Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition
Ghosh, Mukulika
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
: D(M) = Mij[iMi = Mand 8i 6=jM i \\M j = ; (3.1) where M i is the open set of Mi, i.e.,Mi excluding its boundary. De nition .2 The cuts fCig in a decomposition D of a model M , are the maxi- mal boundaries of the components Mi...
u.s. Wea.ther Bureau. Hurricane Helena. Sept. 2S-29. 1958.
QC 945.2 .H45 H8 1958 u.s. Wea.ther Bureau. Hurricane Helena. Sept. 2S-29. 1958. #12;National;PRELIMINARY REPORT, HURRICANE HELENE SEPTEMBER 23-29, 1958 Hurricane Helene, one of the most dangerous to hurricane strength by the next day. It continued to intensify and advanced on a slow and somewhat erratic
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Krakauer and Krakauer, J Obes Weight Loss Ther 2014, 4:2
Krakauer, Nir Y.
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Krakauer and Krakauer, J Obes Weight Loss Ther 2014, 4:2 http the original author and source are credited. Keywords: Waist circumference; Body shape index; Obesity Introduction Obesity has historically been a sign of good health, except at the greatestexcess[1
Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition
Ghosh, Mukulika
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into "approximately convex" components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact ...
Qu sucede con esta imagen? Crculo las diez cosas mal en la
¿Qué sucede con esta imagen? Círculo las diez cosas mal en la foto. Cocina Temperatura caliente limpio #12;¿Qué sucede con esta imagen? -"Servir comida segura" Clave 1. Caliente explotación por debajo
Multicriteria approximation through decomposition
Burch, C. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Sciences]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krumke, S. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Marathe, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Phillips, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Mathematics Dept.; Sundberg, E. [Rutgers Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of the technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. The method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) The authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing. (2) They show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.
Multicriteria approximation through decomposition
Burch, C. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science; Krumke, S. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Marathe, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Phillips, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Mathematics Dept.; Sundberg, E. [Rutgers Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Computer Science
1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of their technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. Their method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) the authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing; (2) they also show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.
O'Keefe, Dennis R. (San Diego, CA); Norman, John H. (San Diego, CA)
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.
Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.
Ferrizz, Robert Matthew
2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.
Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
1 Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices Summary In this case study, a CHP plant increases its profit%ons with the power grid 4 Power Grid CHP plant Typically mul%ple boilers and turbines
Descent theory for semiorthogonal decompositions
Elagin, Alexei D
2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
We put forward a method for constructing semiorthogonal decompositions of the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on a variety X under the assumption that the derived category of sheaves on X admits a semiorthogonal decomposition with components preserved by the action of the group G on X. This method is used to obtain semiorthogonal decompositions of equivariant derived categories for projective bundles and blow-ups with a smooth centre as well as for varieties with a full exceptional collection preserved by the group action. Our main technical tool is descent theory for derived categories. Bibliography: 12 titles.
The combinatorics of reduced decompositions
Tenner, Bridget Eileen
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis examines several aspects of reduced decompositions in finite Coxeter groups. Effort is primarily concentrated on the symmetric group, although some discussions are subsequently expanded to finite Coxeter groups ...
DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION FOR A MIXED FINITE ELEMENT ...
SIAM (#1) 1035 2001 Apr 10 12:32:38
2003-03-12T23:59:59.000Z
... porous media, where highly discontinuous conductivity coefficients are also ...... [14] B. Smith, P. Bjørstad, and W. Gropp, Domain Decomposition, Cambridge
Rank-Sparsity Incoherence for Matrix Decomposition
Venkat Chandrasekaran
2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
Jun 11, 2009 ... Keywords: matrix decomposition, convex relaxation, L1 norm minimization, nuclear norm minimization, uncertainty principle, semidefinite ...
Optimization Online - Vector Space Decomposition for Linear ...
Jean Bertrand Gauthier
2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 26, 2015 ... Abstract: This paper describes a vector space decomposition algorithmic framework for linear programming guided by dual feasibility ...
Wavelet Decomposition Approaches to Statistical Inverse Problems
Abramovich, Felix
Wavelet Decomposition Approaches to Statistical Inverse Problems BY F. ABRAMOVICH Department alternative is the waveletÂvaguelette decomposition method, based on the expansion of the unknown in wavelet series. In the vagueletteÂwavelet decomposition method proposed here, the observed data are expanded
Stability of the Trotter-Suzuki decomposition
Ish Dhand; Barry C. Sanders
2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z
The Trotter-Suzuki decomposition is an important tool for the simulation and control of physical systems. We provide evidence for the stability of the Trotter-Suzuki decomposition. We model the error in the decomposition and determine sufficiency conditions that guarantee the stability of this decomposition under this model. We relate these sufficiency conditions to precision limitations of computing and control in both classical and quantum cases. Furthermore we show that bounded-error Trotter-Suzuki decomposition can be achieved by a suitable choice of machine precision.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
transports from ocean to land and global energy ?ows inof Earth energy imbal- ance, ocean warming, and thermostericthe ther- mal energy of the ocean, it remains a challenging
ON THE ISOTYPIC DECOMPOSITION OF COHOMOLOGY ...
2015-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
Mar 20, 2015 ... Primary 14P10, 14P25; Secondary 68W30. Key words and phrases. Symmetric group, isotypic decomposition, semi-algebraic sets, Specht.
Generalized covariation and extended Fukushima decompositions for Banach valued processes.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Generalized covariation and extended Fukushima decompositions for Banach valued processes corresponding results when B = C([-, 0]) and X = X(·). This will consitute a significant Fukushima decomposition random variables, Malliavin calculus, Generalized Fukushima decomposition. LUISS Guido Carli - Libera
Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition
Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)
Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition Shreeshankar Bodas, Jared Grubb, Sriram Sridharan-- This paper analyzes a capacitated network with costs from an information theoretic point of view. Determines a flow decomposition for a network with costs starting from an information theoretic point of view
A Theoretical Framework for Chimera Domain Decomposition
Keeling, Stephen L.
A Theoretical Framework for Chimera Domain Decomposition S. L. Keeling Sverdrup Technology, Inc. Steger, UC Davis, May 2-4, 1997. 1 Introduction. The Chimera scheme is a domain decomposition method- ometry is divided into simply shaped regions. Unlike other approaches [5], the Chimera method simplifies
Modeling Northern Peatland Decomposition and Peat
Moore, Tim
Modeling Northern Peatland Decomposition and Peat Accumulation Steve Frolking,1 * Nigel T. Roulet,2´al, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada ABSTRACT To test the hypothesis that long-term peat accumula- tion is related to contemporary carbon flux dynamics, we present the Peat Decomposition Model (PDM), a new model of long-term peat
Directed Graphs, Decompositions, and Spatial Linkages
Shai, Offer; Whiteley, Walter
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The decomposition of a system of constraints into small basic components is an important tool of design and analysis. Specifically, the decomposition of a linkage into minimal components is a central tool of analysis and synthesis of linkages. In this paper we prove that every pinned 3-isostatic (minimally rigid) graph (grounded linkage) has a unique decomposition into minimal strongly connected components (in the sense of directed graphs) which we call 3-Assur graphs. This analysis extends the Assur decompositions of plane linkages previously studied in the mathematical and the mechanical engineering literature. These 3-Assur graphs are the central building blocks for all kinematic linkages in 3-space. They share a number of key combinatorial and geometric properties with the 2-Assur graphs, including an associated lower block-triangular decomposition of the pinned rigidity matrix which provides a format for extending the motion induced by inserting one driver in a bottom Assur linkage to the joints of the e...
Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills
Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: xwang25@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Padgett, Jennifer M. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Powell, John S. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Campus Box 7905, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup ?1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.
Dioumaeva, Irina; Trumbore, Susan; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Goulden, Michael L.; Litvak, Marcy; Hirsch, Adam I.
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2003 Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest:of decomposition for upland boreal peat under black spruceand $50% in sphagnum moss peat), despite slow decomposition
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GASEOUS AND SOLID PRODUCTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE
Knutsen, G.F.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Gary F. Knutsen (M. S.OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Contents Abstract . .OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Gary F. Knutsen
Information processing with longitudinal spectral decomposition of ultrashort pulses
Saperstein, Robert Elliot
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
decomposition of ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. , doc. IDdecomposition of ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 47, A21-A31 (decomposition of ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 47, A21-A31 (
Thermal decomposition study of hydroxylamine nitrate during storage and handling
Zhang, Chuanji
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
decomposition behavior under various conditions and proposed isothermal aging testing and kinetic-based simulation to determine safety boundaries for HAN storage and handling. Specifically, HAN decomposition in the presence of glass, titanium, stainless steel...
PRESCRIBED GAUSS DECOMPOSITION FOR KAC-MOODY GROUPS OVER FIELDS.
PRESCRIBED GAUSS DECOMPOSITION FOR KAC-MOODY GROUPS OVER FIELDS University 52900, Ramat Gan, ISRAEL Abstract. We will show the Gauss. 1.Introduction Kac-Moody groups are equipped with canonical decompositions of different kinds
A parallel interior point decomposition algorithm for block angular ...
2008-05-24T23:59:59.000Z
a parallel and distributed high performance computing environment. We compare our. MPI (Message Passing Interface) implementation of the decomposition ...
SPEECH DECOMPOSITION AND ENHANCEMENT Sungyub Yoo
Allen, Jont
SPEECH DECOMPOSITION AND ENHANCEMENT by Sungyub Yoo BS, Soonchunhyang University, 1995 MS enhance speech intelligibility is examined. Computer algorithms to decompose speech into two different enhanced speech. The energy of the enhanced speech was adjusted to be equal to the original speech
Fuzzy Functional Dependencies and Lossless Join Decomposition
Parker, Lorraine M.
Recognition]: Models General Terms: Design, Theory Additional Key Words and Phrases: Functional dependencyFuzzy Functional Dependencies and Lossless Join Decomposition of Fuzzy Relational Database Systems with the application of fuzzy logic in a relational database environment with the objective of capturing more meaning
Graph Decompositions and Secret Sharing Schemes 1
Stinson, Douglas
Graph Decompositions and Secret Sharing Schemes 1 C. Blundo and A. De Santis Dipartimento di In this paper, we continue a study of secret sharing schemes for access structures based on graphs. Given a graph G, we require that a subset of participants can compute a secret key if they contain an edge of G
Large power grid analysis using domain decomposition
Mohanram, Kartik
-scale linear circuits such as power distribution networks. Simulation results show that by inte- grating the proposed DD framework, existing linear circuit simulators can be extended to handle otherwise intractableLarge power grid analysis using domain decomposition Quming Zhou, Kai Sun, Kartik Mohanram, Danny C
ccsd00001360, Natural decomposition of processes
, Poland #3;#3;#3; IRMAR, Universit#19;e de Rennes 1 Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France process has #12;nite energy, as de#12;ned by Graversen and Rao, its Doob-Meyer type decomposition, semimartin- gales, #12;nite energy processes, quadratic variation, mutual quadratic covari- ation, Ito
Decomposition of Electromagnetic Q and P Media
Lindell, I V
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Two previously studied classes of electromagnetic media, labeled as those of Q media and P media, are decomposed according to the natural decomposition introduced by Hehl and Obukhov. Six special cases based on either non-existence or sole existence of the three Hehl-Obukhov components, are defined for both medium classes.
Finite element decomposition of the human neocortex
Chow, Seeling
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Relationships between iso-parametric curves and principal curvature directions, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . ?. ???, . ?. . . . . . . . . . ??. ?. 25 Reparameterizing macro elements for finite element decomposition... visualization and functional analysis, building 3D surface models through serial reconstruction has received much attention in biomedical research [3], [8], [50]. Surface reconstruction techniques include volume rendering, iso-surface algorithms, parametric...
Decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (NONOates): Molecular mechanisms
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Shaikh, Nizamuddin [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Dept, Upton, NY (United States); Valiev, Marat [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Lymar, Sergei V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Dept, Upton, NY (United States)
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Although diazeniumdiolates (X[N(O)NO]?) are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to release NO and/or its congeneric nitroxyl, the mechanisms of these processes remain obscure. In this work, we used a combination of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational techniques to arrive at a quantitatively consistent molecular mechanism for decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (amino NONOates: R2N[N(O)NO]?, where R = single bondN(C2H5)2 (1), single bondN(C3H4NH2)2 (2), or single bondN(C2H4NH2)2 (3)). Decomposition of these NONOates is triggered by protonation of their [NN(O)NO]? group with the apparent pKa and decomposition rate constants of 4.6 and 1 s? 1 for 1; 3.5 and 0.083 s? 1 for 2; and 3.8 and 0.0033 s? 1 for 3. Although protonation occurs mainly on the O atoms of the functional group, only the minor R2N(H)N(O)NO tautomer (population ~ 10? 7, for 1) undergoes the Nsingle bondN heterolytic bond cleavage (kd ~ 107 s? 1 for 1) leading to amine and NO. Decompositions of protonated amino NONOates are strongly temperature-dependent; activation enthalpies are 20.4 and 19.4 kcal/mol for 1 and 2, respectively, which includes contributions from both the tautomerization and bond cleavage. The bond cleavage rates exhibit exceptional sensitivity to the nature of R substituents which strongly modulate activation entropy. At pH < 2, decompositions of all three NONOates that have been investigated are subject to additional acid catalysis that occurs through di-protonation of the [NN(O)NO]? group.
Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization
Fan, Xingzhe
1 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization DecompositionDecomposition Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-2 CONTENTSCONTENTS Introduction (Marta;2 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-3 Layering as Optimization Decomposition Introduction By Marta
Decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (NONOates): Molecular mechanisms
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Shaikh, Nizamuddin; Valiev, Marat; Lymar, Sergei V.
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Although diazeniumdiolates (X[N(O)NO]?) are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to release NO and/or its congeneric nitroxyl, the mechanisms of these processes remain obscure. In this work, we used a combination of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational techniques to arrive at a quantitatively consistent molecular mechanism for decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (amino NONOates: R2N[N(O)NO]?, where R = single bondN(C2H5)2 (1), single bondN(C3H4NH2)2 (2), or single bondN(C2H4NH2)2 (3)). Decomposition of these NONOates is triggered by protonation of their [NN(O)NO]? group with the apparent pKa and decomposition rate constants of 4.6 and 1 s? 1 for 1;more »3.5 and 0.083 s? 1 for 2; and 3.8 and 0.0033 s? 1 for 3. Although protonation occurs mainly on the O atoms of the functional group, only the minor R2N(H)N(O)NO tautomer (population ~ 10? 7, for 1) undergoes the Nsingle bondN heterolytic bond cleavage (kd ~ 107 s? 1 for 1) leading to amine and NO. Decompositions of protonated amino NONOates are strongly temperature-dependent; activation enthalpies are 20.4 and 19.4 kcal/mol for 1 and 2, respectively, which includes contributions from both the tautomerization and bond cleavage. The bond cleavage rates exhibit exceptional sensitivity to the nature of R substituents which strongly modulate activation entropy. At pH « less
Approximate convex decomposition and its applications
Lien, Jyh-Ming
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
hull CHP . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12 xi FIGURE Page 9 (a) Decomposition process. The tolerable concavity is user in- put. (b) A hierarchical representation of polygon P. Vertex r is a notch and concavity is measured... as the distance to the convex hull CHP . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 10 Although polygon P1 is visually closer to being convex than poly- gon P2, this is not identi ed by their convexity measurements, as de ned in Eqn 7...
A Numerical Algorithm for Block-Diagonal Decomposition of Matrix ...
2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
orthogonal matrix Q and a partition K = K1 ?···? Kl. In general there is no guarantee that this corresponds to the decomposition into simple compo- nents, but in ...
On parallelizing dual decomposition in stochastic integer programming
Miles Lubin
2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z
Oct 9, 2012 ... Abstract: For stochastic mixed-integer programs, we revisit the dual decomposition algorithm of Car\\o{}e and Schultz from a computational ...
adomian decomposition method: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
of low significance. A. S. Reese; T. B. Williams; J. A. Sellwood; Eric I. Barnes; Brian A. Powell 2007-02-27 267 Optimising Performance Through Unbalanced Decompositions...
Kinetics of thermal decomposition of surrogate solid wastes
Missoum, A.; Gupta, A.K.; Chen, J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Keating, E.L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Decomposition behavior of different materials in a controlled environment at different heating rates are presented. The surrogate materials used are cellulose, polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, nylon and bisphenol-A-polycarbonate. A series of tests were performed using a Perkin-Elmer 7 series thermal analysis system. Two heating rates of 10 C/minute and 100 C/minute were used. The temperature dependence and mass load characteristics of materials was obtained and used to obtain Arrhenius kinetic parameters and therefore the decomposition rates under defined conditions of pressure, temperature, environment, heating rate and waste composition. This information is helpful in characterizing and understanding the thermal decomposition properties of these materials during their thermal destruction. The decomposition rates are affected by the heating rate. The higher the heating rate the faster the decomposition. The results show that an increase in heating rate shifted thermal decomposition to higher temperatures and that the temperature at which maximum devolatilization began and ended was affected by heating rate. The kinetic parameters were calculated and the char yield from the different samples was less than 2% by weight except for polycarbonate which was around 5%. The remaining char in nylon and polycarbonate is attributed to the inert impurities in these materials. The thermal decomposition of the materials studied here could be related to their composition. It was found that polyethylene, polypropylene and polycarbonate have comparable decomposition rates over the same temperature range. Cellulose has the lowest decomposition rate and polystyrene has the highest.
Histamine Formation and Honeycombing During Decomposition of Skipjack Tuna,
Histamine Formation and Honeycombing During Decomposition of Skipjack Tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis pelamis, caught in Hawaiian waters. Fresh skipjack tuna tis- sue was practically devoid of histamine
Software Architecture Decomposition Using Attributes Chung-Horng Lung
Lung, Chung-Horng
1 Software Architecture Decomposition Using Attributes Chung-Horng Lung Xia Xu Department and Eppinger [29] in other engineering disciplines. Inspired by Alexander, Andreu [2] and Lung,
Kinetics of the decomposition of tungsten hexacarbonyl
Podoprigora, V.I.; Baev, A.K.
1987-07-20T23:59:59.000Z
A differential-flow apparatus is devised for the study of the kinetics of the thermal decomposition of volatile metal carbonyls under quasi-stationary conditions. The applicability of the general kinetic approach to the investigation of the thermodecomposition of carbonyl compounds and of the analysis of the experimental data on the basis of specific thermodecomposition rates was proved. Well-founded kinetic characteristics were obtained for the first time for the thermodecomposition of tungsten carbonyl in the kinetic region and under quasi-stationary pyrolysis conditions.
SP1TFRE-SP-100 transient fuel rod evaluation code
Carpenter, David Charles
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Carpenter Compar ison of theoretical Fuel element temperatures with and without flux depression . . 63 65 IV-6 BWR/6 thermal-hydr aulic input par ametens. IV-7 BWR/6 actinide inventor y. IV-8 CRBR ther mal-hydr aulic input par ameters . . IV-9 CRBR... actinide inventory. IV-10 SP-100 ther mal-hydr aulic input parameter s. 73 76 78 82 IV-11 SP-100 actinide inventor y. A-1 Constants used for specific heat cor r elation . A-2 Constants used for ther mal expansion cour clat. ion 90 . 101 G-1...
Information processing with longitudinal spectral decomposition of ultrafast pulses
Fainman, Yeshaiahu
Information processing with longitudinal spectral decomposition of ultrafast pulses Robert E of waveforms depending on whether their frequency response is or is not known a priori. Ultrafast pulses prove synthesis and detection relying on longitudinal spectral decomposition of subpicosecond optical pulses
DECOMPOSITION OF MULTIVARIATE DATASETS WITH STRUCTURE/ORDERING
analysis. However, contrary to Fourier decomposition these new variables are located in frequency as well as location (space, time, wavelength etc). 1 Introduction The maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysisDECOMPOSITION OF MULTIVARIATE DATASETS WITH STRUCTURE/ORDERING OF OBSERVATIONS OR VARIABLES USING
.ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION USING SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION BASED SPEECH ENHANCEMENT
.ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION USING SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION BASED SPEECH ENHANCEMENT B. T. Lilly the performance of a speechrecognition system in the presence of noise, is to enhance the speech prior to its is the enhanced speech signal. In the experiments presented in this paper, we use singu- lar value decomposition
Using learning decomposition to analyze student fluency development
Mostow, Jack
introduces an approach called learning decomposition to analyze what types of practice are most effective TO LEARNING CURVES AND LEARNING DECOMPOSITION The goal of this paper is to investigate how different types learning curves to measure the relative impact of various types of learning events. For tracking student
Space Decompositions: Theory and Practice Paulo Cezar Pinto Carvalho 1
Space Decompositions: Theory and Practice Paulo Cezar Pinto Carvalho 1 Jonas de Miranda Gomes 1 The use of space decompositions in Mathematics ranges from Algebraic Topology to Numerical Analysis. The existence of certain subdivisions of a space allows us to obtain valuable information about the geometry
PRESCRIBED GAUSS DECOMPOSITION FOR KAC-MOODY GROUPS OVER FIELDS.
PRESCRIBED GAUSS DECOMPOSITION FOR KAC-MOODY GROUPS OVER FIELDS. Jun Morita Institute o f and Computer Science Bar Ilan University 52900, Ramat Gan, ISRAEL Abstract. We will show the Gauss. Introduction Kac-Moody groups are equipped with canonical decompositions of di#11;erent kinds. Let us note
PRESCRIBED GAUSS DECOMPOSITION FOR KAC-MOODY GROUPS OVER FIELDS.
PRESCRIBED GAUSS DECOMPOSITION FOR KAC-MOODY GROUPS OVER FIELDS. Jun Morita Institute o f and Computer Science Bar Ilan University 52900, Ramat Gan, ISRAEL Abstract. We will show the Gauss Kac-Moody groups are equipped with canonical decompositions of Â¢Â¡Â¤Â£Â¦Â¥Â¨Â§Â©Â¥ t kinds. Let us note
Saddle point formulation for a cartoon-texture decomposition
Soatto, Stefano
Saddle point formulation for a cartoon-texture decomposition Stefan Kindermann , Stanley Osher Abstract We consider the image-decomposition into a cartoon and texture part proposed by Yves Meyer. We we consider the generalization of the ROF-functional proposed by Y. Meyer [14]. The idea is to obtain
Generalized spectral decomposition for stochastic nonlinear problems
Nouy, Anthony [Research Institute in Civil Engineering and Mechanics (GeM), Nantes Atlantic University, Ecole Centrale Nantes, UMR CNRS 6183, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: anthony.nouy@univ-nantes.fr; Le Maitre, Olivier P. [LIMSI-CNRS, BP133, F-91403 Orsay (France); DEN/DM2S/SFME, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)], E-mail: olm@limsi.fr
2009-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present an extension of the generalized spectral decomposition method for the resolution of nonlinear stochastic problems. The method consists in the construction of a reduced basis approximation of the Galerkin solution and is independent of the stochastic discretization selected (polynomial chaos, stochastic multi-element or multi-wavelets). Two algorithms are proposed for the sequential construction of the successive generalized spectral modes. They involve decoupled resolutions of a series of deterministic and low-dimensional stochastic problems. Compared to the classical Galerkin method, the algorithms allow for significant computational savings and require minor adaptations of the deterministic codes. The methodology is detailed and tested on two model problems, the one-dimensional steady viscous Burgers equation and a two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion problem. These examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms which exhibit convergence rates with the number of modes essentially dependent on the spectrum of the stochastic solution but independent of the dimension of the stochastic approximation space.
Gaseous Decomposition Products of Safety Powders
Cubbison, C.E.
1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
19.6 Volume o f a i r added 70.8 T o t a l vo lume 90 .4 Volume a f t e r e x p l o s i o n — 74.4 C o n t r a c t i o n 16.0 R e s i d u e a f t e r a b s o r p t i o n o f c a r b o n d i o x i d e 68.8 74.4 6 8 . 8 = 5 .6 . Oxygen p r e s e... DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF SAFETY POWDERS. THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE I I THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL BHGUEBRING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS. BY C.E.CUBBISOH 1912. RD01D7 MaDSfl COHTEHTS. * * * * Pago * P r e f a c e 6...
Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene
Abrefah, John; Klinger, George S.
2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
The radiation-damaged polystyrene (given the identification name of 'polycube') was fabricated by mixing high-density polystyrene material ("Dylene Fines # 100") with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used in the 1960s for criticality studies during processing of spent nuclear fuel. The polycubes have since been stored for almost 40 years at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) after failure of two processes to reclaim the plutonium and uranium oxides from the polystyrene matrix. Thermal decomposition products from this highly cross-linked polystyrene matrix were characterized using Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal furnace. The decomposition studies were performed in air and helium atmospheres at about 773 K. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different compared to virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the number of organic species generated and their concentrations. In the inert (i.e., helium) atmosphere, the major volatile organic products identified (in order of decreasing concentrations) were styrene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, nathphalene, propane, .alpha.-methylbenzene, indene and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. But in air, the major volatile organic species identified changed slightly. Concentrations of the organic species in the inert atmosphere were significantly higher than those for the air atmosphere processing. Overall, 38 volatile organic species were identified in the inert atmosphere compared to 49 species in air. Twenty of the 38 species in the inert conditions were also products in the air atmosphere. Twenty-two oxidized organic products were identified during thermal processing in air.
Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors
Djurcic, Zelimir
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
reactors are determined from thermal power measure- ments and ?ssion rate calculations.of a reactor’s ther- mal power is given by a calculation ofCALCULATIONS During the power cycle of a nuclear reactor,
Nonlocal Geometric Phase Measurements in Polarized Interferometry with Pairs of single Photons
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
the experimental observation of the nonlocal geometric phase in Hanbury Brown-Twiss polarized intensity Brown and Twiss (HB-T), who performed in- tensity interferometry experiments using incoherent ther- mal
Benders decomposition for the hop-constrainted survivable network ...
2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
problem of constructing a minimum weight set of edges so that the induced .... Later on, in the context of a directed spanning tree problem (which can be seen as .... through classical Benders decomposition, called L-shaped in stochastic.
Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces
Salinas, S. Adriana
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used...
acid decomposition contribution: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
of low significance. A. S. Reese; T. B. Williams; J. A. Sellwood; Eric I. Barnes; Brian A. Powell 2007-02-27 64 Reduced Decompositions Richard P. Stanley Mathematics...
Optimization Online - An MILP-MINLP decomposition method for the ...
Irene Lotero
2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z
Apr 14, 2015 ... An MILP-MINLP decomposition method for the global optimization of a source based model of the multiperiod ... Citation: Submitted for Publication to Computers and Chemical Engineering ... Mathematical Optimization Society.
Autocatalytic Decomposition of Cumene Hydroperoxide at Low Temperature Conditions
Chen, Shu-Ching
depends on the self-heat rate, which is influenced by the reaction mechanism during decomposition of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0640, U.S.A. Abstract Cumene
Flow Decomposition Reveals Dynamical Structure of Markov Process
Jianghong Shi; Tianqi Chen; Bo Yuan; Ping Ao
2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
Markov process is widely applied in almost all aspects of literature, especially important for understanding non-equilibrium processes. We introduce a decomposition to general Markov process in this paper. This decomposition decomposes the process into 3 independent parts: stationary distribution, symmetric detailed-balance part and anti-symmetric breaking detailed-balance part. This complete decomposition captures the steady state as well as the dynamics of the process, providing an elegant perspective for construction or analyzing problems. In light of the decomposition, a unique definition of relative entropy is found to formally separate the effect of detailed-balance part and breaking detailed-balance part. We find that the relative Gini entropy production introduced in the paper is not affected by the non-detailed balance part of the process. This property do not holds for other entropy definition in general discrete case.
Modularity of Directed Networks: Cycle Decomposition Approach
Natasa Djurdjevac Conrad; Ralf Banisch; Christof Schütte
2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of decomposing networks into modules (or clusters) has gained much attention in recent years, as it can account for a coarse-grained description of complex systems, often revealing functional subunits of these systems. A variety of module detection algorithms have been proposed, mostly oriented towards finding hard partitionings of undirected networks. Despite the increasing number of fuzzy clustering methods for directed networks, many of these approaches tend to neglect important directional information. In this paper, we present a novel random walk based approach for finding fuzzy partitions of directed, weighted networks, where edge directions play a crucial role in defining how well nodes in a module are interconnected. We will show that cycle decomposition of a random walk process connects the notion of network modules and information transport in a network, leading to a new, symmetric measure of node communication. walk process, for which we will prove that although being time-reversible it inherits all necessary information about directions and modular structure of the original network. Finally, we will use this measure to introduce a communication graph, for which we will show that although being undirected it inherits all necessary information about modular structures from the original network.
Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water
Hollabaugh, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bowman, Melvin G. (Los Alamos, NM)
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
How to produce hydrogen from water was a problem addressed by this invention. The solution employs a combined electrolytical-thermochemical sulfuric acid process. Additionally, high purity sulfuric acid can be produced in the process. Water and SO.sub.2 react in electrolyzer (12) so that hydrogen is produced at the cathode and sulfuric acid is produced at the anode. Then the sulfuric acid is reacted with a particular compound M.sub.r X.sub.s so as to form at least one water insoluble sulfate and at least one water insoluble oxide of molybdenum, tungsten, or boron. Water is removed by filtration; and the sulfate is decomposed in the presence of the oxide in sulfate decomposition zone (21), thus forming SO.sub.3 and reforming M.sub.r X.sub.s. The M.sub.r X.sub.s is recycled to sulfate formation zone (16). If desired, the SO.sub.3 can be decomposed to SO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 ; and the SO.sub.2 can be recycled to electrolyzer (12) to provide a cycle for producing hydrogen.
IN SITU INFRARED STUDY OF CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF NO
KHALID ALMUSAITEER; RAM KRISHNAMURTHY; STEVEN S.C. CHUANG
1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
The growing concerns for the environment and increasingly stringent standards for NO emission have presented a major challenge to control NO emissions from electric utility plants and automobiles. Catalytic decomposition of NO is the most attractive approach for the control of NO emission for its simplicity. Successful development of an effective catalyst for NO decomposition will greatly decrease the equipment and operation cost of NO control. Due to lack of understanding of the mechanism of NO decomposition, efforts on the search of an effective catalyst have been unsuccessful. Scientific development of an effective catalyst requires fundamental understanding of the nature of active site, the rate-limiting step, and an approach to prolong the life of the catalyst. Research is proposed to study the reactivity of adsorbates for the direct NO decomposition and to investigate the feasibility of two novel approaches for improving catalyst activity and resistance to sintering. The first approach is the use of silanation to stabilize metal crystallites and supports for Cu-ZSM-5 and promoted Pt catalysts; the second is utilization of oxygen spillover and desorption to enhance NO decomposition activity. An innovative infrared reactor system will be used to observe and determine the dynamic behavior and the reactivity of adsorbates during NO decomposition, oxygen spillover, and silanation. A series of experiments including X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, temperature programmed reaction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy will be used to characterized the catalysts. The information obtained from this study will provide a scientific basis for developing an effective catalyst for the NO decomposition under practical flue gas conditions.
Feature based volume decomposition for automatic hexahedral mesh generation
LU,YONG; GADH,RAJIT; TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.
2000-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
Much progress has been made through these years to achieve automatic hexahedral mesh generation. While general meshing algorithms that can take on general geometry are not there yet; many well-proven automatic meshing algorithms now work on certain classes of geometry. This paper presents a feature based volume decomposition approach for automatic Hexahedral Mesh generation. In this approach, feature recognition techniques are introduced to determine decomposition features from a CAD model. The features are then decomposed and mapped with appropriate automatic meshing algorithms suitable for the correspondent geometry. Thus a formerly unmeshable CAD model may become meshable. The procedure of feature decomposition is recursive: sub-models are further decomposed until either they are matched with appropriate meshing algorithms or no more decomposition features are detected. The feature recognition methods employed are convexity based and use topology and geometry information, which is generally available in BREP solid models. The operations of volume decomposition are also detailed in the paper. The final section, the capability of the feature decomposer is demonstrated over some complicated manufactured parts.
Maximum Margin Clustering for State Decomposition of Metastable Systems
Wu, Hao
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
When studying a metastable dynamical system, a prime concern is how to decompose the phase space into a set of metastable states. Unfortunately, the metastable state decomposition based on simulation or experimental data is still a challenge. The most popular and simplest approach is geometric clustering which is developed based on the classical clustering technique. However, the prerequisites of this approach are: (1) data are obtained from simulations or experiments which are in global equilibrium and (2) the coordinate system is appropriately selected. Recently, the kinetic clustering approach based on phase space discretization and transition probability estimation has drawn much attention due to its applicability to more general cases, but the choice of discretization policy is a difficult task. In this paper, a new decomposition method designated as maximum margin metastable clustering is proposed, which converts the problem of metastable state decomposition to a semi-supervised learning problem so that...
Normality of Monte Carlo criticality eigenfunction decomposition coefficients
Toth, B. E.; Martin, W. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Griesheimer, D. P. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A proof is presented, which shows that after a single Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport power method iteration without normalization, the coefficients of an eigenfunction decomposition of the fission source density are normally distributed when using analog or implicit capture MC. Using a Pearson correlation coefficient test, the proof is corroborated by results from a uniform slab reactor problem, and those results also suggest that the coefficients are normally distributed with normalization. The proof and numerical test results support the application of earlier work on the convergence of eigenfunctions under stochastic operators. Knowledge of the Gaussian shape of decomposition coefficients allows researchers to determine an appropriate level of confidence in the distribution of fission sites taken from a MC simulation. This knowledge of the shape of the probability distributions of decomposition coefficients encourages the creation of new predictive convergence diagnostics. (authors)
Decomposition mechanisms in thermally-aged thin-film explosives
Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.
1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The isothermal decomposition of nitrocellulose (NC) has been examined using two substantially different experimental techniques, involving both confined and unconfined samples. The confined isothermal aging technique involved confined thin-film samples heated to temperatures of 150 to 170{degrees}C, for 1 to 72 hours. Condensed-phase chemistry was monitored real-time using FTIR. Results indicated that the first step in decomposition was scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond and subsequent formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl products. Scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond appeared to occur by a first-order reaction. The Arrhenius expression for the first-order reaction rate constant was evaluated from the experimental data. The unconfined rapid isothermal decomposition technique involved both high speed-photography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Mass spectra obtained from experiments at 420{degrees}C indicated that NO{sub 2} formation and, therefore, scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond occurred by a first order reaction, the rate constant for which was evaluated from the experimental data. The rate constant for global pseudo-first order decomposition of NC at 450{degrees}C was also estimated from high speed photography results. Rate constants at 420 and 450{degrees}C were predicted using the Arrhenius expression developed from the confined isothermal aging results and were in good agreement with the rate constants obtained at those temperatures in the unconfined rapid decomposition experiments using TOFMS and high-speed photography. Results from these substantially different measurements gave consistent results over a temperature range of about 300{degrees}C, in which reaction rates vary by nine orders of magnitude, and indicate that the two experimental techniques being developed have good potential for studying condensed-phase decomposition of energetic materials.
Condensed-phase decomposition in thermally-aged explosives
Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.
1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
In previous work, the isothermal decomposition of nitrocellulose (NC) was examined using two substantially different experimental techniques that are being developed to investigate condensed-phase chemistry occurring during the thermal decomposition of a variety of explosives. The confined isothermal aging technique involved confined thin-film samples heated to temperatures of 150 to 170{degrees}C, for 1 to 72 hours. Condensed-phase chemistry was monitored real-time using FTIR. Results indicated that the first step in decomposition was scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond and subsequent formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl products. Scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond appeared to occur by a first-order reaction. Additional unconfined rapid isothermal decomposition experiments with NC have been completed and are described in this paper. Those additional experiments extended the previous work and investigated the effect of varying film thickness (from about 0.2 to 0.6 microns), varying temperature (from about 420 to 640{degrees}C), and using {sup 15}NO{sub 2}-labled NC. The results indicated that decomposition of NC appears to involve at least two principal mechanisms: (1) O-NO{sub 2} bond scission, which is accompanied by carbonyl or hydroxyl formation, and (2) polymer fragmentation. These two mechanisms occur simultaneously. At temperatures of 170{degrees}C, or lower, polymer fragmentation appears negligible, but at temperatures of 420{degrees}C, or higher, polymer fragmentation is appreciable and occurs at rates comparable to those for O-NO{sub 2} bond scission. While polymer fragmentation may be associated with O-NO{sub 2} bond scission, at higher temperatures, additional steps must be involved in the fragmentation mechanism. At each end of the temperatures range from about 150 to 420{degrees}C, the rate of O-NO{sub 2} bond scission appears reasonably consistent with a mechanism dominated by a first-order decomposition step.
Helmholtz-Hodge Theorems: Unification of Integration and Decomposition Perspectives
Jose G. Vargas
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a Helmholtz-like theorem for differential forms in Euclidean space $E_{n}$ using a uniqueness theorem similar to the one for vector fields. We then apply it to Riemannian manifolds, $R_{n}$, which, by virtue of the Schlaefli-Janet-Cartan theorem of embedding, are here considered as hypersurfaces in $E_{N}$ with $N\\geq n(n+1)/2$. We obtain a Hodge decomposition theorem that includes and goes beyond the original one, since it specifies the terms of the decomposition. We then view the same issue from a perspective of integrability of the system ($d\\alpha =\\mu ,$ $\\delta \\alpha =\
A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar
Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)
1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.
Iterative image-domain decomposition for dual-energy CT
Niu, Tianye; Dong, Xue; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei, E-mail: leizhu@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its capability of material decomposition. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical values of DECT. Existing denoising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. In this work, the authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. Based on the design principles of a best linear unbiased estimator, the authors include the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. The regularization term enforces the image smoothness by calculating the square sum of neighboring pixel value differences. To retain the boundary sharpness of the decomposed images, the authors detect the edges in the CT images before decomposition. These edge pixels have small weights in the calculation of the regularization term. Distinct from the existing denoising algorithms applied on the images before or after decomposition, the method has an iterative process for noise suppression, with decomposition performed in each iteration. The authors implement the proposed algorithm using a standard conjugate gradient algorithm. The method performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan©600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. The results are compared with those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a denoising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation as the proposed method but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, the method maintains the same spatial resolution on the decomposed images as that of the CT images before decomposition (8 pairs/cm) while significantly reducing their noise standard deviation. Compared to that obtained by the direct matrix inversion, the noise standard deviation in the images decomposed by the proposed algorithm is reduced by over 98%. Without considering the noise correlation properties in the formulation, the denoising scheme degrades the spatial resolution to 6 pairs/cm for the same level of noise suppression. Compared to the edge-preserving algorithm, the method achieves better low-contrast detectability. A quantitative study is performed on the contrast-rod slice of Catphan phantom. The proposed method achieves lower electron density measurement error as compared to that by the direct matrix inversion, and significantly reduces the error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, the method reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusions: The authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative process and achieves both goals simultaneously. By exploring the full variance-covariance properties of the decomposed images and utilizing the edge predetection, the proposed algorithm shows superior performance on noise suppression with high image spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
BLIND HARMONIC ADAPTIVE DECOMPOSITION APPLIED TO SUPERVISED SOURCE SEPARATION Benoit Fuentes through an algorithm called Blind Harmonic Adaptive Decomposition (BHAD). This algorithm provides [1]. However, performing this task in a completely blind way remains challenging, basically due
Matijevic, Domagoj
1 Blind decomposition of multispectral(RGB) image using sparse component analysis (SCA): clustering to the blind decomposition of low-dimensional multi-spectral (RGB) images will be presented. We give static
Schwaenen, Markus
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 C. Computational procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1. Solver settings and grid for URANS study . . . . . . . 48 2. LES study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 D. Results... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 1. Orthogonal decomposition URANS . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2. Orthogonal decomposition LES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 E. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 V OPTIMIZING TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER USING...
Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.
1 Experimental Evaluation of Performance Improvements in Abductive Network Classifiers with Problem by problem decomposition for abductive network classifiers that classify four noisy waveform patterns having decomposition method and significantly superior to an abductive network committee approach. Index Terms
EFFECT OF LiCl ON THE RATE OF CALCITE DECOMPOSITION
Knutsen, Gary F.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
formed by decomposition of Caco3 and Ca(OH) 2 in vacuum, J.high co2 pressures, also for caco3 decomposition. This workLow alkali reagent grade Caco3 t of 2 to 5 ~m average
Breaking Up is Hard to Do: An Investigation of Decomposition for Assume-Guarantee Reasoning
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
-way decompositions for a set of sys- tems and properties, using two different verifiers, FLAVERS and LTSA
Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCR systems
Boyer, Edmond
on the UWS evaporation is taken into account using a NRTL activity model. The thermal decomposition model
Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite
Boyer, Edmond
the validity of kinetic assumptions (rate-determining step, expression of the rate as d/dt = k f() ...), a good1 Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite J. Pourchez on nucleation and growth mechanisms of metaettringite remained. Therefore, a better understanding of the kinetic
Block Tensor Decomposition for Source Apportionment of Air Pollution
Hopke, Philip K; Li, Na; Navasca, Carmeliza
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The ambient particulate chemical composition data with three particle diameter sizes (2.5mmair sample data. In particular, we use the Block Term Decomposition (BTD) in rank-(L;L;1) form to identify nine pollution sources (Fe+Zn, Sulfur with Dust, Road Dust, two types of Metal Works, Road Salt, Local Sulfate, and Homogeneous and Cloud Sulfate).
Decomposition of Representations of CAR Induced by Bogoliubov Endomorphisms
Jens B{ö}ckenhauer
1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
In a Fock representation, a non-surjective Bogoliubov transformation of CAR leads to a reducible representation. For the case that the corresponding Bogoliubov operator has finite corank, the decomposition into irreducible subrepresentations is clarified. In particular, it turns out that the number of appearing subrepresentations is completely determined by the corank.
FRACTAL DIMENSION ESTIMATION: EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION VERSUS WAVELETS
GonÃ§alves, Paulo
FRACTAL DIMENSION ESTIMATION: EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION VERSUS WAVELETS Paulo GoncÂ¸alves INRIA, France. {firstname.lastname}@ens-lyon.fr ABSTRACT We address the problem of fractal dimension estimation motions. Index Terms-- fractal dimension, regularity exponents, wavelet transform, EMD 1. MOTIVATION
Optimal MU-MIMO precoder with MISO decomposition approach
Gesbert, David
Optimal MU-MIMO precoder with MISO decomposition approach Mustapha Amara, Yi Yuan-Wu Orange Labs considered the best existing precoder design algorithm for a MISO multiuser sys- tem proposed in [1 procedure transforming the MU-MIMO channel for each iteration into a MU-MISO channel trough virtual channel
Decomposition of Perfluorocompounds on Alumina-Based Catalyst
Kanno, Shuichi; Tamata, Shin; Kurokawa, Hideaki
2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
The control of the atmospheric release of PFCs (perfluorocompounds) is an important environmental problem worldwide. PFCs are powerful greenhouse gases used by the semiconductor and liquid crystal industries as etching and cleaning agents. We developed a catalyst that decomposes PFCs with only water. Al2O3 was selected from the survey of some single metal-oxide catalysts. Addition of another metal-oxide improved the decomposition ratio and durability. The Al2O3-based catalyst decomposed CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F8, NF3 and SF6 by more than 99% at 750 degrees Celsius. Furthermore, our catalyst retained a high decomposition ratio as demonstrated by a continuous run for about 4000 hours at 700-750 degrees Celsius. The influence of chlorine as an impurity with regard to the SF6 decomposition ratio on the catalyst was examined. SF6 was decomposed at more than 99% during 8 hours in the presence of 400 ppm chlorine. Chlorine concentration in the outlet gas was less than TLV. No chlorine compounds were found by X-ray diffraction analysis of the used catalyst. That is, the hydrogenation of chlorine did not inhibit the surface catalytic reaction for PFC. Also, CF4 was decomposed at the condition of 1.4% of high concentration. The conversion remained higher than 99% throughout during a durability test. Furthermore, we investigated a large-scale decomposition system in the paper.
On the Implementation of Interior Point Decomposition Algorithms for ...
2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
Oct 31, 2005 ... Industrial Engineering and Management Science Technical Report 2005-04 ... We also describe our interior decomposition algorithms using the Jordan algebra operations. .... The theoretical analysis assumes taking fixed steps along the ..... portfolio vector, and by ˜r ? Rn the random vector of asset returns ...
Cardiovascular Signal Decomposition and Estimation with the Extended Kalman Smoother
Cardiovascular Signal Decomposition and Estimation with the Extended Kalman Smoother James Mc of cardiovascular signals that can be used with the extended Kalman filter or smoother to simultaneously estimate with the extended Kalman filter and smoother to estimate and track all the model parameters of interest including
Singular value decomposition methods for wave propagation analysis
Santolik, Ondrej
Singular value decomposition methods for wave propagation analysis O. SantoliÂ´k,1 M. Parrot, and F planarity. Simulations of Z-mode waves, which simultaneously propagate with different wave vectors, indicate the waves simultaneously propagate with wave vectors in two opposite hemispheres. Finally, we show
complexity of cylindrical decompositions of sub-pfaffian sets
1910-00-40T23:59:59.000Z
tence was proved in [9] by means of a quasi-constructive process of .... All functions defining a stratum have the same Pfaffian chain as the input functions. .... The output of the algorithm is a cell decomposition (i.e. subdivision into finite.
On decomposition and piecewise linearization in petroleum production
Foss, Bjarne A.
On decomposition and piecewise linearization in petroleum production optimization Vidar Gunnerud operations of large and complex petroleum assets is not a trivial task. There are numerous decisions- port. In petroleum assets with rate dependent gas to oil, or water to oil ratios, and with limited gas
Fast Distributed Network Decompositions and Baruch Awerbuch y
Cowen, Lenore
in the distributed network model, particularly a strong form of network decomposition known as a sparse neighborhood to the modular design of e cient network algorithms Pel93, AP90b, AP90a, AR91, BFR92]. Using this method control problems (such as shortest paths AR91], job scheduling and load balancing AKP92], broadcast
Lossless Wavelet Based Image Compression with Adaptive 2D Decomposition
Lossless Wavelet Based Image Compression with Adaptive 2D Decomposition Manfred Kopp Technical.kopp@ieee.org WWW: http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/~kopp/ Abstract 2D wavelets are usually generated from 1D wavelets wavelet functions based on the compression of the coefficients, but needs only the same number of 1D
Hepp and Speer Sectors within Modern Strategies of Sector Decomposition
A. V. Smirnov; V. A. Smirnov
2008-12-26T23:59:59.000Z
Hepp and Speer sectors were successfully used in the sixties and seventies for proving mathematical theorems on analytically or/and dimensionally regularized and renormalized Feynman integrals at Euclidean external momenta. We describe them within recently developed strategies of introducing iterative sector decompositions. We show that Speer sectors are reproduced within one of the existing strategies.
An optimization approach for fitting canonical tensor decompositions.
Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Tensor decompositions are higher-order analogues of matrix decompositions and have proven to be powerful tools for data analysis. In particular, we are interested in the canonical tensor decomposition, otherwise known as the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC decomposition (CPD), which expresses a tensor as the sum of component rank-one tensors and is used in a multitude of applications such as chemometrics, signal processing, neuroscience, and web analysis. The task of computing the CPD, however, can be difficult. The typical approach is based on alternating least squares (ALS) optimization, which can be remarkably fast but is not very accurate. Previously, nonlinear least squares (NLS) methods have also been recommended; existing NLS methods are accurate but slow. In this paper, we propose the use of gradient-based optimization methods. We discuss the mathematical calculation of the derivatives and further show that they can be computed efficiently, at the same cost as one iteration of ALS. Computational experiments demonstrate that the gradient-based optimization methods are much more accurate than ALS and orders of magnitude faster than NLS.
Roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of alkanes.
Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
CASPT2 calculations predict the existence of roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of propane, n-butane, isobutane and neopentane. The roaming radical paths lead to the formation of an alkane and an alkene instead of the expected radical products. The predicted barriers for the roaming radical paths lie {approx}1 kcal/mol below the corresponding radical asymptotes.
Co-evolutionary Modular Neural Networks for Automatic Problem Decomposition
Yao, Xin
-problems will be much easier than the corresponding monolithic problem. In most cases such a decomposition relies-evolutionary methods [14, 15, 16] the sub- components/modules are evolved in separate genetically isolated sub-populations and fitness evaluations for these in- dividuals are carried out by combining representative indi- viduals from
MATROID BASE POLYTOPE DECOMPOSITION II : SEQUENCES OF HYPERPLANE SPLITS
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
(2011), 158- 172] about matroid base polytope decomposition. We will present sufficient conditions is defined as the convex hull of the incidence vectors of bases of M, that is, P(M) := conv iB ei : B a base of M , where ei is the ith standard basis vector in Rn. P(M) is a polytope of dimension at most n - 1
Quantitative and qualitative measures of decomposition: Is there a link?
Eaton, Robert, J.; Sanchez, Felipe, G.
2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Decomposition rates of loblolly pine coarse woody debris (CWD) were determined by mass loss and wood density changes for trees that differed in source of mortality (natural, girdle-poison, and felling). Specifically, three treatments were examined: (1) control (CON): natural mortality; (2) CD: 5-fold increase in CWD compared with the CON; and (3) CS: 12-fold increase in snags compared with the CON. The additional CWD in the CD treatment plots and the additional snags in the CS plots were achieved by felling (for the CD plots) or girdling followed by herbicide injection (for the CS plots) select trees in these plots. Consequently,mortality on the CD plots is due to natural causes and felling. Likewise, mortality on the CS plots is due to natural causes and girdle-poison. In each treatment plot, mortality due to natural causes was inventoried since 1997, whereas mortality due to girdle-poison and felling were inventoried since 2001. No significant difference was detected between the rates of decomposition for the CWD on these treatment plots, indicating that source of the tree mortality did not influence rates of decomposition once the tree fell. These experimental measures of decomposition were compared with two decay classification systems (three- and five-unit classifications) to determine linkages. Changes in wood density did not correlate to any decay classification, whereas mass loss had a weak correlation with decay class. However, the large degree of variation limits the utility of decay classification systems in estimating mass loss.
FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSITION OF A CLASS OF WILD POLYNOMIALS
Coulter, Robert
FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSITION OF A CLASS OF WILD POLYNOMIALS ROBERT S. COULTER, GEORGE HAVAS AND MARIE for the functional de- composition of wild polynomials over a finite field. However partial solutions exist factoring methods in skew-polynomial rings. This algorithm is extended to a related class of wild
AN AGGREGATIONBASED DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION PRECONDITIONER FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW \\Lambda
the standard finite element framework from [18,24]. The preconditioner also works well in the context of finiteAN AGGREGATIONÂBASED DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION PRECONDITIONER FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW \\Lambda E. W. JENKINS analysis of a twoÂlevel additive Schwarz method in which the coarse mesh basis is constructed
AN AGGREGATION-BASED DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION PRECONDITIONER FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW
. Our analysis uses the standard finite element framework from [18,24]. The preconditioner also works well in the context of finite differences, however, as some of the examples in Â£ 3 illustrateAN AGGREGATION-BASED DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION PRECONDITIONER FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW E. W. JENKINS Â¡, C
Effects of Nitrate on Decomposition in Salt Marsh Peats Arianna Goodman
Vallino, Joseph J.
Effects of Nitrate on Decomposition in Salt Marsh Peats Arianna Goodman Oberlin College `13 Advisor and loss. Rapid nitrate addition to salt marshes may stimulate bacterial decomposition of existing peat, and the decomposition may contribute to creek bank destabilization and collapse. Alternately, peat deposited in high
Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis
Maruyama, Shigeo
1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol
Spatial, temporal, and hybrid decompositions for large-scale vehicle routing with time windows
Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper studies the use of decomposition techniques to quickly find high-quality solutions to large-scale vehicle routing problems with time windows. It considers an adaptive decomposition scheme which iteratively decouples a routing problem based on the current solution. Earlier work considered vehicle-based decompositions that partitions the vehicles across the subproblems. The subproblems can then be optimized independently and merged easily. This paper argues that vehicle-based decompositions, although very effective on various problem classes also have limitations. In particular, they do not accommodate temporal decompositions and may produce spatial decompositions that are not focused enough. This paper then proposes customer-based decompositions which generalize vehicle-based decouplings and allows for focused spatial and temporal decompositions. Experimental results on class R2 of the extended Solomon benchmarks demonstrates the benefits of the customer-based adaptive decomposition scheme and its spatial, temporal, and hybrid instantiations. In particular, they show that customer-based decompositions bring significant benefits over large neighborhood search in contrast to vehicle-based decompositions.
DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL CATALYST FOR NO DECOMPOSITION
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu
2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NOx emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the proposed research is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is proposed to perform temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions. It is also proposed to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting period some TPRx runs with the catalysts containing 15% and 10% Pt were repeated due to the uncertainty of the oxygen content of the feed. In this reporting period runs were made with feed gas mixtures containing water vapor. Two reaction regimes, one below and the other above 750 K were observed. Presence of water vapor slightly enhanced the catalyst activity, but decreased the selectivity towards N{sub 2} at low temperatures.
A TFETI Domain Decomposition Solver for Elastoplastic Problems
?ermák, M; Sysala, S; Valdman, J
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the paper, we propose an algorithm for the efficient parallel implementation of elastoplastic problems with hardening based on the so-called TFETI (Total Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting) domain decomposition method. We consider an associated elastoplastic model with the von Mises plastic criterion and the linear isotropic hardening law. Such a model is discretized by the implicit Euler method in time and the consequent one time step elastoplastic problem by the finite element method in space. The latter results in a system of nonlinear equations with a strongly semismooth and strongly monotone operator. The semismooth Newton method is applied to solve this nonlinear system. Corresponding linearized problems arising in the Newton iterations are solved in parallel by the above mentioned TFETI domain decomposition method. The proposed TFETI based algorithm was implemented in Matlab parallel environment and its performance was illustrated on a 3D elastoplastic benchmark. Numerical results for differ...
Photogeneration of an active formate-decomposition catalyst
King, A.D. Jr.; King, R.B.; Sailers, E.L. III
1981-04-08T23:59:59.000Z
Some preliminary observations on the decomposition of an active formate species in the reaction of the group 6 metal carbonyl catalyzed water gas shift process were made using a photolytically-generated W(CO)/sub 5/ intermediate. H/sub 2/ production from the aqueous solutions containing Na format and W(CO)/sub 6/ was much more rapid for illuminated solutions than for non-illuminated. However, no measurable hydrogen was produced from either illuminated or non-illuminated solutions when Na formate was replaced by KOH. Essentially the same results were noted for the photolytically-catalyzed production of H/sub 2/ when solutions of tetrahydrofuran were used. It is thus concluded that the H/sub 2/ and CO must result from decomposition of the formate ion in the reaction mixture and that the W(CO)/sub 6/ is a precursor of the catalytically active W(CO)/sub 5/. (BLM)
Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition
Allebach, J.P.; Ochoa, E.; Sweeney, D.W.
1987-10-09T23:59:59.000Z
A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed. 3 figs.
Computational studies of polysiloxanes : oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions.
Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Zhang, Z.; Amine, K. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( CSE); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)
2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
Silicon-containing solvents have tremendous potential for application as electrolytes for electrical energy storage devices such as lithium-ion (air) batteries and supercapacitors. Quantum chemical methods were employed to investigate trends in oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions of a series of polysiloxanes. Various electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents can be used to tune the oxidation potential in shorter chain siloxanes but not in longer ones. Decomposition reactions of siloxanes in their oxidized states were investigated and compared against their carbon analogues. These studies suggest that the Si-O group provides added stability for siloxanes over their carbon analogues. Computational studies have also been performed for various disiloxanes and siloxanes with spacer groups to understand their thermochemical stability and oxidation potentials.
Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition
Allebach, Jan P. (West Lafayette, IN); Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed.
Multipole decomposition of potentials in relativistic heavy ion collisions
A. Isar
2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z
In relativistic heavy ion collisions an exact multipole decomposition of the Lorentz transformed time dependent Coulomb potentials in a coordinate system with equal constant, but opposite velocities of the ions, is obtained for both zero and different from zero impact parameter. The case of large values of $\\gamma$ and the gauge transformation of the interaction removing both the $\\gamma$ dependence and the $\\ln b$ dependence are also considered.
Thermal decomposition of silane to form hydrogenated amorphous Si film
Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Ghosh, Arup K. (Rocky Point, NY); Wiesmann, Harold J. (Wantagh, NY); Rock, Edward B. (Oxford, GB); Lutz, III, Harry A. (Midlothian, VA)
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This invention relates to hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by thermally decomposing silano (SiH.sub.4) or other gases comprising H and Si, at elevated temperatures of about 1700.degree.-2300.degree. C., and preferably in a vacuum of about 10.sup.-8 to 10.sup.-4 torr, to form a gaseous mixture of atomic hydrogen and atomic silicon, and depositing said gaseous mixture onto a substrate outside said source of thermal decomposition to form hydrogenated amorphous silicon.
Experimental evidence for spinodal decomposition in multifragmentation of heavy systems
Tabacaru, G; Bacri, C O; Bellaize, N; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Bouriquet, B; Brou, R; Buchet, P; Charvet, J L; Chbihi, A; Chomaz, P; Colin, J; Colonna, M; Cussol, D; Dayras, R; Demeyer, A N; Doré, D; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Gerlic, E; Guarnera, A; Guinet, D; Guiot, B; Hudan, S; Lautesse, P; Lavaud, F; Laville, J; Le Neindre, N; Lecolley, J F; Leduc, C; Legrain, R; Louvel, M; Lukasik, J; López, O; Maskay, A M; Nalpas, L; Normand, J; Pawlowski, P; Plagnol, E; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Saint-Laurent, F; Salou, S; Steckmeyer, J C; Tamain, B; Tassan-Got, L; Vient, E; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Multifragmentation of fused systems was observed for central collisions between 32 AMeV 129Xe and Sn, and 36 AMeV 155Gd and U. Previous extensive comparisons between the two systems led to the hypothesis of spinodal decomposition of finite systems as the origin of multifragmentation for incident energies around 30 AMeV. New results on velocity and charge correlations of fragments bring strong arguments in favor of this interpretation
Volume Decomposition and Feature Recognition for Hexahedral Mesh Generation
GADH,RAJIT; LU,YONG; TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.
1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z
Considerable progress has been made on automatic hexahedral mesh generation in recent years. Several automatic meshing algorithms have proven to be very reliable on certain classes of geometry. While it is always worth pursuing general algorithms viable on more general geometry, a combination of the well-established algorithms is ready to take on classes of complicated geometry. By partitioning the entire geometry into meshable pieces matched with appropriate meshing algorithm the original geometry becomes meshable and may achieve better mesh quality. Each meshable portion is recognized as a meshing feature. This paper, which is a part of the feature based meshing methodology, presents the work on shape recognition and volume decomposition to automatically decompose a CAD model into meshable volumes. There are four phases in this approach: (1) Feature Determination to extinct decomposition features, (2) Cutting Surfaces Generation to form the ''tailored'' cutting surfaces, (3) Body Decomposition to get the imprinted volumes; and (4) Meshing Algorithm Assignment to match volumes decomposed with appropriate meshing algorithms. The feature determination procedure is based on the CLoop feature recognition algorithm that is extended to be more general. Results are demonstrated over several parts with complicated topology and geometry.
Spectral decomposition of broad-line agns and host galaxies
Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Yip, Ching-Wa; /Pittsburgh U.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Connolly,; /Pittsburgh U.; Burton, Ross E.; /Pittsburgh U. /Case Western Reserve U.; Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Szalay, Alex S.; /Johns Hopkins; Brinkmann, John; /Apache Point Observ.
2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasingly bluer than early-type galaxies with increasing host luminosity. Most of the AGNs with detected hosts are emitting at between 1% and 10% of their estimated Eddington luminosities, but the sensitivity of the technique usually does not extend to the Eddington limit. There are mild correlations among the AGN and host galaxy eigencoefficients, possibly indicating a link between recent star formation and the onset of AGN activity. The catalog of spectral reconstruction parameters is available as an electronic table.
The exocenter and type decomposition of a generalized pseudoeffect algebra
David J. Foulis; Sylvia Pulmannova; Elena Vincekova
2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z
We extend to a generalized pseudoeffect algebra (GPEA) the notion of the exocenter of a generalized effect algebra (GEA) and show that elements of the exocenter are in one-to-one correspondence with direct decompositions of the GPEA; thus the exocenter is a generalization of the center of a pseudoeffect algebra (PEA). The exocenter forms a boolean algebra and the central elements of the GPEA correspond to elements of a sublattice of the exocenter which forms a generalized boolean algebra. We extend to GPEAs the notion of central orthocompleteness, prove that the exocenter of a centrally orthocomplete GPEA (COGPEA) is a complete boolean algebra and show that the sublattice corresponding to the center is a complete boolean subalgebra. We also show that in a COGPEA, every element admits an exocentral cover and that the family of all exocentral covers, the so-called exocentral cover system, has the properties of a hull system on a generalized effect algebra. We extend the notion of type determining (TD) sets, originally introduced for effect algebras and then extended to GEAs and PEAs, to GPEAs, and prove a type-decomposition theorem, analogous to the type decomposition of von Neumann algebras.
Evaluation of microporous carbon filters as catalysts for ozone decomposition
Whinnery, L.; Coutts, D.; Shen, C.; Adams, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Quintana, C.; Showalter, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Ozone is produced in small quantities in photocopiers and laser printers in the workplace and large quantities in industrial waste water treatment facilities. Carbon filters are commonly used to decompose this unwanted ozone. The three most important factors in producing a filter for this purpose are flow properties, efficiency, and cost. Most ozone decomposition applications require very low back-pressure at modest flow rates. The tradeoff between the number of pores and the size of the pores will be discussed. Typical unfiltered emissions in the workplace are approximately 1 ppm. The maximum permissible exposure limit, PEL, for worker exposure to ozone is 0.1 ppm over 8 hours. Several methods have been examined to increase the efficiency of ozone decomposition. Carbon surfaces were modified with catalysts, the surface activated, and the surface area was increased, in attempts to decompose ozone more effectively. Methods to reduce both the processing and raw material costs were investigated. Several sources of microporous carbon were investigated as ozone decomposition catalysts. Cheaper processing routes including macropore templating, faster drying and extracting methods were also studied.
Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale Akyurtlu
2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions were done. It is also planned to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. Temperature programmed desorption and temperature controlled reaction runs were made with catalysts containing 15% Pt and 10% Pt on SnO{sub 2}. Catalysts containing 10% Pt resulted in significantly lower activities than 15% PT catalysts. Therefore, in the remainder of the tests 15% Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts were used. Isothermal reaction studies were made to elucidate the effects of temperature, oxygen, water vapor, pretreatment temperature, and space velocity on NO dissociation. It was found that the presence of oxygen and water vapor did not affect the activation energy of the NO dissociation reaction indicating the presence of the same rate controlling step for all feed compositions. Activation energy was higher for higher gas velocities suggesting the presence of mass transfer limitations at lower velocities. Presence of oxygen in the feed inhibited the NO decomposition. Having water vapor in the feed did not significantly affect the catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 373 K, but significantly reduced catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 900 K. Long-term deactivation studies indicated that the catalyst deactivated slowly both with and without the presence of added oxygen in the feed, Deactivation started later in the presence of oxygen. The activities of the catalysts investigated were too low below 1000 K for commercial applications. Their selectivity towards N{sub 2} was good at temperatures above 700 K. A different method for catalyst preparation is needed to improve the catalyst performance.
Decomposition of cumyl hydroperoxide in the presence of sulphonated silica in a flow-type system
Shelpakova, N.A.; Ioffa, A.F.
1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
An investigation has been made of the decomposition of cumyl hydroperoxide (CHP) in the presence of silica-based sulphocationites in a flow-type system. It was established that the given specimens are effective catalysts for the decomposition of CHP into phenol and acetone. It was shown that, in the course of the process, no irreversible poisoning of the surface of the catalyst by the products of CHP decomposition occurs. Data of chromatographic analysis of the products of CHP decomposition in the presence of sulphuric acid and silica-based sulphocationites are given.
The Static Quark Potential from the Gauge Independent Abelian Decomposition
Nigel Cundy; Y. M. Cho; Weonjong Lee
2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the relationship between colour confinement and the gauge independent Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian decomposition. The decomposition is defined in terms of a colour field $n$; the principle novelty of our study is that we have defined this field in terms of the eigenvectors of the Wilson Loop. This establishes an equivalence between the path ordered integral of the non-Abelian gauge fields with an integral over an Abelian restricted gauge field which is tractable both theoretically and numerically in lattice QCD. We circumvent path ordering without needing an additional path integral. By using Stokes' theorem, we can compute the Wilson Loop in terms of a surface integral over a restricted field strength, and show that the restricted field strength may be dominated by certain structures, which occur when one of the quantities parametrising the colour field $n$ winds itself around a non-analyticity in the colour field. If they exist, these structures will lead to a area law scaling for the Wilson Loop and provide a mechanism for quark confinement. We search for these structures in quenched lattice QCD. We perform the Abelian decomposition, and compare the electric and magnetic fields with the patterns expected theoretically. We find that the restricted field strength is dominated by objects which may be peaks a single lattice spacing in size or extended string-like lines of electromagnetic flux. The objects are not isolated monopoles, as they generate electric fields in addition to magnetic fields, and the fields are not spherically symmetric, but may be either caused by a monopole/anti-monopole condensate, some other types of topological objects or a combination of these. Removing these peaks removes the area law scaling of the string tension, suggesting that they are responsible for confinement.
Programming Enhancements for Low Temperature Thermal Decomposition Workstation
Igou, R.E.
1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes a new control-and-measurement system design for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's Low Temperature Thermal Decomposition (LTTD) process. The new design addresses problems with system reliability stemming from equipment obsolescence and addresses specific functional improvements that plant production personnel have identified, as required. The new design will also support new measurement techniques, which the Y-12 Development Division has identified for future operations. The new techniques will function in concert with the original technique so that process data consistency is maintained.
Gallego Arrubla, Julian Andres
2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 3.1 System of inequalities U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.2 Systems of inequalities B and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.3 Compass search tree of system B..., and T (~!) T is deterministic. B. T (~!) and r(~!) are random. C. X Rn1 . I. X Zn2 . N. X Bn2 . M. X Rn1 Zn2 or X Rn1 Bn2 . Most of the approaches found in the literature attempt to solve SIP-C1 for the 1RC case. This work develops an IIS decomposition method...
Signal evaluations using singular value decomposition for Thomson scattering diagnostics
Tojo, H., E-mail: tojo.hiroshi@jaea.go.jp; Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Itami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Funaba, H.; Hayashi, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)
2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper provides a novel method for evaluating signal intensities in incoherent Thomson scattering diagnostics. A double-pass Thomson scattering system, where a laser passes through the plasma twice, generates two scattering pulses from the plasma. Evaluations of the signal intensities in the spectrometer are sometimes difficult due to noise and stray light. We apply the singular value decomposition method to Thomson scattering data with strong noise components. Results show that the average accuracy of the measured electron temperature (T{sub e}) is superior to that of temperature obtained using a low-pass filter (<20 MHz) or without any filters.
DECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUM SULFATE: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
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Energy decomposition within Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes
Jonas P. Pereira; Jorge A. Rueda
2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the consequences of the recently found generalization of the Christodoulou-Ruffini black hole mass decomposition for Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes [characterized by the parameters $(Q,M,b)$, where $M = M(M_{irr},Q,b)$, $b$ scale field, $Q$ charge, $M_{irr}$ "irreducible mass", physically meaning the energy of a black hole when its charge is null] and their interactions. We show in this context that their description is largely simplified and can basically be split into two families depending upon the parameter $b|Q|$. If $b|Q|\\leq 1/2$, then black holes could have even zero irreducible masses and they always exhibit single, non degenerated, horizons. If $b|Q|>1/2$, then an associated black hole must have a minimum irreducible mass (related to its minimum energy) and has two horizons up to a transitional irreducible mass. For larger irreducible masses, single horizon structures raise again. By assuming that black holes emit thermal uncharged scalar particles, we further show in light of the black hole mass decomposition that one satisfying $b|Q|>1/2$ takes an infinite amount of time to reach the zero temperature, settling down exactly at its minimum energy. Finally, we argue that depending on the fundamental parameter $b$, the radiation (electromagnetic and gravitational) coming from Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes could differ significantly from Einstein-Maxwell ones. Hence, it could be used to assess such a parameter.
The Static Quark Potential from the Gauge Independent Abelian Decomposition
Cundy, Nigel; Lee, Weonjong
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the relationship between colour confinement and the gauge independent Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian decomposition. The decomposition is defined in terms of a colour field $n$; the principle novelty of our study is that we have defined this field in terms of the eigenvectors of the Wilson Loop. This establishes an equivalence between the path ordered integral of the non-Abelian gauge fields with an integral over an Abelian restricted gauge field which is tractable both theoretically and numerically in lattice QCD. We circumvent path ordering without needing an additional path integral. By using Stokes' theorem, we can compute the Wilson Loop in terms of a surface integral over a restricted field strength, and show that the restricted field strength may be dominated by certain structures, which occur when one of the quantities parametrising the colour field $n$ winds itself around a non-analyticity in the colour field. If they exist, these structures will lead to a area law scaling for the Wilson Loop and ...
de la Rue du Can, Stephane
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building SectorsEnergy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building SectorsEnergy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors.
c Copyright by David Daly, 2001 ANALYSIS OF CONNECTION AS A DECOMPOSITION TECHNIQUE
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of
c Copyright by David Daly, 2001 #12;ANALYSIS OF CONNECTION AS A DECOMPOSITION TECHNIQUE BY DAVID of the decomposition techniques introducing an error of less than 11%. iii #12;To my father, who will never see William H. Sanders, for technical advice and support on the M¨obius project. Jenny Applequist
Reduction of Model Order Based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Lithium-Ion Battery decomposition POD for a physics-based lithium-ion battery model. The methodology to obtain the proper orthogonal modes and to analyze their optimality is included. The POD-based ROM for a lithium-ion battery is used
Distribution Free Decomposition of Multivariate Data \\Lambda SPR'98 Invited submission
neighbor method, kernel estimation, [8, 16, 18, 19]. For higher dimensional feature spaces, multivariateDistribution Free Decomposition of Multivariate Data \\Lambda SPR'98 Invited submission Dorin; Distribution Free Decomposition of Multivariate Data Abstract We present a practical approach to nonparametric
Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition Sylvain: refinery planning and crude-oil operations scheduling. The proposed approach consists of using Lagrangian-study and a larger refinery problem show that the Lagrangian decomposition algorithm is more robust than the other
Causation-Based T2 Decomposition for Multivariate Process Monitoring and Diagnosis
Jin, Jionghua "Judy"
. Multivariate SPC using Hotelling 2 T statistic is widely adopted for change detection. However, 2 T control chart alone is not capable of identifying the root causes of the change. Thus, decomposition of 2 network, causal model, SPC, 2 T decomposition Biography Ms. Li is a research student in the Department
Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide
Sadoway, Donald Robert
on the moon and on Mars for the generation of oxygen along with the production of structural metalsProduction of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful
Litvak, Marcy
Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest: Temperature dependence and sources of respired boreal peat under black spruce forest with sphagnum and feather moss understory using incubation increments. At temperatures below 0°C, significant decomposition was observed in feather moss peat
Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps
Vallino, Joseph J.
Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps examined the effects of nutrient increases on peat decomposition. I analyzed peat and porewater nutrients of surface water nutrients. The initial C:N and C:P ratios of the peat were higher than the molar ratios
Thermal decomposition of norbornane (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) dissolved in benzene.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Thermal decomposition of norbornane (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) dissolved in benzene. Experimental (dissolved in benzene) has been studied in a jet stirred reactor at temperatures between 873 and 973 K decomposition of the norbornane benzene binary mixture has been performed. Reactions involved in the mechanism
On the use of proper orthogonal decomposition to describe inflow turbulence and wind turbine loads
Manuel, Lance
On the use of proper orthogonal decomposition to describe inflow turbulence and wind turbine loads, USA Keywords: Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, inflow turbulence, wind turbine ABSTRACT: We discuss experienced by a wind turbine. A methodology is proposed that employs low- dimensional POD models
Operator-Schmidt decomposition and the geometrical edges of two-qubit gates
S. Balakrishnan; R. Sankaranarayanan
2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
Nonlocal two-qubit quantum gates are represented by canonical decomposition or equivalently by operator-Schmidt decomposition. The former decomposition results in geometrical representation such that all the two-qubit gates form tetrahedron within which perfect entanglers form a polyhedron. On the other hand, it is known from the later decomposition that Schmidt number of nonlocal gates can be either 2 or 4. In this work, some aspects of later decomposition are investigated. It is shown that two gates differing by local operations possess same set of Schmidt coefficients. Employing geometrical method, it is established that Schmidt number 2 corresponds to controlled unitary gates. Further, all the edges of tetrahedron and polyhedron are characterized using Schmidt strength, a measure of operator entanglement. It is found that one edge of the tetrahedron possesses the maximum Schmidt strength, implying that all the gates in the edge are maximally entangled.
Operator-Schmidt decomposition and the geometrical edges of two-qubit gates
Balakrishnan, S
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nonlocal two-qubit quantum gates are represented by canonical decomposition or equivalently by operator-Schmidt decomposition. The former decomposition results in geometrical representation such that all the two-qubit gates form tetrahedron within which perfect entanglers form a polyhedron. On the other hand, it is known from the later decomposition that Schmidt number of nonlocal gates can be either 2 or 4. In this work, some aspects of later decomposition are investigated. It is shown that two gates differing by local operations possess same set of Schmidt coefficients. Employing geometrical method, it is established that Schmidt number 2 corresponds to controlled unitary gates. Further, all the edges of tetrahedron and polyhedron are characterized using Schmidt strength, a measure of operator entanglement. It is found that one edge of the tetrahedron possesses the maximum Schmidt strength, implying that all the gates in the edge are maximally entangled.
Maruyama, Shigeo
Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol
Stochastic domain decomposition for time dependent adaptive mesh generation
Bihlo, Alexander; Walsh, Emily J
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The efficient generation of meshes is an important component in the numerical solution of problems in physics and engineering. Of interest are situations where global mesh quality and a tight coupling to the solution of the physical partial differential equation (PDE) is important. We consider parabolic PDE mesh generation and present a method for the construction of adaptive meshes in two spatial dimensions using stochastic domain decomposition that is suitable for an implementation in a multi- or many-core environment. Methods for mesh generation on periodic domains are also provided. The mesh generator is coupled to a time dependent physical PDE and the system is evolved using an alternating solution procedure. The method uses the stochastic representation of the exact solution of a parabolic linear mesh generator to find the location of an adaptive mesh along the (artificial) subdomain interfaces. The deterministic evaluation of the mesh over each subdomain can then be obtained completely independently us...
Non-equilibrium Theory of Arrested Spinodal Decomposition
José Manuel Olais-Govea; Leticia López-Flores; Magdaleno Medina-Noyola
2015-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
The Non-equilibrium Self-consistent Generalized Langevin Equation theory of irreversible relax- ation [Phys. Rev. E (2010) 82, 061503; ibid. 061504] is applied to the description of the non- equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermo- dynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, intersects the spinodal curve at lower temperatures and densities, and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of the localization length. In the shallow-quench domain the localization length diverges as a power law as the tempera- ture T approaches the spinodal temperature Ts, whereas in the deep-quench domain, immediately above the glass-glass line, the localization length increases exponentially with T. We conjecture that the upper domain might correspond to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions, whereas the deep-quench domain might correspond to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition.
Singular value decomposition utilizing parallel algorithms on graphical processors
Kotas, Charlotte W [ORNL; Barhen, Jacob [ORNL
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
One of the current challenges in underwater acoustic array signal processing is the detection of quiet targets in the presence of noise. In order to enable robust detection, one of the key processing steps requires data and replica whitening. This, in turn, involves the eigen-decomposition of the sample spectral matrix, Cx = 1/K xKX(k)XH(k) where X(k) denotes a single frequency snapshot with an element for each element of the array. By employing the singular value decomposition (SVD) method, the eigenvectors and eigenvalues can be determined directly from the data without computing the sample covariance matrix, reducing the computational requirements for a given level of accuracy (van Trees, Optimum Array Processing). (Recall that the SVD of a complex matrix A involves determining V, , and U such that A = U VH where U and V are orthonormal and is a positive, real, diagonal matrix containing the singular values of A. U and V are the eigenvectors of AAH and AHA, respectively, while the singular values are the square roots of the eigenvalues of AAH.) Because it is desirable to be able to compute these quantities in real time, an efficient technique for computing the SVD is vital. In addition, emerging multicore processors like graphical processing units (GPUs) are bringing parallel processing capabilities to an ever increasing number of users. Since the computational tasks involved in array signal processing are well suited for parallelization, it is expected that these computations will be implemented using GPUs as soon as users have the necessary computational tools available to them. Thus, it is important to have an SVD algorithm that is suitable for these processors. This work explores the effectiveness of two different parallel SVD implementations on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU (14 multiprocessors, 32 cores per multiprocessor, 1.15 GHz clock - peed). The first algorithm is based on a two-step algorithm which bidiagonalizes the matrix using Householder transformations, and then diagonalizes the intermediate bidiagonal matrix through implicit QR shifts. This is similar to that implemented for real matrices by Lahabar and Narayanan ("Singular Value Decomposition on GPU using CUDA", IEEE International Parallel Distributed Processing Symposium 2009). The implementation is done in a hybrid manner, with the bidiagonalization stage done using the GPU while the diagonalization stage is done using the CPU, with the GPU used to update the U and V matrices. The second algorithm is based on a one-sided Jacobi scheme utilizing a sequence of pair-wise column orthogonalizations such that A is replaced by AV until the resulting matrix is sufficiently orthogonal (that is, equal to U ). V is obtained from the sequence of orthogonalizations, while can be found from the square root of the diagonal elements of AH A and, once is known, U can be found from column scaling the resulting matrix. These implementations utilize CUDA Fortran and NVIDIA's CUB LAS library. The primary goal of this study is to quantify the comparative performance of these two techniques against themselves and other standard implementations (for example, MATLAB). Considering that there is significant overhead associated with transferring data to the GPU and with synchronization between the GPU and the host CPU, it is also important to understand when it is worthwhile to use the GPU in terms of the matrix size and number of concurrent SVDs to be calculated.
Kammen, Daniel M.
1 Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques those which have been slow to reform systems of administered prices. Such allocation mechanisms now undermine reform and structural adjustments efforts in this important emerging Asian economy. Key words
Armagan, Emre
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, a Benders decomposition algorithm is designed and implemented to solve both deterministic and stochastic pooling problems to global optimality. Convergence of the algorithm to a global optimum is proved and ...
Multi-layered Decomposition of Recurrent David Russell and Shaogang Gong
Gong, Shaogang
Multi-layered Decomposition of Recurrent Scenes David Russell and Shaogang Gong Department' to the temporal domain such that the presence #12;2 D. Russell and S. Gong of an object is treated explicitly
Applied Soil Ecology 21 (2002) 7188 Soil invertebrate and microbial communities, and decomposition
Neher, Deborah A.
, electrical and telephone poles, coke production, petroleum refining and other high-temperature industrial and mites explained decomposition of 100% cellulose and mixed cellulose/lignin substrates better than
Jrl Syst Sci & Complexity (2007) 20: 198214 STRUCTURAL DECOMPOSITION AND ITS
Benmei, Chen
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and disturbance decoupling (see, e.g., Chen[16] and Saberi et al.[17] ). The structural properties Minghua HE and Saberi[19] for non-singular systems. However, it will be seen shortly that the structural decomposition
Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide
Wang, Dihua
Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful deployment of MOE hinges upon the existence of an inert anode capable of ...
Multiarray Signal Processing: Tensor decomposition meets compressed sensing Lek-Heng Lima
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Multiarray Signal Processing: Tensor decomposition meets compressed sensing Lek-Heng Lima , Pierre ; Available online July 29, 2010. Presented by O. Macchi. Email addresses: lekheng@math.berkeley.edu (Lek-Heng
Image Cartoon-Texture Decomposition and Feature Selection Using the Total Variation Regularized L1
Yin, Wotao
Functional Wotao Yin1 , Donald Goldfarb1 , and Stanley Osher2 1 Department of Industrial Engineering-based cartoon-texture decomposition models, Meyer [15] and Haddad & Meyer [12] proposed to use the G-norm, Vese
Decomposition of Images by the Anisotropic Rudin-Osher-Fatemi Model
Soatto, Stefano
Decomposition of Images by the Anisotropic Rudin-Osher-Fatemi Model Stanley J. Osher and Selim. Meyer shows in [3] for minimizers of (1). From an applied point of view, our main results
Image Cartoon-Texture Decomposition and Feature Selection using the Total Variation Regularized L1
Soatto, Stefano
Functional Wotao Yin1 , Donald Goldfarb1 , and Stanley Osher2 1 Department of Industrial Engineering-based cartoon-texture decomposition models, Meyer [13] and Haddad & Meyer [10] proposed to use the G-norm, Vese
the decomposition of GeH4.[11] The fragmentation of 1 via
Gleason, Karen K.
the decisive step.[12] The difference between the decomposition mechanisms of organosilanes and organogermanes in a stainless steel reactor (Fig. 4), evac- uated by a drag pump. The substrate is mounted on a resistive heater
Adsorption and thermal decomposition of H2S on Si(100) Ying-Huang Lai a
Wu, Shin-Tson
Adsorption and thermal decomposition of H2S on Si(100) Ying-Huang Lai a , Chuin-Tih Yeh a , Yi Adsorption and thermal decomposition of H2S on Si(1 0 0)-2 Â 1 are studied by means of temperature- sociates to form H and HS on the Si surface at adsorption temperature of 115 K. The Si(1 0 0)-2 Â 1 surface
Kinetics of thermal decomposition of molybdenum carbonyl on a tungsten surface
Baev, A.K.; Podoprigora, V.I. [S.M. Kirov Belorussian Technological Inst., Minsk (Russian Federation)
1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
Thermal decomposition of Mo(CO){sub 6} on the surface of pyrolytic tungsten is performed under quasi-stationary conditions. The analysis of kinetics shows the reaction to occur in a kinetic region. The activation energy of Mo(CO){sub 6} decomposition on tungsten substrate calculated according to the Arrhenius equation is 63.7 {plus_minus} 3.0 kJ/mole. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Welsh, Lisa Williamson
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
of the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems depends on nutrients recycled through the decomposition of plant detritus (Swift et al. 1979, Vargo et al. 1998). Thus, a better understanding of organic decomposition in wetland sediments... was then transported to the site in an anaerobic chamber constructed of PVC and maintained 12 under deoxygenated conditions until insertion into the slough sediments. The peeper was positioned in the slough for 2 weeks to allow equilibration and diffusion...
The kinetics of microbial decomposition in a fecal pellet-seawater system
Kaplan, Warren Allan
1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
THE KINETICS OF MICROBIAL DECOMPOSITION IN A FECAL PELLET ? SEAWATER SYSTEM A Thesis WARREN ALLAN KAPLAE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&K University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1970 Major Subject: Biological Oceanography THE KINETICS OF MICROBIAL DECOMPOSITION IN A FECAL PELLET ? SEAWATER SYSTEM A Thesis by WARREN ALLAN KAPLAN Approved as to sty1e and content by: airman of Committee Head of D a ment Member...
Asymmetric modes decomposition in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator
Zhang, Dian; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@nudt.edu.cn; Zhong, Huihuang; Jin, Zhenxing; Ju, Jinchuan [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Most of the investigated overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs) are azimuthally symmetric; thus, they are designed through two dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. However, 2-D PIC simulations cannot reveal the effect of asymmetric modes on beam-wave interaction. In order to investigate whether asymmetric mode competition needs to be considered in the design of overmoded RBWOs, a numerical method of determining the composition of both symmetric and asymmetric modes in three dimensional (3-D) PIC simulations is introduced in this paper. The 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of an X-band overmoded RBWO are analyzed. Our analysis indicates that the 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of our device are quite different due to asymmetric mode competition. In fact, asymmetric surface waves, especially EH{sub 11} mode, can lead to serious mode competition when electron beam propagates near the surface of slow wave structures (SWSs). Therefore, additional method of suppressing asymmetric mode competition, such as adjusting the reflections at both ends of SWSs to decrease the Q-factor of asymmetric modes, needs to be utilized in the design of overmoded RBWOs. Besides, 3-D PIC simulation and modes decomposition are essential for designing overmoded RBWOs.
Systematic decomposition of the neutrinoless double beta decay operator
Florian Bonnet; Martin Hirsch; Toshihiko Ota; Walter Winter
2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the systematic decomposition of the dimension nine neutrinoless double beta decay operator, focusing on mechanisms with potentially small contributions to neutrino mass, while being accessible at the LHC. We first provide a (d=9 tree-level) complete list of diagrams for neutrinoless double beta decay. From this list one can easily recover all previously discussed contributions to the neutrinoless double beta decay process, such as the celebrated mass mechanism or "exotics", such as contributions from left-right symmetric models, R-parity violating supersymmetry and leptoquarks. More interestingly, however, we identify a number of new possibilities which have not been discussed in the literature previously. Contact to earlier works based on a general Lorentz-invariant parametrisation of the neutrinoless double beta decay rate is made, which allows, in principle, to derive limits on all possible contributions. We furthermore discuss possible signals at the LHC for mediators leading to the short-range part of the amplitude with one specific example. The study of such contributions would gain particular importance if there were a tension between different measurements of neutrino mass such as coming from neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology or single beta decay.
Dirk Pauly
2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
We study in detail Hodge-Helmholtz decompositions in non-smooth exterior domains filled with inhomogeneous and anisotropic media. We show decompositions of alternating differential forms belonging to weighted Sobolev spaces into irrotational and solenoidal forms. These decompositions are essential tools, for example, in electro-magnetic theory for exterior domains. In the appendix we translate our results to the classical framework of vector analysis.
Department of Mathematics MAL 522 (Statistical Inference)
Dharmaraja, S.
with unknown mean . The reliability of equipment for time t is defined as the probability of failure free. 1100, 1085, 1585, 1602, 1540, 1250 Find ML estimate for reliability of the equipment for 1000 hours. 6 MLE of (µ1, µ2, 2 ). 5. The time to failure of an equipment follows exponential distribution
Department of Mathematics MAL 522 (Statistical Inference)
Dharmaraja, S.
. The time to failure of an equipment follows exponential distribution with unknown mean . The reliability, 1250 Find ML estimate for reliability of the equipment for 1000 hours. 6. Suppose that the random of equipment for time t is defined as the probability of failure free operation up to time t. The following
Chan, Tony F.
Domain decomposition survey 143 Methods for Partial Differential Equations (R. Glowinski, G, eds), SIAM (Philadelphia, PA). W. P. Tang (1988), `Schwarz splitting and template operators
The crystal and magnetic structures of LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3-x}M{sub x}O{sub 8} (M=Al, Ga, In)
Goossens, D.J., E-mail: goossens@rsc.anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Henderson, L.S.F.; Trevena, S. [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)] [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Hudspeth, J.M. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)] [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Avdeev, M.; Hester, J.R. [The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)] [The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)
2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} (A{sub 3}B{sub 3}O{sub 8}) is an example of a layered structure in that it consists of pairs of octahedral, perovskite-like layers alternating with a single tetrahedral layer. This work explores the doping of non-magnetic group 13 elements, M=Al, Ga and In, onto the B-site of LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3-x}M{sub x}O{sub 8} as a function of x. The structural and magnetic effects are examined using a combination of neutron and X-ray diffraction. Solubility limits are established. It is found that for M=Ga the solubility limit occurs between x=1.0 and x=1.25, for the synthesis conditions used, while there is evidence for low (x<0.25) but non-zero substitution of Al. Structural refinements at x=1 suggest that Ga prefers neither the tetrahedral nor octahedral sites. The magnetic structure of LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}GaO{sub 8} has been examined using neutron diffraction at 3.2 K and room temperature. At low temperature the staggered moment per Fe{sup 3+} is 3.8(1){mu}{sub B} in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} and 4.8(1){mu}{sub B} in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}GaO{sub 8}. The magnetic space group (P{sub 2b}2{sub 1} Prime ma Prime ) and moment direction (along c) does not appear to change with Ga substitution. - Graphical abstract: Solubility limits for group 13 elements in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solubility limits for group 13 elements in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution of the magnetic structure with temperature and doping is explored using neutron scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic space group is quoted as P{sub 2b}2{sub 1}'ma' and the staggered moments are obtained for LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} and LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}GaO{sub 8}.
The thermochemistry and reaction mechanisms in the decomposition of energetic materials
Melius, C.F.
1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The chemical processes involved in the decomposition of energetic materials have been investigated theoretically using quantum chemical methods to determine the thermochemistry and reaction pathways. The Bond-Additivity-Corrected Moller-Plesset 4th order perturbation theory method (BAC-MP4) has been used to determine heats of formation and free energies of reaction intermediates of decomposition. In addition, the BAC-MP4 method has been used to determine action pathways involving these intermediates. A theoretical method for calculating solvation energies has been developed to treat the non-idealities of high pressure and the condensed phase. The resulting chemical processes involving decomposition and ignition are presented for nitrate compounds, nitramines, and nitromethane.
Lattice QCD with Domain Decomposition on Intel Xeon Phi Co-Processors
Heybrock, Simon; Joo, Balint; Kalamkar, Dhiraj D.; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Vaidyanathan, Karthikeyan; Wettig, Tilo; Dubey, Pradeep
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The gap between the cost of moving data and the cost of computing continues to grow, making it ever harder to design iterative solvers on extreme-scale architectures. This problem can be alleviated by alternative algorithms that reduce the amount of data movement. We investigate this in the context of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics and implement such an alternative solver algorithm, based on domain decomposition, on Intel Xeon Phi co-processor (KNC) clusters. We demonstrate close-to-linear on-chip scaling to all 60 cores of the KNC. With a mix of single- and half-precision the domain-decomposition method sustains 400-500 Gflop/s per chip. Compared to an optimized KNC implementation of a standard solver [1], our full multi-node domain-decomposition solver strong-scales to more nodes and reduces the time-to-solution by a factor of 5.
Lattice QCD with Domain Decomposition on Intel Xeon Phi Co-Processors
Simon Heybrock; Bálint Joó; Dhiraj D. Kalamkar; Mikhail Smelyanskiy; Karthikeyan Vaidyanathan; Tilo Wettig; Pradeep Dubey
2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
The gap between the cost of moving data and the cost of computing continues to grow, making it ever harder to design iterative solvers on extreme-scale architectures. This problem can be alleviated by alternative algorithms that reduce the amount of data movement. We investigate this in the context of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics and implement such an alternative solver algorithm, based on domain decomposition, on Intel Xeon Phi co-processor (KNC) clusters. We demonstrate close-to-linear on-chip scaling to all 60 cores of the KNC. With a mix of single- and half-precision the domain-decomposition method sustains 400-500 Gflop/s per chip. Compared to an optimized KNC implementation of a standard solver [1], our full multi-node domain-decomposition solver strong-scales to more nodes and reduces the time-to-solution by a factor of 5.
Maruyama, Shigeo
of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak
Radiation Measurements 42 (2007) 15871599 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas
Chen, Reuven
measurements made during dating appli- cations. This may be carried out using the thermoluminescence (TL data of Wintle and Murray [1998. Towards the development of a preheat procedure for OSL dating of a short ther- mal treatment (such as 10 s at 260 C) is commonly employed during dating studies of quartz
1 The Second Law Starting only from the three simple premises that
temperatures. · Real heat pumps have lower Coefficients Of Performance than reversed Carnot cycles operating between only two given ther- mal reservoirs (Carnot cycles) must have the same efficiency Carnot . = Wnet/QHiT . · The Carnot power cycle efficiency must depend only on the two reser- voir temperatures
Robertson, Meldrum
; heat shock proteins; quanta; thermal stress; presynaptic; postsynaptic; neuromuscular Prior exposure such as synaptic function from subse- quent stress. The neurophysiological consequences of heat shock have not been is down-regulated during ther- mal stress, but the predominant heat shock protein hsp70 is rapidly induced
Mechanical engineering Department Seminar
power generation gas turbines and jet engines. As the energy efficiency of gas turbines in- creases to pro- vide thermal protection to turbine blades and vanes in the hottest sections of both electric with turbine inlet turbine, advances in turbine efficiency depend on improved ther- mal barrier coatings
DOI: 10.1007/s00339-004-2690-2 Appl. Phys. A 79, 855857 (2004)
Dumitrica,Traian
to femtosecond laser excitation. Using molecular dynamics simulations based on a tight-binding electronic ther- mal motion, phonons are excited incoherently. In order to simulate the dynamical process of laser Hamiltonian we discuss two examples of laser-induced coherent phonons: (1) excitation of the E2g1 phonon mode
RESEARCH ARTICLE Time series analysis of infrared satellite data for detecting
Wright, Robert
successfully detected ther- mal anomalies in TIR data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR algorithm that analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy. These instruments provide data over potentially dangerous, high-temperature phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions
Pandey, Ravi
Theoretical study of nonpolar surfaces of aluminum nitride: Zinc blende ,,110... and wurtzite ,,101 structure and electronic properties of the nonpolar surfaces, namely zinc blende 110 and wurtzite (10 1 and small ther- mal expansion coefficient. At ambient conditions, AlN crys- tallizes in the wurtzite phase
Application Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability
Coskun, Ayse
-efficiency, and (ii) the effect of temperature optimization on system-level energy consumption. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent]. A closely related issue is ther- mal management: High power consumption not only increases opera- tional challenges--Performance, Energy, and Temperature (PET)--solely through novel hardware design. We know
Los Alamos, NM 87545 505.663.5206 ph
, ther- mal, and solar energy) allows electronic devices to become self-powered and alleviates the issues sources while providing regulated power output, and c) the fabrication of a robust multi-source energy har Chuck Farrar at farrar@lanl.gov, 663- 5330. Multi-Source Energy Harvesting for Remote Power Application
Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd,,WO4...2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser
-order nonlinear susceptibility, high ther- mal conductivity, and strong Raman conversion properties. KGW has potential for enhanced non- linear device performance through longer interaction lengths with high amorphous glasses8 and crystalline materials such as lithium niobate,9 quartz,10 Ti:sapphire,11 and KY WO4 2
Boyer, Edmond
, page C9-2 17 DÉFORMATION PLASTIQUE A BASSE TEMPÉRATURE DU FLUORURE DE LITHIUM IRRADIÉ M. CAGNON taille croit avec la dose d'irradiation). Abstract. - Results are presented for the plastic properties for the ther- mal part of the flow stress by elastic interaction with moviiig dislocations (their number does
Temperature-aware Scheduling for Embedded Heterogeneous MPSoCs with Special Purpose IP Cores
Simunic, Tajana
and thermal envelope. Heteroge- neous MPSoCs provide even better performance and power Permission to make propose a thermal management tech- nique which reduces the performance penalty of central ther- mal, our technique can reduce the occurence of thermal violations by at least 3X while improving
Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-
Gross, George
spectrum of time intervals. In therange of seconds, when load variationsare small and random, the automatic by a number of generation control functions such as hydro scheduling, unit commitment, hydro-ther- mal present, functions such as fuel, hydro, and maintenance scheduling are performed to ensure that the load
Surface composites: A new class of engineered materials Rajiv Singh and James Fitz-Gerald
Fitz-Gerald, James M.
applications, are generally com- posed of ceramic, metal, or polymeric matrix with a dispersed second phase for controlled catalytic activity, and creating adherent metal-ceramic and ceramic-polymeric joints. I and should possess chemical, ther- mal, and interfacial compatibility with the matrix. In FGM, the chemical
Optical and elastic properties of diamond-like carbon with metallic inclusions: A theoretical study
for solar collectors, where the efficiency of the collector depends critically on the performance. INTRODUCTION Trough solar collectors are a technology for solar ther- mal energy conversion that can deliver emission-free solar power for on-site and centralized applications.1,2 The effi- ciency of the collector
Chelated Indium Activable Tracers for Geothermal Reservoirs
Stanford University
Center (SLAC), for providing the califclmiurh-252 neutron source. Appreciation is extended to Lew, rock size, and temperature on the tracer adsoqjtion and ther- mal degradation. The rock employed for these measurements was gragwacke, a prek valent rock type at The Geysers, California geothermal field. The re
Gilli, Adrian
-rich sample is a sample with more than 1% TOC, which is considered as a potential source rock in petroleum were analysed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis (Espitalie´ et al., 1985a,b, 1986) in order to obtain TOC, hydrogen index (HI) and ther- mal maturity (Tmax) data. A thin section and palynological slide of each
EarlyOff: Using House Cooling Rates To Save Energy Microsoft Research, UK and
Krumm, John
@microsoft.com Abstract Home heating systems often have a significant ther- mal inertia, as homes stay warm after the heating is turned off for significant periods of time. We present the EarlyOff concept, whereby home, home heating con- sumes more energy than any other household end- use [1]. While many houses have
Johansson, Karl Henrik
Randomized Model Predictive Control for HVAC Systems Alessandra Parisio, Damiano Varagnolo, Daniel Conditioning (HVAC) sys- tems play a fundamental role in maintaining acceptable ther- mal comfort and Indoor. A possible solu- tion is to develop effective control strategies for HVAC sys- tems, but this is complicated
SSFP-Based MR Thermometry Vaishali Paliwal,1
Atalar, Ergin
SSFP-Based MR Thermometry Vaishali Paliwal,1 AbdEl-Monem El-Sharkawy,2 Xiangying Du,3 Xiaoming Yang,3 and Ergin Atalar1Â4* Of the various techniques employed to quantify temperature changes by MR for MR- based temperature mapping during the application of ther- mal therapies (1Â3). When administering
Curtarolo, Stefano
, such us the development of new thermoelectric materials1,2 , heat sink materials for ther- mal management and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA 2 Department of Materials Science Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton TX 4 Materials Science
Comparative Density Functional Study of Methanol Decomposition on Cu4 and Co4 Clusters
Mehmood, Faisal; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Zapol, Peter; Curtiss, Larry A.
2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z
A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on Cu4 and Co4 clusters is presented. The reaction intermediates and activation barriers have been determined for reaction steps to form H2 and CO. For both clusters, methanol decomposition initiated by C-H and O-H bond breaking was investigated. In the case of a Cu4 cluster, methanol dehydrogenation through hydroxymethyl (CH2OH), hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO) is found to be slightly more favorable. For a Co4 cluster, the dehydrogenation pathway through methoxy (CH3O) and formaldehyde (CH2O) is slightly more favorable. Each of these pathways results in formation of CO and H2. The Co cluster pathway is very favorable thermodynamically and kinetically for dehydrogenation. However, since CO binds strongly, it is likely to poison methanol decomposition to H2 and CO at low temperatures. In contrast, for the Cu cluster, CO poisoning is not likely to be a problem since it does not bind strongly, but the dehydrogenation steps are not energetically favorable. Pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are even less energetically favorable. The results are compared to our previous study of methanol decomposition on Pd4 and Pd8 clusters. Finally, all reaction energy changes and transition state energies, including those for the Pd clusters, are related in a linear, Broensted-Evans-Polanyi plot.
CLASSIFICATION USING EFFICIENT LU DECOMPOSITION IN Zille Huma Kamal, Ajay Gupta, Leszek Lilien,
Gupta, Ajay
1 CLASSIFICATION USING EFFICIENT LU DECOMPOSITION IN SENSORNETS Zille Huma Kamal, Ajay Gupta of sensornet nodes will be consuming energy to identify the category (classification) that relates to the event applications, such as classification, need to be extremely energy-aware. The classification process is also
BLIND CHANNEL IDENTIFICATION OF MISO SYSTEMS BASED ON THE CP DECOMPOSITION OF CUMULANT TENSORS
BLIND CHANNEL IDENTIFICATION OF MISO SYSTEMS BASED ON THE CP DECOMPOSITION OF CUMULANT TENSORS algorithm for identifying the parameters of MISO sys- tem. 1. INTRODUCTION We consider the following-Input Single-Output (MISO) channel, y[n] is the output signal. Signals and system are assumed to be complex
PLANE-WAVE DECOMPOSITION OF A SOUND SCENE USING A CYLINDRICAL MICROPHONE ARRAY
Zotkin, Dmitry N.
PLANE-WAVE DECOMPOSITION OF A SOUND SCENE USING A CYLINDRICAL MICROPHONE ARRAY Dmitry N. Zotkin] and for the cylindrical array [2]. An alternative approach is to note that in the plane-wave basis [9] a sound field of converting a sound field into the plane-wave basis de- composes it into directional components. In a recent
Schneider, Kai
ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012) 013005 (11pp) doi:10 based on the wavelet-vaguelette decomposition. After validation of the new method using an academic test confinement, but the associated vessel erosion also impairs the awaited viability of long lasting discharges
Eddy mean flow decomposition and eddy diffusivity estimates in the tropical Pacific Ocean
Eddy mean flow decomposition and eddy diffusivity estimates in the tropical Pacific Ocean: 2] Eddy diffusivity of the surface velocity field in the tropical Pacific Ocean was estimated using diffusivity estimates in the tropical Pacific Ocean: 2. Results, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 3154, doi:10
Classification of hyperspectral images by tensor modeling and additive morphological decomposition
Boyer, Edmond
. AMD defines a scale-space decomposition for multivariate images without any loss of information. AMD`emes, MINES Paristech, France Abstract Pixel-wise classification in high-dimensional multivariate images is modeled as a tensor structure and tensor principal components analysis is compared as dimensional
Why did China's Energy Intensity Increase during 1998-2006: Decomposition and Policy Analysis
Edwards, Paul N.
takes up about 70 percent of the total energy consumption. Per capita oil, natural gas and coal deposits1 Why did China's Energy Intensity Increase during 1998-2006: Decomposition and Policy Analysis Xiaoli Zhaoa,b, , Chunbo Mac, a Business School, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206
CONTENT-ADAPTIVE SPEECH ENHANCEMENT BY A SPARSELY-ACTIVATED DICTIONARY PLUS LOW RANK DECOMPOSITION
Ellis, Dan
CONTENT-ADAPTIVE SPEECH ENHANCEMENT BY A SPARSELY-ACTIVATED DICTIONARY PLUS LOW RANK DECOMPOSITION.papadopoulos[at]lss.supelec.fr dpwe[at]ee.columbia.edu ABSTRACT One powerful approach to speech enhancement employs strong models, we proposed a speech enhancement model that decomposes the spectrogram into sparse activation
Speech enhancement by low-rank and convolutive dictionary spectrogram decomposition
Ellis, Dan
Speech enhancement by low-rank and convolutive dictionary spectrogram decomposition Zhuo Chen1 Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA zc2204@columbia.edu Abstract A successful speech enhancement, performance will suffer. In previous work, we proposed a speech enhance- ment framework based on decomposing
Kowal, Grzegorz; Lazarian, A., E-mail: kowal@astro.wisc.ed, E-mail: lazarian@astro.wisc.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, which holds the key to many astrophysical processes, including star formation and cosmic-ray propagation. To account for the variations of the magnetic field in the strongly turbulent fluid, we use wavelet decomposition of the turbulent velocity field into Alfven, slow, and fast modes, which presents an extension of the Cho and Lazarian decomposition approach based on Fourier transforms. The wavelets allow us to follow the variations of the local direction of the magnetic field and therefore improve the quality of the decomposition compared to the Fourier transforms, which are done in the mean field reference frame. For each resulting component, we calculate the spectra and two-point statistics such as longitudinal and transverse structure functions as well as higher order intermittency statistics. In addition, we perform a Helmholtz- Hodge decomposition of the velocity field into incompressible and compressible parts and analyze these components. We find that the turbulence intermittency is different for different components, and we show that the intermittency statistics depend on whether the phenomenon was studied in the global reference frame related to the mean magnetic field or in the frame defined by the local magnetic field. The dependencies of the measures we obtained are different for different components of the velocity; for instance, we show that while the Alfven mode intermittency changes marginally with the Mach number, the intermittency of the fast mode is substantially affected by the change.
Fast decomposition of pgroups in the Roquette category, for p > 2
Bouc, Serge
Fast decomposition of pgroups in the Roquette category, for p > 2 Serge Bouc Abstract : Let p be a prime number. In [9], I introduced the Roquette category R p of finite pgroups, which is an additive tensor category containing all finite pgroups among its objects. In R p , every finite pgroup P admits
Fast decomposition of p-groups in the Roquette category, for p > 2
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Fast decomposition of p-groups in the Roquette category, for p > 2 Serge Bouc Abstract : Let p be a prime number. In [9], I introduced the Roquette category Rp of finite p-groups, which is an additive tensor category containing all finite p-groups among its objects. In Rp, every finite p-group P admits
Convergent Decomposition Solvers for Tree-reweighted Free Energies Jeremy Jancsary Gerald Matz
Convergent Decomposition Solvers for Tree-reweighted Free Energies Jeremy Jancsary Gerald Matz of tree- reweighted free energies for the purpose of obtaining approximate marginal probabil- ities given to the method by showing that it can be understood to min- imize the so-called Bethe free energy
An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Approach for Voltage Sag Detection in a Smart Grid Context
Brest, UniversitÃ© de
An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Approach for Voltage Sag Detection in a Smart Grid Context Yassine Amirat1,2 , Mohamed Benbouzid2 , Tianzhen Wang3 and Sylvie Turri2 AbstractÂSmart grids have become, using the instantaneous power for voltage sags detection in smart grids. Copyright Â© 2013 Praise Worthy
Decomposition of Human Motion into Dynamics Based Primitives with Application to Drawing Tasks
Murray, Richard M.
to prevent a possible crime. Other applications include video-games and animation where virtual human motionDecomposition of Human Motion into Dynamics Based Primitives with Application to Drawing Tasks D dynamical systems and systems identification we develop a framework for the study of primitives for human
Encapsulation of Nickel Nanoparticles in Carbon Obtained by the Sonochemical Decomposition of
Prozorov, Ruslan
Encapsulation of Nickel Nanoparticles in Carbon Obtained by the Sonochemical Decomposition of Ni(C8 A new precursor for the sonochemical preparation of amorphous nickel, Ni(cyclooctadiene)2, yielded relatively large (200 nm) amorphous nanoparticles composed of nickel and carbon atoms. Small nickel particles
Multi-Material Decomposition Using Statistical Image Reconstruction in X-Ray CT
Fessler, Jeffrey A.
and Jeffrey A. Fessler Abstract--Dual-energy (DE) CT scans provide two sets of measurements at two different-mean-square (RMS) errors. Index Terms--Computed tomography, dual energy, multi- material decomposition, statistical image reconstruction I. INTRODUCTION Dual-energy (DE) CT reconstruction methods typically re- construct
SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION APPLIED TO TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD,
SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION APPLIED TO TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD, GARFIELD focuses on the application of this technique to time-lapse seismic interpretation using nine-component 4D-lapse interpretation through a cross equalization process. I analyzed two time-lapse pairs of seismic surveys: 2003
PROCEEDINGS OF 2006 PMAPS, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, JUNE 2006 A Global Decomposition Algorithm for
calculation which is obtained from many runs of MARS. In a single MARS run, the outage of This work are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843 USA (e. Improved versions of decomposition for including load and planned outages in a computationally efficient
Spatial fractal characteristic of spinodal decomposition in Fe-Cr-Ni duplex stainless steel
Shek, C.H.; Wong, K.W.; Lai, J.K.L. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science] [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science; Shao, Y.Z. [Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Physics] [Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Physics
1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Owing to the extensive use of duplex stainless steels in areas like chemical and petrochemical industries, considerable interest has arisen concerning the thermal degradation of these materials during service, and the consequent changes on the mechanical properties. The embrittlement of these steels is basically due to the decomposition of the ferrite phase at elevated temperatures, and duplex steels are seldom used at temperatures above 300 C. Although the microstructure of spinodal decomposition has been studied extensively using atom probe, it is interesting to investigate the development of fractal characteristics in the microstructure during spinodal decomposition. In this paper the authors present part of their recent results in this aspect on a duplex stainless steel. The {alpha} and {alpha}{prime} domains evolved from the primary ferrite phase during spinodal decomposition have different morphologies. The {alpha} (Fe-rich) forms the matrix while the {alpha}{prime} (Cr-rich) domains are developed in the form of discrete regions embedded within the {alpha} matrix. The distribution of these domains follows the fractal-growth characteristics with fractal dimensions ranging from 0.1 to 0.2. In addition, there exists a lower critical dimension beyond which the self-similarity of the domains breaks down.
Elemental mapping of spinodal decomposition in duplex stainless , J M Titchmarsh2
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
Elemental mapping of spinodal decomposition in duplex stainless steels T Yamada1 , J M Titchmarsh2 300o C, regions of delta ferrite in duplex stainless steels are susceptible to SD (Cottrell, 1995 steel that has been aged at two temperatures for various times. 2. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Duplex stainless
coal and gasoline [3]. Moreover, hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate electricity, or directly as a transportation fuel [4]. Hydrogen can be generated from hydrocarbons and water resourcesPhotoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water/ methanol decomposition using Ag/TiO2
Mukhtar, Saqib
What is compost? Composting refers to biological decomposition and stabilization of organic materials by microorganisms under aerobic conditions (in the presence of oxygen). During the composting is production of good-quality compost that is biologically stable, relatively uniform in appearance, free
Decomposition of Human Motion into Dynamics Based Primitives with Application to Drawing Tasks
Murray, Richard M.
experiments 1 Introduction Building systems that can detect and recognize human actions and activitiesDecomposition of Human Motion into Dynamics Based Primitives with Application to Drawing Tasks D dynamical systems and systems identification we develop a framework for the study of primitives for human
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Substances involved Effects 1921, Oppau - Germany 1947, Canada (NH4)2SO4/NH4NO3 NH4NO3 Explosion Fire 1947 materials NH4NO3/sodium salt of dichloroisocyanuric acid (SDIC) Explosion Fire followed by explosion to be considered: fire, decomposition and explosion. Whereas by itself AN is not combustible, it can thermally
The role of peat decomposition in patterned mires: a case study from the central Swiss Alps
Bern, Universität
The role of peat decomposition in patterned mires: a case study from the central Swiss Alps., Stefanova V., van Leeuwen J. F. N., van der Knaap W. O., Colombaroli D. & Tinner W. (2013): The role of peat and is unique in its pattern. In two of five pools there is in the contact zone between the basal peat
THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN OECD COUNTRIES: A DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS
1 THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN OECD COUNTRIES: A DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS Sahar Shafiei, Ruhul A. Salim and Helen Cabalu School of Economics & Finance, Curtin Business the impacts of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on economic activities to find out whether
Partial wave decomposition of the N3LO equation of state
D. Davesne; J. Meyer; A. Pastore; J. Navarro
2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
By means of a partial wave decomposition, we separate their contributions to the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter for the N3LO pseudo-potential. In particular, we show that although both the tensor and the spin-orbit terms do not contribute to the equation of state, they give a non-vanishing contribution to the separate (JLS) channels.
Image decomposition and restoration using total variation minimization and the H 1 norm
Soatto, Stefano
Image decomposition and restoration using total variation minimization and the H 1 norm Stanley-Osher-Fatemi, and of the results of Y. Meyer on oscillatory functions. An initial image f is decomposed into a cartoon part u. Meyer [7] proposed a new minimization problem, changing in (1) the L 2 norm of (f u) by another norm
IMAGE DECOMPOSITION AND RESTORATION USING TOTAL VARIATION MINIMIZATION AND THE H-1
Vese, Luminita A.
IMAGE DECOMPOSITION AND RESTORATION USING TOTAL VARIATION MINIMIZATION AND THE H-1 NORM STANLEY results of Meyer [Oscillating Patterns in Image Processing and Nonlinear Evolution Equations, Univ #12;350 STANLEY OSHER, ANDR´ES SOL´E, AND LUMINITA VESE which is the minimizer of this convex
Matrix Decomposition-Based Data Distortion Techniques for Privacy Preservation in Data Mining
Zhang, Jun
. The second is to modify the data mining algorithms so that they allow data mining operations on distributedMatrix Decomposition-Based Data Distortion Techniques for Privacy Preservation in Data Mining Jun-Based Data Distortion Techniques for Privacy Preservation in Data Mining Jun Zhang and Jie Wang, University
A Characteristic Domain Decomposition and SpaceTime Local Refinement Method for
Sharpley, Robert
partial differential equations model the reactive transport of solutes in groundwater and surface water with other domain decomposition and local refinement schemes. 1 Introduction FirstÂorder linear hyperbolic interfaces that introduce extra difficulties. Physical interfaces arise, for example, in the modeling
Domain decomposition for coupled Stokes and Darcy flows q Danail Vassilev a
Yotov, Ivan
and fluid flow StokesÂDarcy flow BeaversÂJosephÂSaffman condition Mixed finite element a b s t r a c t A non iteration. Finite element techniques appropriate for the type of each subdomain problem are used-overlapping domain decomposition method is presented to solve a coupled StokesÂ Darcy flow problem in parallel
Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition for real-time optimization -applied to the Troll west oil
Foss, Bjarne A.
of the Troll west oil rim, a petroleum asset with severe production optimization challenges due to rate: Optimization, Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition, Petroleum production, Plantwide control. 1. INTRODUCTION Development and robust option for complex production systems. Moreover, the method compares favourable with earlier
Macrophyte Decomposition Rates in the Tres Rios Constructed Treatment Wetland: Preliminary Results!
Hall, Sharon J.
Macrophyte Decomposition Rates in the Tres Rios Constructed Treatment Wetland: Preliminary Results wetland. Plant Ecology 200:69-82. Literature Cited! Figure 1A: Aerial photo of the treatment flow cell, such as those associated with municipal wastewater treatment.! Constructed treatment wetlands perform important
Hydrogen production from methanol decomposition over Pt/Al2O3 and ceria promoted Pt/Al2O3 catalysts
Gulari, Erdogan
Hydrogen production from methanol decomposition over Pt/Al2O3 and ceria promoted Pt/Al2O3 catalysts-based catalysts in the production of hydrogen from methanol through catalytic decomposition rights reserved. Keywords: Methanol decomposition; Pt/alumina; Ceria; Hydrogen; PEM fuel cell 1
Choi, Jiyoung; Kang, Dong-Goo; Kang, Sunghoon; Sung, Younghun [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), San 14, Nong-seo dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Kyunggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), San 14, Nong-seo dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Kyunggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Jong Chul [Bio-Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Bio-Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) has been an active research area over the past few years. Even with some success, the problem of optimal energy selection and three material decomposition including malignant tissue is still on going research topic, and more systematic studies are required. This paper aims to address this in a unified statistical framework in a mammographic environment.Methods: A unified statistical framework for energy level optimization and decomposition of three materials is proposed. In particular, an energy level optimization algorithm is derived using the theory of the minimum variance unbiased estimator, and an iterative algorithm is proposed for material composition as well as system parameter estimation under the unified statistical estimation framework. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, the authors performed simulation studies as well as real experiments using physical breast phantom and ex vivo breast specimen. Quantitative comparisons using various performance measures were conducted, and qualitative performance evaluations for ex vivo breast specimen were also performed by comparing the ground-truth malignant tissue areas identified by radiologists.Results: Both simulation and real experiments confirmed that the optimized energy bins by the proposed method allow better material decomposition quality. Moreover, for the specimen thickness estimation errors up to 2 mm, the proposed method provides good reconstruction results in both simulation and real ex vivo breast phantom experiments compared to existing methods.Conclusions: The proposed statistical framework of PCXD has been successfully applied for the energy optimization and decomposition of three material in a mammographic environment. Experimental results using the physical breast phantom and ex vivo specimen support the practicality of the proposed algorithm.
CPUF - a chemical-structure-based polyurethane foam decomposition and foam response model.
Fletcher, Thomas H. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Thompson, Kyle Richard; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Dowding, Kevin J.; Clayton, Daniel (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Chu, Tze Yao; Hobbs, Michael L.; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III
2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A Chemical-structure-based PolyUrethane Foam (CPUF) decomposition model has been developed to predict the fire-induced response of rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foam-filled systems. The model, developed for the B-61 and W-80 fireset foam, is based on a cascade of bondbreaking reactions that produce CO2. Percolation theory is used to dynamically quantify polymer fragment populations of the thermally degrading foam. The partition between condensed-phase polymer fragments and gas-phase polymer fragments (i.e. vapor-liquid split) was determined using a vapor-liquid equilibrium model. The CPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE and CALORE, which support chemical kinetics and enclosure radiation. Elements were removed from the computational domain when the calculated solid mass fractions within the individual finite element decrease below a set criterion. Element removal, referred to as ?element death,? creates a radiation enclosure (assumed to be non-participating) as well as a decomposition front, which separates the condensed-phase encapsulant from the gas-filled enclosure. All of the chemistry parameters as well as thermophysical properties for the CPUF model were obtained from small-scale laboratory experiments. The CPUF model was evaluated by comparing predictions to measurements. The validation experiments included several thermogravimetric experiments at pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 30 bars. Larger, component-scale experiments were also used to validate the foam response model. The effects of heat flux, bulk density, orientation, embedded components, confinement and pressure were measured and compared to model predictions. Uncertainties in the model results were evaluated using a mean value approach. The measured mass loss in the TGA experiments and the measured location of the decomposition front were within the 95% prediction limit determined using the CPUF model for all of the experiments where the decomposition gases were vented sufficiently. The CPUF model results were not as good for the partially confined radiant heat experiments where the vent area was regulated to maintain pressure. Liquefaction and flow effects, which are not considered in the CPUF model, become important when the decomposition gases are confined.
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, T.
1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, effects of Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst preparation on the activity of over-exchanged copper for NO decomposition are reported. The Cu-ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by incorporating Cu{sup 2+} cations into ZSM-5 zeolites from an aqueous cupric acetate solution adjusted to different pH values by adding either acetic anhydride or aqueous ammonia in the solution. The Cu{sup 2+} exchange levels increased with increasing pH level. STEM/EDX analysis identified CuO particles (5--6 nm) on the zeolite surface for the materials exchanged at pH > 6. Conversion and kinetics measurements of NO decomposition to N{sub 2} over these catalysts showed that the over-exchanged copper was not active. Short-time wash with aqueous ammonia removed this copper. The catalyst activity correlated very well with the amount of copper remaining in the ZSM-5 channels.
Yakov Itin; Friedrich W. Hehl
2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
We study properties of the fourth rank elasticity tensor C within linear elasticity theory. First C is irreducibly decomposed under the linear group into a "Cauchy piece" S (with 15 independent components) and a "non-Cauchy piece" A (with 6 independent components). Subsequently, we turn to the physically relevant orthogonal group, thereby using the metric. We find the finer decomposition of S into pieces with 9+5+1 and of A into those with 5+1 independent components. Some reducible decompositions, discussed earlier by numerous authors, are shown to be inconsistent. --- Several physical consequences are discussed. The Cauchy relations are shown to correspond to A=0. Longitudinal and transverse sound waves are basically related by S and A, respectively.
Everett, Susan M [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mull, Derek L [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Gas hydrates are known to have a slowed decomposition rate at ambient pressure and temperatures below the melting point of ice termed self-preservation or anomalous preservation. As hydrate exothermically decomposes, gas is released and water of the clathrate cages transforms into ice. Two regions of slowed decomposition for methane hydrate, 180 200 K and 230 260 K, were observed, and the kinetics were studied by in situ low temperature x-ray powder diffraction. The kinetic constants for ice formation from methane hydrate were determined by the Avrami model within each region and activation energies, Ea, were determined by the Arrhenius plot. Ea determined from the data for 180 200 K was 42 kJ/mol and for 230 260 K was 22 kJ/mol. The higher Ea in the colder temperature range was attributed to a difference in the microstructure of ice between the two regions.
Jacob, Rick E.; Carson, James P.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Elastase dosed mice, whole lung and single lobe groups. Combines octree image decomposition with variogram-based analysis Results in promising novel approach for characterizing and measuring lung disease at different stages
Anagnostakis, Ioannis
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
(cont.) to the design of a heuristic decomposed algorithm for solving the ROP problem. This decomposition methodology offers an original paradigm potentially applicable to the design of solution algorithms for a class of ...
Hofmann, M. [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)] [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Augustusplatz 10/11, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Augustusplatz 10/11, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.
Not Available
1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacteria, enzymes, and bioluminescence are among the methods discussed. Bacteria and enzymes that digest toluene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), selenium wastes, oil shale waste, uranium, oil sludge, pesticides, rubber wastes, and pentachlorophenol are discussed. Flavobacterium and white rot fungus are among the biological agents highlighted. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)
Simple waves and a characteristic decomposition of the two dimensional compressible Euler equations
) with constant speed c has an interesting decomposition (t + cx)(t - cx)u = 0, (2) 1 Research partially supported #12;or (t - cx)(t + cx)u = 0 (3) known from elementary text books. One can rewrite them as +-u = 0, or -+u = 0, (4) where Â± = t Â± cx. Sometimes, the same fact is written in Riemann invariants tR + cxR = 0
Cho-Duan-Ge decomposition of QCD in the constraintless Clairaut-type formalism
Michael L. Walker; Steven Duplij
2015-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
We apply the recently derived constraintless Clairaut-type formalism to the Cho-Duan-Ge decomposition in SU(2) QCD. We find nontrivial corrections to the physical equations of motion and that the contribution of the topological degrees of freedom is qualitatively different from that found by treating the monopole potential as though it were dynamic. We also find alterations to the field commutation relations that undermine the particle interpretation in the presence of the chromomonopole condensate.
Catalytic decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 on Pt(111)
Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Weaver, Jason F.; Szanyi, Janos
2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
The decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 formed on BaO/Pt(111) (Pt(111) surface is partially covered by BaO) in the presence of CO was studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), infrared reflection absorption (IRA) and X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectroscopies. The exposure of BaO/Pt(111) to elevated NO2 pressure (1.0×10-4 Torr) at 450 K leads to the formation of Ba(NO3)2, chemisorbed O (OPt) and Pt-oxide-like domains. During TPD, the Ba(NO3)2 begins to thermally decompose near 490 K, releasing NO and NO2 with the maximum NOx desorption rate seen at 605 K. The OPt species formed following the exposure of BaO/Pt(111) to NO2 react with CO to release CO2 at 450 K. The consumption of OPt during CO oxidation initiates the migration of O from the Pt-oxide-like domains to the chemisorbed phase, where the CO oxidation reaction occurs. Therefore, the removal of OPt by CO leads to the reduction of oxidized Pt, and to the formation of metallic Pt(111) domains, where, subsequently, catalytic decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 can take place. The Pt-catalyzed decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 occurs readily at 450 K, a temperature much lower than the onset of the decomposition temperature of Ba(NO3)2 in the presence of oxidized Pt. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.
Constraints on the Decomposition of the Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies
B. Fuchs
2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
I discuss anew how arguments about the internal dynamics of galactic disks set constraints on the otherwise ambiguous decomposition of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies into the contributions by the various constituents of the galaxies. Analyzing the two sample galaxies NGC 3198 and NGC 2985 I conclude from the multiplicities of the spiral arms and the values of the Q disk stability parameters that the disks of both galaxies are `maximum disks'.
Hydrodynamic Crossovers in Surface-Directed Spinodal Decomposition and Surface Enrichment
Prabhat K. Jaiswal; Sanjay Puri; Subir K. Das
2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
We present comprehensive molecular dynamics (MD) results for the kinetics of surface-directed spinodal decomposition (SDSD) and surface enrichment (SE) in binary mixtures at wetting surfaces. We study the surface morphology and the growth dynamics of the wetting and enrichment layers. The growth law for the thickness of these layers shows a crossover from a diffusive regime to a hydrodynamic regime. We provide phenomenological arguments to understand this crossover.
DIRECT DECOMPOSITION OF METHANE TO HYDROGEN ON METAL LOADED ZEOLITE CATALYST
Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch; Harry W. Rollins
2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The manufacture of hydrogen from natural gas is essential for the production of ultra clean transportation fuels. Not only is hydrogen necessary to upgrade low quality crude oils to high-quality, low sulfur ultra clean transportation fuels, hydrogen could eventually replace gasoline and diesel as the ultra clean transportation fuel of the future. Currently, refinery hydrogen is produced through the steam reforming of natural gas. Although efficient, the process is responsible for a significant portion of refinery CO2 emissions. This project is examining the direct catalytic decomposition of methane as an alternative to steam reforming. The energy required to produce one mole of hydrogen is slightly lower and the process does not require water-gas-shift or pressure-swing adsorption units. The decomposition process does not produce CO2 emissions and the product is not contaminated with CO -- a poison for PEM fuel cells. In this work we examined the direct catalytic decomposition of methane over a metal modified zeolite catalyst and the recovery of catalyst activity by calcination. A favorable production of hydrogen was obtained, when compared with previously reported nickel-zeolite supported catalysts. Reaction temperature had a strong influence on catalyst activity and on the type of carbon deposits. The catalyst utilized at 873 and 973 K could be regenerated without any significant loss of activity, however the catalyst utilized at 1073 K showed some loss of activity after regeneration.
Calculation of excitation energies from the CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decomposition
Baudin, Pablo, E-mail: baudin.pablo@gmail.com [Institute of Molecular Science, University of Valencia, Valencia, ES-46071 (Spain) [Institute of Molecular Science, University of Valencia, Valencia, ES-46071 (Spain); qLEAP – Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Marín, José Sánchez; Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J., E-mail: sanchez@uv.es [Institute of Molecular Science, University of Valencia, Valencia, ES-46071 (Spain)
2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model is reported. It employs a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals that significantly reduces the computational cost and the storage requirements of the method compared to standard implementations. Our algorithm also exploits a partitioning form of the CC2 equations which reduces the dimension of the problem and avoids the storage of doubles amplitudes. We present calculation of excitation energies of benzene using a hierarchy of basis sets and compare the results with conventional CC2 calculations. The reduction of the scaling is evaluated as well as the effect of the Cholesky decomposition parameter on the quality of the results. The new algorithm is used to perform an extrapolation to complete basis set investigation on the spectroscopically interesting benzylallene conformers. A set of calculations on medium-sized molecules is carried out to check the dependence of the accuracy of the results on the decomposition thresholds. Moreover, CC2 singlet excitation energies of the free base porphin are also presented.
Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowire photocatalysis: Benzene oxidation and methyl red decomposition
Lian, Suoyuan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Tsang, Chi Him A. [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wong, Ningbew [Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)] [Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Shuit-Tong [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)
2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Graphical abstract: H-SiNWs can catalyze hydroxylation of benzene and degradation of methyl red under visible light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were active photocatalyst in the hydroxylation of benzene under light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were also effective in the decomposition of methyl red dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Si/SiO{sub x} core-shell structure is the main reason of the obtained high selectivity during the hydroxylation. -- Abstract: Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the hydroxylation of benzene and for the decomposition of methyl red under visible light irradiation. The above reactions were monitored by GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively, which shows 100% selectivity for the transformation of benzene to phenol. A complete decomposition of a 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M methyl red solution was achieved within 30 min. The high selectivity for the hydroxylation of benzene and the photodecomposition demonstrate the catalytic activity of ultrafine H-SiNWs during nanocatalysis.
Thammajak, Nirawat; Battle, Peter D., E-mail: peter.battle@chem.ox.ac.uk; Brown, Catherine; Higgon, Katherine; Stansfield, Rhian
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Polycrystalline samples of Nd{sub 18}Li{sub 8}Fe{sub 4}M?O{sub 39} (M?=Al, Ga) and La{sub 18}Li{sub 8}Fe{sub 4.5}In{sub 0.5}O{sub 39} have been prepared by the ceramic method and characterised by neutron diffraction and magnetometry. All three compounds adopt a cubic structure (space group Pm3{sup ¯}n, a ?12 Å) based on intersecting ?1 1 1? chains of cation sites with alternating octahedral and prismatic coordination geometry. These sites are occupied by Li, Fe and M? or In; Nd or La cations occupy sites between the chains. The cation distribution over the octahedral and prismatic sites within the chains is disordered in all three compounds. The Nd-containing compositions show spin-glass behaviour below ?4.5 K whereas small, weakly-ferrimagnetic domains form in La{sub 18}Li{sub 8}Fe{sub 4.5}In{sub 0.5}O{sub 39} below 7.60 K. The dependence of the magnetic properties on the nature of the lanthanide cation is discussed. - Graphical abstract: At low temperatures Nd{sub 18}Li{sub 8}Fe{sub 4}M?O{sub 39} (M’=Al, Ga) behave as spin glasses whereas small ferrimagnetic domains form in La{sub 18}Li{sub 8}Fe{sub 4.5}In{sub 0.5}O{sub 39}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • p-Block cations can be accommodated in the La{sub 18}Li{sub 8}Rh{sub 5}O{sub 39} structure. • Small ferrimagnetic domains in La{sub 18}Li{sub 8}Fe{sub 4.5}In{sub 0.5}O{sub 39}. • Magnetic behaviour controlled by the lanthanide cation.
de la Rue du Can, Stephane
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2005. Development of Energy Balances for the State ofIEA). 2010. World Energy Balance, 1971 to 2008. Paris: IEA.REPORT California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition
High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.
Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred
2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.
Ning, J. G.; Chu, L.; Ren, H. L., E-mail: huilanren@bit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)
2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
We base a quantitative acoustic emission (AE) study on fracture processes in alumina ceramics on wavelet packet decomposition and AE source location. According to the frequency characteristics, as well as energy and ringdown counts of AE, the fracture process is divided into four stages: crack closure, nucleation, development, and critical failure. Each of the AE signals is decomposed by a 2-level wavelet package decomposition into four different (from-low-to-high) frequency bands (AA{sub 2}, AD{sub 2}, DA{sub 2}, and DD{sub 2}). The energy eigenvalues P{sub 0}, P{sub 1}, P{sub 2}, and P{sub 3} corresponding to these four frequency bands are calculated. By analyzing changes in P{sub 0} and P{sub 3} in the four stages, we determine the inverse relationship between AE frequency and the crack source size during ceramic fracture. AE signals with regard to crack nucleation can be expressed when P{sub 0} is less than 5 and P{sub 3} more than 60; whereas AE signals with regard to dangerous crack propagation can be expressed when more than 92% of P{sub 0} is greater than 4, and more than 95% of P{sub 3} is less than 45. Geiger location algorithm is used to locate AE sources and cracks in the sample. The results of this location algorithm are consistent with the positions of fractures in the sample when observed under a scanning electronic microscope; thus the locations of fractures located with Geiger's method can reflect the fracture process. The stage division by location results is in a good agreement with the division based on AE frequency characteristics. We find that both wavelet package decomposition and Geiger's AE source locations are suitable for the identification of the evolutionary process of cracks in alumina ceramics.
Tang Shaojie; Tang Xiangyang [Imaging and Medical Physics, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Uppergate Dr., C-5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); School of Automation, Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710121 (China); Imaging and Medical Physics, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Uppergate Dr., C-5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)
2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of 'salt-and-pepper' noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain multiscale decomposition, the proposed method is anticipated to be useful in advanced clinical and preclinical applications where the interview sampling rate varies.
Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei, E-mail: leizhu@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for its capability of material decomposition and energy-selective imaging. A generic problem of DECT, however, is that the decomposition process is unstable in the sense that the relative magnitude of decomposed signals is reduced due to signal cancellation while the image noise is accumulating from the two CT images of independent scans. Direct image decomposition, therefore, leads to severe degradation of signal-to-noise ratio on the resultant images. Existing noise suppression techniques are typically implemented in DECT with the procedures of reconstruction and decomposition performed independently, which do not explore the statistical properties of decomposed images during the reconstruction for noise reduction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative approach that combines the reconstruction and the signal decomposition procedures to minimize the DECT image noise without noticeable loss of resolution. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which balances the data fidelity and total variation of decomposed images in one framework, and the decomposition step is carried out iteratively together with reconstruction. The noise in the CT images from the proposed algorithm becomes well correlated even though the noise of the raw projections is independent on the two CT scans. Due to this feature, the proposed algorithm avoids noise accumulation during the decomposition process. The authors evaluate the method performance on noise suppression and spatial resolution using phantom studies and compare the algorithm with conventional denoising approaches as well as combined iterative reconstruction methods with different forms of regularization. Results: On the Catphan©600 phantom, the proposed method outperforms the existing denoising methods on preserving spatial resolution at the same level of noise suppression, i.e., a reduction of noise standard deviation by one order of magnitude. This improvement is mainly attributed to the high noise correlation in the CT images reconstructed by the proposed algorithm. Iterative reconstruction using different regularization, including quadratic orq-generalized Gaussian Markov random field regularization, achieves similar noise suppression from high noise correlation. However, the proposed TV regularization obtains a better edge preserving performance. Studies of electron density measurement also show that our method reduces the average estimation error from 9.5% to 7.1%. On the anthropomorphic head phantom, the proposed method suppresses the noise standard deviation of the decomposed images by a factor of ?14 without blurring the fine structures in the sinus area. Conclusions: The authors propose a practical method for DECT imaging reconstruction, which combines the image reconstruction and material decomposition into one optimization framework. Compared to the existing approaches, our method achieves a superior performance on DECT imaging with respect to decomposition accuracy, noise reduction, and spatial resolution.
Application of subgroup decomposition in diffusion theory to gas cooled thermal reactor problem
Yasseri, S.; Rahnema, F. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Program, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, the accuracy and computational efficiency of the subgroup decomposition (SGD) method in diffusion theory is assessed in a ID benchmark problem characteristic of gas cooled thermal systems. This method can be viewed as a significant improvement in accuracy of standard coarse-group calculations used for VHTR whole core analysis in which core environmental effect and energy angle coupling are pronounced. It is shown that a 2-group SGD calculation reproduces fine-group (47) results with 1.5 to 6 times faster computational speed depending on the stabilizing schemes while it is as efficient as single standard 6-group diffusion calculation. (authors)
Completely positive maps within the framework of direct-sum decomposition of state space
Longjiang Liu; D. M. Tong
2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate completely positive maps for an open system interacting with its environment. The families of the initial states for which the reduced dynamics can be described by a completely positive map are identified within the framework of direct-sum decomposition of state space. They includes not only separable states with vanishing or nonvanishing quantum discord but also entangled states. A general expression of the families as well as the Kraus operators for the completely positive maps are explicitly given. It significantly extends the previous results.
Knot Topology of Vacuum Space-Time and Vacuum Decomposition of Einstein's Theory
Y. M. Cho; Franklin H. Cho
2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
Viewing Einstein's theory as the gauge theory of Lorentz group, we construct the most general vacuum connections which have vanishing curvature tensor and show that the vacuum space-time can be classified by the knot topology $\\pi_3(S^3)\\simeq \\pi_3(S^2)$ of $\\pi_3(SO(3,1))$. With this we obtain the gauge independent vacuum decomposition of Einstein's theory to the vacuum and gauge covariant physical parts. We discuss the physical implications of our result in quantum gravity.
Liang, Lan
2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
and carbon blacks for reuse. It is noted that molten salts, especially aluminum chloride (AlCl3), of which the base metal has an electron structure t 4 requirement with the polymer undergoing decomposition, can act as catalysts for decomposing tire... rubbers.10 The fact that molten salt catalysis can be used to decompose tire rubbers has been known for several decades.11-12 However, to date no literature reports a successful commercial catalytic conversion process for the disposal of scrap tires...
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
H pato-Gastroent rologie9 ' Ã© Ã© CHU Clermont-Ferrand, H tel-DieuÃ´ , FR Laboratoire Solvay Pharma10 Laboratoire Solvay Pharma, 42 rue Rouget de Lisles, 92151 Suresnes CEDEX,FR * Correspondence should
Why Blow Away Heat? Harvest Server's Heat Using Ther-moelectric Generators
Huang, Polly
ABSTRACT This paper argues for harvesting energy from servers' wasted heat in data centers. Our approach. INTRODUCTION A data center consumes vast amount of electricity and produces enormous amount of wasted heat that needs to be removed by cooling facilities. This paper looks at wasted heat as opportunities for energy
Mehmood, Faisal; Rankin, Rees B.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.
2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A combination of ?rst principles Density Functional Theory calculations and thermochemical scaling relationships are employed to estimate the thermochemistry and kinetics of methanol decomposition on unsupported subnanometer metal clusters. The approach uses binding energies of various atomic and molecular species, determined on the pure metal clusters, to develop scaling relationships that are then further used to estimate the methanol decomposition thermodynamics for a series of pure and bimetallic clusters with four atoms per cluster. Additionally, activation energy barriers are estimated from Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi plots relating transition and ?nal state energies on these clusters. The energetic results are combined with a simple, microkineticallyinspired rate expression to estimate reaction rates as a function of important catalytic descriptors, including the carbon and atomic oxygen binding energies to the clusters. Based on these analyses, several alloy clusters are identi?ed as promising candidates for the methanol decomposition reaction.
HYBRID SULFUR FLOWSHEETS USING PEM ELECTROLYSIS AND A BAYONET DECOMPOSITION REACTOR
Gorensek, M; William Summers, W
2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
A conceptual design is presented for a Hybrid Sulfur process for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature nuclear heat source to split water. The process combines proton exchange membrane-based SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer technology being developed at Savannah River National Laboratory with silicon carbide bayonet decomposition reactor technology being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Both are part of the US DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The flowsheet otherwise uses only proven chemical process components. Electrolyzer product is concentrated from 50 wt% sulfuric acid to 75 wt% via recuperative vacuum distillation. Pinch analysis is used to predict the high-temperature heat requirement for sulfuric acid decomposition. An Aspen Plus{trademark} model of the flowsheet indicates 340.3 kJ high-temperature heat, 75.5 kJ low-temperature heat, 1.31 kJ low-pressure steam, and 120.9 kJ electric power are consumed per mole of H{sub 2} product, giving an LHV efficiency of 35.3% (41.7% HHV efficiency) if electric power is available at a conversion efficiency of 45%.
General Electric-Magnetic decomposition of fields, positivity and Rainich-like conditions
Jose M M Senovilla
2000-10-29T23:59:59.000Z
We show how to generalize the classical electric-magnetic decomposition of the Maxwell or the Weyl tensors to arbitrary fields described by tensors of any rank in general $n$-dimensional spacetimes of Lorentzian signature. The properties and applications of this decomposition are reviewed. In particular, the definition of tensors quadratic in the original fields and with important positivity properties is given. These tensors are usually called "super-energy" (s-e) tensors, they include the traditional energy-momentum, Bel and Bel-Robinson tensors, and satisfy the so-called Dominant Property, which is a straightforward generalization of the classical dominant energy condition satisfied by well-behaved energy-momentum tensors. We prove that, in fact, any tensor satisfying the dominant property can be decomposed as a finite sum of the s-e tensors. Some remarks about the conservation laws derivable from s-e tensors, with some explicit examples, are presented. Finally, we will show how our results can be used to provide adequate generalizations of the Rainich conditions in general dimension and for any physical field.
G. J. de Frias; W. Aquino; K. H. Pierson; M. W. Heinstein; B. W. Spencer
2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
One of the main computational issues with explicit dynamics simulations is the significant reduction of the critical time step as the spatial resolution of the finite element mesh increases. In this work, a selective mass scaling approach is presented that can significantly reduce the computational cost in explicit dynamic simulations, while maintaining accuracy. The proposed method is based on a multiscale decomposition approach that separates the dynamics of the system into low (coarse scales) and high frequencies (fine scales). Here, the critical time step is increased by selectively applying mass scaling on the fine scale component only. In problems where the response is dominated by the coarse (low frequency) scales, significant increases in the stable time step can be realized. In this work, we use the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method to build the coarse scale space. The main idea behind POD is to obtain an optimal low-dimensional orthogonal basis for representing an ensemble of high-dimensional data. In our proposed method, the POD space is generated with snapshots of the solution obtained from early times of the full-scale simulation. The example problems addressed in this work show significant improvements in computational time, without heavily compromising the accuracy of the results.
Mahajan, Devinder; Jones, Keith W.; Feng, Huan; Winters, William J.
2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The use of methane hydrate as an energy source requires development of a reliable method for its extraction from its highly dispersed locations in oceanic margin sediments and permafrost. The high pressure (up to 70 MPa) and low temperature (272 K to 278 K) conditions under which hydrates are stable in the marine environment can be mimicked in a laboratory setting and several kinetic studies of pure methane hydrate decomposition have been reported. However, the effect of host sediments on methane hydrate occurrence and decomposition are required to develop reliable hydrate models. In this paper, we describe methods to measure sediment properties as they relate to pore-space methane gas hydrate. Traditional geotechnical techniques are compared to the micrometer level by use of the synchrotron Computed Microtomography (CMT) technique. CMT was used to measure the porosity at the micrometer level and to show pore-space pathways through field samples. Porosities for three sediment samples: one from a site on Georges Bank and two from the known Blake Ridge methane hydrate site, from different depths below the mud line were measured by traditional drying and by the new CMT techniques and found to be in good agreement. The integration of the two analytical approaches is necessary to enable better understanding of methane hydrate interactions with the surrounding sediment particles.
FT-IR analyses of the oxidative decomposition products of cyanoferrate wastes
Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Colby, S.A.
1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Hanford Site (Fig. 1) near Richland, Washington, operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, had produced nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs for more than 50 years. The radioactive liquid waste resulting from the processing of irradiated nuclear materials is stored temporarily in single-shell carbon steel tanks (Fig. 2) at the Site. The tanks are buried underground in tank farms with several feet of soil cover above the tank closure (Fig. 3). As part of a program to conserve tank space in the 1950s`, a precipitation process was developed to scavenge radioactive cesium from the waste supernates. Ferrocyanide was added to the radioactive wastes and cesium-depleted supernates were discharged into cribs. Hexacyanoferrates [Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3{minus}} and Fe(CN{sub 6}{sup 4{minus}}] are generally considered to be extraordinarily stable and even called-kinetically inert. However, recent 2 safety concerns have focused on the stability of cyanoferrate-bearing tanks containing large quantities of nitrates and nitrites. One strategy to resolve this concern involves oxidative decomposition of the cyanoferrates with common oxidants such as ozone (O{sub 3}) and hydrogen peroxide. This paper describes the results of the initial studies on the treatment of simulated cyanoferrate wastes with ozone and ozone-hydrogen peroxide mixtures. The oxidative decomposition products were analyzed by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method.
Kim, Sehun
Study of Adsorption and Decomposition of H2O on Ge(100) Soon Jung Jung, Jun Young Lee, Suklyun Hong Form: October 9, 2005 The adsorption and decomposition of water on Ge(100) have been investigated using results revealed two distinct adsorption features of H2O on Ge(100) corresponding to molecular adsorption
Hitchcock, Adam P.
Quantitative Mapping of Structured Polymeric Systems Using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis of Soft X-ray Images I. N. Koprinarov, A. P. Hitchcock,* C. T. McCrory, and R. F. Childs Department of this system. The sample was studied fully hydrated in order to perform the quantitative mapping when
Murphy, Robert F.
Less is More: Compact Matrix Decomposition for Large Sparse Graphs Jimeng Sun Yinglian Xie Hui Given a large sparse graph, how can we find patterns and anomalies? Several important applications can be modeled as large sparse graphs, e.g., network traffic monitoring, research citation network analysis
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Cavitation regime detection through Proper Orthogonal Decomposition: dynamics analysis of the sheet in turbines and propellers is responsible for many issues like erosion, noise and vibrations. This two). This method is applied to sequences of sheet cavity images, in order to identify the cavitation regimes (sheet
Photoinitiated H2CO unimolecular decomposition: Accessing H HCO products via S0 and T1 pathways
Reisler, Hanna
because they lie below the T1 barrier. Alternatively, at the high end of the energy range, the T1 pathway decomposition of formaldehyde via the H HCO radical channel has been examined at energies where the S0 and T1 with increasing energy , while the T1 pathway involves a barrier and therefore a tight transition state
Vallino, Joseph J.
decomposition at the WB barrier. Sulfate reduction: SO4 2- + 2CH2O + 2H+ 2CO2 + H2S + 2H2O 1.2. Questions 2 Abstract Permeable reactive barriers can benefit aquatic ecosystems by using wood chips to remove carbon was more important in the wood from the barriers. Keywords Nitrate removal, Permeable Reactive
Hucul, D.A.; Brenner, A.
1981-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents the first detailed study of the temperature-programmed decomposition (TPDE) in flowing hydrogen of every element which forms a stable carbonyl. The investigation shows that these systems have an unexpectedly high propensity to form methane. The parameters affecting the yield of methane are described and this stoichiometric reaction is compared to catalytic methanation. (AT)
Mode Decomposition Method RONALD J. LAI Environmental Sciences Branch, Minerals Management Service, U investigation related to the shelf/slope dynamics studies sponsored by the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The development of deep water oil exploration and extraction in the GOM region has increased rapidly in recent
Masud, Arif
. There are many processes in nat- ure that can be modeled using the Darcy flow equations. Oil extraction to be solenoidal (i.e., a divergence free vector field). The main issue is that the equations of Darcy flow leadA stabilized mixed finite element method for Darcy flow based on a multiscale decomposition
Bank, Randolph E.
Partial Di#11;erential Equations Randolph E. Bank #3; and Peter K. Jimack y Abstract We present a new domain decomposition algorithm for the parallel #12;nite element solution of elliptic partial di#11 to be utilized in a well load-balanced manner. Finally, numerical evidence is presented which suggests
Kik, Pieter
in fuel cell vehicles [3]. Methanol can be produced from a number of renewable resources such as black of electricity, and its promise for use in fuel cell technology, thus it has been the subject of intensive study-dependent decomposition of methanol (MeOH) over narrowly distributed Pt nanoparticles supported on nanocrystalline anatase
New Hampshire, University of
Purchasing Compost Compost, the end product of a controlled decomposition of plant and animal wastes, makes an excellent addition to lawn or garden soil. Adding compost to your soil helps improve both its drainage and waterholding properties. Compost stores plant nutrients and prevents them from
Boyer, Edmond
-rich birnessite prepared from the thermal decomposition of KMnO4 at 1000Â°C in air has been refined by Rietveld, and rechargeable battery technology [25-42]. More recently, mesoporous hollow shells with birnessite walls have also been synthesized [43]. Besides, birnessites play a pivotal role in the fate of heavy metals
Iglesia, Enrique
Isotopic and kinetic assessment of the mechanism of methane reforming and decomposition reactions reforming reactions. 1. Introduction Methane is an essential raw material in the synthesis of liquid fuels and petrochemical, but its strong CH bonds (439 kJ molÀ1 1 ) require active catalysts and severe reaction
Moorcroft, Paul R.
rights reserved. LETTERS High sensitivity of peat decomposition to climate change through water of the high water-holding capacity of peat and its low hydraulic conductivity, accumulation of soil organicbiogeochemical soil model with peat depths that are continuously updated from the dynamic balance of soil organic
Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.
1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
The invention comprises a method for the oxidation of alkanes to alcohols and for decomposition of hydroperoxides to alcohols utilizing new compositions of matter, which are metal complexes of porphyrins. Preferred complexes have hydrogen, haloalkyl or haloaryl groups in meso positions, two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloaryl, and two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloalkyl, but not all four of the meso atoms or groups being hydrogen. Other preferred complexes are ones in which all four of the meso positions are substituted with haloalkyl groups and the beta positions are substituted with halogen atoms. A new method of synthesizing porphyrinogens is also disclosed.
Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention comprises a method for the oxidation of alkanes to alcohols and for decomposition of hydroperoxides to alcohols utilizing new compositions of matter, which are metal complexes of porphyrins. Preferred complexes have hydrogen, haloalkyl or haloaryl groups in meso positions, two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloaryl, and two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloalkyl, but not all four of the meso atoms or groups being hydrogen. Other preferred complexes are ones in which all four of the meso positions are substituted with haloalkyl groups and the beta positions are substituted with halogen atoms. A new method of synthesizing porphyrinogens is also disclosed.
Data decomposition of Monte Carlo particle transport simulations via tally servers
Romano, Paul K., E-mail: paul.k.romano@gmail.com [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Siegel, Andrew R., E-mail: siegala@mcs.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Theory and Computing Sciences, 9700 S Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Forget, Benoit, E-mail: bforget@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Smith, Kord, E-mail: kord@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
An algorithm for decomposing large tally data in Monte Carlo particle transport simulations is developed, analyzed, and implemented in a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, OpenMC. The algorithm is based on a non-overlapping decomposition of compute nodes into tracking processors and tally servers. The former are used to simulate the movement of particles through the domain while the latter continuously receive and update tally data. A performance model for this approach is developed, suggesting that, for a range of parameters relevant to LWR analysis, the tally server algorithm should perform with minimal overhead on contemporary supercomputers. An implementation of the algorithm in OpenMC is then tested on the Intrepid and Titan supercomputers, supporting the key predictions of the model over a wide range of parameters. We thus conclude that the tally server algorithm is a successful approach to circumventing classical on-node memory constraints en route to unprecedentedly detailed Monte Carlo reactor simulations.
Qian Zhao; Bao Yuan Sun; Wen Hui Long
2014-11-23T23:59:59.000Z
The isospin coupling-channel decomposition of the potential energy density functional is carried out within the covariant density functional theory, and their isospin and density dependence in particular the influence on the symmetry energy is studied. It is found that both isospin-singlet and isospin-triplet components of the potential energy play the dominant role in deciding the symmetry energy, especially when the Fock diagram is introduced. The results illustrate a quite different mechanism to the origin of the symmetry energy from the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory, and demonstrate the importance of the Fork diagram in the CDF theory, especially from the isoscalar mesons, in the isospin properties of the in-medium nuclear force at high density.
Growth and stability of oxidation resistant Si nanocrystals formed by decomposition of alkyl silanes
Zaitseva, N; Hamel, S; Dai, Z R; Saw, C; Williamson, A J; Galli, G
2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
The synthesis and characterization of 1-10 nm Si nanocrystals highly resistant to oxidation is described. The nanocrystals were prepared by thermal decomposition of tetramethylsilane at 680 C, or in a gold- induced catalytic process at lower temperatures down to 400-450 C using trioctylamine as an initial solvent. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of samples obtained in the presence of gold show that the nanocrystals form via solid-phase epitaxial attachment of Si to the gold crystal lattice. The results of computational modeling performed using first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that the enhanced stability of nanocrystals to oxidation is due to the presence of N or N-containing groups on the surface of nanocrystals.
Decomposition of a Nonlinear Multivariate Function using the Heaviside Step Function
Eisuke Chikayama
2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
Whereas the Dirac delta function introduced by P. A. M. Dirac in 1930 in his famous quantum mechanics text has been well studied, a not famous formula related to the delta function using the Heaviside step function in a single-variable form, also given in Dirac's text, has been poorly studied. We demonstrate the decomposition of a nonlinear multivariate function into a sum of integrals in which each integrand is composed of a derivative of the function and a direct product of Heaviside step functions. It is an extension of Dirac's single-variable form to that for multiple variables. Moreover, it remains mathematically equivalent to the definition of the Dirac delta function with multiple variables, and offers a mathematically unified expression.
Preparation of nanocrystalline perovskite KNbO{sub 3} by peroxo-precursor decomposition method
Tsuyumoto, Isao, E-mail: tsuyu@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Bioscience and Chemistry, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Bioscience and Chemistry, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Kato, Tomohiro; Arai, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Bioscience and Chemistry, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Bioscience and Chemistry, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)
2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Nanocrystalline perovskite KNbO{sub 3} is prepared by a peroxo-precursor decomposition method at moderate temperatures of 650-900 {sup o}C. Peroxo-heteropoly-niobic acid is prepared by direct reaction between NbC powder and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} aq, and mixing the peroxo-heteropoly-niobic acid with KOH aq yields an amorphous precursor salt. Perovskite KNbO{sub 3} is obtained by heating the precursor in air for 1 h at 650-900 {sup o}C. The X-ray diffraction patterns were well fitted with the space group Pm3m in the Rietveld analysis. The X-ray diffraction peak profiles and field emission scanning electron microscope images indicate the crystallite size is in the range of 25-35 nm.
Internal friction study of decomposition kinetics of SAF 2507 type duplex stainless steel
Smuk, O.; Smuk, S.; Hanninen, H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Engineering Materials] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Engineering Materials; Jagodzinski, Yu.; Tarasenko, O. [National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. for Metal Physics] [National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. for Metal Physics
1999-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
During the last decade, super duplex stainless steels (DSSs) with increased nitrogen content have been an object of intensive studies. Present work is devoted to the study of the peculiarities of {delta}-ferrite decomposition in SAF 2507 type duplex steel, and redistribution of nitrogen between ferrite and austenite phases in a wide temperature range by means of internal fraction (IF). Unlike local methods of electron microscopy or engineering methods of hardness or impact toughness testing, which give basically information on the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, the internal friction technique allows to study the state of solid solution and kinetics of changes in the relative amounts of ferrite and austenite phases during thermal treatment.
Leung, Kevin; Foster, Michael E; Ma, Yuguang; del la Hoz, Julibeth M Martinez; Sai, Na; Balbuena, Perla B
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) shows promise as an electrolyte additive for improving passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films on silicon anodes used in lithium ion batteries (LIB). We apply density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), and quantum chemistry techniques to examine excess-electron-induced FEC molecular decomposition mechanisms that lead to FEC-modified SEI. We consider one- and two-electron reactions using cluster models and explicit interfaces between liquid electrolyte and model Li(x)Si(y) surfaces, respectively. FEC is found to exhibit more varied reaction pathways than unsubstituted ethylene carbonate. The initial bond-breaking events and products of one- and two-electron reactions are qualitatively similar, with a fluoride ion detached in both cases. However, most one-electron products are charge-neutral, not anionic, and may not coalesce to form effective Li+-conducting SEI unless they are further reduced or take part in other reactions. The implication...
Sapphire decomposition and inversion domains in N-polar aluminum nitride
Hussey, Lindsay, E-mail: lkhussey@ncsu.edu; White, Ryan M.; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Guo, Wei; Osterman, Katherine; Haidet, Brian; Bryan, Zachary; Bobea, Milena; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); Mita, Seiji [HexaTech, Inc., 991 Aviation Pkwy, Suite 800, Morrisville, North Carolina 27560 (United States)
2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching confirmed that inversion domains in the N-polar AlN grown on c-plane sapphire were due to the decomposition of sapphire in the presence of hydrogen. The inversion domains were found to correspond to voids at the AlN and sapphire interface, and transmission electron microscopy results showed a V-shaped, columnar inversion domain with staggered domain boundary sidewalls. Voids were also observed in the simultaneously grown Al-polar AlN, however no inversion domains were present. The polarity of AlN grown above the decomposed regions of the sapphire substrate was confirmed to be Al-polar by KOH etching and TEM.
Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.
Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Erickson, Kenneth L
2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation result is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.
Fast singular value decomposition combined maximum entropy method for plasma tomography
Kim, Junghee; Choe, W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701(Korea, Republic of)
2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The maximum entropy method (MEM) is a widely used reconstruction algorithm in plasma physics. Drawbacks of the conventional MEM are its heavy time-consuming process and possible generation of noisy reconstruction results. In this article, a modified maximum entropy algorithm is described which speeds up the calculation and shows better noise handling capability. Similar to the rapid minimum Fisher information method, the modified maximum entropy algorithm uses simple matrix operations instead of treating a fully nonlinear problem. The preprocess for rapid tomographic calculation is based on the vector operations and the singular value decomposition (SVD). The initial guess of the sought-for emissivity is calculated by SVD and this helped reconstruction about ten times faster than the conventional MEM. Therefore, the developed fast MEM can be used for intershot tomographic analyses of fusion plasmas.
A decomposition approach to optimal reactive power dispatch in large-scale power systems
Deeb, N.I.
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Power systems network operation is aimed at reducing system losses and minimizing the operational cost while satisfying performance requirements in normal and contingency situations. In this project, the procedure for the reactive power optimization has the solutions for investment and operation subproblems. The global solution is an iterative process between these two subproblems using the Bender decomposition method. In the investment subproblem decisions for the capacity and location of new reactive sources are made. These decisions are used in the optimization of the system operation. The outstanding features of the proposed method are that it does not require any matrix inversion, will save computation time and memory space, and can be implemented on very large scale power systems. The method employs a linearized objective function and constraints, and is based on adjusting control variables which are tap positions of transformers and reactive power injections. Linear programming is used to calculate voltage increments, which would minimize transmission losses, and adjustments of control variables would be obtained by a modified Jacobian matrix. This approach would greatly simplify the application of Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition method for solving the operation subproblem. According to the mathematical features of the Dantzig-Wolfe method, a multi-area approach is implemented and system equations are decomposed into a master problem and several subproblems. The master problem is formed by constraints, which represent linking transmission lines between areas. Two updated techniques are incorporated in the method to enhance the optimization process, which would save additional computation time and memory space. The proposed method is applied to the IEEE-30 bus system, a 60-bus system, a 180-bus system and a 1200-bus system, and numerical results are presented.
Mimicking Natural Systems: Methane Hydrate Formation-Decomposition in Depleted Sediments
Eaton, M.; Jones, K; Mahajan, D
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We have initiated a systematic study of sediment-hydrate interaction under subsurface-mimic conditions to initially focus on marine hydrates. A major obstacle to studying natural hydrate systems has been the absence of a sophisticated mimic apparatus in which the hydrate formation phenomenon can be reproduced with precision. We have designed and constructed a bench-top unit, namely flexible integrated study of hydrates (FISH), for this purpose. The unit is fully instrumented to precisely record temperatures, pressures and changes in gas volume during absorption/evolution. The Labview software allows rapid and continuous data collection during the hydrate formation/dissociation cycle. In our integrated approach, several host sediments collected from Blake Ridge, a well-researched hydrate site, were characterized using the computed microtomography technique at Beamline X-26A of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The characterized depleted sediments were then used to study the hydrate formation/decomposition kinetics under various pressures in the FISH unit. We report two hydrate formation methods: one under continuous methane gas-flow conditions (dynamic mode) and the other in which hydrates are formed from the dissolved gas phase by diffusion (static mode). Also reported is a depressurization method, namely the step-down pressure method, to yield gas evolution data. Data from such runs with host sediment from the deepest site (667 metres) is presented. During hydrate formation, the data reveals a temperature signature that is consistent with an exothermic hydrate formation event. In the decomposition cycle, data at various pressures was analysed to yield curves with similar slopes, suggesting a zero-order dependence. The capabilities of the FISH unit and the implications of these runs in establishing a database of sediment-hydrate kinetics and pore saturation are discussed.
Ignacio Gomez; Mario Castagnino
2014-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we study Spectral Decomposition Theorem [1] and translate it to quantum language by means of the Wigner transform. We obtain a quantum version of Spectral Decomposition Theorem (QSDT) which enables us to achieve three distinct goals: First, to rank Quantum Ergodic Hierarchy levels [2,3]. Second, to analyze the classical limit in quantum ergodic systems and quantum mixing systems. And third, and maybe most important feature, to find a relevant and simple connection between the first three levels of quantum ergodic hierarchy (ergodic, exact and mixing) and quantum spectrum. Finally, we illustrate the physical relevance of QSDT applying it to two examples: Microwave billiards [4,5] and a phenomenological Gamow model type [6,7].
Brodie, Eoin [Berkeley Lab
2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Eoin Brodie of Berkeley Lab on "Succession of phylogeny and function during plant litter decomposition" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Mehmood, F.; Greeley, J.; Zapol, P.; Curtiss, L. A.
2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z
A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on Cu{sub 4} and Co{sub 4} clusters is presented. The reaction intermediates and activation barriers have been determined for reaction steps to form H{sub 2} and CO. For both clusters, methanol decomposition initiated by C-H and O-H bond breaking was investigated. In the case of a Cu{sub 4} cluster, methanol dehydrogenation through hydroxymethyl (CH{sub 2}OH), hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO) is found to be slightly more favorable. For a Co{sub 4} cluster, the dehydrogenation pathway through methoxy (CH{sub 3}O) and formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O) is slightly more favorable. Each of these pathways results in formation of CO and H{sub 2}. The Co cluster pathway is very favorable thermodynamically and kinetically for dehydrogenation. However, since CO binds strongly, it is likely to poison methanol decomposition to H{sub 2} and CO at low temperatures. In contrast, for the Cu cluster, CO poisoning is not likely to be a problem since it does not bind strongly, but the dehydrogenation steps are not energetically favorable. Pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are even less energetically favorable. The results are compared to our previous study of methanol decomposition on Pd{sub 4} and Pd{sub 8} clusters. Finally, all reaction energy changes and transition state energies, including those for the Pd clusters, are related in a linear, Broensted?Evans?Polanyi plot.
High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites
K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo
2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.
Radiation-Induced Decomposition of U(VI) Phase to Nanocrystals of UO2
S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing; L. Wang
2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
U{sup 6+}-phases are common alteration products, under oxidizing conditions, of uraninite and the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel. These U{sup 6+}-phases are subjected to a radiation field caused by the {alpha}-decay of U, or in the case of spent nuclear fuel, incorporated actinides, such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np. In order to evaluate the effects of {alpha}-decay events on the stability of the U{sup 6+}-phases, we report, for the first time, the results of ion beam irradiations (1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) of U{sup 6+}-phases. The heavy-particle irradiations are used to simulate the ballistic interactions of the recoil-nucleus of an {alpha}-decay event with the surrounding structure. The Kr{sup 2+}-irradiation decomposed the U{sup 6+}-phases to UO{sub 2} nanocrystals at doses as low as 0.006 displacements per atom (dpa). U{sup 6+}-phases accumulate substantial radiation doses ({approx}1.0 displacement per atom) within 100,000 years if the concentration of incorporated {sup 239}Pu is as high as 1 wt%. Similar nanocrystals of UO{sub 2} were observed in samples from the natural fission reactors at Oklo, Gabon. Multiple cycles of radiation-induced decomposition to UO{sub 2} followed by alteration to U{sup 6+}-phases provide a mechanism for the remobilization of incorporated radionuclides.
Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Protopopescu, Vladimir A [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new approach is developed for denoising signals using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique and the Information-theoretic method. The EMD technique is applied to decompose a noisy sensor signal into the so-called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). These functions are of the same length and in the same time domain as the original signal. Therefore, the EMD technique preserves varying frequency in time. Assuming the given signal is corrupted by high-frequency Gaussian noise implies that most of the noise should be captured by the first few modes. Therefore, our proposition is to separate the modes into high-frequency and low-frequency groups. We applied an information-theoretic method, namely mutual information, to determine the cut-off for separating the modes. A denoising procedure is applied only to the high-frequency group using a shrinkage approach. Upon denoising, this group is combined with the original low-frequency group to obtain the overall denoised signal. We illustrate our approach with simulated and real-world data sets. The results are compared to two popular denoising techniques in the literature, namely discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). We found that our approach performs better than DWT and DFT in most cases, and comparatively to DWT in some cases in terms of: (i) mean square error, (ii) recomputed signal-to-noise ratio, and (iii) visual quality of the denoised signals.
Search for gravitational wave bursts by wavelet packet decomposition: The detection algorithm
Camarda, M.; Ortolan, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Via Gradenigo, 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)
2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a novel method based on wavelet packet transformation for detection of gravitational wave (gw) bursts embedded in additive Gaussian noise. The method exploits a wavelet packet decomposition of observed data and performs detection of bursts at multiple time-frequency resolutions by the extreme value statistics. We discuss the performances of detection algorithms (efficiency and robustness) in the general framework of hypothesis testing. In particular, we compare the performances of wavelet packet (WP), matched filter (MF), and power filter (PF) algorithms by means of a complete Monte Carlo simulation of the output of a gw detector, with the detection efficiencies of MF and PF playing the role of upper and lower bounds, respectively. Moreover, the performances of impulsive filter (IF) algorithm, widely used in the data analysis of resonant gw detectors, have been investigated. Results we get by injecting chirplet signals confirm the expected performances in terms of efficiency and robustness. To illustrate the application of the new method to real data, we analyzed a few data sets of the resonant gw detector AURIGA.
Donald Estep; Michael Holst; Simon Tavener
2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
This project was concerned with the accurate computational error estimation for numerical solutions of multiphysics, multiscale systems that couple different physical processes acting across a large range of scales relevant to the interests of the DOE. Multiscale, multiphysics models are characterized by intimate interactions between different physics across a wide range of scales. This poses significant computational challenges addressed by the proposal, including: (1) Accurate and efficient computation; (2) Complex stability; and (3) Linking different physics. The research in this project focused on Multiscale Operator Decomposition methods for solving multiphysics problems. The general approach is to decompose a multiphysics problem into components involving simpler physics over a relatively limited range of scales, and then to seek the solution of the entire system through some sort of iterative procedure involving solutions of the individual components. MOD is a very widely used technique for solving multiphysics, multiscale problems; it is heavily used throughout the DOE computational landscape. This project made a major advance in the analysis of the solution of multiscale, multiphysics problems.
Kevin Leung; Susan B. Rempe; Michael E. Foster; Yuguang Ma; Julibeth M. Martinez del la Hoz; Na Sai; Perla B. Balbuena
2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) shows promise as an electrolyte additive for improving passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films on silicon anodes used in lithium ion batteries (LIB). We apply density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), and quantum chemistry techniques to examine excess-electron-induced FEC molecular decomposition mechanisms that lead to FEC-modified SEI. We consider one- and two-electron reactions using cluster models and explicit interfaces between liquid electrolyte and model Li(x)Si(y) surfaces, respectively. FEC is found to exhibit more varied reaction pathways than unsubstituted ethylene carbonate. The initial bond-breaking events and products of one- and two-electron reactions are qualitatively similar, with a fluoride ion detached in both cases. However, most one-electron products are charge-neutral, not anionic, and may not coalesce to form effective Li+-conducting SEI unless they are further reduced or take part in other reactions. The implications of these reactions to silicon-anode based LIB are discussed.
Orthogonal decomposition as a design tool: With application to a mixing impeller
Sloan, Benjamin
2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Digital manufacturing eliminates the expense and time required to develop custom products. By utilizing this technology, designers can quickly create a customized product specifically for their performance needs. But the timescale and expense from the engineering design workflows used to develop these customized products have not been adapted from the workflows used in mass production. In many cases these customized designs build upon already successful mass-produced products that were developed using conventional engineering design workflows. Many times as part of this conventional design process significant time is spent creating and validating high fidelity models that accurately predict the performance of the final design. These existing validated high fidelity models used for the mass-produced design can be reused for analysis and design of unknown products. This thesis explores the integration of reduced order modeling and detailed analysis into the engineering design workflow developing a customized design using digital manufacturing. Specifically, detailed analysis is coupled with proper orthogonal decomposition to enable the exploration of the design space while simultaneously shaping the model representing the design. This revised workflow is examined using the design of a laboratory scale overhead mixer impeller. The case study presented here is compared with the design of the Kar Dynamic Mixer impeller developed by The Dow Chemical Company. The result of which is a customized design for a refined set of operating conditions with improved performance.
Schmidt, A.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Brown, M.D.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.N.; Wilcox, W.A.; Gano, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, B.C.; Gavaskar, A.R. [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)] [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)
1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) is a chemical dehalogenation process designed for treating soils and other substrate contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, dioxins, furans, and other hazardous organic substances. PCBs are heavy organic liquids once widely used in industry as lubricants, heat transfer oils, and transformer dielectric fluids. In 1976, production was banned when PCBs were recognized as carcinogenic substances. It was estimated that significant quantities (one billion tons) of U.S. soils, including areas on U.S. military bases outside the country, were contaminated by PCB leaks and spills, and cleanup activities began. The BCD technology was developed in response to these activities. This report details the evolution of the process, from inception to deployment in Guam, and describes the process and system components provided to the Navy to meet the remediation requirements. The report is divided into several sections to cover the range of development and demonstration activities. Section 2.0 gives an overview of the project history. Section 3.0 describes the process chemistry and remediation steps involved. Section 4.0 provides a detailed description of each component and specific development activities. Section 5.0 details the testing and deployment operations and provides the results of the individual demonstration campaigns. Section 6.0 gives an economic assessment of the process. Section 7.0 presents the conclusions and recommendations form this project. The appendices contain equipment and instrument lists, equipment drawings, and detailed run and analytical data.
Decomposition of the total momentum in a linear dielectric into field and matter components
Crenshaw, Michael E., E-mail: michael.crenshaw@us.army.mil
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The long-standing resolution of the Abraham–Minkowski electromagnetic momentum controversy is predicated on a decomposition of the total momentum of a closed continuum electrodynamic system into separate field and matter components. Using a microscopic model of a simple linear dielectric, we derive Lagrangian equations of motion for the electric dipoles and show that the dielectric can be treated as a collection of stationary simple harmonic oscillators that are driven by the electric field and produce a polarization field in response. The macroscopic energy and momentum are defined in terms of the electric, magnetic, and polarization fields that travel through the dielectric together as a pulse of electromagnetic radiation. We conclude that both the macroscopic total energy and the macroscopic total momentum are entirely electromagnetic in nature for a simple linear dielectric in the absence of significant reflections. -- Highlights: •The total momentum in a dielectric is identified by conservation principles. •The total momentum in a dielectric cannot be decomposed into field and matter parts. •A component of momentum in a dielectric is due to motion of the polarization field.
Fiber Optic Sensing Technology for Detecting Gas Hydrate Formation and Decomposition
Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Leeman, John R [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Ulrich, Shannon M [ORNL; Alford, Jonathan E [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Madden, Megan Elwood [University of Oklahoma, Norman
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A fiber optic-based distributed sensing system (DSS) has been integrated with a large volume (72 L) pressure vessel providing high spatial resolution, time resolved, 3-D measurement of hybrid temperature-strain (TS) values within experimental sediment gas hydrate systems. Areas of gas hydrate formation (exothermic) and decomposition (endothermic) can be characterized through this proxy by time series analysis of discrete data points collected along the length of optical fibers placed within a sediment system. Data is visualized as a 'movie' of TS values along the length of each fiber over time. Experiments conducted in the Seafloor Processing Simulator (SPS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory show clear indications of hydrate formation and dissociation events at expected P-T conditions given the thermodynamics of the CH4-H2O system. The high spatial resolution achieved with fiber optic technology makes the DSS a useful tool for visualizing time resolved formation and dissociation of gas hydrates in large-scale sediment experiments.
Pivovar, B. S.; Edson, J. B.; Macomber, C. S.; Long, H.; Boncella, J. M.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The mechanism of the thermal decomposition of a series of alkyl trimethyl ammonium hydroxides ([RMe{sub 3}N][OH], R = Et, n-Pr, i-Bu, PhCH{sub 2}, Me{sub 3}CCH{sub 2}) was studied using TGA, evolved gas analysis and NMR spectroscopy due to the importance of these and related ions in anion exchange fuel cell membranes. Isotopic labeling with deuterium showed that deprotonation of the methyl groups of the ammonium ions by deuteroxide establishes a rapid equilibrium between the tetraalkyl ammonium ions and the nitrogen ylide species and water that scrambles the deuterium with the proton on the methyl groups. The products of the thermal decomposition when R = Et, n-Pr, i-Bu are predominately olefins arising from Hoffmann elimination, while the neopentyl substituted ammonium ion gives only neopentyl trimethyl amine and methanol, the products of S{sub N}2 attack of hydroxide on the methyl groups. DFT studies of these reactions confirm the relative activation barriers that are observed in the experimental decomposition studies.
Department of Mathematics MAL 250 (Probability and Stochastic Processes)
Dharmaraja, S.
components each with reliability 0.8. If the reliability of the system is to be at least 0.99, then the minimum number of components in this system is 3. 3. Let = {a, b, c, d}. Find three different -fields {Fn and C that x is divisible by 5. Are the events A, B and C independent? 16. An electronic assembly
Lin, Yuting [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Liu, Tian; Yang, Xiaofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Hospital, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wang, Yuenan [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland (United States); Khan, Mohammad K., E-mail: drkhurram2000@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Hospital, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)
2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: The objective of this work is to characterize and quantify the impact of respiratory-induced prostate motion. Methods and Materials: Real-time intrafraction motion is observed with the Calypso 4-dimensional nonradioactive electromagnetic tracking system (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc. Seattle, Washington). We report the results from a total of 1024 fractions from 31 prostate cancer patients. Wavelet transform was used to decompose the signal to extract and isolate the respiratory-induced prostate motion from the total prostate displacement. Results: Our results show that the average respiratory motion larger than 0.5 mm can be observed in 68% of the fractions. Fewer than 1% of the patients showed average respiratory motion of less than 0.2 mm, whereas 99% of the patients showed average respiratory-induced motion ranging between 0.2 and 2 mm. The maximum respiratory range of motion of 3 mm or greater was seen in only 25% of the fractions. In addition, about 2% patients showed anxiety, indicated by a breathing frequency above 24 times per minute. Conclusions: Prostate motion is influenced by respiration in most fractions. Real-time intrafraction data are sensitive enough to measure the impact of respiration by use of wavelet decomposition methods. Although the average respiratory amplitude observed in this study is small, this technique provides a tool that can be useful if one moves to smaller treatment margins (?5 mm). This also opens ups the possibility of being able to develop patient specific margins, knowing that prostate motion is not unpredictable.
Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.
2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.
Amirov, I.I.; Vinogradov, G.K.; Slovetskii, D.I.
1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Decomposition products from tetrafluoromethane mixed with oxygen react with WTi alloy in an HF glow discharge, the extent of reaction being dependent on the atomic fluorine concentration, temperature, and surface potential. The rates of reaction with the CF/sub 4/ products are proportional to the atomic fluorine concentrations. The effective activation energies have been determined for the atomic fluorine reacting with the alloy components in various gases. The metal removal rate increases when the specimen is negative with respect to the plasma potential, which is ascribed to the surface being bombarded by positive ions or to the electric field affecting the surface reaction rates.
RADIATION-INDUCED DECOMPOSITION OF U(VI) ALTERATION PHASES OF UO2
S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing
2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z
U{sup 6+}-phases are common alteration products of spent nuclear fuel under oxidizing conditions, and they may potentially incorporate actinides, such as long-lived {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np, delaying their transport to the biosphere. In order to evaluate the ballistic effects of {alpha}-decay events on the stability of the U{sup 6+}-phases, we report, for the first time, the results of ion beam irradiations (1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) for six different structures of U{sup 6+}-phases: uranophane, kasolite, boltwoodite, saleeite, carnotite, and liebigite. The target uranyl-minerals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and identification confirmed by SAED (selected area electron diffraction) in TEM (transmission electron microscopy). The TEM observation revealed no initial contamination of uraninite in these U{sup 6+} phases. All of the samples were irradiated with in situ TEM observation using 1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+} in the IVEM (intermediate-voltage electron microscope) at the IVEM-Tandem Facility of Argonne National Laboratory. The ion flux was 6.3 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}/sec. The specimen temperatures during irradiation were 298 and 673 K, respectively. The Kr{sup 2+}-irradiation decomposed the U{sup 6+}-phases to nanocrystals of UO{sub 2} at doses as low as 0.006 dpa. The cumulative doses for the pure U{sup 6+}-phases, e.g., uranophane, at 0.1 and 1 million years (m.y.) are calculated to be 0.009 and 0.09 dpa using SRIM2003. However, with the incorporation of 1 wt.% {sup 239}Pu, the calculated doses reach 0.27 and {approx}1.00 dpa in ten thousand and one hundred thousand years, respectively. Under oxidizing conditions, multiple cycles of radiation-induced decomposition to UO{sub 2} followed by alteration to U{sup 6+}-phases should be further investigated to determine the fate of trace elements that may have been incorporated in the U{sup 6+}-phases.
Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This work applies the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method to data on real quarterly oil price (West Texas Intermediate - WTI) and U.S. gross domestic product (GDP). This relatively new method is adaptive and capable of handling non-linear and non-stationary data. Correlation analysis of the decomposition results was performed and examined for insights into the oil-macroeconomy relationship. Several components of this relationship were identified. However, the principal one is that the medium-run cyclical component of the oil price exerts a negative and exogenous influence on the main cyclical component of the GDP. This can be interpreted as the supply-driven or supply-shock component of the oil price-GDP relationship. In addition, weak correlations suggesting a lagging demand-driven, an expectations-driven, and a long-run supply-driven component of the relationship were also identified. Comparisons of these findings with significant oil supply disruption and recession dates were supportive. The study identified a number of lessons applicable to recent oil market events, including the eventuality of persistent economic and price declines following a long oil price run-up. In addition, it was found that oil-market related exogenous events are associated with short- to medium-run price implications regardless of whether they lead to actual supply disruptions.
Futatani, S. [France-Japan Magnetic Fusion Laboratory, CNRS, France; Bos, W.J.T. [CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B [ORNL; Schneider, Kai [Universite d'Aix-Marseille; Benkadda, S. [France-Japan Magnetic Fusion Laboratory, CNRS, France; Farge, Marie [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique-CNRL, Ecole Normale Superieure
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We assess two techniques for extracting coherent vortices out of turbulent flows: the wavelet based Coherent Vorticity Extraction (CVE) and the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). The former decomposes the flow field into an orthogonal wavelet representation and subsequent thresholding of the coefficients allows one to split the flow into organized coherent vortices with non-Gaussian statistics and an incoherent random part which is structureless. POD is based on the singular value decomposition and decomposes the flow into basis functions which are optimal with respect to the retained energy for the ensemble average. Both techniques are applied to direct numerical simulation data of two-dimensional drift-wave turbulence governed by Hasegawa Wakatani equation, considering two limit cases: the quasi-hydrodynamic and the quasi-adiabatic regimes. The results are compared in terms of compression rate, retained energy, retained enstrophy and retained radial flux, together with the enstrophy spectrum and higher order statistics. (c) 2010 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of Academie des sciences.
Xu, M.; Zaera, F. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The thermal decomposition of Fe(CO){sub 5}, Cr(CO){sub 6}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, and W(CO){sub 6} on Ni(100) surfaces and under ultrahigh vacuum conditions was studied by using temperature programmed desorption and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The initial adsorption of those metal carbonyls is mostly molecular at low temperatures, but complete decarbonylation to the naked metal takes place in all cases upon thermal activation. Experiments with coadsorbed isotopically labeled {sup 13}CO provided indirect evidence for a stepwise mechanism for Fe(CO){sub 5} which may include the formation of tetra- and tricarbonyl intermediates on the surface. For Cr(CO){sub 6}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, and W(CO){sub 6}, on the other hand, complete decomposition occurs in a narrow range of temperature, and no intermediate could be isolated on the surface. The deposition of metal films via metal carbonyl activation was studied under steady state conditions as well. Continuous deposition was seen at substrate temperatures as low as 300 K, but the grown films were found to incorporate both carbon and oxygen under most conditions tested and to change their morphology depending on the substrate temperature during deposition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}
Subber, Waad, E-mail: wsubber@connect.carleton.ca; Sarkar, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit_sarkar@carleton.ca
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Recent advances in high performance computing systems and sensing technologies motivate computational simulations with extremely high resolution models with capabilities to quantify uncertainties for credible numerical predictions. A two-level domain decomposition method is reported in this investigation to devise a linear solver for the large-scale system in the Galerkin spectral stochastic finite element method (SSFEM). In particular, a two-level scalable preconditioner is introduced in order to iteratively solve the large-scale linear system in the intrusive SSFEM using an iterative substructuring based domain decomposition solver. The implementation of the algorithm involves solving a local problem on each subdomain that constructs the local part of the preconditioner and a coarse problem that propagates information globally among the subdomains. The numerical and parallel scalabilities of the two-level preconditioner are contrasted with the previously developed one-level preconditioner for two-dimensional flow through porous media and elasticity problems with spatially varying non-Gaussian material properties. A distributed implementation of the parallel algorithm is carried out using MPI and PETSc parallel libraries. The scalabilities of the algorithm are investigated in a Linux cluster.
Lau, August
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The classical approach to solvability of a mathematical problem is to define a method which includes certain rules of operation or algorithms. Then using the defined method, one can show that some problems are solvable or not solvable or undecidable depending on the particular method. With numerical solutions implemented in a computer, it might be more practical to define solvability of a mathematical problem as a complex decomposition problem. The decomposition breaks the data into a simple part and a complex part. The simple part is the solvable part by the method prescribed in the problem definition. The complex part is the leftover of the simple part. Complex part can be viewed as the "residual" of data or operator. It should be interpreted and not to be discarded as useless. We will give different examples to illustrate the more practical definition of solvability. The complex part is not noise and should not be viewed as useless part of the data. It has its own merit in terms of topological or geologica...
Yu, Chung-Chin [Department of Environmental Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China) [Department of Environmental Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Nano Materials Applications R and D Center, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Yang, Kuang-Hsuan, E-mail: khy@mail.vnu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China) [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Nano Materials Applications R and D Center, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yu-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China) [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Nano Materials Applications R and D Center, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bo-Chuen [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Road, Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City, Taiwan (China)
2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we report a new pathway to prepare size-controllable gold nanoparticles (NPs) on chitosan (Ch) in aqueous solutions for improving catalytic decomposition of acetaldehyde by pure gold NPs at room temperature. First, Au substrates were cycled in deoxygenated aqueous solutions containing 0.1N NaCl and 1 g/L Ch from -0.28 to +1.22 V vs Ag/AgCl at 500 mV/s for 200 scans. Then the solutions were irradiated with UV lights of different wavelengths to prepare size-controllable Au NPs on Ch. Experimental results indicate that the particle sizes of prepared NPs are increased when UV lights with longer wavelengths were employed. The particle sizes of resulted Au NPs can be controlled from 10 to 50 nm. Moreover, the decomposition of acetaldehydes in wines can be significantly enhanced by ca. 190% of magnitude due to the contribution of the adsorption of Au NPs on Ch.
Menart, M. J.; Hensley, J. E.; Costelow, K. E.
2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
Cobalt molybdenum sulfide-type mixed alcohol catalysts were synthesized via calcination of precipitated bulk sulfides and studied with temperature programmed decomposition analysis. Precursors containing aqueous potassium were also considered. Precipitates thermally decomposed in unique events which released ammonia, carbon dioxide, and sulfur. Higher temperature treatments led to more crystalline and less active catalysts in general with ethanol productivity falling from 203 to 97 g (kg cat){sup -1} h{sup -1} when the calcination temperature was increased from 375 to 500 C. The addition of potassium to the precursor led to materials with crystalline potassium sulfides and good catalytic performance. In general, less potassium was required to promote alcohol selectivity when added before calcination. At calcination temperatures above 350 C, segregated cobalt sulfides were observed, suggesting that thermally decomposed sulfide precursors may contain a mixture of molybdenum and cobalt sulfides instead of a dispersed CoMoS type of material. When dimethyl disulfide was fed to the precursor during calcination, crystalline cobalt sulfides were not detected, suggesting an important role of free sulfur during decomposition.
Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III.; Hagaman, E.W.; Biggs, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))
1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In an effort to model the effects of restricted diffusion and cross-linking on the thermal decomposition of polymethylene units linking aromatic moieties in coal, a surface-attached, cross-linked 1,3-diphenylpropane has been synthesized through the condensation of p, p{prime}-HOPh(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PhOH with a silica surface. Thermolysis of DPP at 375 C has been studied at a variety of surface coverages in which the fraction of diattached DPP varies from ca. 24 to 86% with complete diattachment not yet achieved. The influence of cross-linking and free phenolic functionality (Ph(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PhOH) on the rate of decomposition and product distribution will be discussed and compared to the thermolysis of Ph(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}Ph as well as fluid phase DPP. Solid state CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR will be used to prove the chemical composition and motional behavior of the substrate on the surface and their potential mechanistic impact.
Zhang, Keni; Moridis, G.J.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Simulation of the system behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic media involves solving fully coupled mass- and heat-balance equations. In this study, we develop a domain decomposition approach for large-scale gas hydrate simulations with coarse-granularity parallel computation. This approach partitions a simulation domain into small subdomains. The full model domain, consisting of discrete subdomains, is still simulated simultaneously by using multiple processes/processors. Each processor is dedicated to following tasks of the partitioned subdomain: updating thermophysical properties, assembling mass- and energy-balance equations, solving linear equation systems, and performing various other local computations. The linearized equation systems are solved in parallel with a parallel linear solver, using an efficient interprocess communication scheme. This new domain decomposition approach has been implemented into the TOUGH+HYDRATE code and has demonstrated excellent speedup and good scalability. In this paper, we will demonstrate applications for the new approach in simulating field-scale models for gas production from gas-hydrate deposits.
Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Su, M.-C.; Michael, J. V.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)
2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
The thermal decomposition of propane has been studied using both shock tube experiments and ab initio transition state theory-based master equation calculations. Dissociation rate constants for propane have been measured at high temperatures behind reflected shock waves using high-sensitivity H-ARAS detection and CH{sub 3} optical absorption. The two major dissociation channels at high temperature are C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 5} (eq 1a) and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (eq 1b). Ultra high-sensitivity ARAS detection of H-atoms produced from the decomposition of the product, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, in (1a), allowed measurements of both the total decomposition rate constants, k{sub total}, and the branching to radical products, k{sub 1a}/k{sub total}. Theoretical analyses indicate that the molecular products are formed exclusively through the roaming radical mechanism and that radical products are formed exclusively through channel 1a. The experiments were performed over the temperature range 1417-1819 K and gave a minor contribution of (10 {+-} 8%) due to roaming. A multipass CH{sub 3} absorption diagnostic using a Zn resonance lamp was also developed and characterized in this work using the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}I as a reference reaction. The measured rate constants for CH{sub 3}I decomposition agreed with earlier determinations from this laboratory that were based on I-atom ARAS measurements. This CH{sub 3} diagnostic was then used to detect radicals from channel 1a allowing lower temperature (1202-1543 K) measurements of k1a to be determined. Variable reaction coordinate-transition state theory was used to predict the high pressure limits for channel (1a) and other bond fission reactions in C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. Conventional transition state theory calculations were also used to estimate rate constants for other tight transition state processes. These calculations predict a negligible contribution (<1%) from all other bond fission and tight transition state processes, indicating that the bond fission channel (1a) and the roaming channel (1b) are indeed the only active channels at the temperature and pressure ranges of the present experiments. The predicted reaction exo- and endothermicities are in excellent agreement with the current version of the Active Thermochemical Tables. Master equation calculations incorporating these transition state theory results yield predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the dissociation rate constants for channel 1a. The final theoretical results reliably reproduce the measured dissociation rate constants that are reported here and in the literature. The experimental data are well reproduced over the 500-2500 K and 1 x 10{sup -4} to 100 bar range (errors of {approx}15% or less) by the following Troe parameters for Ar as the bath gas: k{sub {infinity}} = 1.55 x 10{sup 24}T{sup -2.034} exp(-45490/T) s{sup -1}, k{sub 0} = 7.92 x 10{sup 53}T{sup -16.67} exp(-50380/T) cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, and F{sub c} = 0.190 exp(-T/3091) + 0.810 exp(-T/128) + exp(-8829/T).
Meshcheryakov, Oleg
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly s...
Cai, C. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rodet, T.; Mohammad-Djafari, A. [CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legoupil, S. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) makes it possible to get two fractions of basis materials without segmentation. One is the soft-tissue equivalent water fraction and the other is the hard-matter equivalent bone fraction. Practical DECT measurements are usually obtained with polychromatic x-ray beams. Existing reconstruction approaches based on linear forward models without counting the beam polychromaticity fail to estimate the correct decomposition fractions and result in beam-hardening artifacts (BHA). The existing BHA correction approaches either need to refer to calibration measurements or suffer from the noise amplification caused by the negative-log preprocessing and the ill-conditioned water and bone separation problem. To overcome these problems, statistical DECT reconstruction approaches based on nonlinear forward models counting the beam polychromaticity show great potential for giving accurate fraction images.Methods: This work proposes a full-spectral Bayesian reconstruction approach which allows the reconstruction of high quality fraction images from ordinary polychromatic measurements. This approach is based on a Gaussian noise model with unknown variance assigned directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Referring to Bayesian inferences, the decomposition fractions and observation variance are estimated by using the joint maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation method. Subject to an adaptive prior model assigned to the variance, the joint estimation problem is then simplified into a single estimation problem. It transforms the joint MAP estimation problem into a minimization problem with a nonquadratic cost function. To solve it, the use of a monotone conjugate gradient algorithm with suboptimal descent steps is proposed.Results: The performance of the proposed approach is analyzed with both simulated and experimental data. The results show that the proposed Bayesian approach is robust to noise and materials. It is also necessary to have the accurate spectrum information about the source-detector system. When dealing with experimental data, the spectrum can be predicted by a Monte Carlo simulator. For the materials between water and bone, less than 5% separation errors are observed on the estimated decomposition fractions.Conclusions: The proposed approach is a statistical reconstruction approach based on a nonlinear forward model counting the full beam polychromaticity and applied directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Compared to the approaches based on linear forward models and the BHA correction approaches, it has advantages in noise robustness and reconstruction accuracy.
Mandelis, Andreas
for monitoring the modulated thermal (blackbody) radiation emitted from a material surface after photothermal to the diffusion length, u(f)m i n , Fig. 1. Sch
Florida, University of
Decomposition of Fresh and Anaerobically Digested Plant Biomass in Soil1 K. K. MOORHEAD, D. A to produce CH4 or added to soil directly as an amendment.In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested. The fresh plant biomassand digested biomasssludgewere freeze- dried and groundto passa0.84-mm sieve
Kik, Pieter
Applied Catalysis A: General 350 (2008) 207216 A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 14 June.R. Cuenya). Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Catalysis A: General journal homepage: Methanol decomposition Bimetallic nanoparticles Segregation Catalysis A B S T R A C T We present here
Sklenak, Stepan
Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative species Steamed Fe-zeolites Mössbauer spectroscopy UVVis FTIR H2-TPR N2O decomposition Propane oxidative of propane to propene with N2O. The evacuated non-steamed FeH-ZSM-5 contained high concentration of Brønsted
Salo, Heikki; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sebastien; Gadotti, Dimitri A; Buta, Ron; Sheth, Kartik; Zaritsky, Dennis; Ho, Luis; Knapen, Johan; Athannassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Laine, Seppo; Cisternas, Mauricio; Kim, Taehyun; Regan, Juan Carlos Muñoz-Mateos Michael; Hinz, Joannah L; de Paz, Armando Gil; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Mizusawa, Trisha; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Meidt, Sharon E; Querejeta, Miguel
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S$^4$G, Sheth et. al. 2010) is a deep 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m imaging survey of 2352 nearby ($pipeline 4, which is dedicated to 2-dimensional structural surface brightness decompositions of 3.6 $\\mu$m images, using GALFIT3.0 \\citep{peng2010}. Besides automatic 1-component S\\'ersic fits, and 2-component S\\'ersic bulge + exponential disk fits, we present human supervised multi-component decompositions, which include, when judged appropriate, a central point source, bulge, disk, and bar components. Comparison of the fitted parameters indicates that multi-component models are needed to obtain reliable estimates for the bulge S\\'ersic index and bulge-to-total light ratio ($B/T$), confirming earlier results \\citep{laurikainen2007, gadotti2008, weinzirl2009}. In this first paper, we describe the preparations of input data done for decompositions, give examples of our decomposition strategy, and describe the d...
Boyer, Edmond
in the patient head. Yet, the skull anisotropy happens to be highly anisotropic, and must then be modeled.e. for the brain and the scalp). A domain decomposition (DD) framework allows to split the global system. This work presents such a coupling formulation of a 3-DD method solving iteratively a BEM for the brain
Senroy, Nilanjan (New Delhi, IN); Suryanarayanan, Siddharth (Littleton, CO)
2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
A computer-implemented method of signal processing is provided. The method includes generating one or more masking signals based upon a computed Fourier transform of a received signal. The method further includes determining one or more intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the received signal by performing a masking-signal-based empirical mode decomposition (EMD) using the at least one masking signal.
Zhivotov, V.K.; Levitskii, A.A.; Macheret, S.O.; Polak, L.S.
1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors carry out a model calculation of the kinetics of the decomposition of carbon dioxide in the presence of sulfur in a moderate-pressure nonequilibrium discharge. The process is stimulated by the vibrational excitation of CO/sub 2/. Kinetic curves and the time variation of the vibrational and translational temperatures are calculated. The dependence of the energy efficiency on the specific energy input has been obtained. The optimal energy input is 4 J/cm/sup 3/. The minimal energy comsumption per CO molecule is 2.7-3.5 eV. The results of the calculations are consistent with the experimental results in the case of a nonequilibrium UHF discharge. The mechanism of the process, which accounts for the results, particularly the higher efficiency of the process in comparison to the dissociation of pure CO/sub 2/, has been ascertained.
Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The use of corn for ethanol production in the United States quintupled between 2001 and 2009, generating concerns that this could lead to the conversion of forests and grasslands around the globe, known as indirect land-use change (iLUC). Estimates of iLUC and related food versus fuel concerns rest on the assumption that the corn used for ethanol production in the United States would come primarily from displacing corn exports and land previously used for other crops. A number of modeling efforts based on these assumptions have projected significant iLUC from the increases in the use of corn for ethanol production. The current study tests the veracity of these assumptions through a systematic decomposition analysis of the empirical data from 2001 to 2009. The logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method (Type I) was used to estimate contributions of different factors to meeting the corn demand for ethanol production. Results show that about 79% of the change in corn used for ethanol production can be attributed to changes in the distribution of domestic corn consumption among different uses. Increases in the domestic consumption share of corn supply contributed only about 5%. The remaining contributions were 19% from added corn production, and 2% from stock changes. Yield change accounted for about two-thirds of the contributions from production changes. Thus, the results of this study provide little support for large land-use changes or diversion of corn exports because of ethanol production in the United States during the past decade.
Isotope effect in the photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) by Lyman-{alpha} radiation
Yuan Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)
2013-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
The photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K by Lyman-{alpha} radiation (10.2 eV) has been studied using transmission infrared spectroscopy. An isotope effect in the decomposition of the CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice has been discovered, favoring {sup 12}CO{sub 2} photodecomposition over {sup 13}CO{sub 2} by about 10%. The effect is caused by electronic energy transfer from the excited CO{sub 2} molecule to the ice matrix, which favors quenching of the heavier electronically-excited {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule over {sup 12}CO{sub 2}. The effect is similar to the Menzel-Gomer-Redhead isotope effect in desorption from adsorbed molecules on surfaces when electronically excited. An enhancement of the rate of formation of lattice-trapped CO and CO{sub 3} species is observed for the photolysis of the {sup 12}CO{sub 2} molecule compared to the {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice. Only 0.5% of the primary photoexcitation results in O-CO bond dissociation to produce trapped-CO and trapped-CO{sub 3} product molecules and the majority of the electronically-excited CO{sub 2} molecules return to the ground state. Here either vibrational relaxation occurs (majority process) or desorption of CO{sub 2} occurs (minority process) from highly vibrationally-excited CO{sub 2} molecules in the ice. The observation of the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope effect in the Lyman-{alpha} induced photodecomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) suggests that over astronomical time scales the isotope enrichment effect may distort historical information derived from isotope ratios in space wherever photochemistry can occur.
Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A.
1989-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
Surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane (/approximately//approximately/Ph(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/Ph, or /approximately//approximately/DPP) has been prepared by the condensation of p-(3-phenylpropyl)phenol with the surface hydroxyl groups of an amorphous, fumed silica. Thermolysis studies of the covalently attached /approximately//approximately/DPP have been conducted to explore the effects of restricted radical and substrate diffusion on a free-radical chain induced decomposition reaction, which has been reported to underlie the thermal reactivity of fluid-phase DPP at /<=/400/degrees/C. Thermolysis of /approximately//approximately/DPP has been studied at 345-400/degrees/C as a function of /approximately//approximately/DPP conversion (0.3-23%) and initial surface coverage (0.132-0.586 mmol g/sup -1/; 0.43-1.97 DPP molecules nm/sup -2/). Decomposition of surface-immobilized /approximately//approximately/DPP occurs readily in this temperature range by parallel free-radical chain pathways, whose rates are quite sensitive to surface coverage, producing PhCH/sub 3/ + /approximately//approximately/PhCH/double bond/CH/sub 2/ and /approximately//approximately/PhCH/sub 3/ + PhCH/double bond/CH/sub 2/ as the major product pairs. An unusual regiospecific hydrogen transfer process is observed that favors formation of /approximately//approximately/PhCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/CHPh over /approximately//approximately/PhCHCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/Ph as the proximity of /approximately//approximately/DPP molecules and hydrogen abstracting radicals on the surface decreases. This phenomenon results in regioselective cracking of /approximately//approximately/DPP favoring the /approximately//approximately/PhCH/sub 3/ + PhCH/double bond/CH/sub 2/ product pair. Implications are discussed for the thermal degradation of related structural features in a diffusionally restricted, macromolecular network such as occurs in coal. 31 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.
Enríquez, Marco; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar, E-mail: orosas@fis.cinvestav.mx
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We review the properties of the Kronecker (direct, or tensor) product of square matrices A?B?C? in terms of Hubbard operators. In its simplest form, a Hubbard operator X{sub n}{sup i,j} can be expressed as the n-square matrix which has entry 1 in position (i,j) and zero in all other entries. The algebra and group properties of the observables that define a multipartite quantum system are notably straightforward in such a framework. In particular, we use the Kronecker product in Hubbard notation to get the Clebsch–Gordan decomposition of the product group SU(2)×SU(2). Finally, the n-dimensional irreducible representations so obtained are used to derive closed forms of the Clebsch–Gordan coefficients that rule the addition of angular momenta. Our results can be further developed in many different directions. -- Highlights: •The Kronecker product is studied in terms of Hubbard operators. •Complicated calculations involving large matrices are reduced to simple relations of subscripts. •The algebraic properties of the quantum observables of multipartite systems are studied. •The Clebsch–Gordan coefficients are given in terms of hypergeometric {sub 3}F{sub 2} functions. •The results can be further developed in many different directions.
Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang, E-mail: qshi@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.
Mass-radius relations and core-envelope decompositions of super-Earths and sub-Neptunes
Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Verne, Wesley, E-mail: arhowe@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Computer Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Many exoplanets have been discovered with radii of 1-4 R {sub ?}, between that of Earth and Neptune. A number of these are known to have densities consistent with solid compositions, while others are 'sub-Neptunes' likely to have significant H{sub 2}-He envelopes. Future surveys will no doubt significantly expand these populations. In order to understand how the measured masses and radii of such planets can inform their structures and compositions, we construct models both for solid layered planets and for planets with solid cores and gaseous envelopes, exploring a range of core masses, H{sub 2}-He envelope masses, and associated envelope entropies. For planets in the super-Earth/sub-Neptune regime for which both radius and mass are measured, we estimate how each is partitioned into a solid core and gaseous envelope, associating a specific core mass and envelope mass with a given exoplanet. We perform this decomposition for both ''Earth-like'' rock-iron cores and pure ice cores, and find that the necessary gaseous envelope masses for this important sub-class of exoplanets must range very widely from zero to many Earth masses, even for a given core mass. This result bears importantly on exoplanet formation and envelope evaporation processes.
Nguyen, Tu Quang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyun Young, E-mail: kypark@kongju.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Youl [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Baek [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new solid precursor for {alpha}-alumina was prepared at about 200 Degree-Sign C from aluminum tri-isopropoxide vapor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained precursor was calcined at 1200 Degree-Sign C to form {alpha}-alumina particles, 75 nm in surface area equivalent diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The weight loss of the precursor upon calcination was 24%, lower than that of Al(OH){sub 3}, a conventional alumina precursor. -- Abstract: A new solid precursor, hydrous aluminum oxide, for {alpha}-alumina nanoparticles was prepared by thermal decomposition of aluminum triisopropoxide (ATI) vapor in a 500 mL batch reactor at 170-250 Degree-Sign C with HCl as catalyst. The conversion of ATI increased with increasing temperature and catalyst content; it was nearly complete at 250 Degree-Sign C with the catalyst at 10 mol% of the ATI. The obtained precursor particles were amorphous, spherical and loosely agglomerated. The primary particle size is in the range 50-150 nm. The ignition loss of the precursor was 24%, considerably lower than 35% of Al(OH){sub 3}, the popular precursor for alumina particles. Upon calcination of the precursor at 1200 Degree-Sign C in the air with a heating rate of 10 Degree-Sign C/min and a holding time of 2 h, the phase was completely transformed into {alpha}. The spherical particles composing the precursor turned worm-like by the calcination probably due to sintering between neighboring particles. The surface area equivalent diameter of the resulting {alpha}-alumina was 75 nm.
On-nanowire spatial bandgap design for white light emission
Yang, Zongyin; Xu, Jinyou; Wang, Pan; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Pan, Anlian; Tong, Limin
2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
processes for full-composition (b) and tri-color (c) bandgap graded ZnCdSSe nanowires, respectively. Figure 1a shows the schematic setup for the growth of full-color bandgap graded ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires. A horizontal quartz tube (inner diameter 45 mm... in the untunable PL photometric properties of nanowires. The strategy in this experiment is to cool tube with a flow of air and fill the gap between substrate and tube with high ther- mal conductivity material. Low working temperature of CdSe source causes dilute...
Numerical solution to differential equations using Legendre Polynomials
Baggiano, Anthony Lincoln
1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
that was in = greement with the theoretical unpei!orbed model of Figure 1. A 4' x 4" x 4' water test secticn vas pcsiticned in the graphite fiHed ther mal cclimr:. of i the N. S. C. R. to obtair. essenti=lly 'i. pure thermal neutr-cr. flux ir. water. Graphite.... In the measurement of the flux perturbations, it was essential that the experiment be organized and designed to minimize errors due tc 1. chemical preparation of the foil solutions, 2. repositioning of the foils in the test. secticn and graphite loading, 3...
A study of the factors influencing the cooking of cottonseed meats
Howard, John
1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
are oonveyed fran the orushex' through a stean heated rotor lift to th? top ooolcor. The stosxL heated rotox lift is a vertioal sore?oonveyor into ?hioh live steaa is ingested. Tho puryose of the live stean in the xotor lift ie to begin tho seeking...~to suyorinyosed oas upon the other The temperature of each ee@yartnsnt is in4ioated by a reoording thersLcsseter, The heat for the seeking is taken frcsa stean gaskets, an4, by oontroliing the onount of stean in cash gasket, tho mal cook oan cxaintain tho...
Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.
2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.
Oleg Meshcheryakov
2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z
Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly sensitive explosives can be also caused by intense charge-dipole attacks of surrounding water vapor molecules electrostatically attracted from ambient humid air and strongly accelerated towards charged sites on explosive surfaces. Emission of electrons, photons and heat from ionized hot spots randomly migrating on charged surface of highly sensitive explosive aerosol nanoparticles converts such particles into the form of short-circuited thermionic nanobatteries.
Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John
2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability has not been observed. A new test cell specially designed to test the membranes has been constructed to provide basic science data on superpermeability.
Decomposition of Risk Functionals
Alois Pichler
2014-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
Page 1 ... relative to the new information is the main topic of this paper. Consider a random variable Y describing the financial loss associated with a certain ...
Boyer, Edmond
-phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition Cédric Descamps, Gerard L. Vignoles , Olivier : A chemical kinetic model for gas-phase pyrolysis of propane has been set up, partially reduced, and validated the notion of "maturation" from propane to lighter hydrocarbons, then to aromatic compounds and PAHs. The gas
Johar, Jasmeet Singh
2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
) stream. The decomposition experiments were conducted with a number of oxygen (O2) compositions (0, 1, 10, and 15%) over the temperature range of 227oC to 477oC. The study showed ammonia (NH3), carbon-dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) as the major...
Rachid B. Slimane; Francis S. Lau; Javad Abbasian
2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this program is to develop an economical process for hydrogen production, with no additional carbon dioxide emission, through the thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in H{sub 2}S-rich waste streams to high-purity hydrogen and elemental sulfur. The novel feature of the process being developed is the superadiabatic combustion (SAC) of part of the H{sub 2}S in the waste stream to provide the thermal energy required for the decomposition reaction such that no additional energy is required. The program is divided into two phases. In Phase 1, detailed thermochemical and kinetic modeling of the SAC reactor with H{sub 2}S-rich fuel gas and air/enriched air feeds is undertaken to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on exit gas products and conversion efficiency, and to identify key process parameters. Preliminary modeling results are used as a basis to conduct a thorough evaluation of SAC process design options, including reactor configuration, operating conditions, and productivity-product separation schemes, with respect to potential product yields, thermal efficiency, capital and operating costs, and reliability, ultimately leading to the preparation of a design package and cost estimate for a bench-scale reactor testing system to be assembled and tested in Phase 2 of the program. A detailed parametric testing plan was also developed for process design optimization and model verification in Phase 2. During Phase 2 of this program, IGT, UIC, and industry advisors UOP and BP Amoco will validate the SAC concept through construction of the bench-scale unit and parametric testing. The computer model developed in Phase 1 will be updated with the experimental data and used in future scale-up efforts. The process design will be refined and the cost estimate updated. Market survey and assessment will continue so that a commercial demonstration project can be identified.
J Canc Sci Ther Volume 1(2) : 062-071 (2009) -062 ISSN:1948-5956 JCST, an open access journal
Ahmad, Sajjad
on the human breast cancer cell lines, T-47D and MCF7, following transient transfec- tion with the full length, although viability was not affected. Differential effects on proliferation were ob- served in MCF7 cells or viability in MCF7 cells were ob- served. The phenotypic changes in T-47D and MCF7 cells were associated
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
de naphtaline ou de pétroles. Les pétroles ont été obtenus par distillation fractionnée, et l'on peut obtenir avec eux des températures varian t de 2620 à 2770 par fraction de degré. Les températures qui, tout d'abord, avaient été déterminées au moyen d'un thermomètre à air, ont été mesurées à l'aide d
Florida, University of
, films from tetrakis (dimethylamido) titanium precursor onto InP A. Katz, A. Feingold, S. Nakahara, and SP, using a combined reactive chemistry of ammonia (NH,) gas and tetrakis (dimethylamido) titanium (DMATi to the preview RT-LPMOCVD TN, film deposited using only the DMATi precursor. I. INTRODUCTION Titanium nitride
Sutherland, J.W.; Patterson, P.M.; Klemm, R.B.
1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The thermal decompositions of N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} was investigated by monitoring the kinetics of formation of O({sup 3}P) atoms in the reflected shock regime using atomic resonance absorption spectrophotometry (A.R.A.S.). The temperature range was 1805K to 2379K for N{sub 2}O and 2332K to 2869K for CO{sub 2}. Total densities were 3--4 {times} 10{sup 18} molecules cm{sup {minus}3} and hence the reported rate constants are at or near the low pressure limit for unimolecular decomposition. The results were expressed by the following Arrhenius equations: CO{sub 2} k(T) = (1.63 {plus_minus} 1.96) {times} 10{sup {minus}8} exp({minus}122565 {plus_minus} 5183/RT) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} N{sub 2}O k(T) = (6.02 {plus_minus} 2.81) {times} 10{sup 10} exp({minus}53397 {plus_minus} 1865/RT) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. Uncertainties in the Arrhenius expressions are given at the one standard deviation level and the mean deviations of the experimental data from the respective expression are {plus_minus} 18.6% and {plus_minus} 30.7%. Corresponding values for the reverse reaction, k{sub rev}(CO{sub 2}) were computed from the expression k{sub for}/k{sub rev} = K{sub c}. The value obtained for k{sub rev}(CO{sub 2}) was (2.18 {plus_minus} 0.83) {times} 10{sup {minus}34} cm{sup 6} molecule{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, independent of temperature from 2332K to 2869K. Preliminary results are also reported for the direct determination of the rate constant for the reaction, CO + O{sub 2} {yields} CO{sub 2} + O, from measurements of the initial rate of formation of O({sup 3}P) atoms. 35 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.
Sutherland, J.W.; Patterson, P.M.; Klemm, R.B.
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The thermal decompositions of N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} was investigated by monitoring the kinetics of formation of O({sup 3}P) atoms in the reflected shock regime using atomic resonance absorption spectrophotometry (A.R.A.S.). The temperature range was 1805K to 2379K for N{sub 2}O and 2332K to 2869K for CO{sub 2}. Total densities were 3--4 {times} 10{sup 18} molecules cm{sup {minus}3} and hence the reported rate constants are at or near the low pressure limit for unimolecular decomposition. The results were expressed by the following Arrhenius equations: CO{sub 2} k(T) = (1.63 {plus minus} 1.96) {times} 10{sup {minus}8} exp({minus}122565 {plus minus} 5183/RT) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} N{sub 2}O k(T) = (6.02 {plus minus} 2.81) {times} 10{sup 10} exp({minus}53397 {plus minus} 1865/RT) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. Uncertainties in the Arrhenius expressions are given at the one standard deviation level and the mean deviations of the experimental data from the respective expression are {plus minus} 18.6% and {plus minus} 30.7%. Corresponding values for the reverse reaction, k{sub rev}(CO{sub 2}) were computed from the expression k{sub for}/k{sub rev} = K{sub c}. The value obtained for k{sub rev}(CO{sub 2}) was (2.18 {plus minus} 0.83) {times} 10{sup {minus}34} cm{sup 6} molecule{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, independent of temperature from 2332K to 2869K. Preliminary results are also reported for the direct determination of the rate constant for the reaction, CO + O{sub 2} {yields} CO{sub 2} + O, from measurements of the initial rate of formation of O({sup 3}P) atoms. 35 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.
Iida, Daisuke, E-mail: dft0tfi16@meijo-u.ac.jp; Kawai, Syunsuke; Ema, Nobuaki; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Akasaki, Isamu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)
2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
We developed a laser lift-off technique for a freestanding GaN substrate using an In droplet formed by thermal decomposition of GaInN. A combination of an In droplet formed by thermal decomposition of GaInN during growth and a pulsed second-harmonic neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser (??=?532?nm) realized the lift-off GaN substrate. After laser lift-off of the GaN substrate, it was used to achieve 380?nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with light output enhanced 1.7-fold. In this way, the light extraction can be improved by removing the GaN substrate.
LINEAR OP~lMAL CONTROL PRENTICE-HALLINTERNATIONAL,INC.,London
Moore, John Barratt
emphasis on those particular optimal control results having application to linear systems. It may therefore wcastle LINEAR OPTIMAL CONTROL PRENTICE-HALL, INC. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey #12;Q 1971 by Prentice theory of Iinear systems within the broader framework of optimal control theory per se, it has been
mals in the Rocky Mountain regions of North America are particularly important.
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
genus and species is being proposed to accom modate them. 1. Anderson RC, Rasmussen MA, Allison, MJ concentrate diet. B Michalet-Doreau, D Morand, CB Michalet-Doreau, D Morand, C Martin (INRA, Station de
O professor do IST diz ser necessrio repensar o funcionamento das democracias Mal-estar europeu
Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica
torno de trÃªs vetores. O primeiro Ã© o questionamento da "sa- Ãda limpa". Como todos sabemos esta via serve interesses eleitoralistas. A saÃda limpa Ã© um salto no escuro e sem rede por- que o paÃs aumentou, as biotecnologias, as ciÃªncias da saÃºde, as tecnologias da informaÃ§Ã£o, a robÃ³tica, as nanotecnologias, as energias
MalCoBox: Designing a 10 Gb/s Malware Collection Honeypot using Reconfigurable Technology
.muehlbach@cased.de Martin Brunner, Christopher Roblee Network Security and Early Warning Systems Fraunhofer@esa.cs.tu-darmstadt.de Abstract--Honeypots present networked computer systems with known security flaws to attackers and can serve¨uhlbach Secure Things Group Center for Advanced Security Research Darmstadt (CASED) sascha
Hokenek, Selma; Kuhn, John N. (USF)
2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z
Monodisperse palladium particles of six distinct and controlled sizes between 4-16 nm were synthesized in a one-pot polyol process by varying the molar ratios of the two palladium precursors used, which contained palladium in different oxidation states. This difference permitted size control by regulation of the nucleation rate because low oxidation state metals ions nucleate quickly relative to high oxidation state ions. After immobilization of the Pd particles on silica by mild sonication, the catalysts were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and applied toward catalytic methanol decomposition. This reaction was determined as structure sensitive with the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency) increasing with increasing particle size. Moreover, observed catalytic deactivation was linked to product (carbon monoxide) poisoning. Co-feeding carbon dioxide caused the activity and the amount of deactivation to decrease substantially. A reaction mechanism based on the formation of the {pi}-bond between carbon and oxygen as the rate-limiting step is in agreement with antipathetic structure sensitivity and product poisoning by carbon monoxide.
Naoto Yokoyama; Masanori Takaoka
2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z
A single-wavenumber representation of nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., stretching energy spectrum is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the F\\"oppl-von K\\'arm\\'an (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wavenumber space, and analytical expressions of detailed energy budget in the nonlinear interactions are obtained for the first time in wave turbulence systems. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic and bending energies are comparable with each other at large wavenumbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, the stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wavenumbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode $a_{\\bm{k}}$ and its companion mode $a_{-\\bm{k}}$ is observed at the small wavenumbers. Energy transfer shows that the energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wavenumbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wavenumbers. A total-energy flux consistent with the energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.
Xie, G.; Li, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.
1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new 3D electromagnetic modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm is presented based on global integral and local differential equations decomposition (GILD). The GILD parallel nonlinear inversion algorithm consists of five parts: (1) the domain is decomposed into subdomain SI and subdomain SII; (2) a new global magnetic integral equation in SI and the local magnetic differential equations IN SII will be used together to obtain the magnetic field in the modeling step; (3) the new global magnetic integral Jacobian equation in SI and the local magnetic differential Jacobian equations in SII will be used together to update the electric conductivity and permittivity from the magnetic field data in the inversion step; (4) the subdomain SII can naturally and uniformly be decomposed into 2{sup n} smaller sub-cubic-domains; the sparse matrix in each sub-cubic-domain can be eliminated separately, in parallel; (5) a new parallel multiple hierarchy substructure algorithm will be used to solve the smaller full matrices in SI, in parallel. The applications of the new 3D parallel GILD EM modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm and software are: (1) to create high resolution controlled-source electric conductivity and permittivity imaging for interpreting electromagnetic field data acquired from cross hole, surface to borehole, surface to surface, single hole, and multiple holes; (2) to create the magnetotelluric high resolution imaging from the surface impedance and field data. The new GILD parallel nonlinear inversion will be a 3D/2.5D powerful imaging tool for the oil geophysical exploration and environmental remediation and monitoring.
Numerical Irreducible Decomposition using PHCpack?
Sommese, Andrew J.
.verschelde@na-net.ornl.gov. URL: http://www.math.uic.edu/"jan. 3 General Motors Research Laboratories, Enterprise Systems algorithms to solve polynomial systems arising in science* * and engineering with tools from algebraic
FINITELY CONVERGENT DECOMPOSITION ALGORITHMS FOR ...
2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
?This material is based upon work supported by the National Science .... propose a method to update the lift-and-project cuts [2] generated from one scenario to.
Ozone decomposition in water solutions
Hewes, Cecil Grayson
1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
OF LITERATUR 1V Vi ~ V111 III ~ EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM AND ITS OPERATION 14 IV. DISCUSS10N OF RESULTS AND COiJCLUSION. . . 24 i~JOMENCLATUHE. BIBLIOGRAPIFY APPENDIX I. WASTE WATER REGENERATION BY OZONATION. II. AMINE REMOVAL BY OZONATION...ATER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIII. REACTION RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE D'COMPOSITION OF OZONE IN INTER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIV COD REMOVAL BY OZONE XV. OZONIZATION OF MATER CONTAINIiNG RESIDUAL AMINE. 57 60 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. FIOW DIAGRAM OF THZ...
Universitat Augsburg Combining Decomposition and
Newcastle upon Tyne, University of
circuits are a promising type of digital circuits. They have lower power consumption and electro such techniques, which are often restrictive (e.g., Pet- rify often fails to synthesise circuits with more that 25
PATH SPACE DECOMPOSITIONS FOR THE
of the ground state is 0 and thus it is much easier to ?nd the energy of the excited state, since ..... The price paid is the “loss” of a simple shift .... 12, 538 (1970).
Thermocatalytic decomposition of vulcanized rubber
Qin, Feng
2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
of the polymer at lower temperatures (non-pyrolysis conditions). Studies by Larsen et al. (41, 42) demonstrated that molten salt catalysts with Lewis acid properties, such as chloride, tin chloride, and antimony iodide, can decompose tire rubbers... of polymeric materials over molten mixtures of a basic salt (NaOH or KOH) and a Cu source, mainly metallic Cu and CuO. Processes using solid acid as catalysts have also been patented. Ac to Chen and Yan (47) preprocessed clean plastic and/or rubber wastes...
Deng, Yi
2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include: 1) the distinctly different roles played by atmospheric dynamical processes in establishing surface temperature response to ENSO at tropics and extratropics (i.e., atmospheric dynamics disperses energy out of tropics during ENSO warm events and modulate surface temperature at mid-, high-latitudes through controlling downward longwave radiation); 2) the representations of ENSO-related temperature response in climate models fail to converge at the process-level particularly over extratropics (i.e., models produce the right temperature responses to ENSO but with wrong reasons); 3) water vapor feedback contributes substantially to the temperature anomalies found over U.S. during different phases of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which adds new insight to the traditional picture that cold/warm advective processes are the main drivers of local temperature responses to the NAM; 4) the overall land surface temperature biases in the latest NCAR model (CESM1) are caused by biases in surface albedo while the surface temperature biases over ocean are related to multiple factors including biases in model albedo, cloud and oceanic dynamics, and the temperature biases over different ocean basins are also induced by different process biases. These results provide a detailed guidance for process-level model turning and improvement, and thus contribute directly to the overall goal of reducing model uncertainty in projecting future changes in the Earth’s climate system, especially in the ENSO and AM variability.
Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials
Basoli, Francesco [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy] [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; Senesi, Roberto [ORNL] [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Licoccia, Silvia [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"] [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.
Bieber, Michael
manager in America for INEoS, a united Kingdom chemical giant that bought uCB. he lives in Medford, New
Paru dans Nathalie Nabert (d.), Figures du Mal aux XIV et XV sicles, Paris, 1996, p. 187-210.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
'hérésie cathare, le christianisme s'est toujours efforcé de se démarquer du dualisme, notamment en insistant sur
Boyer, Edmond
version anglaise sera publiÃ©e dans Metrologia gnÃ©es par le symbole T T 6 . au dÃ©but de 1979. Article
Mills, Stuart J., E-mail: smills@museum.vic.gov.au [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Mineral Sciences Department, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90007 (United States); Petricek, Vaclav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha (Czech Republic); Kampf, Anthony R. [Mineral Sciences Department, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90007 (United States); Herbst-Imer, Regine [Department of Structural Chemistry, University of Goettingen, Tammannstrasse 4, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Raudsepp, Mati [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada)
2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O, synthesised by hydrothermal methods at 220(2) deg. C, has been investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O crystallises in space group Cmc2{sub 1} and is isostructural with Lu{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O. The crystal structure has been refined to R{sub 1}=0.0145 for 3412 reflections [F{sub o}>3{sigma}(F)], and 0.0150 for all 3472 reflections. The structure of Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O is a complex framework of YbO{sub 6} octahedra, YbO{sub 8} and YbO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} polyhedra and SO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Thermal data shows that Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O decomposes between 120 and 190 deg. C to form {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The structure of a twinned crystal of {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} was solved and refined using an amplimode refinement in R3c with an R{sub 1}=0.0755 for 8944 reflections [F{sub o}>3{sigma}(F)], and 0.1483 for all 16,361 reflections. {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} has a unique structural topology based on a 3D network of pinwheels. - Graphical abstract: Octahedral-tetrahedral linkages found in Y{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} [and Er{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}] and ss-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Highlights: > The crystal structure and decomposition reactions of Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O. > The crystal structure of a twinned crystal of {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. > Comparison of the structures of {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Y{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.
22 November 2012 ISE Department's Index Decomposition
Chaudhuri, Sanjay
edition of the "World Energy Outlook". These are some recent high-level publications in which an Index in energy consumption and to track economy-wide energy efficiency trends. It is also a technique developed developed the LMDI which has become a standard tool for tracking sectoral and economy-wide energy efficiency
A Lagrangean Decomposition Approach for Robust Combinatorial ...
2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
knapsack, shortest path, and minimum spanning tree problems. The re- sults show that .... Moreover, she notes that the minimum spanning tree problem with uncorrelated ellipsoidal uncertainty ...... using stochastic objective functions. Potential ...
Research Article Decomposition of Epoxy Model Compounds
Guo, John Zhanhu
on chemical recycling of plastics using SCW and NCW has also been conducted. It was found that the condensation polymers, i.e., polyurethane, Nylon 6, and polycarbonates, Chem. Eng. Technol. 2013, 36, No. 12
A DECOMPOSITION-BASED PSEUDOAPPROXIMATION ALGORITHM
Krumke, Sven O.
Burch College of St Benedict and St John's University cburch@csbsju.edu Robert Carr Sandia National Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1 #12;2 Eric Sundberg¶ Rutgers University sundberg
Empirical Mode Decomposition Analysis for Visual Stylometry
Ding, Wandi
(1525-1569) and a set of works attributed to Dutch master Rembrandt van Rijn (1606- 1669) and his pupils
Emergent properties of heterogeneous decomposition networks
Forney, David C., III
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Organic matter respiration in natural ecosystems is controlled by a network of biologically, physically, and chemically driven processes. Often it is important to estimate total carbon flux from a degradation system or the ...
Optimization Online - A PARALLEL interior point decomposition ...
Kartik Krishnan Sivaramakrishnan
2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z
Dec 4, 2006 ... ... and decomposed and distributed subproblems (smaller SDPs) in a parallel and distributed high performance computing environment.
Spherical Harmonic Decomposition on a Cubic Grid
Charles W. Misner
1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
A method is described by which a function defined on a cubic grid (as from a finite difference solution of a partial differential equation) can be resolved into spherical harmonic components at some fixed radius. This has applications to the treatment of boundary conditions imposed at radii larger than the size of the grid, following Abrahams, Rezzola, Rupright et al.(gr-qc/9709082}. In the method described here, the interpolation of the grid data to the integration 2-sphere is combined in the same step as the integrations to extract the spherical harmonic amplitudes, which become sums over grid points. Coordinates adapted to the integration sphere are not needed.
Distributed mode estimation through constraint decomposition
Badaro, Henri
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Large-scale autonomous systems such as modern ships or spacecrafts require reliable monitoring capabilities. One of the main challenges in large-scale system monitoring is the difficulty of reliably and efficiently ...
Distributed Estimation via Dual Decomposition Sikandar Samar
Siemens Corporate Research Princeton, NJ 08540 sikandar.samar@siemens.com Stephen Boyd Information Systems
Robust Critical Node Selection by Benders Decomposition
2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z
critical node selection problem, we define the following decision variables ..... method to generate Pareto-optimal cuts thus achieving very good speed-ups compared to ... Barabási-Albert graphs generated using the Barabási graph generator (Dreier, 2006). ...... Computers & Operations Research, 38(12):1766 – 1774, 2011.
Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways
Cleveland, Cory
exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate than at any time in the past 60 years (USDA 2009), and the continued demand for productive agricultural that enhance ecosystem services including water, nutrient, and organic matter retention (Lal et al. 2004
Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways
Cleveland, Cory
in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall), and the continued demand for productive agricultural land is rapidly driving expansion of crop production matter retention (Lal et al. 2004). However, while there are currently *13.3 million hectares in the CRP
Partitioning strategies: Spatiotemporal patterns of program decomposition
Hoffmann, Henry Christian
We describe four partitioning strategies, or patterns, used to decompose a serial application into multiple concurrently executing parts. These partitioning strategies augment the commonly used task and data parallel ...
DECOMPOSITION OF LARGE-SCALE STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL ...
2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
consider dynamical systems that can be divided into small-scale independent .... realizations of the noise process are identical up to time t, then the same ..... without our approximation, the algorithm would build primal iterates that converge ...
Decomposition Methods for Large Scale LP Decoding
2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z
that have extreme reliability requirements. While suitably ...... parity-check codes. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 74(0):97–104, 2003.
Nonserial dynamic programming and local decomposition ...
2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
Eco- nomics and Math. Methods, 1965, 1, N 2, p.262–270 (Russian). [8] C.A. Floudas, Nonlinear and mixed-integer optimization: fundamentals and applications.
MULTIFRACTAL DECOMPOSITIONS OF DIGRAPH RECURSIVE FRACTALS
Edgar, Gerald
FRACTALS G. A. Edgar and R. Daniel Mauldin The Ohio State University 1 #12;2 G. A. EDGAR AND R. DANIEL MAULDIN 5. Other Remarks
Approximate Uni-directional Benders Decomposition
C N Burt, N Lipovetzky, A R Pearce, P J Stuckey
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
with balancing problems in an electricity network (Piacen- tini et al. 2013) .... uct k that are picked up from market m, and ym be 1 if mar- ket m is visited (and 0 ...
Functional composition and decomposition for signal processing
Demirtas, Sefa
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Functional composition, the application of one function to the results of another function, has a long history in the mathematics community, particularly in the context of polynomials and rational functions. This thesis ...
Dynamic Mode Decomposition: Theory and Applications
Rowley, Clarence W.
to investigate the source of low-frequency oscillations in shock-turbulent boundary layer interactions. Using also apply DMD to analyze oscillatory fluid flows, which is its most common use. In one example, we is characterized by frequency lock-on between the wake and the shear layer. In another example, we use DMD
Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition
Melek, Zeki
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 35 Simulation control in action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 36 Burning a log and a Siggraph logo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 37 Two sets of quadrilateral stacks are used for different camera angles. 97 38...
Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition
Melek, Zeki
2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 35 Simulation control in action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 36 Burning a log and a Siggraph logo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 37 Two sets of quadrilateral stacks are used for different camera angles. 97 38...
Learning inverse kinematics via crosspoint function decomposition
Torras, Carme
industrial robots, that greatly reduces the number of movements needed to learn or relearn the IK to a given
Optimization Online - Decomposition theorems for linear programs
Jean-Bertrand Gauthier
2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z
Oct 8, 2014 ... While it is the crucial component of the analysis, the heart of the algorithm is the residual network upon which are derived two theorems that ...
RANK-SPARSITY INCOHERENCE FOR MATRIX DECOMPOSITION ...
2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
Jun 11, 2009 ... nuclear norm of the components. We develop a notion of rank-sparsity incoherence, expressed as an uncertainty principle between the sparsity ...
Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate
Paddleford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Institute of Technology, GA (United States)
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ``red oil`` explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material.
Separable Approximations and Decomposition Methods for the ...
2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z
Aug 30, 2013 ... chrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich, 15:272–286, 1870. [31] Shai Shalev-Shwartz and Ambuj Tewari. Stochastic methods for l1 ...
Model combination by decomposition and aggregation
Xu, Mingyang, 1974-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis focuses on a general problem in statistical modeling, namely model combination. It proposes a novel feature-based model combination method to improve model accuracy and reduce model uncertainty. In this method, ...
Tensor Decompositions for Signal Processing Applications
founda- tions, via basic Canonical Polyadic and Tucker models, through to advanced cause-effect and multi commonly used signal pro- cessing paradigms, such as canonical correla- tion and subspace techniques in the 19th century, contribu- tors include Gauss, Kronecker, Cayley, Weyl and Hilbert -- in modern day
Penalty Decomposition Methods for Rank Minimization ?
2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
Nov 22, 2010 ... In Section 2, we establish some technical results on a class of rank minimization ..... Without loss of generality, assume that {( ¯Zk. X,. ¯. Zk ...... Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, 2009.
Synthesis method for amorphous metallic foam Jan Schroersa)
Haller, Gary L.
be classified as ei- ther open or closed porous. Open foams are characterized by interconnected bubbles
Ess, Daniel H; Goddard, William A; Periana, Roy A
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The potential energy and interaction energy profiles for metal- and metal?ligand-mediated alkane C?H bond activation were explored using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA). The set of complexes explored range from late transition metal group 10 (Pt and Pd) and group 11 (Au) metal centers to group 7?9 (Ir, Rh, Ru, and W) metal centers as well as a group 3 Sc complex. The coordination geometries, electron metal count (d{sup 8}, d{sup 6}, d{sup 4}, and d{sup 0}), and ligands (N-heterocycles, O-donor, phosphine, and Cp*) are also diverse. Quantitative analysis using ALMO-EDA of both directions of charge-transfer stabilization (occupied to unoccupied orbital stabilization) energies between the metal?ligand fragment and the coordinated C?H bond in the transition state for cleavage of the C?H bond allows classification of C?H activation reactions as electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic on the basis of the net direction of charge-transfer energy stabilization. This bonding pattern transcends any specific mechanistic or bonding paradigm, such as oxidative addition, ?-bond metathesis, or substitution. Late transition metals such as Au(III), Pt(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) metal centers with N-heterocycle, halide, or O-donor ligands show electrophilically dominated reaction profiles with forward charge-transfer from the C?H bond to the metal, leading to more stabilization than reverse charge transfer from the metal to the C?H bond. Transition states and reaction profiles for d{sup 6} Ru(II) and Ir(III) metals with Tp and acac ligands were found to have nearly equal forward and reverse charge-transfer energy stabilization. This ambiphilic region also includes the classically labeled electrophilic cationic species Cp*(PMe{sub 3})Ir(Me). Nucleophilic character, where the metal to C?H bond charge-transfer interaction is most stabilizing, was found in metathesis reactions with W(II) and Sc(III) metal center complexes in reactions as well as late transition metal Ir(I) and Rh(I) pincer complexes that undergo C?H bond insertion. Comparison of pincer ligands shows that the PCP ligand imparts more nucleophilic character to an Ir metal center than a deprotonated PNP ligand. The PCP and POCOP ligands do not show a substantial difference in the electronics of C?H activation. It was also found that Rh(I) is substantially more nucleophilic than Ir(I). Lastly, as a qualitative approximation, investigation of transition-state fragment orbital energies showed that relative frontier orbital energy gaps correctly reflect electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic charge-transfer stabilization patterns.
An overview of the US DCLL ITER-TBM program
Wong, Clement; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Dagher, Mohamad; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Malang, S.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Messadek, Karim; Morley, Neil; Sawan, M.; Sharafat, Shahran; Smolentsev, S.; Sze, Dai Kai; Willms, Scott; Ying, A. Y.; Youssef, M.
2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology program, we selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) concept as our primary Test Blanket Module (TBM) for testing in ITER. The DCLL blanket concept has the potential to be a high-performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal ef?ciency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the ?rst wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled Pb-17Li breeder is circulated for power conversion and for tritium extraction. A SiC-based ?ow channel insert (FCI) is used as an electrical insulator for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating Pb-17Li and as a ther- mal insulator to separate the high-temperature Pb-17Li (?650–700 ? C) from the RAF/M structure, which has a corrosion temperature limit of ?480 ? C. The RAF/M material must also operate at temperatures above 350 ? C but less than 550 ? C. We are continuing the development of the mechanical design and per- forming neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. Prototypical FCI structures were fabricated and further attention was paid to MHD effects and the design of the inboard blanket for DEMO. We are also making progress on related R&D needs to address key areas. This paper is a summary report on the progress and results of recent DCLL TBM development activities.
Current drive in recombining plasma P. F. Schmit and N. J. Fisch
-variation on wave-particle processes in the plasma. Time variation in nei- ther the application of rf power nor
Volume13.Issue2Summer2000.ISSN1044-5536 Introduction
permits investigation of both ionic and non-dipolar molecules, nei- ther of which are generally accessible
Multifunctional composites : healing, heating and electromagnetic integration
Plaisted, Thomas Anthony John
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Dam, K. Ono, A. Mal, S. Hongbin, S. R. Nutt, K. Sheran andX. , F. Wudl, A. Mal, S. Hongbin and S. R. Nutt (2003). "New
On the Error in the Product QR Decomposition
Van Vleck, Erik
2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
for sequences of matrices by ?{Vk}?k=1? = supk ?Vk?F , we have ?? ?1G(x 0 )? ? ? for G defined in (3.1) and (3.2), ? defined in (4.9), (4.10), and (4.11), x 0 = {I}?k=1, and ? given in (4.2). Proof. To determine this bound, we consider the linear system ?V = G(x... ?Vn+1?F = sup n ? 2 ? ? m?1 ? j=1 m ? i=j+1 (Vn+1) 2 ji ? ? 1/2 (4.16) ? ? 2 ? ? m?1 ? j=1 m ? i=j+1 ( ?ij |Eij | Rjj ) 2 ? ? 1/2 . 4.3. Bounds on ???1G?(x 0 ) ? I?. We next prove the following lemma to obtain the bound ? on ???1G?(x 0 )? I? given...
PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY SUPERADIABATIC DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE
NREL/CP-610-32405 #12;As a logical extension of our ongoing process development efforts, GTI plans concentrated mainly on the superadiabatic reactor, and has comprised computational modeling and experimental concept, using H2S-N2-O2 gas mixtures. Theoretical (numerical modeling) studies at UIC and collaborative
Experiments with a Generic Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition for ...
2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
and-cut algorithms are essentially “blind.” While both ..... 2009. 6. G. Gamrath, Generic branch-cut-and-price, Master's thesis, Institut für Mathe- matik, Technische ...
In uence-Based Model Decomposition Christopher Bailey-Kellogg
Bailey-Kellogg, Chris
building temperature (smart buildings) to ve- hicle on-board diagnostic and control systems that in- cessing technology have enabled a new generation of AI robotic systems | so-called Smart Matter systems of these Smart Matter systems is to synthesize optimal control policies using data rich models for the systems
Ruin probabilities and decompositions for general perturbed risk processes
VondraÃ¨ek, Zoran
of Croatia. The research of this author is supported in part by MZT grant 0037118 of the Republic of Croatia. Â§ The research of this author is supported in part by MZT grant 0037107 of the Republic of Croatia. 1 #12
Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting
Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.
1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.
Research Article Kinetic Study of Epoxy Resin Decomposition
Guo, John Zhanhu
on chemical recycling of plastics using SCW and NCW has also been conducted. It was found that the condensation polymers, i.e., polyurethane, Nylon 6, and polycarbonates, could be read- ily decomposed
Parallel decomposition of the logical link control protocol
Bajpai, Dhruv Haribanshnath
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
INTRODUCTION II PROTOCOLS AND FINITE STATE MACHINES A. PROTOCOLS B. FINITE STATE MACHINES III LOGICAL LINK CONTROL PROTOCOL 1V LLC STATE TABLE DESCRIPTION A. LLC STATES V THE PS I ARCHITECTURE VI RESULTS A. LINK INITIALIZATION SUBMACHINES . . B... expressions that govern the transition are given below Bin I (A) SET ABME+ SET ABME (Ts=Vc=O, Vi=0) + SET ABME (Ts=Vc&, Vi =RIp). (B) DEACTIVATE LS. (G) ENTER LCL Busy + EXIT LCL Busy + LPDU Invalid + SEND XID + SET ADM+ Ti Expired+ Tl Expired+ TEST LINK...
Mixed-Integer Rounding Enhanced Benders Decomposition for ...
2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
Nov 13, 2014 ... Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of ... modern forecasting procedures provide both a point estimate of the ...... Scheduling control for queueing systems with many servers: Asymptotic optimality.
Decomposition and Dynamic Cut Generation in Integer Linear ...
2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
tion procedures or by rewriting it as the equivalent linear program. zLD. = max ...... of a “class” of inequalities comes from the well-known template paradigm for separation, so named by ...... for Management of Operations and Logistics, 1995. 27.
SoilLitter Mixing Accelerates Decomposition in a Chihuahuan
of Geography, University of California Los Angeles, 1255 Bunche Hall, Box 951524, Los Angeles, California 90095 the study; DH and RM performed the research and analyzed the data; DH, HT, SA, and RM wrote the paper that of mesic systems, where simple models based on climate variables such as actual evapotranspiration predict
Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts
Landoll, Michael 1984-
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
. Mixtures of calcium carboxylate salts were thermally decomposed at 450 degrees C. Low lime-to-salt ratios (g Ca(OH)2/g salt) of 0.00134 and less had a negligible effect on ketone yield. In contrast, salts with higher lime-to-salt ratios of 0.00461, 0.0190...
Audio sparse decompositions in parallel Let the greed be shared !
Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université
by absolute de- caying order, one observes a fast decay, typically a power law with some large negative harmonics of the musical content. With a smart quantization of these few large transform coefficients Abstract--Greedy methods are often the only practical way of solving very large sparse approximation
Parallel Sparse Modi ed Gram-Schmidt QR Decomposition ?
TouriÃ±o, Juan
cx=0; cxcx++) f Obtain px, cx #20; px , such that norm px = max cx#20;jcx; break; g else swap (norm cx ; col cx of M and R), (norm px ; col px of M and R); (4) r cx cx = p norm cx ; (5) for (i=0; i
A scenario decomposition algorithm for 0-1 stochastic programs
2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
Jun 26, 2013 ... ... and impose a time limit of 5000 seconds. All computations are done using the boyle cluster in the ISyE High Performance Computing Facility.
Evaluation of Parallel Decomposition Methods for Biomechanical Optimizations
George, Alan D.
that parallelizes the analysis function (i.e., a kinematic or dynamic simulation) called repeatedly by the optimizer , Jeffrey A. Reinbolt2,3 , Benjamin J. Fregly2,3 , and Alan D. George1 1 Department of Electrical & Computer
A conic interior point decomposition approach for large scale ...
2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
the multiplicity of the minimum eigenvalue of the dual slack matrix associated with the semidefinite ...... Ai(Xi) = b represent common resources shared by the r ...
Flows and Decompositions of Games: Harmonic and Potential Games
2010-05-13T23:59:59.000Z
immediately follows from Proposition 1 that dimP = h2 ?1, dimH = (h?1)2 and dimN = 2h. For simplicity, we further assume that the payoffs are normalized4. Thus ...
An interior-point Lagrangian decomposition method for separable ...
2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
1Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Electrical Engineering ... network flows) [1,2], process system engineering (e.g. distributed model ...... A first application that we will discuss here is the control of large-scale systems with .... with application to power system automatic generation control, IEEE Transactions
Expected Future Value Decomposition Based Bid Price Generation ...
2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
to 5 minutes for large-scale problem instances (up to 2.6 million variables and 2.3 million constraints). Keywords: .... They focus on examining different methods.
Parallel Triangular Decompositions of an Oil Refining Simulation Xiaodong Zhang
Moreno Maza, Marc
important process in oil refining is to separate the crude oil into various oil products. This process the composition of the various oil products in designed refining columns operated under a given set of conditions oil products. This process is called distilla- tion, which is a thermal separation method
Generalized Spectral Decomposition for Stochastic Non Linear Problems 1
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
.nouy@univ-nantes.fr (Anthony Nouy), olm@limsi.fr (Olivier P. Le MaÃ®tre). URLs: http://www.univ-nantes.fr/nouy-a (Anthony Nouy), http://www.limsi.fr/Individu/olm (Olivier P. Le MaÃ®tre). 1 This work is supported by the French
A Branch-and-Cut Decomposition Algorithm for Solving Chance ...
2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z
a probabilistic constraint) states that the chosen decision vector should, with .... what we present here, but the mechanism for generating cuts is significantly .... if we don't assume f is convex, or that X is a convex set, then again (7) is not efficiently ... We now describe our procedure for generating valid inequalities of the form.
Balanced Decomposition for Power System Simulation on Parallel Computers
Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)
industry and the associated academic research are requiring complex de- velopments in high performance computing tools, such as parallel computers, e cient compilers, graphic interfaces and algorithms including
Forest Floor Decomposition Following Hurricane Litter Inputs in
Ostertag, Rebecca
into nutrient cycles and may be one reason for the extraordinary resilience of these forests to wind to branches and stems, and elevated mortality above background levels (Foster and Boose 1992; Lugo and Waide
Skew-product decompositions of Brownian motions on manifolds: A ...
2002-07-25T23:59:59.000Z
(1) If (M,g) is an euclidean sphere, i.e. the sectional curvature K is constant and non- ..... 27,. 139–142. [6] A.R. Galmarino, Representation of an isotropic diffusion as a ... [19] H.S. Ruse, A.G. Walker, T.J. Willlmore, Harmonic Spaces, Edizioni ...
Spectral decomposition of entangled photons with an arbitrary pump
Alison M. Yao
2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the bi-photon state generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion in a thin crystal and under collinear phase matching conditions using a pump consisting of any superposition of Laguerre-Gauss modes. The result has no restrictions on the angular or radial momenta or, in particular, on the width of the pump, signal and idler modes. We demonstrate the strong effect of the pump to signal/idler width ratio on the composition of the down-converted entangled fields. Knowledge of the pump to signal/idler width ratio is shown to be essential when calculating the maximally entangled states that can be produced using pumps with a complex spatial profile.
Identifying Decomposition Products in Extracts of Cellular Metabolites
Rabinowitz, Joshua D.
with methanol:water, cold temperature and a high methanol fraction minimizes artifacts due to metabolite the efficiency of extracting E. coli with boiling ethanol:water, cold versus hot methanol:water, and perchloric Escherichia coli with different methanol:water mixtures, we observed that 50% water gave increased yield
Taylor Series as Wide-sense Biorthogonal Wavelet Decomposition
H. M. de Oliveira; R. D. Lins
2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z
Pointwise-supported generalized wavelets are introduced, based on Dirac, doublet and further derivatives of delta. A generalized biorthogonal analysis leads to standard Taylor series and new Dual-Taylor series that may be interpreted as Laurent Schwartz distributions. A Parseval-like identity is also derived for Taylor series, showing that Taylor series support an energy theorem. New representations for signals called derivagrams are introduced, which are similar to spectrograms. This approach corroborates the impact of wavelets in modern signal analysis.
Towards An Automated Approach to Hardware/Software Decomposition
Qin, Shengchao
We propose in this paper an algebraic approach to hard-ware/software partitioning in Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL). We explore a collection of algebraic laws for Verilog programs, from which we design a set ...
An Energy Reference Bus Independent LMP Decomposition Algorithm
through the use of locational-based marginal pricing (LMP) [2]. The LMP at a location is defined, Thomas J. Overbye, Fellow, IEEE Abstract-- The volatility of the price of electricity in a Locational Marginal Price (LMP) market makes it necessary to introduce financial price risk hedging instruments
Generalized spectral decomposition method for solving stochastic finite element equations
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
or stochastic bases, have been proposed in order to reduce these computational costs. Recently, a new ap- proach times and memory requirements. The reduction of these computational costs has now become a key question and the automatic construction of reduced bases. In this paper, the concept of GSD, initially introduced for a class
The LATIN multiscale computational method and the Proper Generalized Decomposition
drastically and presents some sim- ilarities with the POD. Initially introduced for the analyze and reduction numbers of degrees of freedom and the corresponding calcula- tion costs are generally prohibitive. There and the macroscale. A new micro/macro computational strat- egy was proposed in [18] which involved space and time
Correlation matrix decomposition of WIG20 intraday fluctuations
Rak, R; Kwapien, J; Oswiecimka, P
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using the correlation matrix formalism we study the temporal aspects of the Warsaw Stock Market evolution as represented by the WIG20 index. The high frequency (1 min) WIG20 recordings over the time period between January 2001 and October 2005 are used. The entries of the correlation matrix considered here connect different distinct periods of the stock market dynamics, like days or weeks. Such a methodology allows to decompose the price fluctuations into the orthogonal eigensignals that quantify different modes of the underlying dynamics. The magnitudes of the corresponding eigenvalues reflect the strengths of such modes. One observation made in this paper is that strength of the daily trend in the WIG20 dynamics systematically decreases when going from 2001 to 2005. Another is that large events in the return fluctuations are primarily associated with a few most collective eigensignals.
Decomposition Pathway of Ammonia Borane on the Surface of nano...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
nano-BN. Abstract: Ammonia borane (AB) is under significant investigation as a possible hydrogen storage material. While many chemical additives have been demonstrated to have a...
Flavor decomposition of the elastic nucleon electromagnetic form factors
C.D. Cates, C.W. Jager, S. Riordan, B. Wojtsekhowski
2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The u- and d-quark contributions to the elastic nucleon electromagnetic form factors have been determined using experimental data on GEn , GMn , GpE , and GpM . Such a flavor separation of the form factors became possible up to 3.4 GeV2 with recent data on GEn from Hall A at JLab. At a negative four-momentum transfer squared Q2 above 1 GeV2, for both the u- and d-quark components, the ratio of the Pauli form factor to the Dirac form factor, F2/F1, was found to be almost constant, and for each of F2 and F1 individually, the d-quark component drops continuously with increasing Q2.
Masas and Bimodule Decompositions of II_1 Factors
Mukherjee, Kunal K.
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
Radon measure on a metric space X and T be a measurable map into (Y,?Y ). Let ? be a ?-finite measure on ?Y such that T??lessmuch?. If ?Y is countably generated and contains all singleton sets {t}, then ? has a (T,?) disintegration. The measures ?t... of Thm. II.16 is due to von Neumann. Proposition II.17. Let ? be a Radon measure on a compact metric space X and T be a measurable map into (Y,?Y ). Let ? be a ?-finite measure on ?Y such that T?? lessmuch ?. Assume that ?Y is countably generated...
Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water
Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Stiegel, Gary J. (Library, PA); Lee, Tae-Hyun (Naperville, IL)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.
Approximate inference : decomposition methods with applications to networks
Jung, Kyomin
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Markov random field (MRF) model provides an elegant probabilistic framework to formulate inter-dependency between a large number of random variables. In this thesis, we present a new approximation algorithm for computing ...
Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition
Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)
2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.
Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning with the MAXQ Value Function Decomposition
will produce better policies than Feudal Q learning. 1 Introduction Hierarchical approaches to reinforcement level can be thought of as an agent that must obey the commands of the level above it (its feudal lord(4,4), so the * is converted to a ne subgoal at level 2. In Feudal Q learning, each level i of the hierarchy
Revised, final form, July 1994 Domain Decomposition, Parallel Computing and
BjÃ¸rstad, Petter E.
Petter E. BjÃ¸rstad \\Lambda Terje KÅ¡arstad y Abstract A prototype black oil simulator is described describing the flow in porous media is a nonlinear system consisting of an elliptic equation and a formally parabolic convectionÂdiffusion equation. Our algorithms and techniques apply to a much larger class
DECOMPOSITION BASED AND BRANCH AND BOUND GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION APPROACHES
Neumaier, Arnold
the liquid phase can be modeled using either the NonRandom TwoLiquid (NRTL) equation, or the UNIversal of the respective problems. For the NRTL equation, it is shown that the formulation can be converted into a biconvex
Two-Stage Decomposition Algorithms for Single Product Maritime ...
2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
planning problem of bitumen, Persson and Göthe-Lundgren [23] allow for a vessel to discharge at no more than two ports per voyage. In liquefied natural gas
Decomposition Algorithm for Optimizing Multi-server Appointment ...
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
?Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; email: yandeng@umich.edu. †Corresponding author; Department of ...
Decomposition Algorithms for Two-Stage Chance-Constrained ...
2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
Mar 1, 2014 ... power system operator wishes to have a plan in which all energy ... §2 an alternative model for risk management, which models the need to ...
Optimization Decomposition of Resistive Power Networks with Energy Storage
Tan, Chee Wei
, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--A fundamental challenge of a smart grid is: to what extent can moving, smart grid, message passing algorithm. I. INTRODUCTION A key challenge in a smart grid design of demands and supply generation (see Figure 1), while promising in a smart grid, motivates the important
Gallego Arrubla, Julian Andres
2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z
for systems of inequalities with binary variables are developed. The first algorithm uses the new theory and the method of the alternative polyhedron within a branch-and-bound (BAB) approach. The second algorithm applies the new theory and the method...
Domain decomposition preconditioners for higher-order discontinuous Galerkin discretizations
Diosady, Laslo Tibor
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Aerodynamic flows involve features with a wide range of spatial and temporal scales which need to be resolved in order to accurately predict desired engineering quantities. While computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has ...
Methane Decomposition: Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Filaments
Goodman, Wayne
fuel cell vehicles; such vehicles are expected to significantly curtail the pollution from for hydrogen is to power fuel cells. Major automobile manufac- turers are currently working towards developing the transportation sector. Fuel cells, because of their modular nature, can be utilized to provide heat
Decomposition algorithms for multi-area power system analysis
Min, Liang
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
A power system with multiple interconnected areas needs to be operated coordinately for the purposes of the system reliability and economic operation, although each area has its own ISO under the market environment. In consolidation of different...
Decomposition and Organic Matter Quality in Continental Peatlands
Turetsky, Merritt
deglaciation and represent a long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Soil temperatures incubations to quantify carbon dioxide (CO2) pro- duction in peat formed under different permafrost regimes (Alberta, Sas- katchewan) or within depth intervals (surface, deep). Internal lawn peat produces more CO2
Minimum Cost Layout Decomposition and Legalization for Triple ...
2015-06-27T23:59:59.000Z
problem as a minimum cost coloring problem, and it is relaxed to a nonlinear 0-1 ... ered as a promising technology for next-generation lithogra- phy. However ...
Decomposition Algorithms with Parametric Gomory Cuts for Two ...
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
August 15, 2012. Abstract. We consider a class of two-stage stochastic integer programs with binary variables in the first stage and general integer variables in ...
Sparse and Low-Rank Matrix Decomposition Via Alternating
Xiaoming Yuan
2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nov 1, 2009 ... This exact recovery is achieved via solving a convex relaxation problem where the L1 norm and the nuclear norm are utilized for being ...
SPARSE AND LOW-RANK MATRIX DECOMPOSITION VIA ...
2009-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
relaxation problem where the l1 norm and the nuclear norm are utilized for being surrogates of the sparsity and low-rank. Numerically, this convex relaxation ...
Intermediate Products in the Bacterial Decomposition of Hexadecanol and Octadecanol
Langley, W. D.
, an excess of water has been naturally provided which has allowed the development of large population and industrial centers. But the long term and recently accelerated return of water-borne wastes from these centers to water bodies has caused a critical...
Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts
Landoll, Michael 1984-
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...
Thermal decomposition study of hydroxylamine nitrate during storage and handling
Zhang, Chuanji
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN), an important agent for the nuclear industry and the U.S. Army, has been involved in several costly incidents. To prevent similar incidents, the study of HAN safe storage and handling boundary has become extremely...
Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process
Wilson, M.W.
1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.
Logic Decomposition of Asynchronous Circuits Using STG Victor Khomenko
Newcastle upon Tyne, University of
FOlding and partial order techniques (UFO'07) and Workshop on BALSA Re-Synthesis (RESYN'09). From September 2005
Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process
Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.
Singular-value decomposition of a tomosynthesis system
Dainty, Chris
1967 (2009). 3. L. T. Niklason, "Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging," Radiology 1997, 399406 (1997). 4Nova University Center, SE-10691Stockholm, Sweden 2College of Optical Sciences and Dept. of Radiology Univ to replace mammography, since it gives 3D information at a relatively small increase in dose and cost. We
Computation and Uses of the Semidiscrete Matrix Decomposition
O'Leary, Dianne P.
Laboratories and Dianne P. O'Leary University of Maryland We derive algorithms for computing a semidiscrete Energy Research Corporation. O'Leary's work was supported by the National Sci ence Foundation under 945519214, tgkolda@sandia.gov. Name: Dianne P. O'Leary Address: Computer Science Department
Algorithm 805: Computation and Uses of the Semidiscrete Matrix Decomposition
O'Leary, Dianne P.
National Laboratories and DIANNE P. O'LEARY University of Maryland We present algorithms for computing Research Corporation. O'Leary's work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CCR-97@sandia.gov; D. P. O'Leary, Computer Science Department and Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University
Computation and Uses of the Semidiscrete Matrix Decomposition
Kolda, T.G.; O'Leary, D.P.
1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
We derive algorithms for computing a semidiscrete approximation to a matrix in the Frobenius and weighted norms. The approximation is formed as a weighted sum of outer products of vectors whose elements are +/=1 or 0, so the storage required by the approximation is quite small.
Jon Ayers 1 Singular Value Decomposition, Its History and Applications
Marzuola, Jeremy
developed without the likes of Gauss and Cauchy, both who contributed to the field of Linear Algebra in its naissance (Steward, 551). In 1823 Gauss published his famous elimination algorithm for reducing matrices for the diagonalization of a symmetric matrix, and the canonical forms for pairs of bilinear functions which
Ecient and Practical Algorithms for Sequential Modular Decomposition
McConnell, Ross
-time solutions have been given, see Corneil et al. (1985), Valdes et al. (1982). O(n+m log n), bounds Gustedt y Ross M. McConnell z Abstract A module of an undirected graph G = (V; E) is a set X of vertices of the vertices into nested modules. We give a practical algorithm with an O(n + m#11;(m;n)) time bound
Solid Double-Layered Hydroxide Catalysts for Lignin Decomposition - Energy
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof EnergyVehicles and FuelsC.E.
Urea Decomposition and SCR Performance at Low Temperature | Department of
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59 FAXFact Sheet Uranium Mill TailingsEnergy
. The method employs an orthogonal polynomial collocation technique on multiple subdomains. The subdomain is a Chebyshev collocation method. Orthogonal polynomial techniques suffer from many drawbacks. For example(N 2 ) for a finite difference method. Despite the disadvantages orthogonal polynomials do give
Cai, Long
the basis of nor- mal scientific discourse. The public's emotional response to genetically modified food
Building Technologies Program - 1995 Annual Report
Selkowitz, S.E.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
WI. Also ide Films for Electrochromic Devices," published as1) (1995). posited Electrochromic Coatings," nology: 1973-37747, July 1995. Use of Electrochromic Windows," Ther- LBL
to test antiviral drugs without using the small-pox virus itself and would focus on replica-
at Rokkasho. Last week, at a meeting in Vienna, Austria, nei- ther the E.U. nor Japan could persuade the other
Mills, Andrew D.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells. ” Center for theR. Margolis. 2004. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLepley. 1993. “Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by
Mills, Andrew
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells. ” Center for theR. Margolis. 2004. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLepley. 1993. “Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by
Solar discrepancies : Mars exploration and the curious problem of inter-planetary time
Mirmalek, Zara Lenora
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Tompkins, E. V. (2004). Apollo, Challenger, Columbia and theR. (Director). (1995). Apollo 13 [Motion Picture]. Unitedstudents (Rudolph Schott, Apollo Milton Olin Smith, Frank
absorption conditioning factors: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
corrections. A. H. Hoang; C. J. Reisser 2004-12-17 2 MAL'TSEV CONDITIONS, LACK OF ABSORPTION, AND SOLVABILITY Mathematics Websites Summary: MAL'TSEV CONDITIONS, LACK OF...
CAPTEUR CAPACITIF DE PETITS DPLACEMENTS APPLICATION A LA RALISATION D'UNE BALANCE
Boyer, Edmond
sensibles, mais se prêtant mal à l'enre- gistrement, les capteurs potentiométriques, très simples et peu
Integrating POMDP and Reinforcement Learning for a Two Layer Simulated Robot Architecture
Pyeatt, Larry
and actuator mal function caused by hardware failure or low battery conditions. Our current system has two
A Flow-Channel Analysis for the Mars Hopper
W. Spencer Cooley
2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Mars Hopper is an exploratory vehicle designed to fly on Mars using carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere as a rocket propellant. The propellent gasses are thermally heated while traversing a radioisotope ther- mal rocket (RTR) engine’s core. This core is comprised of a radioisotope surrounded by a heat capacitive material interspersed with tubes for the propellant to travel through. These tubes, or flow channels, can be manu- factured in various cross-sectional shapes such as a special four-point star or the traditional circle. Analytical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) anal- yses were performed using flow channels with either a circle or a star cross- sectional shape. The nominal total inlet pressure was specified at 2,805,000 Pa; and the outlet pressure was set to 2,785,000 Pa. The CO2 inlet tem- perature was 300 K; and the channel wall was 1200 K. The steady-state CFD simulations computed the smooth-walled star shape’s outlet temper- ature to be 959 K on the finest mesh. The smooth-walled circle’s outlet temperature was 902 K. A circle with a surface roughness specification at 0.01 mm gave 946 K and at 0.1 mm yielded 989 K. The The effects of a slightly varied inlet pressure were also examined. The analytical calculations were based on the mass flow rates computed in the CFD simulations and provided significantly higher outlet temperature results while displaying the same comparison trends. Research relating to the flow channel heat transfer studies was also done. Mathematical methods to geometrically match the cross-sectional areas of the circle and star, along with a square and equilateral triangle, were derived. A Wolfram Mathematica 8 module was programmed to analyze CFD results using Richardson Extrapolation and calculate the grid convergence index (GCI). A Mathematica notebook, also composed, computes and graphs the bulk mean temperature along a flow channel’s length while the user dynam- ically provides the input variables, allowing their effects on the temperature to be more easily observed.
Lin Chen; Li Yu
2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z
We show that any unitary operator on the $d_A\\times d_B$ system ($d_A\\ge 2$) can be decomposed into the product of at most $4d_A-5$ controlled unitary operators. The number can be reduced to $2d_A-1$ when $d_A$ is a power of two. We also prove that three controlled unitaries can implement a bipartite complex permutation operator, and discuss the connection to an analogous result on classical reversible circuits. We further show that any $n$-partite unitary on the space $\\mathbb{C}^{d_1}\\otimes...\\otimes\\mathbb{C}^{d_n}$ is the product of at most $[2\\prod^{n-1}_{j=1}(2d_j-2)-1]$ controlled unitary gates, each of which is controlled from $n-1$ systems. The number can be further reduced for $n=4$. We also decompose any bipartite unitary into the product of a simple type of bipartite gates and some local unitaries. We derive dimension-independent upper bounds for the CNOT-gate cost or entanglement cost of bipartite permutation unitaries (with the help of ancillas of fixed size) as functions of the Schmidt rank of the unitary. It is shown that such costs under a simple protocol are related to the log-rank conjecture in communication complexity theory via the link of nonnegative rank.
Brenner, Thomas Andrew
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
governing equations in the projection onto the POD basis functions. B. Background Recent advances in computer hardware have led to a wide range of new possibilities in the computational simulation of fluid flow. Despite these advances, some flows contain... sufficient complexity to make numerical simulation a challenge. High-fidelity, low cost models for these flows are a necessity for both design and control, and are a major area of current and future research. ROMs have come into wide use in the simulation...