

The exact solution to the coupled problem of indentation of the punch, subjected to either heat or chemical substance distribution at its base, into three-dimensional semi-infinite transversely isotropic material is presented. The entire set of field components are derived in terms of integrals of elementary functions using methods of the potential theory and recently obtained, by the authors, results for the general solution of the field equations in terms of four harmonic potential functions. The exact solution for the stiffness relations that relate applied force, total chemical diffusion/heat flux in the domain of the contact, with indenter displacement, temperature, or chemical substance distribution of diffusing species at the base, and materials' chemo/thermo-elastic properties are obtained in closed form and in terms of elementary functions. These results can be used to understand the image formation mechanisms in techniques such as thermal scanning probe microscopy and electrochemical strain microscopy

Karapetian, E. [Suffolk University, Boston; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Sensitive interferometric video thermal wave imager  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method of parallel thermal wave imaging is demonstrated in which the thermal wave image of a heated sample is converted into an optical phase image which is sensitively probed by a TwymanGreen interferometer. The sample is mounted onto an assembly of optical layers which acts as a temperature sensitive mirror.Heat conduction from the sample to this mirror results in a two?dimensional distribution of optical phase which is probed broadfield by the interferometer. The resulting transmission thermal wave image has characteristics analogous to those of photopyroelectric images. The interferogram produced in the interferometer may be recorded by videography

J. F. Power

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4 Thermal transport in2.3.2 Thermal transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ravichandran, Jayakanth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Preliminary measurements of the thermal conductivity of rocks from LASL geothermal test holes GT-1 and GT-2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conductivities on a number of dry rocks have been measured in an air environment. These experimental values are probably about 10 percent lower than the in situ values. Initial attempts to prepare ''wet'' rock samples (rocks saturated with water) have so far resulted in only ''damp'' rocks. Considerable effort will be required to characterize the crack system in ''solid'' rocks and to predict the probable conductivity values for in situ conditions.

Sibbitt, W.L.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Effects of Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Annealing on the Thermal Conductivity/ Diffusivity of Monolithic SIC and SIC/SIC Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser flash thermal diffusivity measurements were made on high-purity monolithic CVD-SiC (impurity concentration layup made by the isothermal chemical vapor infiltration process and with either a thick 1.0 m or a thin 0.11 m PyC fiber coating) before and after irradiation in the HFIR reactor (250 to 800C, 4-8 dpa-SiC) and after post-irradiation annealing composite samples to 1200C. Thermal conductivity in SiC is controlled by phonon transport. Point defects introduced into SiC during neutron irradiation are effective scattering centers for phonons, and as a consequence the thermal conductivity is sharply reduced. For irradiation temperatures below ~800C, the accumulation of point defects (in SiC mostly single or small clusters of interstitials and isolated vacancies) saturates when the interstitial-vacancy recombination rate equals the defect production rate. For saturation conditions, the relative reduction in the SiC thermal conductivity decreases in a manner similar to its swelling reduction with increasing irradiation temperature. Examination of SiC swelling data at various irradiation temperatures and doses indicates that saturation occurs for ~2 dpa-SiC at 200C and decreases continuously to ~0.4 dpa-SiC at 800C. Based on a model that assumes a uniform distribution of the phonon scattering defects, the calculated defect concentration for unirradiated CVD-SiC was less than 1 appm, which is consistent with the manufacturers value of <5 wppm impurities. The defect concentrations estimated for the irradiated CVD-SiC samples decreased continuously from ~25,000 to 940 appm as the irradiation temperature increased from 252 to 800C. The small intrinsic defect concentration in comparison to the rather large extrinsic irradiation-induced defect concentrations illustrates why CVD-SiC makes an ideal irradiation damage monitor.

Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Numerical analysis of heat transfer by conduction and natural convection in loose-fill fiberglass insulation--effects of convection on thermal performance  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional code for solving equations of convective heat transfer in porous media is used to analyze heat transfer by conduction and convection in the attic insulation configuration. The particular cases treated correspond to loose-fill fiberglass insulation, which is characterized by high porosity and air permeability. The effects of natural convection on the thermal performance of the insulation are analyzed for various densities, permeabilities, and thicknesses of insulation. With convection increasing the total heat transfer through the insulation, the thermal resistance was found to decrease as the temperature difference across the insulating material increases. The predicted results for the thermal resistance are compared with data obtained in the large-scale climate simulator at the Roof Research Center using the attic test module, where the same phenomenon has already been observed. The way the wood joists within the insulation influence the start of convection is studied for differing thermophysical and dynamic properties of the insulating material. The presence of wood joists induces convection at a lower temperature difference.

Delmas, A.A.; Wilkes, K.E.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Hamilton-Jacobi and quantum theory formulations of thermal-wave propagation under the dual-phase lagging model of heat conduction  

SciTech Connect

Dual-phase lagging model is one of the most promising approaches to generalize the Fourier heat conduction equation, and it can be reduced in the appropriate limits to the hyperbolic Cattaneo-Vernotte and to the parabolic equations. In this paper it is shown that the Hamilton-Jacobi and quantum theory formulations that have been developed to study the thermal-wave propagation in the Fourier framework can be extended to include the more general approach based on dual-phase lagging. It is shown that the problem of solving the heat conduction equation can be treated as a thermal harmonic oscillator. In the classical approach a formulation in canonical variables is presented. This formalism is used to introduce a quantum mechanical approach from which the expectation values of observables such as the temperature and heat flux are obtained. These formalisms permit to use a methodology that could provide a deeper insight into the phenomena of heat transport at different time scales in media with inhomogeneous thermophysical properties.

Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, Carretera Antigua a Progreso km. 6, A.P. Postal 73 'Cordemex', Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico); Zambrano-Arjona, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, A.P. 150 Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan 97310 (Mexico)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Thermal Management of Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

phonon transmission and interface thermal conductance acrossF. Miao, et al. , "Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Advanced Materials for Thermal Management of Electronic

Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Measuring the Impact of Experimental Parameters upon the Estimated Thermal Conductivity of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation Subjected to an Accelerated Aging Protocol ? Two Year Results  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of many closed-cell foam insulation products changes over time as production gases diffuse out of the cell matrix and atmospheric gases diffuse into the cells. Thin slicing has been shown to be an effective means of accelerating this process in such a way as to produce meaningful results. Efforts to produce a more prescriptive version of the ASTM C 1303 standard test method have led to a broad ruggedness test. This test includes the aging of full size insulation specimens for time periods up to five years for later comparison to the predicted results. Experimental parameters under investigation include: slice thickness, slice origin (at the surface or from the core of the slab), thin slice stack composition, product facings, original product thickness, product density, and product type. This paper will compare the results after two years of full-thickness aging.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature Survey Conducted at Desert Peak, Nevada, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature Survey Conducted at Desert Peak, Nevada, USA Abstract Temperature gradient drilling has historically been a key tool in the exploration for geothermal resources in the Great Basin, USA but regulatory, environmental, and accessibility issues, as well as the expense of drilling, are increasingly limiting its use. In cases where thermal groundwater is not overlain by near-surface cold aquifers, temperatures measured at a depth of 2-meters is an efficient method for mapping thermal anomalies at a high level of detail. This is useful for augmenting deeper

209

Thermal transient anemometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

210

Monitoring probe for groundwater flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow.

Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Ballard, Sanford (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Definition: Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gradient Holes Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Thermal Gradient Holes "A hole logged by a temperature probe to determine the thermal gradient. Usually involves a hole...

212

Thermal Transport in Graphene Multilayers and Nanoribbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 CHAPTER 2 Thermal transport atvalues of graphenes thermal conductivity and different1 Thermal conductivity : metals and non - metallic

Subrina, Samia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

2-M Probe Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1979) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9) 9) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Survey Activity Date 1979 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Correct previously analyzed 2-m probe data Notes Corrected 2-m temperature anomaly at Coso was compared with a low altitude aeromagnetic anomaly and an anomaly outlined by electrical resistivity methods obtained independently. Preliminary tests were made with a simple thermal conductivity probe demonstrating the feasibility of measuring soil thermal diffusivity at the time the 2-m temperatures are recorded. References Leschack, L. A.; Lewis, J. E.; Chang, D. C.; Lewellen, R. I.; O'Hara, N.W. (1 March 1979) Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature surveys. Second technical report

214

Probe threshold and probe trivially perfect graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An undirected graph G=(V,E) is a probeC graph if its vertex set can be partitioned into two sets, N (nonprobes) and P (probes) where N is independent and there exists E^'@?NxN such that G^'=(V,E@?E^') is a C graph. In this article we investigate probe ... Keywords: 2-SAT, Graph class, Probe graphs, Probe interval, Probe threshold, Probe trivially perfect

Daniel Bayer; Van Bang Le; H. N. de Ridder

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Determination of thermal parameters of one-dimensional nanostructures through a thermal transient method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of heat capacity and thermal conductivity measurements bythe heat pulse method for thermal transport measurements ofG. Speci?c heat and thermal conductivity measurements on

Arriagada, A.; Yu, E. T.; Bandaru, P. R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Design of a novel conduction heating based stress-thermal cycling apparatus for composite materials and its utilization to characterize composite microcrack damage thresholds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to determine the effect of thermal cycling combined with mechanical loading on the development of microcracks in M40J/PMR-II- 50, the second generation aerospace application material. The objective was pursued by finding the critical controlling parameters for microcrack formation from mechanical stress-thermal cycling test. Three different in-plane strains (0%, 0.175~0.350%, and 0.325~0.650%) were applied to the composites by clamping composite specimens (M40J/PMR-II-50, [0,90]s, a unitape cross-ply) on the radial sides of half cylinders having two different radii (78.74mm and 37.96mm). Three different thermal loading experiments, 1) 23oC to â??196oC to 250oC, 2) 23oC to 250oC, and 3) 23oC to -196oC, were performed as a function of mechanical inplane strain levels, heating rates, and number of thermal cycles. The apparatus generated cracks related to the in-plane stresses (or strains) on plies. The design and analysis concept of the synergistic stress-thermal cycling experiment was simplified to obtain main and interaction factors by applying 2k factorial design from the various factors affecting microcrack density of M40J/PMR-II-50. Observations indicate that the higher temperature portion of the cycle under load causes fiber/matrix interface failure. Subsequent exposure to higher stresses in the cryogenic temperature region results in composite matrix microcracking due to the additional stresses associated with the fiber-matrix thermal expansion mismatch.

Ju, Jaehyung

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. and McEuen, P. L. , Thermal Transport Measurements ofTomanek, D. , Unusually High Thermal Conductivity of Carbonand Lau, C. N. , Superior thermal conductivity of single-

Goyal, Vivek Kumar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Thermal Transport in Graphene Multilayers and Nanoribbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

80 CHAPTER 5 Heat Conduction in Few Layerto Fourier's Law of heat conduction, thermal conductivity isnext experiments on heat conduction in graphene structures

Subrina, Samia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Laser irradiation of carbon nanotube films: Effects and heat dissipation probed by Raman spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the thermal properties of thin films formed by single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes submitted to laser irradiation using Raman scattering as a probe of both the tube morphology and the local temperature. The nanotubes were submitted to heating/cooling cycles attaining high laser intensities ({approx}1.4 MW/cm{sup 2}) under vacuum and in the presence of an atmosphere, with and without oxygen. We investigate the heat diffusion of the irradiated nanotubes to their surroundings and the effect of laser annealing on their properties. The presence of oxygen during laser irradiation gives rise to an irreversible increase of the Raman efficiency of the carbon nanotubes and to a remarkable increase of the thermal conductivity of multi-walled films. The second effect can be applied to design thermal conductive channels in devices based on carbon nanotube films using laser beams.

Mialichi, J. R.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Iikawa, F. [Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin,' Unicamp, Campinas, 13083-859 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Verissimo, C.; Moshkalev, S. A. [Centro de Componentes Semicondutores, Unicamp, Campinas, 13083-870 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2013-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

220

2-M Probe At Hawthorne Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Hawthorne Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Hawthorne Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Shallow 2m surveys were first conducted at Hawthorne by Trexler et al. (1982b), who were among the earliest researchers to employ 2m surveys on a systematic basis in the Great Basin. Their work identified two shallow thermal anomalies, one of them located west of the city of Hawthorne at the base of the Wassuk Range, and the other in the "Southeast Magazine" area, south of state highway 50 and southeast of Hawthorne (anomalies A and B on Figure 3). Subsequent drilling verified the existence of shallow thermal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Thermal insulations using vacuum panels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

2-M Probe Survey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-M Probe Survey 2-M Probe Survey (Redirected from 2-M Probe) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: 2-M Probe Survey Details Activities (27) Areas (21) Regions (0) NEPA(3) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Data Collection and Mapping Parent Exploration Technique: Data Collection and Mapping Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Identify and delineate shallow thermal anomalies Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 200.0020,000 centUSD 0.2 kUSD 2.0e-4 MUSD 2.0e-7 TUSD / station Median Estimate (USD): 300.0030,000 centUSD 0.3 kUSD 3.0e-4 MUSD 3.0e-7 TUSD / station High-End Estimate (USD): 500.0050,000 centUSD 0.5 kUSD 5.0e-4 MUSD

223

MIT validation probe acceptance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Multi-Functional Instrument Trees (MITs) a Validation Probe is being fabricated by Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL). The Validation Probe assembly is equipped with a Winch, depth counter, and a Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) which will render a means for verifying the temperature readings of which will render a means for verifying the temperature readings of the MIT thermocouples. The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) is to provide verification that the Validation Probe functions properly and accordingly to LANL design and specification. This ATP will be used for all Validation Probes procured from LANL. The ATP consists of a receiving inspection, RTD ambient temperature; RTD electrical failure, RTD insulation resistance, and accurate depth counter operation inspections. The Validation Probe is composed of an intank probe, a cable and winching system, and a riser extension (probe guide) which bolts onto the MIT. The validation`s thermal sensor is an RTD that is housed in a 0.062 inch diameter, magnesium oxide fill, 316 stainless steel tube. The sheath configuration provides a means for spring loading the sensor firmly against the validation tube`s inner wall. A 45 pound cylindrical body is connected above the sheath and is used as a force to lower the probe into the tank. This cylindrical body also provides the means to interconnect both electrically and mechanically to the winch system which lowers the probe to a specified location within the validation tube located in the tank.

Escamilla, S.A.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

224

A Simple System for Mapping Conductivity Microstructure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for spatial mapping of the temperature variance dissipation rate ? based on conductivity micro-structure measurements from a towyo platform is described. The spatial response of the microconductivity probe is approximately that of a one-...

Libe Washburn; Thomas K. Deaton

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Improved Thermal Properties of In Situ Formed Al/AlN Composites ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thermal conduction and thermal expansion behaviors of heat sink materials are critical for microelectronic packaging because high thermal...

227

Multilayer Nanoscale Thermal Barrier Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced high-efficiency gas turbines require thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal-cycling resistance. The multilayer TBC developed in this project has a thermal conductivity about half that of conventional TBCs and also rejects up to 70 percent of incoming radiant energy.

1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

228

Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware  

SciTech Connect

Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications.

Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Thermal Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 12   Thermal conductivities of polymers and other materials...40,000 2.8 Aluminum 24,000 1.7 Steel 5000 0.35 Granite 350 0.02 Crown glass (75 wt% silica) 90 0.006 Source: Ref 4...

230

Conductive Polymers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and high-energy density batteries. These new polymers offer cost savings, weight reduction, ease of processing, and inherent rugged design compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic industry has grown more than 30% during the past three years. Lightweight, flexible solar modules are being used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for field power units. LEDs historically used for indicator lights are now being investigated for general lighting to replace fluorescent and incandescent lights. These so-called solid-state lights are becoming more prevalent across the country since they produce efficient lighting with little heat generation. Conductive polymers are being sought for battery development as well. Considerable weight savings over conventional cathode materials used in secondary storage batteries make portable devices easier to carry and electric cars more efficient and nimble. Secondary battery sales represent an $8 billion industry annually. The purpose of the project was to synthesize and characterize conductive polymers. TRACE Photonics Inc. has researched critical issues which affect conductivity. Much of their work has focused on production of substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) compounds. These compounds exhibit greater solubility over the parent polyphenylenevinylene, making them easier to process. Alkoxy substituted groups evaluated during this study included: methoxy, propoxy, and heptyloxy. Synthesis routes for production of alkoxy-substituted poly phenylenevinylene were developed. Considerable emphasis was placed on final product yield and purity.

Bohnert, G.W.

2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

231

Thermal Conductivity of Liquids and Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... JCED Supporting Information: Propane.(ASCII)(pdf)(Postscript). JCED Supporting Information: Butane.(ASCII)(pdf)(Postscript). ...

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industries, polycrystalline semiconductors and ceramics havelaser industry, people are also seeking good ceramic laser

Wang, Zhaojie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Thermal Inertia of Conductivity Cells: Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature anomaly of a fluid moving through circular and rectangular cylinders induced by the heat stored in the walls of these hollow cylinders is derived under the assumption of quasi-steady heat transfer. These geometries correspond ...

Rolf G. Lueck

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity Equations for Nitrogen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... that both could be used as reference equations for ... the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... of state for air as a pseudo-pure fluid. ...

2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

235

Thermal Conductivity for a Linear Anharmonic System  

SciTech Connect

A model has been proposed wherein self consistent phonon theory together with the thermodynamic perturbation theory is employed to determine a trial Hamiltonian is employed to determine thermodynamic parameters based on pining as well as nearest neighbor quadratic-quartic interactions.

Pasrija, Ritu [Department of Physics, DAV College, Abohar-152116 (India); Kanika [Dasmesh Girls College, Badal (Muktsar)-152113 (India); Srivastava, Sunita [Deparment of Physics, Panjab University Chandigarh-160014 (India)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Silicon Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoscale Heat Transfer Processes . . 7 1.4:1.3 Nanoscale Heat Transfer Processes When studying heat

Yuen, Taylor S.

237

Computational Design of Low Thermal Conductivity TBC ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Edwin R. Fuller, Jr., National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899 Yougen Yang, Derek D. Hass, and Haydn NG ...

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

238

Microstructure and Thermal Conductivity of Hydrated Calcium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the above-mentioned temperature gradients, the effect of the 150 C temperature gradient is not ... Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. ...

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

239

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

cell probe model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST. cell probe model. (definition). Definition: A model of computation where the cost of a computation is measured by the ...

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

242

2-M Probe Survey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-M Probe Survey 2-M Probe Survey Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: 2-M Probe Survey Details Activities (27) Areas (21) Regions (0) NEPA(3) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Data Collection and Mapping Parent Exploration Technique: Data Collection and Mapping Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Identify and delineate shallow thermal anomalies Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 200.0020,000 centUSD 0.2 kUSD 2.0e-4 MUSD 2.0e-7 TUSD / station Median Estimate (USD): 300.0030,000 centUSD 0.3 kUSD 3.0e-4 MUSD 3.0e-7 TUSD / station High-End Estimate (USD): 500.0050,000 centUSD 0.5 kUSD 5.0e-4 MUSD 5.0e-7 TUSD / station

243

Instrument Series: Microscopy Atom Probe The LEAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atom Probe Atom Probe The LEAP ® 4000 XHR local electrode atom probe tomography instrument enabled the first- ever comprehensive and accurate 3-D chemical imaging studies of low electrical conductivity materials, such as ceramics, semiconductors and oxides. The LEAP capability is assisting EMSL's efforts to further scientific advancements in interface analysis and microstructural characterization, providing a new tool for understanding the relationship between the nanoscale structure of materials and their macroscopic properties. Research Applications Geochemistry - Studying chemical processes that compose rocks and soils has long been used to determine matter cycles and transport in the environment, which supports critical EMSL research in areas including bioremediation.

244

Definition: 2-M Probe Survey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: 2-M Probe Survey Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png 2-M Probe Survey Probe surveys are used to physically identify and delineate thermal anomalies. A 2-m long hollow steel tube with a tungsten-carbide alloy tip is driven into the ground using a hammer drill. Then a high-precision resistive-temperature device is inserted into the tube. The probe is then left in place for at least one hour.[2] Also Known As Probe Survey, 30-cm Probe Survey, (Temperature) Probe Survey References ↑ Mark F. Coolbaugh,Chris Sladek,James E. Faulds,Richard E. Zehner,Gary L. Oppliger. 2007. Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling. In:

245

Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

Weiss, Shimon (El Cerrito, CA); Chemla, Daniel S. (Kensington, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, David (San Francisco, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

1995-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

247

Measurements of Electron Thermal Transport due to Electron Temperature Gradient Modes in a Basic Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production and identification of electron temperature gradient modes have already been reported [X. Wei, V. Sokolov, and A. K. Sen, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042108 (2010)]. Now a measurement of electron thermal conductivity via a unique high frequency triple probe yielded a value of {chi}{sub perpendiculare} ranging between 2 and 10 m{sup 2}/s, which is of the order of a several gyrobohm diffusion coefficient. This experimental result appears to agree with a value of nonlocal thermal conductivity obtained from a rough theoretical estimation and not inconsistent with gyrokinetic simulation results for tokamaks. The first experimental scaling of the thermal conductivity versus the amplitude of the electron temperature gradient fluctuation is also obtained. It is approximately linear, indicating a strong turbulence signature.

Sokolov, V.; Sen, A. K. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2011-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

248

2-M Probe At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wells Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Wells Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes One additional method may be used in the future to locate blind geothermal systems. Several thousand shallow (12") temperature measurements were made for a study conducted at Salt Wells in collaboration with Amp Resources (prior to their being acquired by Enel). After a strong, structurally controlled thermal anomaly was identified on the north end of the study area, a 2 m hole was dug into a playa in which the water temperature at the bottom of the hole was 84.8°C. Water was allowed to collect in the bottom

249

Thermal Diffusivity and Thermal Conductivity of HLW and LAW ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, such data were collected for four waste glasses representative of those currently projected for treatment of Hanford HLW and LAW streams.

250

Majorana Demonstrator Bolted Joint Mechanical and Thermal Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is designed to probe for neutrinoless double-beta decay, an extremely rare process with a half-life in the order of 1026 years. The experiment uses an ultra-low background, high-purity germanium detector array. The germanium crystals are both the source and the detector in this experiment. Operating these crystals as ionizing radiation detectors requires having them under cryogenic conditions (below 90 K). A liquid nitrogen thermosyphon is used to extract the heat from the detectors. The detector channels are arranged in strings and thermally coupled to the thermosyphon through a cold plate. The cold plate is joined to the thermosyphon by a bolted joint. This circular plate is housed inside the cryostat can. This document provides a detailed study of the bolted joint that connects the cold plate and the thermosyphon. An analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of this bolted joint is presented. The force applied to the joint is derived from the torque applied to each one of the six bolts that form the joint. The thermal conductivity of the joint is measured as a function of applied force. The required heat conductivity for a successful experiment is the combination of the thermal conductivity of the detector string and this joint. The thermal behavior of the joint is experimentally implemented and analyzed in this study.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Device for thermal transfer and power generation  

SciTech Connect

A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Arik, Mehmet (Niskayuna, NY)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

252

Probing Signal Design for Power System Identification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the design of effective input signals for low-level probing of power systems. In 2005, 2006, and 2008 the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) conducted four large-scale system wide tests of the western interconnected power system where probing signals were injected by modulating the control signal at the Celilo end of the Pacific DC intertie. A major objective of these tests is the accurate estimation of the inter-area electromechanical modes. A key aspect of any such test is the design of an effective probing signal that leads to measured outputs rich in information about the modes. This paper specifically studies low-level probing signal design for power-system identification. The paper describes the design methodology and the advantages of this new probing signal which was successfully applied during these tests. This probing input is a multi-sine signal with its frequency content focused in the range of the inter-area modes. The period of the signal is over two minutes providing high-frequency resolution. Up to 15 cycles of the signal are injected resulting in a processing gain of 15. The resulting system response is studied in the time and frequency domains. Because of the new probing signal characteristics, these results show significant improvement in the output SNR compared to previous tests.

Pierre, John W.; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Hauer, John F.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mittelstadt, William

2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1974) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coso Geothermal Area (1974) Coso Geothermal Area (1974) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date 1974 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Use heat flow studies for the first time at Coso to indicate the presence or absence of abnormal heat Notes Located 10 sites for heat flow boreholes using available seismic ground noise and electrical resistivity data; data collected from 9 of 10; thermal conductivity measurements were completed using both the needle probe technique and the divided bar apparatus with a cell arrangement. In the upper few hundred meters of the subsurface heat is being transferred by a conductive heat transfer mechanism with a value of ~ 15 µcal/cm2sec; the background heat flow is ~ 3.5 HFU.

254

How HCI interprets the probes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We trace how cultural probes have been adopted and adapted by the HCI community. The flexibility of probes has been central to their uptake, resulting in a proliferation of divergent uses and derivatives. The varying patterns of adaptation of the probes ... Keywords: cultural probes, probes, reflective HCI

Kirsten Boehner; Janet Vertesi; Phoebe Sengers; Paul Dourish

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

BEAM CONTROL PROBE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A probe is described for intercepting a desired portion of a beam of charged particles and for indicating the spatial disposition of the beam. The disclosed probe assembly includes a pair of pivotally mounted vanes moveable into a single plane with adjacent edges joining and a calibrated mechanical arrangement for pivoting the vancs apart. When the probe is disposed in the path of a charged particle beam, the vanes may be adjusted according to the beam current received in each vane to ascertain the dimension of the beam.

Chesterman, A.W.

1959-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

256

Chemical sensing flow probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

Laguna, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Chemical sensing flow probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

258

Carbon nanotube based electromechanical probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electromechanical probing applications continuously require smaller pitches, faster manufacturing and lower electrical resistance. Conventional techniques, such as MEMS based cantilever probes have their shortcomings in ...

Yaglioglu, Onnik, 1976-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Thermally activated miniaturized cooling system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A comprehensive study of a miniaturized thermally activated cooling system was conducted. This study represents the first work to conceptualize, design, fabricate and successfully test (more)

Determan, Matthew Delos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Article for thermal energy storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hard probes 2006 Asilomar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

264

Convective heat flow probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

265

Conduction and Moisture Diffusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Equivalent physical quantities...conduction Temperature Temperature gradient Heat flux Heat conductivities Resistivities Electric conduction Electric potential Electric field intensity Current density Electric conductivities Resistivities Electrostatics Electric potential Electric field intensity Electric induction, electric...

266

Concrete Electrical Conductivity Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concrete Electrical Conductivity Test. Description/Summary: ... Details. Type of software: Virtual concrete electrical conductivity test. Authors: ...

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

Ultrasonic search wheel probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

Mikesell, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Visualization and Diagnostics of Thermal Plasma Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow visualization is a key tool for the study of thermal plasma flows. Because of their high temperature and associated self emission, standard and high speed photography is commonly used for flow and temperature field visualization. Tracer techniques ... Keywords: d.c. plasma jet, enthalpy probe techniques, induction plasma, laser strobe, photographic techniques, schlieren, thermal plasma flows

M. I. Boulos

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Aluminum/TPG Metal Matrix Composite with Improved Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was found that A356/TPG interface was optimal for the examined MMC's high thermal conductivity. Low cooling rates assisted in reducing thermal stresses at...

270

Solution Processing of Polymer Nanotube Thermal Interface Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ideal TIMs should exhibit high thermal conductivity and maintain mechanical ... bulk polymers exhibit phonon scattering and are poor conductors of thermal...

271

THERMAL RECOVERY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

THERMAL RECOVERY Thermal recovery comprises the techniques of steamflooding, cyclic steam stimulation, and in situ combustion. In steamflooding, high-temperature steam is injected...

272

Thermal ignition combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

273

Spatially resolved thermal desorption/ionization coupled with mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for sub-micron analysis of a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The method includes providing a specimen for evaluation and a thermal desorption probe, thermally desorbing an analyte from a target site of said specimen using the thermally active tip to form a gaseous analyte, ionizing the gaseous analyte to form an ionized analyte, and analyzing a chemical composition of the ionized analyte. The thermally desorbing step can include heating said thermally active tip to above 200.degree. C., and positioning the target site and the thermally active tip such that the heating step forms the gaseous analyte. The thermal desorption probe can include a thermally active tip extending from a cantilever body and an apex of the thermally active tip can have a radius of 250 nm or less.

Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

274

High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 15, 2013 | Singh * Thermal modeling will be conducted to establish the benefits of using a high thermal conducting graphite foams in conjunction with PCM and to develop a...

275

Code of Conduct  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Governance » Governance » Ethics, Accountability » Code of Conduct Code of Conduct Helping employees recognize and resolve the ethics and compliance issues that may arise in their daily work. Contact Code of Conduct (505) 667-7506 Code of Conduct LANL is committed to operating in accordance with the highest standards of ethics and compliance and with its core values of service to our nation, ethical conduct and personal accountability, excellence in our work, and mutual respect and teamwork. LANL must demonstrate to customers and the public that the Laboratory is accountable for its actions and that it conducts business in a trustworthy manner. What is LANL's Code of Conduct? Charlie McMillan 1:46 Laboratory Director Charlie McMillan introduces the code LANL's Code of Conduct is designed to help employees recognize and

276

Control of Test Conduct  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Revision 1 Effective June 2008 Control of Test Conduct Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: Date: Garrett P....

277

Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation ...  

Patent 7,763,353: Fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites Methods and apparatus are described for ...

278

Definition: Thermal Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Thermal Rating The maximum amount of electrical current that a transmission line or electrical facility can conduct over a...

279

Fractography of Thermally Shocked Glass Cookware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractography of fractured glass cookware can be a time consuming process of putting ... to Conduct Thermal Shock Test on Refractories Using Steel Blocks.

280

Probing Multiparton Correlations at CEBAF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this talk, I explore the possibilities of probing the multiparton correlation functions at CEBAF at its current energy and the energies with its future upgrades.

Jianwei Qiu

1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS (CO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS (CO) CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS (CO) OBJECTIVE TA-55 SST Facility NNSA ORR Implementation Plan 1 1 CO.1 The formality and discipline of operations is adequate to conduct work safely and programs are inplace to maintain this formality and discipline. (Core Requirement 13) Criteria 1. Programmatic elements of conduct of operations are in place for TA-55 SST operations. 2. The TA-55 SST operations personnel adequately demonstrate the principles of conduct ofoperations requirements during the shift performance period. Approach Record Reviews: Review procedures and other facility documents to verify compliance with conduct of operations principles. Interviews: Interview a sampling of the TA-55 SST associated personnel to validate their understanding of the conduct of operations principles (e.g., procedure usage,

282

Umklapp Scattering and Heat Conductivity of Superlattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mean free path of phonons in superlattices is estimated. It is shown to be strongly dependent on the superlattice period due to the Umklapp scattering in subbands. It first falls with increasing the superlattice period until it becomes comparable with the latter after what it rises back to the bulk value. Similar behavior is expected of heat conductivity, which is proportional to the mean free path. Superlattices offer an opportunity to control physical properties in unprecedented ways. Their thermal conductivity is of interest both for a fundamental understanding of these systems as well as in applications. Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in finding materials with improved thermoelectric transport properties for cooling and power generation. The quality of a material for such applications is given by the thermoelectric figure of merit, which is inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity ?. In materials of interest, such as semiconductors, the lattice contribution to ? dominates. Experimental and theoretical work suggests that the thermal conductivity of superlattices is quite low, both for transport along the planes [1, 2, 10], or perpendicular to the planes [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11]. The lattice heat conductivity ? is given approximately by an equation [12]:

M. V. Simkin; G. D. Mahan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

High conductance surge cable  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

284

Research Conduct Policies  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Research Conduct Policies Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Materials Sciences & Engineering (MSE) Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences (CSGB)...

285

Demonstration of EPRI STEEM Optical Probe for LP Turbine Steam Quality Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has developed the STEEM system, which contains an optical probe for measurement of saturated steam quality that is deployed at the exhaust of low-pressure (LP) turbines. As part of EPRI's development effort, tests of the probe's performance have been conducted in operating turbines, and the results compared with standard measurements of the steam cycle.

2001-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

1D-to-3D transition of phonon heat conduction in polyethylene using molecular dynamics simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal conductivity of nanostructures generally decreases with decreasing size because of classical size effects. The axial thermal conductivity of polymer chain lattices, however, can exhibit the opposite trend, ...

Henry, Asegun

287

Electrically conductive diamond electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

Swain, Greg (East Lansing, MI); Fischer, Anne (Arlington, VA),; Bennett, Jason (Lansing, MI); Lowe, Michael (Holt, MI)

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

288

Long duration ash probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Molecular probe technology detects bacteria without culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

clinical samples, the molecular probes for L. brevis werepublished the design of our molecular probes (Figure 1a) and3, 1, a majority of the molecular probes for that genome

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

Robbat, Jr., Albert (Andover, MA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Probing the Geometry and Interconnectivity of Pores in Organic Aerogels Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Aerogels represent a class of novel open-pore materials with high surface area and nanometer pore sizes. They exhibit extremely low mass densities, low thermal conductivity, good acoustic insulation, and low dielectric constants. These materials have potential applications in catalysis, advanced separation techniques, energy storage, environmental remediation, and as insulating materials. Organic aerogels are stiffer and stronger than silica aerogels and are better insulators with higher thermal resistance. Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels are typically prepared through the base-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde in aqueous solution to produce gels, which are then dried in supercritical CO2.1,2 The [resorcinol]/ [catalyst] (R/C) ratio of the starting sol-gel solution has been determined to be the dominant factor that affects the properties of RF aerogels. Since the unique microstructures of aerogels are responsible for their unusual properties, characterizing the detailed porous structures and correlating them with the processing parameters are vital to establish rational design principles for novel organic aerogels with tailored properties. In this communication we report the first use of hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR to probe the geometry and interconnectivity of pores in RF aerogels and to correlate these with synthetic conditions. Our work demonstrates that HP 129Xe NMR is so far the only method for accurately measuring the free volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for soft mesoporous materials without using any geometric models.

Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Wang, Li Q.; Baumann, T.; Satcher, J. H.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ratcliffe, C. I.; Ripmeester, J. A.

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

Conducting fiber compression tester  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention measures the resistance across a conductive fiber attached to a substrate place under a compressive load to determine the amount of compression needed to cause the fiber to fail. 3 figs.

DeTeresa, S.J.

1989-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

293

NSLS Conduct of Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Securing the X-Ray Tunnel (LS-OPS-0003) Qualified Search Personnel for NSLS Accelerators (LS-ESH-0009) General Procedures Caution Tags (LS-OPS-0004) Conduct of...

294

Probe spectroscopy of quasienergy states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present qubit technology, in particular in Josephson qubits, allows an unprecedented control of discrete energy levels. This motivates a new study of the old pump-probe problem, where a discrete quantum system is driven by a strong drive and simultaneously probed by a weaker one. The strong drive is included by the Floquet method and the resulting quasienergy states are then studied with the probe. We study a qubit where the harmonic drive has a significant longitudinal component relative to the static equilibrium state of the qubit. Both analytical and numerical methods are used to solve the problem. We present calculations with realistic parameters and compare the results with recent experimental results. A short introduction to the Floquet method and the probe absorption is given.

Matti Silveri; Jani Tuorila; Mika Kemppainen; Erkki Thuneberg

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

295

2-M Probe At Teels Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-M Probe At Teels Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) 2-M Probe At Teels Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Teels Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Teels Marsh Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Coolbaugh et al. (2007), Sladek et al. (2007), and Kratt, et al. (2008, this volume) describe a shallow temperature survey system in which temperatures can be measured quickly and inexpensively at 2 m depths. This system was tested at Desert Queen based on its structural setting and availability of thermal gradient well data obtained in the 1970's from which to make thermal anomaly comparisons. The system was subsequently used

296

Dynamic Response Calibration of the Nell Brown Conductivity Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic response calibrations and flow visualization studies have been made for the standard, 3 cm long conductivity cell produced by Neil Brown Instrument Systems. This probe is used on wire-lowered CTD's as well as on vehicles that move freely ...

Michael C. Gregg; John C. Schedvin; William C. Hess; Thomas B. Meagher

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

298

Invited paper for the 30th International Thermal Conductivity ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of the FRM influences the radiative heat transfer between a ... dry cycling, humidity, impact resistance, industrial atmosphere, salt spray, temperature ...

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

299

Thermal conductivity, microstructure and gas release from a 44 GWd ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Plutonium recycling in mixed oxide fuel (MOX) occurs in more ... burn-up and irradiation temperature profiles and Pu-content on properties and...

300

Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Study of CNT-Carbon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A method is developed to incorporate carbon nanotubes in porous carbon microspheres. This is accomplished by dispersing Carbon Nanotubes...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Experimental Technique to Conduct Thermal Shock Test on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failure Analysis Case Studies from Refinery and Petrochemical Pilot Plants ... Failure of Electrical Submersible Pump of Oil Reservoir Fan Blade Fracture in a ...

302

Experimental Investigation on Anisotropic Effective Thermal Conductivity of Pebble Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computational Tools, Modeling & Validation / Proceedings of the Nineteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE) (Part 2)

Takehiko Yokomine

303

Thermal and Electrical Conductivities of Electroplated Gold (A25695)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proc. Of The 17th Target Fabrication Specialists Meeting, San Diego, California, 2006; To Be Published In Fusion Science And Technology17th Target Fabrication Specialists Meeting San Diego California, US, 2006999613445

Bernat, T.P.

2006-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

304

Thermal conductivity and viscosity of self-assembled alcohol ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Aldrich) that have hydrophilic heads facing inward and hydropho- bic tails facing outward into the base fluid PAO (Chevron Phillips Chemical ...

2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

305

Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions Shawn A. Putnam,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the diffusion coefficient of water in ethanol, 2a 50 m is the line-heater separation, and 1/ f is the time required for water to diffuse half the distance between the metal heaters. This corresponds to low for thermodiffusion in our analysis of for water/ ethanol mixtures using dn/dT, cdn/dc, Dc, and thermodiffu- sion

Braun, Paul

306

Determining Thermal Conductivity of Simulated Feed for High Level ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

307

Investigation on the Thermal Conductivity of Resin Composite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A gas pycnometer was used for measuring volume. The specific heat of the ... Differential Characterization of Ikperejere Iron shale and Iron Sandstone Deposit.

308

Thermally Conductive Graphite Foam - Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Product Name Manufacturer Relevance CFOAM Touchstone Research Lab Aerospace tooling ... Hypersonic vehicles Aerobraking structures for planetary exploration

309

012- Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Basic Refractories ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

085- Highly Efficient Comprehensive Utilization of Kaolin Tailings from ... 086- Improvement in Gas Tightness of YSZ Coatings Produced by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying ... 145- The Synergy of XRD and XRF in a Shale and Slate Analysis.

310

Improved Gas Storage Carbon with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity  

... (DOE target storage value) of methane at standard temperature and pressure is used in adsorbed natural gas applications, including vehicles. ...

311

High Field Electrical Conduction and Its Relation to Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and Power Conversion ... Potential Ceramic Dielectrics for Air Force Applications.

312

Density and Thermal Conductivity of Boron Nitride-alumina Mixed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthesis and Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Thin Films Deposited from Benzene and Hexamethyldisiloxane Using (PECVD) Method Synthesis and...

313

Quantum effects in thermal conduction: Nonequilibrium quantum discord and entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the process of heat transfer through an entangled pair of two-level system, demonstrating the role of quantum correlations in this nonequilibrium process. While quantum correlations generally degrade with increasing the temperature bias, introducing spatial asymmetry leads to an intricate behavior: Connecting the qubits unequally to the reservoirs one finds that quantum correlations persist and increase with the temperature bias when the system is more weakly linked to the hot reservoir. In the reversed case, linking the system more strongly to the hot bath, the opposite, more natural behavior is observed, with quantum correlations being strongly suppressed upon increasing the temperature bias.

Wu, Lian-Ao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Thermally Conductive Graphite Foam - Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Thermoelectric devices Radiators EMI shielding Patent ... Materials Science UT-Battelle, LLC Oak Ridge National Laboratory Office Phone: 865.576.9682

315

Quantum effects in thermal conduction: Nonequilibrium quantum discord and entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the process of heat transfer through an entangled pair of two-level system, demonstrating the role of quantum correlations in this nonequilibrium process. While quantum correlations generally degrade with increasing the temperature bias, introducing spatial asymmetry leads to an intricate behavior: Connecting the qubits unequally to the reservoirs one finds that quantum correlations persist and increase with the temperature bias when the system is more weakly linked to the hot reservoir. In the reversed case, linking the system more strongly to the hot bath, the opposite, more natural behavior is observed, with quantum correlations being strongly suppressed upon increasing the temperature bias.

Lian-Ao Wu; Dvira Segal

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

316

Investigation on the Thermal Conductivity of Inorganic-Filler/Resin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthesis and Characterization of Pb Free Piezoelectric Ceramics - Barium ... Thermographic Characterization of Tensile Behavior in Railway Bogie Materials.

317

An Analytical Study Of A 2-Layer Transient Thermal Conduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

more complicated two-layer problem that can be computed using inexpensive personal computers and spreadsheet software. The most demanding mathematical requirement is the ability...

318

Thermal insulated glazing unit  

SciTech Connect

An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Thermal insulated glazing unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

320

Micro-machined thermo-conductivity detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A micro-machined thermal conductivity detector for a portable gas chromatograph. The detector is highly sensitive and has fast response time to enable detection of the small size gas samples in a portable gas chromatograph which are in the order of nanoliters. The high sensitivity and fast response time are achieved through micro-machined devices composed of a nickel wire, for example, on a silicon nitride window formed in a silicon member and about a millimeter square in size. In addition to operating as a thermal conductivity detector, the silicon nitride window with a micro-machined wire therein of the device can be utilized for a fast response heater for PCR applications.

Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

QUASI-STEADY CONFIGURATIONS OF CONDUCTIVE INTRACLUSTER MEDIA  

SciTech Connect

The radial distributions of temperature, density, and gas entropy among cool-core clusters tend to be quite similar, suggesting that they have entered a quasi-steady state. If that state is regulated by a combination of thermal conduction and feedback from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), then the characteristics of those radial profiles ought to contain information about the spatial distribution of AGN heat input and the relative importance of thermal conduction. This paper addresses those topics by deriving steady-state solutions for clusters in which radiative cooling, electron thermal conduction, and thermal feedback fueled by accretion are all present, with the aim of interpreting the configurations of cool-core clusters in terms of steady-state models. It finds that the core configurations of many cool-core clusters have entropy levels just below those of conductively balanced solutions in which magnetic fields have suppressed electron thermal conduction to {approx}1/3 of the full Spitzer value, suggesting that AGN feedback is triggered when conduction can no longer compensate for radiative cooling. And even when feedback is necessary to heat the central {approx}30 kpc, conduction may still be the most important heating mechanism within a cluster's central {approx}100 kpc.

Voit, G. M., E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

322

CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY Revision 1 10/31/07 Approved by: DOE Records Management Division, IM-23 PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY 1. GENERAL. A records inventory is compiling a descriptive list of each record series or system, including the location of the records and any other pertinent data. A records inventory is not a list of each document or each folder. 2. DEFINE THE RECORDS INVENTORY GOAL(S). The goals of a records inventory should be to: a. Gather information for scheduling purposes; b. Prepare for conversion to other media or to identify the volume of classified and/or permanent records in your organization's custody; and c. Identify any existing shortcomings, deficiencies, or problems with

323

THERMAL NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel thermal reactor was designed in which a first reflector formed from a high atomic weight, nonmoderating material is disposed immediately adjacent to the reactor core. A second reflector composed of a moderating material is disposed outwardly of the first reflector. The advantage of this novel reflector arrangement is that the first reflector provides a high slow neutron flux in the second reflector, where irradiation experiments may be conducted with a small effect on reactor reactivity.

Spinrad, B.I.

1960-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

324

Thermally actuated thermionic switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

325

Probing phonons in plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties [1]. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}' {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts. Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimental data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter-atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single-grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc {delta}-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) capability on ID28 [2].

Farber, D; Chiang, T; Krisch, M; Occelli, F; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Xu, R; Boro, C

2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

326

Measurement of Thermal Diffusity and Flow Resistance for TCAP Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SRS uses the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) to separate isotopes of hydrogen. The frequency of thermal cycles is a limit of the productivity of the process and that frequency is largely determined by the thermal diffusivity of the absorbent material. For a given tube diameter, a larger thermal diffusivity decreases the time required for each cycle. In 1998, the Engineering Development Laboratory measured thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity for three TCAP materials in helium.

STEIMKE, JOHN

2004-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

327

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

McCulloch, Reg W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN); Finnell, Wilber K. R. (Kingston, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocouple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

McCulloch, Reginald W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN); Finnell, Wilber K. R. (Kingston, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Thermal via placement in 3D ICs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As thermal problems become more evident, new physical design paradigms and tools are needed to alleviate them. Incorporating thermal vias into integrated circuits (ICs) is a promising way of mitigating thermal issues by lowering the thermal resistance of the chip itself. However, thermal vias take up valuable routing space, and therefore, algorithms are needed to minimize their usage while placing them in areas where they would make the greatest impact. With the developing technology of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs), thermal problems are expected to be more prominent, and thermal vias can have a larger impact on them than in traditional 2D ICs. In this paper, thermal vias are assigned to specific areas of a 3D IC and used to adjust their effective thermal conductivities. The thermal via placement method makes iterative adjustments to these thermal conductivities in order to achieve a desired maximum temperature objective. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used in formulating the method and in calculating temperatures quickly during each iteration. As a result, the method efficiently achieves its thermal objective while minimizing the thermal via utilization.

Brent Goplen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Argonne CNM: Proximal Probes Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proximal Probes Proximal Probes Capabilities Omicron VT-AFM XA microscope scanning tunneling microscope VIew high-resolution image. Variable-temperature, ultra-high-vacuum, atomic force microscope/scanning tunneling microscope: Omicron VT-AFM XA (N. Guisinger, Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Group) Measurement modes include: Contact and non-contact AFM Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) Scanning tunneling spectroscopy Preparation tools include: Resistive sample heating Direct current heating E-beam heating Sputter ion etching Gas dosing E-beam evaporation An analysis chamber contains combined four-grid LEED/Auger optics Omicron nanoprobe View high-resolution image Scanning probe/scanning electron microscopy: Omicron UHV Nanoprobe (N. Guisinger, Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Group)

333

Hand-held survey probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include an optical sensor to generate data corresponding to a position of the detection probe with respect to a surface; a microprocessor to receive the data; a software medium having code to process the data with the microprocessor and pre-programmed parameters, and making a comparison of the data to the parameters; and an indicator device to indicate results of the comparison. A method of providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include generating output data with an optical sensor corresponding to the relative position with respect to a surface; processing the output data, including comparing the output data to pre-programmed parameters; and indicating results of the comparison.

Young, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hungate, Kevin E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

334

Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

335

SHI induced enhancement in conductivity of PbTe thin film for thermoelectric applications  

SciTech Connect

PbTe thin film were synthesized using thermal evaporation and irradiated by 100 MeV Ag ions at different fluences ranging from 3x10{sup 13} and 1x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. Pristine films annealed under Ar atm at 250 deg. C for 1 hr. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) of pristine and irradiated films reveals the improvement of PbTe phase with increasing fluence. The thickness of the film is decreased from 195 nm to 150 nm after ion irradiation as indicated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis due to the sputtering. Resistivity measurement using four probe techniques of these films shows the conductivity enhancement with ion fluence. The conductivity is found to be {approx} 6 fold at fluence 3x10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} whereas it decreases to 3 fold after annealing in comparison to pristine sample. On further increasing the fluence from 3x10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}, the properties of the film begin to deteriorate. SHI induced modification may be explained on the basis of oxygen desorption and change in stochiometry of film during irradiation.

Gupta, Srashti; Agarwal, D. C.; Singh, J. P.; Tripathi, S. K.; Neeleshwar, S.; Asokan, K.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Avasthi, D. K. [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, GGS Indraprastha University, Dwarka, Delhi 110075 (India); Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India); Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, GGS Indraprastha University, Dwarka, Delhi 110075 (India); Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India); Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

336

Low Temperature Proton Conductivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr. Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 2 Freezing Fuel Cells: Impact on MEAS Below 0 o C *Transport processes/motions slow down: questions re: lower conductivity,water mobility etc *Residual water will have various physical effects in different portions of the MEA questions re: durability of components 3 3 'States' of Water in Proton Conductors ? Freezing (bulk), bound freezable, bound non freezable water states claimed based on DSC * Freezing water more mobile, allegedly important for high conductivity Analysis common for porous systems Does the presence of these states matter? Why? 4 'State of Water' in PEMs At T < 0 o C *'Liquid-like' water freezes *'Non-freezing' fraction: water of solvation at pore

337

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Heat Pipe Embedded AlSiC Plates for High Conductivity - Low CTE Heat Spreaders  

SciTech Connect

Heat pipe embedded aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) plates are innovative heat spreaders that provide high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Since heat pipes are two phase devices, they demonstrate effective thermal conductivities ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 W/m-K, depending on the heat pipe length. Installing heat pipes into an AlSiC plate dramatically increases the plates effective thermal conductivity. AlSiC plates alone have a thermal conductivity of roughly 200 W/m-K and a CTE ranging from 7-12 ppm/ deg C, similar to that of silicon. An equivalent sized heat pipe embedded AlSiC plate has effective thermal conductivity ranging from 400 to 500 W/m-K and retains the CTE of AlSiC.

Johnson, Matthew (DOE/NNSA Kansas City Plant (United States)); Weyant, J.; Garner, S. (Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (Lancaster, PA (United States)); Occhionero, M. (CPS Technologies Corporation, Norton, MA (United States))

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

339

Probing phonons in plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}{prime} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) capability on ID28. The complete PDCs for an fcc Pu-0.6 wt% Ga alloy are plotted in Figure 2, and represent the first full set of phonon dispersions ever determined for any Pu-bearing materials. The solid curves (red) are calculated using a standard Born-von Karman (B-vK) force constant model. An adequate fit to the experimental data is obtained if interactions up to the fourth-nearest neighbours are included. The dashed curves (blue) are recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) results by Dai et al. The elastic moduli calculated from the slopes of the experimental phonon dispersion curves near the {Lambda} point are: C{sub 11} = 35.3 {+-} 1.4 GPa, C{sub 12} = 25.5 {+-} 1.5 GPa and C{sub 44} = 30.53 {+-} 1.1 GPa. These values are in excellent agreement with those of the only other measurement on a similar alloy (1 wt % Ga) using ultrasonic techniques as well as with those recently calculated from a combined DMFT and linear response theory for pure {delta}-Pu. Several unusual features, including a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. The HRIXS results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. The experimental-theoretical agreements shown in Figure 2 in terms of a low shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a large softening of the T[111] modes give credence to the DMFT approach for the theoretical treatment of 5f electron systems of which {delta}-Pu is a classic example. However, quantitative differences remain. These are the position of the Kohn anomaly along the T{sub 1}[011] branch, the energy maximum of the T[111] mode s

Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing (UIUC); (LLNL); (ESRF); (LANL)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

340

Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, the italian theoretical Nuclear Physics community has played a leading role in the development of a unified approach, allowing for a consistent and fully quantitative description of the nuclear response to electromagnetic and weak probes. In this paper I review the main achievements in both fields, point out some of the open problems, and outline the most promising prospects.

Omar Benhar

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method and apparatus for remote tube crevice detection by current and voltage probe resistance measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for determining the extent of contact between an electrically conducting tube and an electrically conductive tubesheet surrounding the tube, based upon the electrical resistance of the tube and tubesheet. A constant current source is applied to the interior of the electrically conducting tube by probes and a voltmeter is connected between other probes to measure the voltage at the point of current injection, which is inversely proportional to the amount of contact between the tube and tubesheet. Namely, the higher the voltage measured by the voltmeter, the less contact between the tube and tubesheet. 4 figs.

Kikta, T.J.; Mitchell, R.D.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

342

Normal Conducting CLIC Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi?lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron?positron linear collider with a centre?of?mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super?conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 3040 MV/m to obtain centre?of?mass collision energies of 0.51 TeV

Erk Jensen; CLIC Study Team

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

A STUDY OF ATES THERMAL BEHAVIOR USING A STEADY FLOW MODEL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal conductivity, Aau heat capacity per unit volume, Ca,thermal conductivity Ac and heat capacity per unit volumeCc Cw The heat capacity per unit volume of water is All

Doughty, Christine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

T-698: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' Permits  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' 8: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks T-698: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks August 22, 2011 - 3:54pm Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in Adobe ColdFusion. A remote user can conduct cross-site scripting attacks. PLATFORM: Adobe ColdFusion 9.x ABSTRACT: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks. reference LINKS: Adobe Vulnerability Report Adobe Security Bulletin ColdFusion Support SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1025957 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: The 'probe.cfm' script does not properly filter HTML code from user-supplied input in the 'name' parameter before displaying the input. A remote user can create a specially crafted URL that, when loaded by a

345

T-698: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' Permits  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' 8: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks T-698: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks August 22, 2011 - 3:54pm Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in Adobe ColdFusion. A remote user can conduct cross-site scripting attacks. PLATFORM: Adobe ColdFusion 9.x ABSTRACT: Adobe ColdFusion Input Validation Flaw in 'probe.cfm' Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks. reference LINKS: Adobe Vulnerability Report Adobe Security Bulletin ColdFusion Support SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1025957 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: The 'probe.cfm' script does not properly filter HTML code from user-supplied input in the 'name' parameter before displaying the input. A remote user can create a specially crafted URL that, when loaded by a

346

Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

Adams, Jesse D. (Reno, NV); Sulchek, Todd A. (Oakland, CA); Feigin, Stuart C. (Reno, NV)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

348

Good Vibrations Probe Innards of Molecular Electronic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Probing molecules in integrated silicon-molecule-metal junctions by inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. ACS Nano Letters, 8, 478 (2008).

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

349

Thermal spallation drilling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal spallation drilling is an underdeveloped process with great potential for reducing the costs of drilling holes and mining shafts and tunnels in most very hard rocks. Industry has used this process to drill blast holes for emplacing explosives and to quarry granite. Some theoretical work has been performed, and many signs point to a great future for this process. The Los Alamos National Laboratory has studied the theory of the spallation process and is conducting experiments to prove out the system and to adapt it for use with a conventional rotary rig. This report describes work that has been accomplished at the Laboratory on the development of thermal spallation drilling and some work that is projected for the future on the system. 3 references, 3 figures.

Williams, R.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

2-M Probe At Rhodes Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-M Probe At Rhodes Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2-M Probe At Rhodes Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Rhodes Marsh Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Coolbaugh et al. (2007), Sladek et al. (2007), and Kratt, et al. (2008, this volume) describe a shallow temperature survey system in which temperatures can be measured quickly and inexpensively at 2 m depths. This system was tested at Desert Queen based on its structural setting and availability of thermal gradient well data obtained in the 1970's from which to make thermal anomaly comparisons. The system was subsequently used at Tungsten Mountain and Teels and Rhodes Marshes to help locate blind geothermal systems. References Lisa Shevenell, Mark Coolbaugh, Chris Sladek, Rick Zehner, Chris

351

Thermal Management of Onboard Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plan: (A) System Weight and Volume (C) Efficiency (E) ChargingDischarging Rates (J) Thermal Management Technical Targets In this project, studies are being conducted to develop...

352

Alloy Development for Copper Diamond Composites for Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One approach to meeting the challenges is to add diamond particles to a copper matrix to improve thermal conductivity and lower CTE simultaneously.

353

composites for high performance electronic packaging and thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The applications include; leading edges and engine components for the National Aerospace Plane, radiators for space power, flexible high conductance thermal...

354

Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal ...  

An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance ...

355

Phonon Heat Conduction In A Semiconductor Nanowire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ic phonon dispersion due to spatial confinement, and (ii) change in the nonequilibrium phonon distribution due to partially diffuse boundary scattering. Numerical simulation is performed for a silicon nanowire with boundaries characterized by different interface roughness. Phonon confinement and boundary scattering lead to a significant decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity. The value of this decrease and its interface roughness and temperature dependence are different from the predictions of the early models. The observed change in thermal resistance has to be taken into account in simulation of deepsubmicron and nanometer-scale devices. 2001 American Institute of Physics. PACS: 68.65.La, 66.70.+f, 63.22.+m, 68.35. References

Joe Zou; Alexander Balandin; Jie Zou; Er Bal

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Improved double planar probe data analysis technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plasma electron number density and ion number density in a dc multidipole weakly collisional Ar plasma are measured with a single planar Langmuir probe and a double planar probe, respectively. A factor of two discrepancy between the two density measurements is resolved by applying Sheridan's empirical formula [T. E. Sheridan, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3084 (2000)] for sheath expansion to the double probe data.

Ghim, Young-chul; Hershkowitz, Noah [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

2-M Probe At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-M Probe At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) 2-M Probe At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Columbus Salt Marsh Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes At Columbus Salt Marsh, Nevada, additional 2m measurements better defined the shape of a blind, shallow thermal anomaly; also at this location deeper temperature measurements were used to develop a near-surface temperature gradient. References Christopher Kratt, Chris Sladek, Mark Coolbaugh (2010) Boom And Bust With The Latest 2M Temperature Surveys- Dead Horse Wells, Hawthorne Army Depot, Terraced Hills, And Other Areas In Nevada

358

Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

Scharman, Alan J. (Hebron, CT); Yonushonis, Thomas M. (Columbus, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Thermal Properties of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys: Phase Decomposition Effects of Heat Treatments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) alloys are of interest to the nuclear engineering community for their potential use as reactor fuel. The addition of molybdenum serves to stabilize the gamma phase of uranium, as well as increasing the melting point of the fuel. Thermal properties of U-Mo alloys have not been fully characterized, especially within the area of partial phase decomposition of the gamma phase of the alloy. Additional data was acquired through this research to expand the characterization data set for U-Mo alloys. The U-Mo alloys used for this research were acquired from the Idaho National Laboratory and consisted of three alloys of nominal 7, 10, and 13 percent molybdenum by weight. The sample pins were formed by vacuum induction melt casting. Once the three sample pins were fabricated and sent to the Fuel Cycle and Materials Laboratory at Texas A&M University, the pins were homogenized and sectioned for heat treatment. Several heat treatments were performed on the samples to induce varying degrees of phase decomposition, and the samples were subsequently sectioned for phase verification and thermal analysis. An Electron Probe Microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy was used to observe the phases in the samples as well as to characterize each phase. The density of each sample was determined using Archimedes method. Finally, a light flash analyzer was used to determine thermal diffusivity of the samples up to 300 degrees C as well as to estimate the thermal conductivity. For U-10Mo, thermal diffusivity increased with increasing phase decomposition from gamma to alpha +U2Mo while U-7Mo saw a flattening of the thermal diffusivity curve with increased phase decomposition.

Creasy, John Thomas

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Laser-assisted scanning probe alloying nanolithography (LASPAN) and its application in gold-silicon system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoscale science and technology demand novel approaches and new knowledge to further advance. Nanoscale fabrication has been widely employed in both modern science and engineering. Micro/nano lithography is the most common technique to deposit nanostructures. Fundamental research is also being conducted to investigate structural, physical and chemical properties of the nanostructures. This research contributes fundamental understanding in surface science through development of a new methodology. Doing so, experimental approaches combined with energy analysis were carried out. A delicate hardware system was designed and constructed to realize the nanometer scale lithography. We developed a complete process, namely laser-assisted scanning probe alloying nanolithography (LASPAN), to fabricate well-defined nanostructures in gold-silicon (Au-Si) system. As a result, four aspects of nanostructures were made through different experimental trials. A non-equilibrium phase (AuSi3) was discovered, along with a non-equilibrium phase diagram. Energy dissipation and mechanism of nanocrystalization in the process have been extensively discussed. The mechanical energy input and laser radiation induced thermal energy input were estimated. An energy model was derived to represent the whole process of LASPAN.

Peng, Luohan

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

pH Meter probe assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

Hale, Charles J. (San Jose, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

pH Meter probe assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

Hale, C.J.

1983-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

Tsang, C.-F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

Tsang, C.-F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Equilibrium Models of Galaxy Clusters with Cooling, Heating and Conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is generally argued that most clusters of galaxies host cooling flows in which radiative cooling in the centre causes a slow inflow. However, recent observations by Chandra and XMM conflict with the predicted cooling flow rates. Amongst other mechanisms, heating by a central active galactic nucleus and thermal conduction have been invoked in order to account for the small mass deposition rates. Here, we present a family of hydrostatic models for the intra-cluster medium where radiative losses are exactly balanced by thermal conduction and heating by a central source. We describe the features of this simple model and fit its parameters to the density and temperature profiles of Hydra A.

M. Bruggen

2003-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

366

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

367

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

368

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

Johnson, Robert E., E-mail: rej@virginia.ed [Engineering Physics, Thornton Hall B102, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

370

Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining there between a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction.

Jandrasits, W.G.; Kikta, T.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Electrodeposition of conducting polymer fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conducting polymers are materials that possess the electrical conductivity of metals while still retaining the mechanical properties such as flexibility of traditional polymers. Polypyrrole (PPy) is one of the more commonly ...

Chen, Angela Y. (Angela Ying-Ju), 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites  

Indium Tin Oxide, the most widely used commercial transparent conducting coating, has severe limitations such inflexibility, high processing ...

373

Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, {tau}, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single distribution of activation energies (DAE) to calculate the corresponding conductivity and relaxation rates as a function of temperature and frequency?

Benjamin Michael Meyer

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Microsoft Word - PumpProbe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pump/Probe Pump/Probe Resources Available - BE Current Mid 2014 Mid 2016 Beamline X-ray Source Total Total Total NSLS-I 0.25 0.15 0 U4B Bend 0.05 0 0 U4IR Bend 0.2 0.15 0 APS 4.75 4.75 4.75 4-ID-C CPU 0 0 0 7-ID-C&D Undulator 1 1 1 7-BM-B Bend 1 1 1 10-ID-B Undulator 0.5 0.5 0.5 11-ID-D Undulator 1 1 1 14-ID-B Undulator 1 1 1 20-ID Undulator 0.25 0.25 0.25 ALS 3 3 3 4.0.2 EPU 0 0 0 6.0.1 Undulator 1 1 1 6.0.2 Undulator 1 1 1 6.1.2 Bend 0 0 0 9.0.2 Undulator 1 1 1 11.0.1 EPU 0 0 0 11.0.2 EPU 0 0 0 SSRL 0.15 0.45 0.45

375

RF-THERMAL COMBINED SIMULATIONS OF A SUPERCONDUCTING HOM COAXIAL COUPLER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To benchmark a multi-physics code VORPAL developed by Tech-X, the High Order Mode (HOM) coaxial coupler design implemented in Jefferson Lab?s 12GeV upgrade cryomodules is analyzed by use of commercial codes, such as ANSYS, HFSS and Microwave Studio. Testing data from a Horizontal Test Bench (HTB) experiment on a dual-cavity prototype are also utilized in the verification of simulation results. The work includes two stages: first, the HOM feedthrough that has a high RRR niobium probe and sapphire insulator is analyzed for the RF-thermal response when there is travelling wave passing through; second, the HTB testing condition is simulated and results from simulation are compared to thermal measurements from HTB tests. The analyses are of coupled-field nature and involve highly nonlinear temperature dependent thermal conductivities and electric resistivities for the eight types of materials used in the design. Accuracy and efficiency are the main factors in evaluation of the performance of the codes.

Guangfeng Cheng, Haipeng Wang, David Smithe

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The effect of sintering and CMAS on the stability of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State of the art thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbine applications comprise (7 wt.%) yttria partially stabilized zirconia (7YSZ). 7YSZ offers a range of attractive functional properties low thermal conductivity, high thermal expansion...

Shinozaki, Maya

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

377

PROBING DENSE NUCLEAR MATTER VIA NUCLEAR COLLISIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University of California. LBL-12095 Probing Dense NuclearMatter Nuclear Collisions* v~a H. Stocker, M.Gyulassy and J. Boguta Nuclear Science Division Lawrence

Stocker, H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Atom Probe Tomography and Transmission Electron Microscopy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Atom probe tomography (APT) and analytical transmission .... of a Leaking Type 316 Socket Weld in a Boron Injection Tank Sampling Line.

379

Optical Backscatter Probe for Sensing Particulate Matter  

By supplying light from the fiber optic probe into specific engine locations, ... systems to optimize engine performance On-board diagnostics required by regulatory

380

Versatile Probes for Enhanced Protein Behavior Mapping ...  

Summary. Researchers at PNNL have developed new probes that specifically bind to peptide tags, which are amino acid sequences engineered into any ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Automated Surface Sampling Probe for Mass Spectrometry  

Dr. Gary Van Berkel and colleagues have developed a liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ?SSP). The LMJ?SSP provides mass spectrometry with ...

382

Coulomb corrections and thermo-conductivity of a dense plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We point out a confusion arising sometimes in using chemical potential in plasma with coulomb interactions. The results of our consideration are applied to discussion of nuclear reactions screening. Finally, we present a transparent derivation of thermal conductivity coefficient of degenerate electron gas.

Glazyrin, S I

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

2-M Probe Survey At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe Survey At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Survey Activity Date 2005 - 2006 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Geochemical water sampling, mineral distribution mapping, and shallow (30 cm) temperature probe measurements were conducted to expand on a previous field mapping study of surface geothermal features at Salt Wells, in order to evaluate the relationship between these features and structures that control geothermal fluid flow. Notes This study used a modified version of the 2 m temperature probe survey,

384

Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austins thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

None

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

385

Sampling artifacts from conductive silicone tubing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sampling artifacts from conductive silicone tubing Sampling artifacts from conductive silicone tubing Title Sampling artifacts from conductive silicone tubing Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Timko, Michael T., Zhenhong Yu, Jesse Kroll, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Richard C. Miake-Lye, Timothy B. Onasch, David Liscinsky, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Hugo Destaillats, Amara L. Holder, Jared D. Smith, and Kevin R. Wilson Journal Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 43 Issue 9 Pagination 855-865 Date Published 06/03/2009 Abstract We report evidence that carbon impregnated conductive silicone tubing used in aerosol sampling systems can introduce two types of experimental artifacts: (1) silicon tubing dynamically absorbs carbon dioxide gas, requiring greater than 5 minutes to reach equilibrium and (2) silicone tubing emits organic contaminants containing siloxane that are adsorbed onto particles traveling through it and onto downstream quartz fiber filters. The consequence can be substantial for engine exhaust measurements as both artifacts directly impact calculations of particulate mass-based emission indices. The emission of contaminants from the silicone tubing can result in overestimation of organic particle mass concentrations based on real-time aerosol mass spectrometry and the off-line thermal analysis of quartz filters. The adsorption of siloxane contaminants can affect the surface properties of aerosol particles; we observed a marked reduction in the water-affinity of soot particles passed through conductive silicone tubing. These combined observations suggest that the silicone tubing artifacts may have wide consequence for the aerosol community and the tubing should, therefore, be used with caution. Contamination associated with the use of silicone tubing was observed at ambient temperature and, in some cases, was enhanced by mild heating (<70°C) or pre-exposure to a solvent (methanol). Further evaluation is warranted to quantify systematically how the contamination responds to variations in system temperature, physicochemical particle properties, exposure to solvent, sample contact time, tubing age, and sample flow rates.

386

Correlations and scaling in one-dimensional heat conduction J. M. Deutsch and Onuttom Narayan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlations and scaling in one-dimensional heat conduction J. M. Deutsch and Onuttom Narayan of the heat current, through the Kubo formula, gives a thermal conductivity exponent of 1/3 in agreement.40.Mg I. INTRODUCTION Heat conduction in one-dimensional systems is a simple example of the general

California at Santa Cruz, University of

387

In-situ spectrophotometric probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spectrophotometric probe is described for in situ absorption spectra measurements comprising a first optical fiber carrying light from a remote light source, a second optical fiber carrying light to a remote spectrophotometer, the proximal ends of the first and second optical fibers parallel and co-terminal, a planoconvex lens to collimate light from the first optical fiber, a reflecting grid positioned a short distance from the lens to reflect the collimated light back to the lens for focusing on the second optical fiber. The lens is positioned with the convex side toward the optical fibers. A substrate for absorbing analyte or an analyte and reagent mixture may be positioned between the lens and the reflecting grid. 5 figs.

Prather, W.S.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Millimeter-wave active probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A millimeter-wave active probe for use in injecting signals with frequencies above 50GHz to millimeter-wave and ultrafast devices and integrated circuits including a substrate upon which a frequency multiplier consisting of filter sections and impedance matching sections are fabricated in uniplanar transmission line format. A coaxial input and uniplanar 50 ohm transmission line couple an approximately 20 GHz input signal to a low pass filter which rolls off at approximately 25 GHz. An input impedance matching section couples the energy from the low pass filter to a pair of matched, antiparallel beam lead diodes. These diodes generate odd-numberd harmonics which are coupled out of the diodes by an output impedance matching network and bandpass filter which suppresses the fundamental and third harmonics and selects the fifth harmonic for presentation at an output.

Majidi-Ahy, Gholamreza (Sunnyvale, CA); Bloom, David M. (Portola Valley, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

In-situ spectrophotometric probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spectrophotometric probe for in situ absorption spectra measurements comprising a first optical fiber carrying light from a remote light source, a second optical fiber carrying light to a remote spectrophotometer, the proximal ends of the first and second optical fibers parallel and coterminal, a planoconvex lens to collimate light from the first optical fiber, a reflecting grid positioned a short distance from the lens to reflect the collimated light back to the lens for focussing on the second optical fiber. The lens is positioned with the convex side toward the optical fibers. A substrate for absorbing analyte or an analyte and reagent mixture may be positioned between the lens and the reflecting grid. 3 figs.

Prather, W.S.

1990-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

390

In-situ spectrophotometric probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spectrophotometric probe for in situ absorption spectra measurements comprising a first optical fiber carrying light from a remote light source, a second optical fiber carrying light to a remote spectrophotometer, the proximal ends of the first and second optical fibers parallel and coterminal, a planoconvex lens to collimate light from the first optical fiber, a reflecting grid positioned a short distance from the lens to reflect the collimated light back to the lens for focussing on the second optical fiber. The lens is positioned with the convex side toward the optical fibers. A substrate for absorbing analyte or an analyte and reagent mixture may be positioned between the lens and the reflecting grid.

Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Manipulation of Thermal Phonons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Developing materials that can conduct electricity easily, but block the motion of phonons is necessary in the applications of thermoelectric devices, which can generate electricity from temperature differences. In converse, a key requirement as chips get faster is to obtain better ways to dissipate heat. Controlling heat transfer in these crystalline materials devices such as silicon is important. The heat is actually the motion or vibration of atoms known as phonons. Finding ways to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials phononic crystals might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many fields of physical sciences and engineering, acoustic wave propagation in solids attracts many researchers. Wave propagation phenomena can be analyzed by mathematically solving the acoustic wave equation. However, wave propagation in inhomogeneous media with various geometric structures is too complex to find an exact solution. Hence, the Finite Difference Time Domain method is developed to investigate these complicated problems. In this work, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain formula is derived from acoustic wave equations based on the Taylors expansion. The numerical dispersion and stability problems are analyzed. In addition, the convergence conditions of numerical acoustic wave are stated. Based on the periodicity of phononic crystal, the Blochs theorem is applied to fulfill the periodic boundary condition of the FDTD method. Then a wide-band input signal is used to excite various acoustic waves with different frequencies. In the beginning of the calculation process, the wave vector is chosen and fixed. By means of recording the displacement field and taking the Fourier transformation, we can obtain the eigenmodes from the resonance peaks of the spectrum and draw the dispersion relation curve of acoustic waves. With the large investment in silicon nanofabrication techniques, this makes tungsten/silicon phononic crystal a particularly attractive platform for manipulating thermal phonons. Phononic crystal makes use of the fundamental properties of waves to create band gap over which there can be no propagation of acoustic waves in the crystal. This crystal can be applied to deterministically manipulate the phonon dispersion curve affected by different crystal structures and to modify the phonon thermal conductivity accordingly. We can expect this unique metamaterial is a promising route to creating unprecedented thermal properties for highly-efficient energy harvesting and thermoelectric cooling.

Hsu, Chung-Hao

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

CONDUCTIVITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACGIH: 0.1 ppm 0.1 ppm; STEL 0.3 ppm 0.1 ppm; STEL 0.3 ppm (1 ppm = 6.53 mg/m 3) PROPERTIES: liquid; d 3.119 g/mL @ 20 C;

Prefilter Filter

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Nanotubes Advance ...  

conducting material, indium tin oxide (ITO). All of the indium component of ITO is exported from abroad. The continuously increasing cost of indium and its limited

394

Transitioning water to an enhanced heat-conducting phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water can be transitioned to an enhanced heat-conducting phase by supercooling only the water at the bottom of a container. The temperature gradient across the 4 cm in the center of an 8 cm long column of water with a 397 mW heat source at the top was lowered from 32oC to 0.75oC when the temperature at the bottom of the column was lowered from 1.2 oC to -5.6oC. The effective thermal conductivity of the water was increased from ~0.607 W/mK to ~24 W/mK. This result demonstrates that water has a high effective thermal conducting phase that has not been previously reported.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Microscopic Probes of High-Temperature Superconductivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The granularity of the cuprate superconductors limits the effectiveness of many experimental probes that average over volumes containing many atoms. This report presents theoretical studies on muon spin relaxation and positron annihilation, two microscopic experimental techniques that can probe the properties of both high- and low-temperature superconductors on the atomic scale.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electron Thermal Microscopy Todd Brintlinger,, Yi Qi, Kamal H. Baloch, David Goldhaber-Gordon,| and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrical and thermal modeling. This provides a generic and adaptable platform for nanoscale thermal, probe shape, water meniscus, etc.). Near-field optical techniques4 similarly must rely on a given, as is illustrated in Figure 2. To create local temperature gradients, metal heater wires were fabricated

Goldhaber-Gordon, David

397

Proximal Probes | Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proximal Probes Facility Proximal Probes Facility proximal probes The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the core of the facility is a suite of instruments for in-situ microscopy of surfaces and nanostructures under extreme conditions, e.g., in reactive gases, and at high or low temperatures. Unique instruments enable in-situ and in-operando studies of surface chemistry and catalysis at pressures from ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) to 5 bar via complementary scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and photoelectron spectroscopy, coupled with real-time gas analysis. Several UHV systems are available for scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy, as well as low-energy electron microscopy and synchrotron photoelectron microscopy. A

398

Time-resolved multiple probe spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved multiple probe spectroscopy combines optical, electronic, and data acquisition capabilities to enable measurement of picosecond to millisecond time-resolved spectra within a single experiment, using a single activation pulse. This technology enables a wide range of dynamic processes to be studied on a single laser and sample system. The technique includes a 1 kHz pump, 10 kHz probe flash photolysis-like mode of acquisition (pump-probe-probe-probe, etc.), increasing the amount of information from each experiment. We demonstrate the capability of the instrument by measuring the photolysis of tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO){sub 6}) monitored by IR absorption spectroscopy, following picosecond vibrational cooling of product formation through to slower bimolecular diffusion reactions on the microsecond time scale.

Greetham, G. M.; Sole, D.; Clark, I. P.; Parker, A. W.; Pollard, M. R.; Towrie, M. [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

The Drop-Size Response of the CSIRO Liquid Water Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the CSIRO liquid water content (LWC) device to water drops of different sizes has been investigated in a wind tunnel. Two series of experiments were conducted. The first compared the probe-measured LWC of sprays with different ...

C. J. Biter; J. E. Dye; D. Huffman; W. D. King

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. A plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, G.A.; Moore, T.K.

1986-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

2-M Probe At Astor Pass Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » 2-M Probe At Astor Pass Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Astor Pass Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Astor Pass Geothermal Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes More than 100 new 2m measurements at Astor Pass, Nevada resolved additional details of near-surface thermal outflow in this blind geothermal system References Christopher Kratt, Chris Sladek, Mark Coolbaugh (2010) Boom And Bust With The Latest 2M Temperature Surveys- Dead Horse Wells, Hawthorne Army

402

2-M Probe At Alum Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alum Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Alum Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Alum Geothermal Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Alum Geothermal Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes More than 100 new 2m measurements at Astor Pass, Nevada resolved additional details of near-surface thermal outflow in this blind geothermal system References Christopher Kratt, Chris Sladek, Mark Coolbaugh (2010) Boom And Bust With The Latest 2M Temperature Surveys- Dead Horse Wells, Hawthorne Army Depot, Terraced Hills, And Other Areas In Nevada Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=2-M_Probe_At_Alum_Area_(Kratt,_Et_Al.,_2010)&oldid=402957"

403

2-M Probe At Winnemucca Dry Lake Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Winnemucca Dry Lake Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Winnemucca Dry Lake Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Winnemucca Dry Lake Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Winnemucca Dry Lake Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes More than 20 2-meter-deep temperatures were measured adjacent to these selected towers in a two-day period of November 2007. No obvious zones of temperature anomalies were detected. We were unable to clearly ascertain the background temperature but the spatial distribution of the data did not point to a broader zone of thermal highs. At both of these tufa localities, the process of inserting 2-meterlong probes into the ground was

404

Introduction to the Responsible Conduct  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, that the standards for responsible conduct can vary from field to field, and that in many situations two or more limitations. First, rules generally set minimum standards for behavior rather than strive for the ideal, but there may be situations in which you should strive for a higher standard of conduct. Responsible research

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

405

Introduction to the Responsible Conduct  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be and is learned in different ways, that the standards for responsible conduct can vary from field to field of research, they have two important limitations. First, rules generally set minimum standards for behavior for a higher standard of conduct. Responsible research requires more than simply following rules. Second, rules

Quirk, Gregory J.

406

Conductive polymer-based material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI); Dourado, Sunil K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Dulebohn, Joel I. (Lansing, MI); Hanchar, Robert J. (Charlotte, MI)

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

407

Seasonal thermal energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Electrical Conduction, Heat Conduction, Shear Viscosity and Entropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here how to study steady linear transport phenomena by using entropy. We study the system and the environment together and identify their entropies. Concerning their interaction, quantum mechanics is considered. A time parameter $\\tau$ is therefore introduced to characterize the discrete nature of the quantum interactions. By combining $\\tau$ and the entropy, an approach is constructed successfully to study electrical conduction, heat conduction and shear viscosity

Zhang, Yong-Jun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Anomalous heat conduction in polyethylene chains: Theory and molecular dynamics simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1955 Fermi, Pasta, and Ulam showed that a simple model for a nonlinear one-dimensional chain of particles can be nonergodic, which implied infinite thermal conductivity. A more recent investigation of a realistic model ...

Henry, Asegun

410

LDRD final report on polyphosphaacetylenes, new hybrid conducting organic-inorganic materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal, electrochemical and transition metal mediated reactions of phosphaacetylene monomers were conducted in attempts to form novel polyphosphaacetylenes as a new class of potentially electrically conducting polymers. Molecular modeling was used to simulate the molecular conformations of optimized, isolated oligomers to identify the proper monomeric repeat units for highly conjugated molecules. Electrodeposition of suitable monomers led to low molecular weight oligomers. Thermal polymerization of phosphaacetylene monomers bearing aromatic substituents ed to the formation of polyhedral cage oligomers. Under metathesis polymerization conditions the phosphaacetylene monomers form unique complexes via an unprecedented sequence of intermediates which suggest that metathesis to linear oligomers is achievable. Conductivity measurements on electrodeposited oligomers indicate modest electrical conductivity.

Jamison, G.M.; Loy, D.A.; Saunders, R.S.; Alam, T.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Properties of Organic Materials Dept.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Probing Radiative Solar Neutrinos Decays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by a pilot experiment conducted by F.Vannucci et al. during a solar eclipse, we work out the geometry governing the radiative decays of solar neutrinos. Surprisingly, although a smaller proportion of the photons can be detected, the case of strongly non-degenerate neutrinos brings better limits in terms of the fundamental couplings. We advocate satellite-based experiments to improve the sensitivity.

Frre, J M

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Scanning probe microscopy in the superconductor industry  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature superconductivity and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) have much in common. Both revolutionized their scientific fields and earned Nobel prizes for the original researchers. Both represent small-scale table-top research. Finally, both have emerged from research laboratories into growing industries. Applications of scanning probe microscopy to the superconductor industry range from the straightforward to the exotic. The superior three-dimensional resolution of scanning probe microscopes makes them ideal for routine topographic imaging and profilometry of substrates and thin films. On the other hand, the more esoteric applications of SPM include spectroscopic investigations of various electromagnetic properties of superconductors above and below the critical temperature.

Howland, R.S.; Kirk, M.D. (Park Scientific Instruments (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Assessment of the 296-S-21 Stack Sampling Probe Location  

SciTech Connect

Tests were performed to assess the suitability of the location of the air sampling probe on the 296-S-21 stack according to the criteria of ANSI N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted most tests on a 3.67:1 scale model of the stack. CH2MHill also performed some limited confirmatory tests on the actual stack. The tests assessed the capability of the air-monitoring probe to extract a sample representative of the effluent stream. The tests were conducted for the practical combinations of operating fans and addressed: (1) Angular Flow--The purpose is to determine whether the velocity vector is aligned with the sampling nozzle. The average yaw angle relative to the nozzle axis should not be more than 20. The measured values ranged from 5 to 11 degrees on the scale model and 10 to 12 degrees on the actual stack. (2) Uniform Air Velocity--The gas momentum across the stack cross section where the sample is extracted should be well mixed or uniform. The uniformity is expressed as the variability of the measurements about the mean, the coefficient of variance (COV). The lower the COV value, the more uniform the velocity. The acceptance criterion is that the COV of the air velocity must be ?20% across the center two-thirds of the area of the stack. At the location simulating the sampling probe, the measured values ranged form 4 to 11%, which are within the criterion. To confirm the validity of the scale model results, air velocity uniformity measurements were made both on the actual stack and on the scale model at the test ports 1.5 stack diameters upstream of the sampling probe. The results ranged from 6 to 8% COV on the actual stack and 10 to 13% COV on the scale model. The average difference for the eight runs was 4.8% COV, which is within the validation criterion. The fact that the scale model results were slightly higher than the actual stack suggests that the other test results on the scale model are conservative relative to the actual stack. (3) Uniform Concentration of Tracer Gases--A uniform contaminant concentration in the sampling plane enables the extraction of samples that represent the true concentration. This was first tested using a tracer gas to represent gaseous effluents. The fan is a good mixer, so injecting the tracer downstream of the fans provides worst-case results. The acceptance criteria are that (1) the COV of the measured tracer gas concentration is ?20% across the center two-thirds of the sampling plane and (2) at no point in the sampling plane does the concentration vary from the mean by >30%. The results on the scale model at the point simulating the sampling probe ranged from 0.3 to 6 %COV, and the maximum single point deviation from the mean was -10%. (4) Uniform Concentration of Tracer Particles--Uniformity in contaminant concentration at the sampling probe was further demonstrated using tracer particles large enough to exhibit inertial effects. Particles of 10-?m aerodynamic diameter were used. The acceptance criterion is that the COV of particle concentration is ?20% across the center two-thirds of the sampling plane. The scale model results ranged form 2 to 9%. Based on these tests, the location of the air sampling probe on the 296-S-21 stack meets the requirements of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard.

Glissmeyer, John A.

2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

414

Continuous production of conducting polymer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A device to continuously produce polypyrrole was designed, manufactured, and tested. Polypyrrole is a conducting polymer which has potential artificial muscle applications. The objective of continuous production was to ...

Gaige, Terry A. (Terry Alden), 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Plasma conductivity at finite coupling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By taking into account the full order(\\alpha'^3) type IIB string theory corrections to the supergravity action, we compute the leading finite 't Hooft coupling order(\\lambda^{-3/2}) corrections to the conductivity of strongly-coupled SU(N) {\\cal {N}}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma in the large N limit. We find that the conductivity is enhanced by the corrections, in agreement with the trend expected from previous perturbative weak-coupling computations.

Hassanain, Babiker

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Plasma conductivity at finite coupling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By taking into account the full order(\\alpha'^3) type IIB string theory corrections to the supergravity action, we compute the leading finite 't Hooft coupling order(\\lambda^{-3/2}) corrections to the conductivity of strongly-coupled SU(N) {\\cal {N}}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma in the large N limit. We find that the conductivity is enhanced by the corrections, in agreement with the trend expected from previous perturbative weak-coupling computations.

Babiker Hassanain; Martin Schvellinger

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Thermal properties of an upper tidal flat sediment on the Texas Gulf Coast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased land use change near fragile ecosystems can affect the ecosystem energy balance leading to increased global warming. One component of surface energy balance is soil storage heat flux. In past work, a complex thermal behavior was noticed in the shrink-swell sediment of the upper Nueces Delta (upper Rincon) during summer months as it dried. Soil storage heat flux was found to first increase, then decrease, as the soil dried. It was suggested that the complex behavior was due to the relationship between thermal diffusivity and soil moisture, where thermal diffusivity increases to a local maximum before decreasing with respect to decreasing soil moisture. This study explores the observed phenomenon in a controlled laboratory environment by relating the sediment shrinkage curve to changing heat transfer properties. Due to the complicated nature of the drying-shrinking sediment, it was necessary to measure the sediment shrinkage curve and heat transfer properties in separate experiments. The shrinkage curve was found by correlating measured sample volume with gravimetric moisture content. Heat transfer properties were found using a single needle heat pulse probe. A normalized gravimetric moisture content was used as a common variable to relate the shrinkage curve and heat transfer data. Data suggests that the shrink-swell Rincon sediment portrays different behavior in drying than that which occurs for a non-shrink-swell soil. For the shrink-swell Rincon sediment, thermal conductivity is seen to increase with decreasing moisture, the suggested mechanism being increased surface area contact between particles as the shrinking sediment dries.

Cramer, Nicholas C.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Thermal Effects of Moisture in Rigid Insulation Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The impact of moisture in rigid roof insulation upon energy consumption is often assumed to be a simple function of the conductance. This paper will show that there are complex interactions between conductance, thermal mass, and climate. The energy performance can not be predicted from only the conductance. These results affect removal criteria for wet insulation board.

Crow, G. W.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Thermal Energy Transport in Nanostructured Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Energy Transport in Nanostructured Materials Thermal Energy Transport in Nanostructured Materials Speaker(s): Ravi Prasher Date: August 25, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil World energy demand is expected to reach ~30 TW by 2050 from the current demand of ~13 TW. This requires substantial technological innovation. Thermal energy transport and conversion play a very significant role in more than 90% of energy technologies. All four modes of thermal energy transport, conduction, convection, radiation, and phase change (e.g. evaporation/boiling) are important in various energy technologies such as vapor compression power plants, refrigeration, internal combustion engines and building heating/cooling. Similarly thermal transport play a critical role in electronics cooling as the performance and reliability of

420

Buried Interface Analysis Using Atom Probe Tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contributions of Atom Probe Tomography to the Understanding of Steels Control of p-n ... Relationships in a Series of Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Ni-Al High Entropy Alloys.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Atom Probe Tomography for Industrial Applications - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contributions of Atom Probe Tomography to the Understanding of Steels Control of p-n ... Relationships in a Series of Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Ni-Al High Entropy Alloys.

422

Remote Adjustable focus Raman Spectroscopy Probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external to the probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes along working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translate the probe body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

423

Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

424

Probes of strong-field gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I investigate several ways to probe gravity in the strong-field regime. These investigations focus on observables from the gravitational dynamics, i.e. when time derivatives are large: thus I focus on sources ...

Stein, Leo Chaim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Self-referencing remote optical probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A probe for remote spectrometric measurements of fluid samples having a hollow probe body with a sliding reflective plug therein and a lens at one end, ports for admitting and expelling the fluid sample and a means for moving the reflector so that reference measurement can be made with the reflector in a first position near the lens and a sample measurement can be made with the reflector away from the lens and the fluid sample between the reflector and the lens. Comparison of the two measurements will yield the composition of the fluid sample. The probe is preferably used for remote measurements and light is carried to and from the probe via fiber optic cables. 3 figs.

O' Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

1990-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

426

Self-referencing remote optical probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A probe is described for remote spectrometric measurements of fluid samples having a hollow probe body with a sliding reflective plug therein and a lens at one end, ports for admitting and expelling the fluid sample and a means for moving the reflector so that reference measurement can be made with the reflector in a first position near the lens and a sample measurement can be made with the reflector away from the lens and the fluid sample between the reflector and the lens. Comparison of the two measurements will yield the composition of the fluid sample. The probe is preferably used for remote measurements and light is carried to and from the probe via fiber optic cables. 3 figures.

O' Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

1991-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

427

Surface sampling concentration and reaction probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen is described. The method can include providing a probe comprising an outer capillary tube and an inner capillary tube disposed co-axially within the outer capillary tube, where the inner and outer capillary tubes define a solvent capillary and a sampling capillary in fluid communication with one another at a distal end of the probe; contacting a target site on a surface of a specimen with a solvent in fluid communication with the probe; maintaining a plug volume proximate a solvent-specimen interface, wherein the plug volume is in fluid communication with the probe; draining plug sampling fluid from the plug volume through the sampling capillary; and analyzing a chemical composition of the plug sampling fluid with an analytical instrument. A system for performing the method is also described.

Van Berkel, Gary J; Elnaggar, Mariam S

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

428

Design of a variable-conductance vacuum insulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes one approach to the design of a variable-conductance vacuum insulation. In this design, the vacuum insulation consists of a permanently sealed, thin sheet steel, evacuated envelope of whatever geometry is required for the application. The steel envelope is supported internally against the atmospheric pressure loads by an array of discrete, low-conductance, ceramic supports, and radiative heat transfer is blocked by layers of thin metal radiation shields. Thermal conductance through this insulation is controlled electronically by changing the temperature of a small metal hydride connected to the vacuum envelope. The hydride reversibly absorbs/desorbs hydrogen to produce a hydrogen pressure typically within the range from less than 10{sup {minus}6} to as much as 1 torr. Design calculations are compared with results from laboratory tests of bench scale samples, and some possible automotive applications for this variable-conductance vacuum insulation are suggested.

Benson, D K; Potter, T F; Tracy, C E

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman-scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

Nave, Stanley E. (Evans, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman- scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

Nave, S.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

432

Nanoscale heat conduction across tunnel junctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?2005? Nanoscale heat conduction across tunnel junctions Y.May 2005? Nanoscale heat conduction across tunnel junctionsprevailing theory of heat conduction in highly disordered

Ju, Y. Sungtaek; Hung, M T; Carey, M J; Cyrille, M C; Childress, J R

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission  

SciTech Connect

For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

434

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Conductive heat flow in the Randsburg area, California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Randsburg known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is located in a tectonically active part of the Mojave Desert just south of the Garlock Fault. To provide background information for geothermal resource appraisal, the results from five holes drilled for regional heat-flow reconnaissance (USGS, unpublished data) were combined with data from nine additional holes drilled especially as part of this study in an attempt to delineate the conductive thermal anomaly associated with observed geothermal manifestations in the Randsburg area.

Sass, J.H.; Galanis, S.P. Jr.; Marshall, B.V.; Lachenbruch, A.H.; Munroe, R.J.; Moses, T.H. Jr.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Lollipops and Ice Fishing: Molecular Rulers Used to Probe ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lollipops and Ice Fishing: Molecular Rulers Used to Probe Nanopores. For Immediate Release: April 27, 2010. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

437

Langmuir probe diagnostics of an atmospheric pressure, vortex-stabilized nitrogen plasma jet  

SciTech Connect

Langmuir probe measurements in an atmospheric pressure direct current (dc) plasma jet are reported. Sweeping probes were used. The experiment was carried out using a dc non-transferred arc torch with a rod-type cathode and an anode of 5 mm diameter. The torch was operated at a nominal power level of 15 kW with a nitrogen flow rate of 25 Nl min{sup -1}. A flat ion saturation region was found in the current-voltage curve of the probe. The ion saturation current to a cylindrical probe in a high-pressure non local thermal equilibrium (LTE) plasma was modeled. Thermal effects and ionization/recombination processes inside the probe perturbed region were taken into account. Averaged radial profiles of the electron and heavy particle temperatures as well as the electron density were obtained. An electron temperature around 11 000 K, a heavy particle temperature around 9500 K and an electron density of about 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, were found at the jet centre at 3.5 mm downstream from the torch exit. Large deviations from kinetic equilibrium were found throughout the plasma jet. The electron and heavy particle temperature profiles showed good agreement with those reported in the literature by using spectroscopic techniques. It was also found that the temperature radial profile based on LTE was very close to that of the electrons. The calculations have shown that this method is particularly useful for studying spraying-type plasma jets characterized by electron temperatures in the range 9000-14 000 K.

Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. R. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ingenieria Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, (2600) Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ingenieria Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, (2600) Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina) and Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales UBA Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal properties of one dimensional nanostructures are of interest for thermoelectric energy conversion. Thermoelectric efficiency is related to non dimensional thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT=S^2 o T/k, where S ,o , k and T are Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and the absolute temperature respectively. These physical properties are interdependent. Therefore, making materials with high ZT is a very challenging task. However, nanoscale materials can overcome some of these limitations. When the size of nanomaterials is comparable to wavelength and mean free path of energy carriers, especially phonons, size effect contributes to the thermal conductivity reduction without bringing about major changes in the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient. Therefore, the figure of merit ZT can be manipulated. For example, the thermal conductivities of several silicon nanowires were more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of bulk silicon values due to the enhanced boundary scattering. Among the nanoscale semiconductor materials, Silicon-Germanium(SiGe) alloy nanowire is a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials The thermal conductivities of SiGe core-shell nanowires with core diameters of 96nm, 129nm and 177nm were measured using a batch fabricated micro device in a temperature range of 40K-450K. SiGe nanowires used in the experiment were synthesized via the Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth method. The thermal conductivity data was compared with thermal conductivity of Si and Ge nanowires. The data was compared with SiGe alloy thin film, bulk SiGe, Si/SixGe1-x superlattice nanowire, Si/Si0.7Ge0.3 superlattice thin film and also with the thermal conductivity of Si0.5Ge0.5 calculated using the Einstein model. The thermal conductivities of these SiGe alloy nanowires observed in this work are ~20 times lower than Si nanowires, ~10 times lower than Ge nanowires, ~3-4 times lower than Si/SixGe1-x superlattice thin film, Si/SixGe1-x superlattice nanowire and about 3 time lower than bulk SiGe alloy. The low values of thermal conductivity are majorly due to the effect of alloy scattering, due to increased boundary scattering as a result of nanoscale diameters, and the interface diffuse scattering by core-shell effect. The influence of core-shell effect, alloy scattering and boundary scattering effect in reducing the thermal conductivity of these nanowires opens up opportunities for tuning thermoelectric properties which can pave way to thermoelectric materials with high figures of merit in the future.

Gwak, Yunki

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

2-M Probe Survey At Salt Wells Area (Skord, Et Al., 2011) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » 2-M Probe Survey At Salt Wells Area (Skord, Et Al., 2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe Survey At Salt Wells Area (Skord, Et Al., 2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Survey Activity Date 2011 - 2011 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Two-meter temperature surveys were conducted at Salt Wells Basin from February to May 2011, with the goal of distinguishing and mapping zones of upwelling and outflow of hydrothermal fluids. The study also tests the ability of shallow temperature survey methods recently refined by the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy to evaluate the structural controls of

440

Field tests of probes for detecting internal corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes for detecting corrosion in environments similar to those found in natural gas transmission pipelines. Results and interpretation will be reported from four different field tests. Flange and flush-mount probes were used in four different environments at a gas-gathering site and one environment but two different orientations at a natural gas plant. These sites were selected to represent normal and upset conditions in a gas transmission pipeline. The environments consisted of 2 different levels of humidified natural gas/organic/water mixtures removed from natural gas, and the environments at the 6 and 12 o'clock positions of a natural gas pipeline carrying 2-phase gas/liquid flow. Data are also presented comparing the ECR probe data to that for coupons used to determine corrosion rate and to detect the presence of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC).

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cayard, Michael S. (Intercorr International Inc.); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Meidinger, Brian (RMOTC-DOE)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

Neet, Thomas E. (Grandview, MO); Spieker, David A. (Olathe, KS)

1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

442

September 1999 conduct.doc  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Sec. 556.004. PROHIBITED ACTS OF AGENCIES AND INDIVIDUALS. (a) A state agency may's official duties in favor of another. Sec. 2113.012. USE OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. A state agency may not use agency may not use a state-owned or state-leased motor vehicle except on official state business. (b

443

A Model of Heat Conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define a deterministic ``scattering'' model for heat conduction which is continuous in space, and which has a Boltzmann type flavor, obtained by a closure based on memory loss between collisions. We prove that this model has, for stochastic driving forces at the boundary, close to Maxwellians, a unique non-equilibrium steady state.

Collet, Pierre

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

445

Thin film ion conducting coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

447

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

448

Mobile robot path planning algorithm by equivalent conduction heat flow topology optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the path planning problem for a point robot moving in a planar environment filled with obstacles. Our approach is based on the principles of thermal conduction and structural topology optimization and rests on the observation that, ... Keywords: Conduction heat flow, Mobile robot, Path planning, Topology optimization

Jae Chun Ryu; Frank Chongwoo Park; Yoon Young Kim

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Development of a point-electrode conductivity salinometer with high-spatial-resolution for use in very-saline solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conductivity probe and circuit were developed to measure salinities in sodium chloride salt-gradient solar ponds. A point-electrode salinometer design was chosen to give a spatial resolution of approximately 1 mm (0.039 in.). Such high spatial resolution was necessary to study the behavior of thermohaline columns in the vicinity of convective/conductive zone boundaries. The point-electrode conductivity instrument was designed for use in up to 25 wt % salinities with immersion times of about 0.1 year or longer. Drift in the instrument, however, caused principally by changes in the surface condition of the platinum probe tip and reflected by changes in the probe cell constant, required periodic in situ calibration against the measured specific gravity of withdrawn fluid samples.

Jones, G.F.; Grimmer, D.P.; Tafoya, J.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Green's function of the cosmological thermalization problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy release in the early Universe leads to spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) which in the future might allow probing different physical processes in the pre-recombination (z>~10^3) epoch. Depending on the energy injection history, the associated distortion partially thermalizes due to the combined action of Compton scattering, double Compton scattering and Bremsstrahlung emission, a problem that in general is hard to solve. Various analytic approximations describing the resulting distortion exist, however, for small distortions and fixed background cosmology the Green's function of the problem can be computed numerically. Here we show that this approach gives very accurate results for general thermal histories, allowing fast and quasi-exact computation of the spectral distortion given the energy release rate. Our method can thus be used to forecast possible constraints on early-universe physics obtained from future measurements of the CMB spectrum.

Chluba, Jens

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Fuzzy Categorization of Weather Conditions for Thermal Mapping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal mapping is a technique that uses a vehicle-mounted infrared radiometer to measure the variation of road surface temperature (RST). Conventionally, the technique is conducted under three qualitatively categorized weather conditions: ...

J. Shao

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Radiative transfer and thermal performance levels in foam insulation boardstocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The validity of predictive models for the thermal conductivity of foam insulation is established based on the fundamental geometry of the closed-cell foam. The extinction coefficient is experimentally and theoretically ...

Moreno, John David

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Transient heat flux shielding using thermal metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a heat shield based on a metamaterial engineering approach to shield a region from transient diffusive heat flow. The shield is designed with a multilayered structure to prescribe the appropriate spatial profile for heat capacity, density, and thermal conductivity of the effective medium. The heat shield was experimentally compared to other isotropic materials.

Narayana, Supradeep; Sato, Yuki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel comes in many forms; oxide fuel is the most commonly used in current reactor systems while metal fuel is a promising fuel type for future reactors due to neutronic performance and increased thermal conductivity. As a key heat transfer parameter, thermal conductivity describes the heat transport properties of a material based upon the density, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. A materials ability to transport thermal energy through its structure is a measurable property known as thermal diffusivity; the units for thermal diffusivity are given in area per unit time (e.g., m2/s). Current measurement methods for thermal diffusivity include LASER (or light) Flash Analysis and the hot-wire method. This study examines an approach that combines these previous two methods to characterize the diffusivity of a packed bed of microspheres of depleted uranium (DU) metal, which have a nominal diameter of 250 micrometers. The new apparatus is designated as the Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA), and it induces a radial transient across a packed sample of microspheres then monitors the temperature profile using an array of thermocouples located at different distances from the source of the thermal transient. From the thermocouple data and an accurate time log, the thermal diffusivity of the sample may be calculated. Results indicate that DU microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer. At 500C, the thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was 0.431 13% W/m-K compared to approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal. Characterization of the developed apparatus revealed a method that may be useful for measuring the thermal diffusivity of powders and liquids.

Humrickhouse, Carissa Joy

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

457

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

459

Electrical and thermal properties of graphite/polyaniline composites  

SciTech Connect

A composite of a carbon allotrope (graphite) and an inherently conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI), has been prepared that exhibits an electrical conductivity greater than either of the two components. An almost 2-fold increase in the bulk conductivity occurs when only a small mass fraction of polyaniline exists in the composite (91% graphite/ 9% polyaniline, by mass). This increase in dc electrical conductivity is curious since in most cases a composite material will exhibit a conductivity somewhere between the two individual components, unless a modification to the electronic nature of the material occurs. In order to elucidate the fundamental electrical properties of the composite we have performed variable temperature conductivity measurements to better understand the nature of conduction in these materials. The results from these studies suggest a change in the mechanism of conduction as the amount of polyaniline is increased in the composite. Along with superior electrical properties, the composites exhibit an increase in thermal stability as compared to the graphite. - Graphical abstract: (Left) Room temperature electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at different mass ratios. (Right) Electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at temperatures from 5 K to 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composites of graphite and polyaniline have been synthesized with unique electrical and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Certain G-PANI composites are more conductive and more thermally stable than graphite alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-PANI composites exhibit a larger conductivity ratio with respect to temperature than graphite alone.

Bourdo, Shawn E., E-mail: sxbourdo@ualr.edu [Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Warford, Brock A.; Viswanathan, Tito [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Lightning strokes can probe the ionosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lightning Strokes Can Probe Ionosphere Lightning Strokes Can Probe Ionosphere Lightning strokes can probe the ionosphere Researchers have made measurements during thunderstorms to study the affect of lightning on the lower ionosphere and radiofrequency signals. April 11, 2013 Lightning. Credit: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) The team found that the electron density in the lower ionosphere decreased in response to lightning discharges. Thunderstorms, and the resulting partially ionized plasma of the ionosphere, can distort radio signals traveling to satellites important to communications, navigation or national security Los Alamos researchers and a collaborator have made measurements during thunderstorms to study the affect of lightning on the lower ionosphere and radiofrequency signals. This study supports one theory for how tropospheric

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal conductivity probe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However, even though this class of devices is finding a growing number of applications, electronic processes in organic materials are still not well understood. A group of researchers from the University of California and the ALS has succeeded in probing the intrinsic electronic properties of the charge carriers in organic FETs using infrared spectromicroscopy. The results of their study could help in the future development of sensors, large-area displays, and other plastic electronic components.

462

Lightning strokes can probe the ionosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lightning Strokes Can Probe Ionosphere Lightning Strokes Can Probe Ionosphere Lightning strokes can probe the ionosphere Researchers have made measurements during thunderstorms to study the affect of lightning on the lower ionosphere and radiofrequency signals. April 11, 2013 Lightning. Credit: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) The team found that the electron density in the lower ionosphere decreased in response to lightning discharges. Thunderstorms, and the resulting partially ionized plasma of the ionosphere, can distort radio signals traveling to satellites important to communications, navigation or national security Los Alamos researchers and a collaborator have made measurements during thunderstorms to study the affect of lightning on the lower ionosphere and radiofrequency signals. This study supports one theory for how tropospheric

463

Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

Schmucker, John E. (Hurt, VA); Blasi, Raymond J. (Harrison City, PA); Archer, William B. (Bethel Park, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Gamma-ray blind beta particle probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intra-operative beta particle probe is provided by placing a suitable photomultiplier tube (PMT), micro channel plate (MCP) or other electron multiplier device within a vacuum housing equipped with: 1) an appropriate beta particle permeable window; and 2) electron detection circuitry. Beta particles emitted in the immediate vicinity of the probe window will be received by the electron multiplier device and amplified to produce a detectable signal. Such a device is useful as a gamma insensitive, intra-operative, beta particle probe in surgeries where the patient has been injected with a beta emitting radiopharmaceutical. The method of use of such a device is also described, as is a position sensitive such device.

Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Design of thermal imprinting system with uniform residual thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new thermal imprinting system for the printed circuit boards (PCBs) with both large areas and fine conducting lines was developed adopting hot airs with a high pressure. Several small nickel stamps were used to cover the large area, and the stamps ... Keywords: Patterned circuit boards, Thermal imprinting system, Uniformity of residual thickness

Won-Ho Shin

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Thermal contact resistance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work deals with phenomena of thermal resistance for metallic surfaces in contact. The main concern of the work is to develop reliable and practical methods for prediction of the thermal contact resistance for various ...

Mikic, B. B.

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Cesium capsule thermal analysis  

SciTech Connect

Double-walled stainless steel capsules, produced by the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF), were designed to facilitate storage of radioactive cesium chloride (CsCl). The capsules were later determined to be a useful resource for irradiation facilities (IFs), and are currently being used at several commercial IFs. A capsule at one of these facilities recently failed, resulting in a release of the CsCl. A thermal analysis of a WESF capsule was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. In this analysis, parametric calculations demonstrates the impact that various parameters have on the temperature distribution within a capsule in a commercial irradiation facility. Specifically, the effect of varying the gas gap conductivity, the exterior heat sink temperatures, the exterior heat transfer distribution, the stainless steel emissivity, and the gamma heating rate were addressed. In addition, a calculation was performed to estimate the highest temperatures likely to have been encountered in one of these capsules. 8 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

Eyler, L.L.; Dodge, R.E.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Thermal Spray Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 35   Thermal spray coatings used for hardfacing applications...piston ring (internal combustion);

470

Plasma-Thermal Synthesis  

INLs Plasma-Thermal Synthesis process improves the conversion process for natural gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

471

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

472

Nanocomposite Thermal Spray Coatings.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-Term Surface Restoration Effect Introduced by Advanced Lubricant Additive Nanocomposite Thermal Spray Coatings. New Hardfacing Overlay Claddings...

473

One-dimensional heat conductivity exponent from a random collision model J. M. Deutsch and Onuttom Narayan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One-dimensional heat conductivity exponent from a random collision model J. M. Deutsch and Onuttom to conductivity would predict that if the temperature gradient "T in a material is small, the heat current flowing January 2003; published 18 July 2003 We obtain numerically the thermal conductivity of a quasi

California at Santa Cruz, University of

474

Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator  

SciTech Connect

A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated. 2 figs.

Ruch, J.F.; Urban, D.J.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplementa