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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

modes are nearly completely restored after ther-mal treatment. Similarly, electronic transitions in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modes are nearly completely restored after ther- mal treatment. Similarly, electronic transitions, 338 (2003). 13. D. Chattopadhyay, I. Galeska, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 3370

Stüwe, Jogy

2

Why Blow Away Heat? Harvest Server's Heat Using Ther-moelectric Generators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Why Blow Away Heat? Harvest Server's Heat Using Ther- moelectric Generators Ted Tsung-Te Lai, Wei ABSTRACT This paper argues for harvesting energy from servers' wasted heat in data centers. Our approach is to distribute a large number of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) on or nearby server hotspot components whose

Huang, Polly

3

Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into "approximately convex" components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact convex decomposition and can...

Ghosh, Mukulika

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

4

Singular Value Decomposition Generalized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Overview The singular value decomposition (SVD) is a generalization of the eigen- ferent eigenvalues are pairwise orthogonal. Let X be a positive semi-definite, its eigen containing the eigenvalues of X. The SVD uses the eigen-decomposition of a positive semi-definite matrix

Abdi, Hervé

5

Cool heliosheath plasma and deceleration of the upstream solar wind at the termination shock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with respect to the ther- mal ions downstream of the termination shock. Most of the solar wind energy

Richardson, John

6

Sludge Decomposition and Stabilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...DEHYDROPOLYMER AND PLANT LIGNINS AND MODEL...OF PYROLYSIS-MASS SPECTRA OF MELANINS...ENERGY-STORAGE AND BALANCE OF PRODUCERS AND...FRACTIONS BY PYROLYSIS MASS-SPECTROMETRY...DECOMPOSITION AND PLANT GROWTH, SOIL...DEGRADATION OF WASTEWATER ORGANICS IN SOIL...VESILIND, P.A., TREATMENT DISPOSAL W ( 1974...

Roy Hartenstein

1981-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Disilane ... Thermal decomposition of disilane was investigated using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry coupled with vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization (VUV-SPI) at a temperature range of 675?740 K and total pressure of 20?40 Torr. ... Concentrations of disilane and trisilane during thermal decomposition of disilane were quantitatively measured using the VUV-SPI method. ...

Kazumasa Yoshida; Keiji Matsumoto; Tatsuo Oguchi; Kenichi Tonokura; Mitsuo Koshi

2006-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

8

On Hamilton Decompositions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. J. Kelly conjectured in 1968 that every diregular tournament on (2n+1) points can be decomposed in directed Hamilton circuits [1]. We define so called leading diregular tournament on (2n+1) points and show that it can be decomposed in directed Hamilton circuits when (2n+1) is a prime number. When (2n+1) is not a prime number this method does not work and we will need to devise some another method. We also propose a general method to find Hamilton decomposition of certain tournament for all sizes.

Dhananjay P. Mehendale

2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

9

Abstract --This paper describes a practical technique for the opti-mal scheduling of control dominated systems minimizing the weighted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract -- This paper describes a practical technique for the opti- mal scheduling of control is cru- cial for control dependent scheduling to accommodate practical archi- tectural goals. In contrast ­ to the exclusion of all other costs. A scheduler minimizing every control path separately may miss operation

California at Santa Barbara, University of

10

Electronic Structure: Density Functional Theory S. Kurth, M.A.L. Marques, and E. K. U. Gross  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic Structure: Density Functional Theory S. Kurth, M.A.L. Marques, and E. K. U. Gross: July 5, 2003) PACS numbers: 71.15.Mb, 31.15.Ew 1 #12; I. INTRODUCTION Density functional theory (DFT systems becomes prohibitive. A di#erent approach is taken in density functional theory where, instead

Gross, E.K.U.

11

Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time. Combined heat and power genera%on plants are also called co-genera%on plants. #12. #12;Facing the challenge of variability, the power grid is in transi

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

12

Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21cm absorption spectra from the 21cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the HI line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the up...

Lindner, Robert R; Murray, Claire E; Stanimirovi?, Sneana; Babler, Brian L; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W M; Dickey, John

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Bridge Decomposition of Restriction Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motivated by Kesten's bridge decomposition for two-dimensional self-avoiding walks in the upper half plane, we show that the conjectured scaling limit of the half-plane SAW, the SLE(8/3) process, also has an appropriately defined bridge decomposition. This continuum decomposition turns out to entirely be a consequence of the restriction property of SLE(8/3), and as a result can be generalized to the wider class of restriction measures. Specifically we show that the restriction hulls with index less than one can be decomposed into a Poisson Point Process of irreducible bridges in a way that is similar to Ito's excursion decomposition of a Brownian motion according to its zeros.

Tom Alberts; Hugo Duminil-Copin

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Ozone decomposition in water solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hewes, III; B. S. , Texas ASH University Directed by Dr. R. R. Davison The rate of the decomposition of ozone in water solutions at various pH's and temperatures were ob- tained by an iodometrical method. The orders of the reactions and the reaction...

Hewes, Cecil Grayson

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

ABSTRACT DECOMPOSITION THEOREM AND APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to obtain a Main Gap theorem for (5), which appears in the second author's Ph.D. the- sis [Le]. The main gap T is superstable and satisfies NDOP, every -saturated model has a decomposition in terms of an independent tree of small models, and furthermore, the tree is well-founded. This implies that the number of nonisomorphic

Grossberg, Rami

16

ABSTRACT DECOMPOSITION THEOREM AND APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to obtain a Main Gap theorem for (5), which appears in the second author's Ph.D. the­ sis [Le]. The main gap T is superstable and satisfies NDOP, every # # ­saturated model has a decomposition in terms of an independent tree of small models, and furthermore, the tree is well­founded. This implies that the number of nonisomorphic

Grossberg, Rami

17

Presented by Scalable Graph Decompositions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Approach #12;4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Sullivan_MapD_SC10 Tree by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Sullivan_MapD_SC10 Finding a tree decomposition · Tree.S. Department of Energy Sullivan_MapD_SC10 Yeast Protein Interaction Network Motivation · Massive data

18

Hydrogen Production from Thermocatalytic Hydrogen Sulfide Decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental data on hydrogen production from hydrogen sulfide decomposition over various solid catalysts at ... The possibilities given by surface modification by vacuum methods (electron beam evaporation and ma...

O. K. Alexeeva

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

SEMI-ALGEBRAIC CANONICAL DECOMPOSITION OF MULTI-WAY ARRAYS AND JOINT EIGENVALUE DECOMPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Rennes, F-35000, France ABSTRACT A semi-algebraic algorithm based on Joint EigenValue De- composition, the "Closed Form Solution" (CFS) presented in [10] and [11] resorts to the Joint EigenValue DecompositionSEMI-ALGEBRAIC CANONICAL DECOMPOSITION OF MULTI-WAY ARRAYS AND JOINT EIGENVALUE DECOMPOSITION

Boyer, Edmond

20

HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR EXPANDERS: APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR EXPANDERS: APPLICATIONS DANIELA K¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract is linear in n and which is a robust outexpander has a decomposition into edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles into (n - 1)/2 edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles, whenever n is sufficiently large. This verified a conjecture

Kühn, Daniela

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Polar Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: E # F and g: F # E are linear maps, then g #f and f #g always have the same non­zero eigen­ valuesChapter 2 Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Polar Form 2.1 Polar Form In this chapter, we. SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION (SVD) AND POLAR FORM The fact that f # # f and f # f # are self

Gallier, Jean

22

Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite J. Pourchez recent insights into thermal stability and decomposition mechanisms of ettringite, a lack of knowledge isothermal conditions. Keywords: ettringite, metaettringite, thermal decomposition, kinetic modelling. 1

Boyer, Edmond

23

Multilinear operators for higher-order decompositions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose two new multilinear operators for expressing the matrix compositions that are needed in the Tucker and PARAFAC (CANDECOMP) decompositions. The first operator, which we call the Tucker operator, is shorthand for performing an n-mode matrix multiplication for every mode of a given tensor and can be employed to concisely express the Tucker decomposition. The second operator, which we call the Kruskal operator, is shorthand for the sum of the outer-products of the columns of N matrices and allows a divorce from a matricized representation and a very concise expression of the PARAFAC decomposition. We explore the properties of the Tucker and Kruskal operators independently of the related decompositions. Additionally, we provide a review of the matrix and tensor operations that are frequently used in the context of tensor decompositions.

Kolda, Tamara Gibson

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Retrospective and prospective decomposition analysis of Chinese  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and prospective decomposition analysis of Chinese and prospective decomposition analysis of Chinese manufacturing energy use and policy implications Title Retrospective and prospective decomposition analysis of Chinese manufacturing energy use and policy implications Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Hasanbeigi, Ali, Lynn K. Price, Cecilia Fino-Chen, Hongyou Lu, and Jing Ke Journal Energy Policy Date Published 09/2013 Keywords Chinese manufacturing, Decomposition Analysis, energy intensity Abstract Aims The industrial sector dominates the China's total energy consumption, accounting for about 70% of energy use in 2010. Hence, this study aims to investigate the development path of China's industrial sector which will greatly affect future energy demand and dynamics of not only China, but the entire world.

25

Unimolecular decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane: RRKM calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on reaction thermochemistry and estimates of Arrhenius A-factors, it is expected that Si-C bond cleavage, C-H bond cleavage, and HCl elimination will be the primary channels for the unimolecular decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane. Using RRKM theory, we calculated rate constants for these three reactions. The calculations support the conclusion that these three reactions are the major decomposition pathways. Rate constants for each reaction were calculated in the high-pressure limit (800--1500 K) and in the falloff regime (1300--1500 K) for bath gases of both helium and hydrogen. These calculations thus provide branching fractions as well as decomposition rates. We also calculated bimolecular rate constants for the overall decomposition in the low-pressure limit. Interesting and surprising kinetic behavior of this system and the individual reactions is discussed. The reactivity of this chlorinated organosilane is compared to that of other organosilanes.

Osterheld, T.H.; Allendorf, M.D.; Melius, C.F.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations M. Barrault a,b,*, E. Cance method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi- empirical and density functional theory electronic structure calculations A molecular system is composed of N electrons, modelled quantum

Hager, William

27

Approximate convex decomposition and its applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in representations with an unmanageable number of components. In this work, we have developed an approximate technique, called Approximate Convex Decomposition (ACD), which decomposes a given polygon or polyhedron into "approximately convex" pieces that may provide...

Lien, Jyh-Ming

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Thermal decomposition of nitrated tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), nitric acid and water mixtures are subject to thermal decomposition. The gaseous and liquid decomposition product yields are highly path dependent. Higher temperatures accelerate decomposition rates, but may result in lower extent of reaction than comparable low temperature cases. Actual extent of reaction, and gaseous by-products generation, are affected by the presence of Zr(IV), condensate reflux back into the reaction vessel, the water/HNO{sub 3} and the HNO{sub 3}/TBP molar ratios, and whether the decomposition occurs at isobaric or constant volume conditions. Higher gaseous production results from condensate reflux, lower H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3} ratios, and with excess HNO{sub 3} and water present as a second liquid phase. Principal gaseous products include N{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and N{sub 2}O. Measurable concentrations of NO{sub 2} were not observed, although gas coloration indicative of NO{sub 2} were obsessed during the beginning of decomposition measurements. Principal liquid products are dibutyl phosphoric acid and butyl nitrate. Air sparging of TBP solutions (e.g., thru transfers using air lift pumps) may increase the hazards of TBP decomposition reactions by lowering the H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3} molar ratios. Runaway reactions were not observed under the conditions of this study. Possible reaction mechanisms and pathways are discussed.

Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Thermal decomposition of charring materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental techniques and methods were developed to investigate the transient process of wood pyrolysis under different levels of external radiation, moisture content of the wood sample, and oxygen concentration of the ambient atmosphere. A unique small-scale combustion-wind tunnel was constructed to conduct the pyrolysis experiments and to obtain the time dependent gasification mass flux, surface and in-depth temperatures, and evolved products of pyrolysis (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and total hydrocarbons (THC)) for thermally thick samples of Douglas-fir. Experiments were performed both in inert atmosphere (nitrogen), and in air at several different heat fluxes and three different moisture contents of wood. Time dependent empirical chemical composition, char yield, and the heat of combustion of the pyrolysis products were determined. The experimental results indicate that the presence of moisture reduces the pyrolysis mass flux and delays the occurrence of its maxima. Presence of oxygen drastically increases the pyrolysis mass flux but its effect specially at lower temperatures depends on the experimental conditions such as the boundary layer thickness over the wood surface. Char yield, chemical composition of the volatiles, and the heat of combustion were found to vary during the pyrolysis process and with changes in the environmental conditions and wood moisture content. The pyrolysis temperature assumption often used for the simplified modeling of wood pyrolysis was examined in detail by considering two otherwise identical models; one with infinitely fast decomposition kinetics and the other with finite rate chemistry. It was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature is not a material property and different pyrolysis temperatures are needed for every problem.

Nurbakhsh, S.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Thermal decomposition of nitrated tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extended contact between heated mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Most solvent extraction operations are conducted at ambient conditions without heating TBP and have been performed safely for decades, but several explosions involving TBP have occurred in the US, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. This investigation was undertaken to characterize the products of thermal decomposition of both single- and two-phase mixtures of TBP, nitric acid, and water under a variety of conditions. The data indicate that the extent of reaction and the rate of gaseous product formation are affected by the presence of Zr{sup 4+}, distillation compared with reflux conditions, temperature, water/HNO{sub 3} and HNO{sub 3}/TBP ratios, and whether the decomposition occurs under constant pressure or constant volume conditions. Higher reaction temperatures accelerate the rate of decomposition, but the extent of decomposition, as measured by the quantity of gaseous products, was greater at lower temperatures when the decomposition was performed under distillation conditions. Higher gas production occurs under reflux conditions, lower H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3} ratios, and when a separate water-HNO{sub 3} phase is initially present. The major gaseous products include N{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, and N{sub 2}O. Measurable amounts of NO{sub 2} were not present in the final product mixture, although an orange color suggesting the presence of NO{sub 2} was observed in the early stages of decomposition. The major liquid products were dibutyl phosphoric acid, butyl nitrate, and water. Small amounts of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} carboxylic acids were also present. Because of the small sample sizes that were employed and the isothermal conditions of the decomposition, runaway reactions were not observed. Some possible reaction pathways are considered.

Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GASEOUS AND SOLID PRODUCTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Gary F. Knutsen (M. S.OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Contents Abstract . .OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Gary F. Knutsen

Knutsen, G.F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Decomposition Pathway of Ammonia Borane on the Surface of nano...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Decomposition Pathway of Ammonia Borane on the Surface of nano-BN. Decomposition Pathway of Ammonia Borane on the Surface of nano-BN. Abstract: Ammonia borane (AB) is under...

33

Research Article Decomposition of Epoxy Model Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-critical water (NCW) or subcritical water, i.e., water at 250­300 °C [20], turn out to be alternative candidatesResearch Article Decomposition of Epoxy Model Compounds in Near-Critical Water Two tpyes of epoxy water (NCW). In the case of model compound I, at low temperatures the water molecules behave

Guo, John Zhanhu

34

Large power grid analysis using domain decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large power grid analysis using domain decomposition Quming Zhou, Kai Sun, Kartik Mohanram, Danny C referred to as the power grid. The power grid for a modern integrated circuit may consist of several grid is traditionally described as a large-scale linear system. Simulation of power grids usually

Mohanram, Kartik

35

Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign of Electric Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign of Electric Motors Industry Yongheng Redesign of Electric Motors Industry Introduction of the Supply Chain Model 3/22/13 2 Analia Rodriguez #12 Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign of Electric Motors Industry #12;Lagrangean Decomposition

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

36

Quantifier elimination by cylindrical algebraic decomposition based on regular chains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A quantifier elimination algorithm by cylindrical algebraic decomposition based on regular chains is presented. The main idea is to refine a complex cylindrical tree until the signs of polynomials appearing in the tree are sufficient to distinguish the ... Keywords: cylindrical algebraic decomposition, quantifier elimination, regular chains, triangular decomposition

Changbo Chen; Marc Moreno Maza

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization DecompositionDecomposition Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-2 CONTENTSCONTENTS Introduction (Marta;2 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-3 Layering as Optimization Decomposition Introduction By Marta

Fan, Xingzhe

38

Spinodal decomposition in polarized Fermi superfluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the dynamics of phase separation through the process of spinodal decomposition in a Fermi superfluid with population imbalance. We discuss this instability first in terms of a phenomenological Landau theory. Working within the mean-field description at zero temperature, we then find the spinodal region in the phase diagram of polarization versus interaction strength and the spectrum of unstable modes in this region. After a quench, the spinodal decomposition starts from the Sarma state, which is a minimum of the free energy with respect to the order parameter at fixed density and polarization and a maximum at fixed chemical potentials. The possibility of observing nontrivial domain structures in current experiments with trapped atomic gases is discussed.

A. Lamacraft and F. M. Marchetti

2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

39

Entanglement of formation from optimal decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new method of analytically deriving the entanglement of formation of the bipartite mixed state. The method realizes the optimal decomposition families of states. Our method can lead to many new results concerning entanglement of formation, its additivity and entanglement cost. We illustrate it by investigating the two-qubit state, the separable state, the maximally correlated state, the isotropic state and the Werner state.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2007-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

40

Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Polar Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

g always have the same non-zero eigen- values! Furthermore, if E = F, then 0 is an eigenvalue for fChapter 2 Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Polar Form 2.1 Polar Form In this chapter, we = f(u), f(v) = u, (f f)(v) . Similarly, f f is self-adjoint. 29 #12;30 CHAPTER 2. SINGULAR VALUE

Gallier, Jean

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Treatment of nitrocellulose by thermal decomposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste fines generated during the manufacture of nitrocellulose (NC) are classified as a RCRA K044 hazardous waste due to their explosive properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate controlled thermal treatment of NC in order to render it nonhazardous and allow for more economical ultimate disposal. The results indicate that controlled thermal decomposition at 130--150 C is a technically feasible process. Rates improved significantly at higher temperatures. At 150 C, only 10 hours were needed to reduce the nitrogen content of NC from 13.7% to below 10% (versus 105 h at 130 C), a level found in many commercial, nonhazardous grades of NC. The air flow rate over the heated NC, and the moisture content of the NC or air above it had no discernible effect on rates of nitrogen removal. Greater mass loss from the NC than what was attributable to the nitro groups alone indicated that decomposition of the polymer backbone also occurred. This was confirmed by FTIR analyses, the appearance of CO{sub 2} in the off-gas, and a lack of correlation between percent nitrogen and heat of combustion. Samples of thermally treated NC containing 9.7% nitrogen failed three of the basic tests used by the Bureau of Explosives to ascertain explosive characteristics, indicating that the product was no longer hazardous based on its energetic properties. Although technically feasible, use of thermal decomposition to treat NC fines will most likely be restricted by safety concerns. Operating close to 130 C would mitigate the risk, but considerably extends the time required for treatment. The most suitable application of this technology may instead by treatment of NC-contaminated soils.

Campbell, R.K.; Freedman, D.L.; Kim, B.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Algorithms for the Markov entropy decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Markov entropy decomposition (MED) is a recently proposed, cluster-based simulation method for finite temperature quantum systems with arbitrary geometry. In this paper, we detail numerical algorithms for performing the required steps of the MED, principally solving a minimization problem with a preconditioned Newton's algorithm, as well as how to extract global susceptibilities and thermal responses. We demonstrate the power of the method with the spin-1/2 XXZ model on the 2D square lattice, including the extraction of critical points and details of each phase. Although the method shares some qualitative similarities with exact diagonalization, we show that the MED is both more accurate and significantly more flexible.

Andrew J. Ferris and David Poulin

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

43

Memory Effect and Fast Spinodal Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the modification of the Cahn-Hilliard equation when a time delay process through a memory function is taken into account. We then study the process of spinodal decomposition in fast phase transitions associated with a conserved order parameter. The introduced memory effect plays an important role to obtain a finite group velocity. Then, we discuss the constraint for the parameters to satisfy causality. The memory effect is seen to affect the dynamics of phase transition at short times and has the effect of delaying, in a significant way, the process of rapid growth of the order parameter that follows a quench into the spinodal region.

T. Koide; G. Krein; Rudnei O. Ramos

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

44

Tomographic resolution without singular value decomposition James G. Berryman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tomographic resolution without singular value decomposition James G. Berryman Lawrence Livermore an extensive discussion of resolution in seismic inverse problems --- Evans and Achauer 9 state

45

A scenario decomposition algorithm for 0-1 stochastic programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jul 19, 2013 ... Abstract: We propose a scenario decomposition algorithm for stochastic 0-1 programs. The algorithm recovers an optimal solution by iteratively...

Shabbir Ahmed

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

46

Decomposition of Protein Tryptophan Fluorescence Spectra into Log-Normal Components. I. Decomposition Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Decomposition Algorithms Edward A. Burstein, Sergei M. Abornev, and Yana K. Reshetnyak Institute of Theoretical on the possibility that the shape of elementary spectral component could be accurately described by a uniparametric and Arsenin, 1986). The regularizing factors (functions, algorithms, or logical premises) allow one to develop

Rhode Island, University of

47

Solar forecasting review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to solar thermal power pants energy production planning,to solar ther- mal power plants energy production planning [solar resource, seasonal deviations in production and load profiles, the high cost of energy

Inman, Richard Headen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Thermal reaction of nickel and Si0.75Ge0.25 alloy K. L. Peya)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Singapore 117576 S. Chattopadhyay and H. B. Zhao Advanced Materials for Micro- and Nano-Systems Programme, par- ticularly for furnace annealing. On the other hand, rapid ther- mal annealing RTA

49

A&A 566, A95 (2014) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201323241  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Departamento de Astronomia de la Universidad de Guanajuato, Apartado Postal 144, C.P. 36000 Guanajuato, GTO of complex interlinked processes involving ther- mal pulses, hot bottom burning, and the third dredge-up (see

50

The mysteries of goal decomposition Scott Munro1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mysteries of goal decomposition Scott Munro1 Sotirios Liaskos2 Jorge Aranda3 1 Department languages such as i*. High-level goals of stakeholders are recursively decomposed into lower level ones, goal modeling, i-star 1 Introduction Goal decomposition is central in goal modeling. High-level goals

Liaskos, Sotirios

51

Dynamic Decomposition of Apparent Power in Polyphase Unbalanced Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the utility of our dynamic power decomposition by applying it to actual data recorded in a paper plant during to characterize the concept of reactive power in the most general case, and to decompose the load currentDynamic Decomposition of Apparent Power in Polyphase Unbalanced Networks with Application

Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

52

APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF ROBUSTLY EXPANDING REGULAR DIGRAPHS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF ROBUSTLY EXPANDING REGULAR DIGRAPHS DERYK OSTHUS and is a robust outexpander has an approximate decomposition into edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles, i.e. G contains a set of r -o(r) edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. Here G is a robust outexpander if for every set S which

Osthus, Deryk

53

Retrospective and Prospective Decomposition Analysis of Chinese Manufacturing Energy Use, 1995-2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

additive non-changing decomposition of primary energy use of Chinese manufacturingadditive non-changing decomposition of primary energy use of Chinese manufacturingadditive non-changing decomposition of primary energy 1 use of Chinese manufacturing

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

On Borwein-Wiersma Decompositions of Monotone Linear Relations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monotone operators are of basic importance in optimization as they generalize simultaneously subdifferential operators of convex functions and positive semidefinite (not necessarily symmetric) matrices. In 1970, Asplund studied the additive decomposition of a maximal monotone operator as the sum of a subdifferential operator and an "irreducible" monotone operator. In 2007, Borwein and Wiersma [SIAM J. Optim. 18 (2007), pp. 946-960] introduced another additive decomposition, where the maximal monotone operator is written as the sum of a subdifferential operator and a "skew" monotone operator. Both decompositions are variants of the well-known additive decomposition of a matrix via its symmetric and skew part. This paper presents a detailed study of the Borwein-Wiersma decomposition of a maximal monotone linear relation. We give sufficient conditions and characterizations for a maximal monotone linear relation to be Borwein-Wiersma decomposable, and show that Borwein-Wiersma decomposability implies Asplund deco...

Bauschke, Heinz H; Yao, Liangjin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid decomposition uso Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as a renewable Summary: chemicals: kinetic study on the decomposition of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into levulinic acid. Proceeding... on the decomposition of...

56

Methanol adsorption and decomposition on rhodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decomposition of methanol on rhodium probed from {approximately}200 atomic sites of the (001) or (111) planes or Rh field emitter crystals but randomly with regard to crystallographic zones was studied by pulsed field desorption mass spectrometry. High electric field pulses were used to quantitatively desorb the final products, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, thus achieving steady-state conditions. Substantial amounts of methoxy (mainly desorbed as CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions) were also present at the surface. Applying a steady electric field, F{sub R} {ge} 4 V/nm, between the field pulses, led to a deceleration of the decomposition reaction and to increase of the amount of adsorbed CH{sub 3}O and CH{sub 2}O species. There were indicators that the rate-determining step of the reaction is C-H bond cleavage in adsorbed methoxy to form the CH{sub 2}O intermediate. This was supported by the observation of a kinetic isotope effect in the formation of CD{sub 2}O and CHDO from methyl-d{sub 2}-alcohol, CHD{sub 2}OH. Here, the C-H bond breaking to form the CD{sub 2}O was found to be twice as fast as the breaking of the C-D bond which results in CHDO. Field ion microscopy was applied to investigate the influence of the reaction on the structure of the whole hemispherical single crystal surface. There were neither topographic changes nor corrosion of the Rh surface after field-free exposure to 2 Pa methanol at temperatures up to 423 K.

Chuah, G.K.; Kruse, N.; Schmidt, W.A.; Block, J.H.; Abend, G. (Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation-damaged polystyrene (given the identification name of 'polycube') was fabricated by mixing high-density polystyrene material ("Dylene Fines # 100") with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used in the 1960s for criticality studies during processing of spent nuclear fuel. The polycubes have since been stored for almost 40 years at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) after failure of two processes to reclaim the plutonium and uranium oxides from the polystyrene matrix. Thermal decomposition products from this highly cross-linked polystyrene matrix were characterized using Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal furnace. The decomposition studies were performed in air and helium atmospheres at about 773 K. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different compared to virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the number of organic species generated and their concentrations. In the inert (i.e., helium) atmosphere, the major volatile organic products identified (in order of decreasing concentrations) were styrene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, nathphalene, propane, .alpha.-methylbenzene, indene and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. But in air, the major volatile organic species identified changed slightly. Concentrations of the organic species in the inert atmosphere were significantly higher than those for the air atmosphere processing. Overall, 38 volatile organic species were identified in the inert atmosphere compared to 49 species in air. Twenty of the 38 species in the inert conditions were also products in the air atmosphere. Twenty-two oxidized organic products were identified during thermal processing in air.

Abrefah, John; Klinger, George S.

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

58

Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation-damaged polystyrene material (''polycube'') used in this study was synthesized by mixing a high-density polystyrene (''Dylene Fines No. 100'') with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used on the Hanford Site in the 1960s for criticality studies to determine the hydrogen-to-fissile atom ratios for neutron moderation during processing of spent nuclear fuel. Upon completion of the studies, two methods were developed to reclaim the transuranic (TRU) oxides from the polymer matrix: (1) burning the polycubes in air at 873 K; and (2) heating the polycubes in the absence of oxygen and scrubbing the released monomer and other volatile organics using carbon tetrachloride. Neither of these methods was satisfactory in separating the TRU oxides from the polystyrene. Consequently, the remaining polycubes were sent to the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for storage. Over time, the high dose of alpha and gamma radiation has resulted in a polystyrene matrix that is highly cross-linked and hydrogen deficient and a stabilization process is being developed in support of Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. Baseline processes involve thermal treatment to pyrolyze the polycubes in a furnace to decompose the polystyrene and separate out the TRU oxides. Thermal decomposition products from this degraded polystyrene matrix were characterized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide information for determining the environmental impact of the process and for optimizing the process parameters. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal tube furnace was used for the characterization studies. The decomposition studies were performed both in air and helium atmospheres at 773 K, the planned processing temperature. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products identified for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different from those observed for virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the n umber of organic species generated and their concentrations.

J Abrefah GS Klinger

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

59

The thermal decomposition of methane in a tubular reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction rate of methane decomposition using a tubular reactor having a 1 inch inside diameter with an 8 foot long heated zone was investigated in the temperature range of 700 to 900 C with pressures ranging from 28.2 to 56.1 atm. Representing the rate by a conventional model, {minus}dC{sub CH4}/dt= k1 C{sub CH4} {minus}k2 C{sub H2}{sup 2}, the rate constant k1 for methane decomposition was determined. The activation energy, 31.3 kcal/mol, calculated by an Arrhenius Plot was lower than for previously published results for methane decomposition. This result indicates that submicron particles found in the reactor adhere to the inside of the reactor and these submicron high surface area carbon particles tend to catalyze the methane decomposition. The rate constant has been found to be approximately constant at 900 C with pressure range cited above. The rate of methane decomposition increases with methane partial pressure in first-order. The rate of the methane decomposition is favored by higher temperatures and pressures while the thermochemical equilibrium of methane decomposition is favored by lower pressures. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Q-values of the Superallowed beta-Emitters 26m-Al, 42-Sc and 46-V and their impact on V_ud and the Unitarity of the CKM Matrix  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The beta-decay Q_EC-values of the superallowed beta emitters 26m-Al, 42-Sc and 46-V have been measured with a Penning trap to a relative precision of better than 8x10^-9. Our result for 46-V, 7052.72(31) keV, confirms a recent measurement that differed significantly from the previously accepted reaction-based Q_EC-value. However, our results for 26m-Al and 42-Sc, 4232.83(13) keV and 6426.13(21) keV, are consistent with previous reaction-based values. By eliminating the possibility of a systematic difference between the two techniques, this result demonstrates that no significant shift in the deduced value of V_ud should be anticipated.

T. Eronen; J. C. Hardy; V. Elomaa; U. Hager; J. Hakala; A. Jokinen; A. Kankainen; V. S. Kolhinen; I. Moore; H. Penttila; S. Rahaman; J. Rissanen; A. Saastamoinen; T. Sonoda; J. Aysto

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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61

In vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) non-structural proteins in insect cells reveals their putative functions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1 viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread.

Maroniche, Guillermo A.; Mongelli, Vanesa C.; Llauger, Gabriela; Alfonso, Victoria; Taboga, Oscar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vas, Mariana del, E-mail: mdelvas@cnia.inta.gov.ar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

How to produce hydrogen from water was a problem addressed by this invention. The solution employs a combined electrolytical-thermochemical sulfuric acid process. Additionally, high purity sulfuric acid can be produced in the process. Water and SO.sub.2 react in electrolyzer (12) so that hydrogen is produced at the cathode and sulfuric acid is produced at the anode. Then the sulfuric acid is reacted with a particular compound M.sub.r X.sub.s so as to form at least one water insoluble sulfate and at least one water insoluble oxide of molybdenum, tungsten, or boron. Water is removed by filtration; and the sulfate is decomposed in the presence of the oxide in sulfate decomposition zone (21), thus forming SO.sub.3 and reforming M.sub.r X.sub.s. The M.sub.r X.sub.s is recycled to sulfate formation zone (16). If desired, the SO.sub.3 can be decomposed to SO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 ; and the SO.sub.2 can be recycled to electrolyzer (12) to provide a cycle for producing hydrogen.

Hollabaugh, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bowman, Melvin G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

On Parallelizing Dual Decomposition in Stochastic Integer Programming |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

On Parallelizing Dual Decomposition in Stochastic Integer Programming On Parallelizing Dual Decomposition in Stochastic Integer Programming Title On Parallelizing Dual Decomposition in Stochastic Integer Programming Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Lubin, M, Martin, K, Petra, CG, Sandikci, B Journal Operations Research Letters Volume 41 Start Page 252-258 Issue 3 Date Published 05/2013 Other Numbers ANL/MCS-P3037-0912 Abstract For stochastic mixed-integer programs, we revisit the dual decomposition algorithm of Care and Schultz from a computational perspective with the aim of its parallelization. We address an important bottleneck of parallel execution by identifying a formulation that permits the parallel solution of the master program by using structure-exploiting interior-point solvers. Our results demonstrate the potential for parallel speedup and the importance of regularization (stabilization) in the dual optimization. Load imbalance is identified as a remaining barrier to parallel scalability.

64

Applications of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Inviscid Transonic Aerodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two extensions to the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique are considered for steady transonic aerodynamic applications. The first is to couple the POD approach with a cubic spline interpolation procedure in ...

Tan, Bui-Thanh

65

ASPLUND DECOMPOSITION OF MONOTONE JONATHAN BORWEIN AND HERRE WIERSMA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASPLUND DECOMPOSITION OF MONOTONE OPERATORS JONATHAN BORWEIN AND HERRE WIERSMA Abstract. We monotone, and seemingly 1 #12;2 JONATHAN BORWEIN AND HERRE WIERSMA belong to all classes of well

Borwein, Jonathan

66

Functional Decomposition of Symbolic Polynomials Stephen M. Watt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Functional Decomposition of Symbolic Polynomials Stephen M. Watt Ontario Research CentreB7 watt@uwo.ca Abstract Earlier work has presented algorithms to factor and compute GCDs of symbolic

Watt, Stephen M.

67

Support Effect in the Thermal Decomposition of Some Catalyst Precursors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal decompositions of ammonium metavanadate, molybdic acid and ammonium phosphomolybdate supported on carborundum or silica were subjected to non-isothermal kinetic study. The compensation effect is di...

T. Vlase; G. Jurca; N. Doca

68

Decomposition algorithms for multi-area power system analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This dissertation investigates decomposition algorithms for multi-area power system transfer capability analysis and economic dispatch analysis. All of the proposed algorithms assume that areas do not share their network operating and economic information among...

Min, Liang

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

69

Thermal decomposition study of hydroxylamine nitrate during storage and handling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4.5. Temperature-time behaviors of the exotherm durations in Fig. 4.1 ....... 52 Figure 4.6. Kinetic analysis of HAN (24mass%) decomposition in a glass cell without catalyst... .......................................... 59 Figure 4.13. Temperature-time behaviors of the exotherm durations in Fig. 4.9 ....... 61 Figure 4.14. Kinetic analysis of the industrial HAN sample (17mass%) decomposition in a glass cell...

Zhang, Chuanji

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

70

Thermochemical decomposition and isomerization of polysilacyclodialkynes and thermochemical and photochemical decomposition of cyclopolysilylketenes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kinetic data for elimination of silylene supports formation of a ``tighter`` transition state, indicating a silacyclopropene intermediate. This extends the silacyclopropene mechanism to the cyclicdialkyne system and validates the consistency of the mechanism for silylakynes, in general. Investigation into the other possible silacyclopropene product established the instability of the product. The work with silylketenes proved that an inherent difference exists between reactivity of monosilyl-substituted ketenes and polysilyl-substituted ketenes. Although the mechanism for thermal decomposition of bis(silyl)ketenes can be modified to account for the unexpected silylene elimination products, reasons for the difference are limited to speculation. The photochemistry of silylketenes has not been previously studied, so a model system does not exist for comparison with our polysilylketene work. The photochemical experimentation suggests that the photochemistry and thermochemistry of polysilylketenes is not the same. A more extensive study of the mechanism of the systems covered in this research as well as with monosilyl-substituted systems is needed.

Altman, L.B.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

71

Using dual decomposition for solving problems involving data uncertainty |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dual decomposition for solving problems involving data uncertainty dual decomposition for solving problems involving data uncertainty August 14, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint Many applications mdash; energy, routing, scheduling, and production planning, for example mdash; involve problems in which some or all of the data may not be known when decisions under uncertainty must be made. In such cases, approximations with stochastic mixed-integer programming models are often used. Two approaches have been suggested to address such problems: dual decomposition (DD) and branch-and-price (BP). Both approaches divide the problem into two or more subproblems, together with linear constraints that enforce agreement between solutions to the different problems through a series of iterations. Unfortunately, both approaches also suffer from lack

72

Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Title Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors de la du Can, Stephane Rue, Ali Hasanbeigi, and Jayant A. Sathaye Journal Energy Policy Volume 46 Pagination 234-245 Keywords california, co2 emissions, energy intensity, energy use Abstract In 2008, the gross domestic product (GDP) of California industry was larger than GDP of industry in any other U.S. states. This study analyses the energy use of and output from seventeen industry subsectors in California and performs decomposition analysis to assess the influence of different factors on California industry energy use. The logarithmic mean Divisia index method is used for the decomposition analysis. The decomposition analysis results show that the observed reduction of energy use in California industry since 2000 is the result of two main factors: the intensity effect and the structural effect. The intensity effect has started pushing final energy use downward in 2000 and has since amplified. The second large effect is the structural effect. The significant decrease of the energy-intensive "Oil and Gas Extraction" subsector's share of total industry value added, from 15% in 1997 to 5% in 2008, and the increase of the non-energy intensive "Electric and electronic equipment manufacturing" sector's share of value added, from 7% in 1997 to 30% in 2008, both contributed to a decrease in the energy intensity in the industry sector

73

Condensed-phase decomposition in thermally-aged explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In previous work, the isothermal decomposition of nitrocellulose (NC) was examined using two substantially different experimental techniques that are being developed to investigate condensed-phase chemistry occurring during the thermal decomposition of a variety of explosives. The confined isothermal aging technique involved confined thin-film samples heated to temperatures of 150 to 170{degrees}C, for 1 to 72 hours. Condensed-phase chemistry was monitored real-time using FTIR. Results indicated that the first step in decomposition was scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond and subsequent formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl products. Scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond appeared to occur by a first-order reaction. Additional unconfined rapid isothermal decomposition experiments with NC have been completed and are described in this paper. Those additional experiments extended the previous work and investigated the effect of varying film thickness (from about 0.2 to 0.6 microns), varying temperature (from about 420 to 640{degrees}C), and using {sup 15}NO{sub 2}-labled NC. The results indicated that decomposition of NC appears to involve at least two principal mechanisms: (1) O-NO{sub 2} bond scission, which is accompanied by carbonyl or hydroxyl formation, and (2) polymer fragmentation. These two mechanisms occur simultaneously. At temperatures of 170{degrees}C, or lower, polymer fragmentation appears negligible, but at temperatures of 420{degrees}C, or higher, polymer fragmentation is appreciable and occurs at rates comparable to those for O-NO{sub 2} bond scission. While polymer fragmentation may be associated with O-NO{sub 2} bond scission, at higher temperatures, additional steps must be involved in the fragmentation mechanism. At each end of the temperatures range from about 150 to 420{degrees}C, the rate of O-NO{sub 2} bond scission appears reasonably consistent with a mechanism dominated by a first-order decomposition step.

Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Decomposition mechanisms in thermally-aged thin-film explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isothermal decomposition of nitrocellulose (NC) has been examined using two substantially different experimental techniques, involving both confined and unconfined samples. The confined isothermal aging technique involved confined thin-film samples heated to temperatures of 150 to 170{degrees}C, for 1 to 72 hours. Condensed-phase chemistry was monitored real-time using FTIR. Results indicated that the first step in decomposition was scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond and subsequent formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl products. Scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond appeared to occur by a first-order reaction. The Arrhenius expression for the first-order reaction rate constant was evaluated from the experimental data. The unconfined rapid isothermal decomposition technique involved both high speed-photography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Mass spectra obtained from experiments at 420{degrees}C indicated that NO{sub 2} formation and, therefore, scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond occurred by a first order reaction, the rate constant for which was evaluated from the experimental data. The rate constant for global pseudo-first order decomposition of NC at 450{degrees}C was also estimated from high speed photography results. Rate constants at 420 and 450{degrees}C were predicted using the Arrhenius expression developed from the confined isothermal aging results and were in good agreement with the rate constants obtained at those temperatures in the unconfined rapid decomposition experiments using TOFMS and high-speed photography. Results from these substantially different measurements gave consistent results over a temperature range of about 300{degrees}C, in which reaction rates vary by nine orders of magnitude, and indicate that the two experimental techniques being developed have good potential for studying condensed-phase decomposition of energetic materials.

Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Cubic to tetragonal crystal lattice reconstruction during ordering or decomposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis studied thermodynamic stability and morphology of product phases in diffusional phase transformations involving cubic-to-tetragonal crystal lattice reconstructions. Two different kinds of diffusional transformations were examined: L1{sub 0} ordering (fcc to fct lattice change) and decomposition of off-stoichiometric B2 ordering alloys accompanying bcc to fcc Bain transformation. In the first case, Fe-45 at.% Pd alloys were studied by TEM; in the second, the Bain strain relaxation during decomposition of hyper-eutectoid Cu-9.04 wt% Be alloy was studied. CuAu and InMg were also studied.

Cheong, Byung-kl [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Mostow's Decomposition Theorem for L*-groups and Applications to affine coadjoint orbits and stable manifolds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mostow's Decomposition Theorem is a refinement of the polar decomposition. It states the following. Let G be a compact connected semi-simple Lie group with Lie algebra g. Given a subspace h of g such that [X, [X, Y

A. B. Tumpach

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

77

Recovery and evaluation of the solid products produced by thermocatalytic decomposition of tire rubber compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thermal catalytic decomposition process has been developed to recycle used tire rubber. This process enables the recovery of useful products, such as hydrocarbons and carbon blacks. During the catalytic decomposition process, the tire rubber...

Liang, Lan

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

78

Faster Decomposition Under Increased Atmospheric CO2 Limits Soil Carbon Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...atmosphere is a major focus of Earth system models, because the C cycle is sensitive...cycle affect our climate. Earth system models project that rising atmospheric...through microbial decomposition. Earth system models typically treat decomposition...

Kees Jan van Groenigen; Xuan Qi; Craig W. Osenberg; Yiqi Luo; Bruce A. Hungate

2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

79

ECG ARTIFACT REMOVAL FROM SURFACE EMG SIGNALS BY COMBINING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ECG ARTIFACT REMOVAL FROM SURFACE EMG SIGNALS BY COMBINING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION separation, ensemble empirical mode decomposition, ECG interference artifact, data preprocessing Abstract: The electrocardiography (ECG) artifact in surface electromyography (sEMG) is a major source of noise influencing

80

On decomposition and piecewise linearization in petroleum production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On decomposition and piecewise linearization in petroleum production optimization Vidar Gunnerud operations of large and complex petroleum assets is not a trivial task. There are numerous decisions- port. In petroleum assets with rate dependent gas to oil, or water to oil ratios, and with limited gas

Foss, Bjarne A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fluctuation growth and spinodal decomposition in heavy ion reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The liquid/vapor phase diagram of a Hamiltonian-based model for nuclear dynamics (Quasiparticle dynamics) is determined. Finite size effects in the coexistence region and the time scale for fluctuation growth associated with spinodal decomposition are quantitatively investigated. For finite nuclei, no direct link is found between the phase diagram and either the rate of fluctuation growth or its density dependence.

David H. Boal and James N. Glosli

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

An SVD-like matrix decomposition and its applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*(iJ)y. In this paper we provide several matrix factorizations related to symplectic matrices. We introduce a singular value-like decomposition B = QDS(-1) for any real matrix B is an element of R-n x 2m, where Q is real orthogonal, S is real symplectic, and D...

Xu, Hongguo

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Decomposition of Perfluorocompounds on Alumina-Based Catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control of the atmospheric release of PFCs (perfluorocompounds) is an important environmental problem worldwide. PFCs are powerful greenhouse gases used by the semiconductor and liquid crystal industries as etching and cleaning agents. We developed a catalyst that decomposes PFCs with only water. Al2O3 was selected from the survey of some single metal-oxide catalysts. Addition of another metal-oxide improved the decomposition ratio and durability. The Al2O3-based catalyst decomposed CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F8, NF3 and SF6 by more than 99% at 750 degrees Celsius. Furthermore, our catalyst retained a high decomposition ratio as demonstrated by a continuous run for about 4000 hours at 700-750 degrees Celsius. The influence of chlorine as an impurity with regard to the SF6 decomposition ratio on the catalyst was examined. SF6 was decomposed at more than 99% during 8 hours in the presence of 400 ppm chlorine. Chlorine concentration in the outlet gas was less than TLV. No chlorine compounds were found by X-ray diffraction analysis of the used catalyst. That is, the hydrogenation of chlorine did not inhibit the surface catalytic reaction for PFC. Also, CF4 was decomposed at the condition of 1.4% of high concentration. The conversion remained higher than 99% throughout during a durability test. Furthermore, we investigated a large-scale decomposition system in the paper.

Kanno, Shuichi; Tamata, Shin; Kurokawa, Hideaki

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Decomposition of Naphthalene by dc Gliding Arc Gas Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Decomposition of Naphthalene by dc Gliding Arc Gas Discharge ... In the air and oxygen gliding arc discharges, the naphthalene degradation is mainly governed by reactions with oxygen-derived radicals. ... Therefore, the local electric field strength is relatively low in argon gliding arc plasma. ...

Liang Yu; Xiaodong Li; Xin Tu; Yu Wang; Shengyong Lu; Jianhua Yan

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

85

High rate heating driven decomposition of energetic materials: Diagnostics evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion of energetic materials involves processes in both gas and condensed phases and is governed by coupled thermal, physical, and chemical phenomena. Development of reliable models for design, performance, stability, and hazard analyses requires detailed understanding of three general chemical reaction regimes: (1) initial condensed-phase decomposition, (2) subsequent interaction of decomposition products with the remaining condensed phase, and (3) gas-phase reaction of decomposition products to form the ultimate combustion products. The first two regimes are the least understood and most difficult to study, particularly the initial condensed-phase decomposition. The basic difficulty in studying condensed phase phenomena has been the inability to probe directly chemistry in the condensed phase under isothermal condition and with the spatial and temporal resolution needed at higher temperatures and reaction rates. Thin-film samples provide a means to study condensed-phase chemistry at isothermal conditions and with microsecond temporal resolution. We are developing an experiment system that employs rapidly heated thin- film samples and multiple diagnostics to examine condensed-phase chemistry and monitor evolved gas species. Results from our initial work have been encouraging. Thin-film samples of several energetic materials have been prepared and appear to be representative of bulk materials. Furthermore, preliminary experiments indicate that all the use of these samples with two chemical diagnostic techniques, time-of- flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and time-resolved infrared spectral photography (TRISP), is viable. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.; Erickson, K.L.; Skocypec, R.D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

High rate heating driven decomposition of energetic materials: Diagnostics evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion of energetic materials involves processes in both gas and condensed phases and is governed by coupled thermal, physical, and chemical phenomena. Development of reliable models for design, performance, stability, and hazard analyses requires detailed understanding of three general chemical reaction regimes: (1) initial condensed-phase decomposition, (2) subsequent interaction of decomposition products with the remaining condensed phase, and (3) gas-phase reaction of decomposition products to form the ultimate combustion products. The first two regimes are the least understood and most difficult to study, particularly the initial condensed-phase decomposition. The basic difficulty in studying condensed phase phenomena has been the inability to probe directly chemistry in the condensed phase under isothermal condition and with the spatial and temporal resolution needed at higher temperatures and reaction rates. Thin-film samples provide a means to study condensed-phase chemistry at isothermal conditions and with microsecond temporal resolution. We are developing an experiment system that employs rapidly heated thin- film samples and multiple diagnostics to examine condensed-phase chemistry and monitor evolved gas species. Results from our initial work have been encouraging. Thin-film samples of several energetic materials have been prepared and appear to be representative of bulk materials. Furthermore, preliminary experiments indicate that all the use of these samples with two chemical diagnostic techniques, time-of- flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and time-resolved infrared spectral photography (TRISP), is viable. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.; Erickson, K.L.; Skocypec, R.D.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Counting Protein Structures by DFS with Dynamic Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with dynamic decomposition for count� ing the solutions of a binary CSP completely. In particular, we use as Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) [2, 4]. Recently, counting solutions of a CSP and related problems. Here, we present a method that is especially tailored for this case. Applied to the CSP formulation

Will, Sebastian

88

Roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of alkanes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CASPT2 calculations predict the existence of roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of propane, n-butane, isobutane and neopentane. The roaming radical paths lead to the formation of an alkane and an alkene instead of the expected radical products. The predicted barriers for the roaming radical paths lie {approx}1 kcal/mol below the corresponding radical asymptotes.

Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Decomposition of nitrous oxide on AlFe-PILC catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two AlFe-PILC catalysts were prepared with different OH/metal...2O) decomposition reactions. The 100% conversion of N2O with NH3into N2and H2O was achieved below 500oC with both applied catalysts. However, the ac...

Ern? E. Kiss; Tatjana J Vuli?

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A New Enhanced Constructive Decomposition and Mapping Algorithm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

procedure and in the context of re-synthesis applied to a mapped multi-level network. Experiments, Theory. Keywords Functional decomposition, technology mapping, re-synthesis. 1. INTRODUCTION Today's commercial logic synthesis tools have matured enough in terms of handling capacity, design quality

Mishchenko, Alan

91

SEISMIC WAVES ESTIMATION AND WAVE FIELD DECOMPOSITION WITH FACTOR GRAPHS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEISMIC WAVES ESTIMATION AND WAVE FIELD DECOMPOSITION WITH FACTOR GRAPHS Stefano Maranò Christoph, Dept. Information Technology & Electr. Eng., 8092 Zürich ABSTRACT Physical wave fields are often from sensors of different kinds. In this paper we propose a technique for the analysis of vector wave

Loeliger, Hans-Andrea

92

INDDGO: Integrated Network Decomposition & Dynamic programming for Graph Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well-known that dynamic programming algorithms can utilize tree decompositions to provide a way to solve some \\emph{NP}-hard problems on graphs where the complexity is polynomial in the number of nodes and edges in the graph, but exponential in the width of the underlying tree decomposition. However, there has been relatively little computational work done to determine the practical utility of such dynamic programming algorithms. We have developed software to construct tree decompositions using various heuristics and have created a fast, memory-efficient dynamic programming implementation for solving maximum weighted independent set. We describe our software and the algorithms we have implemented, focusing on memory saving techniques for the dynamic programming. We compare the running time and memory usage of our implementation with other techniques for solving maximum weighted independent set, including a commercial integer programming solver and a semi-definite programming solver. Our results indicate that it is possible to solve some instances where the underlying decomposition has width much larger than suggested by the literature. For certain types of problems, our dynamic programming code runs several times faster than these other methods.

Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Weerapurage, Dinesh P [ORNL

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

On the Decomposition of Two-Dimensional Behaviors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the paper, a decomposition theorem for autonomous two-dimensional (2D) behaviors, stating that every such behavior can be expressed as the sum of a (uniquely determined) square autonomous behavior and of some finite dimensional autonomous behavior, ... Keywords: Autonomous/controllable behaviors, Laurent varieties, characteristic cones, square/finite dimensional autonomous behaviors

Maria Elena Valcher

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Lagrangian decomposition of the Hadley and Ferrel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lagrangian decomposition of the Hadley and Ferrel Cells Joakim Kjellsson & Kristofer Döös of the atmosphere calculated for the year 1989 using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The tropical Hadley Cells trajectories in the stratosphere (which are not relevant for the Hadley and Ferrel Cells) gives the results

Döös, Kristofer

95

Detection of switching events in the circuits using wavelet decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the detection of fault occurrence in the power transmission system. The numerical results concerning 400kV power transmission line are presented and discussed in the paper. 1 INTRODUCTION The recognition and localization somewhere in the line through the unknown, possibly very high resistance. 2 WAVELET DECOMPOSITION

Osowski, Stanislaw

96

Singular value decomposition expansion for electrical demand analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......friction. Reactive power in an electric circuit is analogous to the...eigenvalue decomposition, the elementary factors are invariant under...invariant under three matrix elementary transformations on A, i...often much higher than the resistance in an electrical system......

FAN LI

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane: Studies in a high-temperature flow reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental measurements of the decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), a common silicon carbide precursor, in a high-temperature flow reactor are presented. The results indicate that methane and hydrogen chloride are major products of the decomposition. No chlorinated silane products were observed. Hydrogen carrier gas was found to increase the rate of MTS decomposition. The observations suggest a radical-chain mechanism for the decomposition. The implications for silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition are discussed.

Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Melius, C.F.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Formic acid decomposition on polycrystalline platinum and palladized platinum electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a comprehensive study in which a formic acid decomposition reaction is examined as a probe of catalytic properties of polycrystalline platinum and palladized platinum electrodes. The electrode potential varies in a broad range, and the reaction is carried out in perchloric acid and sulfuric acid solutions containing different concentrations of HCOOH. Analytical methods used to access the decomposition reaction are chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. At very short times, the authors prove that only a negligible amount of surface CO is formed, and the CO unaffected decomposition reaction, leading to CO{sub 2} formation, can be interrogated. Surprisingly, the decomposition reaction displays Tafel behavior only in a very narrow potential range. This observation, made with both clean Pt and Pt/Pd electrodes, suggests that water-surface interactions, and/or (bi)sulfate-surface interactions, increase with increasing electrode potential and create a steric/electronic barrier for the decomposition of formic acid (and methanol). The authors therefore offer a pessimistic view about platinum as a universal material for heterogeneous catalysis applications involving rearrangements of organic molecules. Such rearrangements may only be fulfilled with a low electrochemical driving force, at least at room temperature, but at higher potentials, the electrode becomes deactivated due to the unique attributes of the double layer structure on the platinum electrode. The authors have also found that the deceleration of formic acid oxidation (to CO{sub 2}) is primarily due to CO chemisorption only at potentials overlapping with those from the hydrogen adsorption range, or not too positive from this range. At more positive potentials, the decay in formic acid decomposition is neither due to CO formation nor to solution mass transfer limitations. The presence of interfacial CO{sub 2} or adsorption of formic acid and/or formate anion, could account for the decay. Finally, a detailed analysis of kinetic isotherms involved in the two pathways, CO{sub 2} formation and CO chemisorption, is made and the mechanism of formic acid decomposition on platinum is discussed. The electrolyte anion effects involved in formic acid oxidation in HClO{sub 4} and in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions are also presented.

Lu, G.Q.; Crown, A.; Wieckowski, A.

1999-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

99

Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

100

Linked PARAFAC/CP Tensor Decomposition and Its Fast Implementation for Multi-block  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linked PARAFAC/CP Tensor Decomposition and Its Fast Implementation for Multi-block Tensor Analysis we propose a new flexible group tensor analysis model called the linked CP tensor decomposition over existing models. Keywords: Tensor decompositions of multi-block data, PARAFAC/CP model, Group

Cichocki, Andrzej

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

EVEN CYCLE DECOMPOSITIONS OF GRAPHS WITH NO ODD-K4-MINOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVEN CYCLE DECOMPOSITIONS OF GRAPHS WITH NO ODD-K4-MINOR TONY HUYNH, SANG-IL OUM, AND MARYAM VERDIAN-RIZI Abstract. An even cycle decomposition of a graph G is a partition of E(G) into cycles of even length. Evidently, every Eulerian bipartite graph has an even cycle decomposition. Seymour [circuits

Kim, Yong Jung

102

Rapid Protein Side-Chain Packing via Tree Decomposition Jinbo Xu1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is taken into consideration, then our tree-decomposition based energy minimization algorithm is more thanRapid Protein Side-Chain Packing via Tree Decomposition Jinbo Xu1,2 1 School of Computer Science 02139. j3xu@theory.csail.mit.edu Abstract. This paper proposes a novel tree decomposition based side

Xu, Jinbo

103

Alloy decomposition and surface instabilities in thin films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that in the presence of substrate misfit and compositional stresses, static or growing films that undergo surface spinodal decomposition are always unstable to perturbations around the planar surface. For sufficiently rapid deposition processes, the planar surface can be stabilized due to a suppression of the alloy decomposition. Films grown outside of the miscibility gap can become unstable due to the mismatch with the substrate and compositionally generated stresses. We also demonstrate that the instability is independent of the sign of the misfit when the elastic moduli of the alloy constituents are equal, and the existence of a maximum misfit above which the film is always unstable, even at high growth rates. The symmetry under sign reversal of the misfit can be broken by composition-dependent elastic constants.

Franois Lonard and Rashmi C. Desai

1998-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Mechanism of iron catalysis of carbon monoxide decomposition in refractories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors discuss the catalytic effects of selected iron phases (metals, oxides, sulfides, and carbides) on the Boudouard reaction studied in an effort to more fully understand the disintegration of refractories when exposed to CO for long periods of time. It was found that active Fe atoms generated from the reduction of the iron oxides, especially {alpha}-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, are the actual catalysts for the Boudouard reaction. The catalytic process confirmed by thermodynamic calculations, kinetic data, and X-ray diffraction data, consists of adsorption and decomposition of CO simultaneously forming carbides of iron. The chemisorption and subsequent decomposition of the iron carbides, rather than diffusion, constitute the rate-controlling process for carbon deposition.

Xu, M.W.P.; Brown, J.J. Jr. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Robust electricity consumption modeling of Turkey using Singular Value Decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Multivariable regression method is used to model Turkeys electricity consumption through a nonlinear relationship. Electricity consumption is modeled as a function of four demographic and economic indicators such as, population, gross domestic product per capita, imports and exports. The second order model includes 15 coefficients for bias, first degree terms and second degree terms. Data preprocessing is applied to transform all variables to have zero mean and percent relative variance. Singular Value Decomposition is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to provide robustness to the estimations. Variance and covariance information in the data set is used to determine the number of important dimensions in the data. Electricity consumption of Turkey is modeled using annual data from 1970 to 2011. The results show that electricity consumption can be robustly modeled using Singular Value Decomposition.

Kadir Kavaklioglu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Allebach, J.P.; Ochoa, E.; Sweeney, D.W.

1987-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

107

Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed.

Allebach, Jan P. (West Lafayette, IN); Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Isothermal decomposition of New Albany shale from Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isothermal decomposition of a New Albany oil shale has been studied in the temperature range of 375/sup 0/C to 425/sup 0/C. The amount of conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas and residue products was obtained for different reaction times in this temperature range. Elemental analyses were obtained on the bitumen, oil, and solid reaction products. Molecular weights and /sup 13/C NMR measurements of the aliphatic and aromatic carbon fractions in the solid products were made to complete the analyses. The results show that the thermal decomposition of the New Albany oil shale exhibits complex behavior. None of the data fit a simple first-order kinetic expression with respect to kerogen concentration for all temperatures, indicating that multiple parallel reactions occur during the decomposition. However, by fitting the initial slopes of the oil conversion data, it was possible to obtain the weighted average rate constants at each temperature. These data gave a good fit to the Arrhenius equation with the frequency factor equal to 6.38 x 10/sup 15/ min/sup -1/, and the activation energy equal to 207.5 k.j mol/sup -1/ for the kerogen decomposition. The maximum bitumen concentration was 10% or less of the original kerogen at any temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas and residue occurs during heating. Since the highly aliphatic Green River oil shale forms large amounts of bitumen whereas the more aromatic New Albany shale forms only small amounts, the formation of bitumen may be related to the aromatic nature of the kerogen. In general, the chemical properties of the oil were fairly constant at all reaction times and temperatures studied. Hydrogen sulfide was the dominant species in the gas phase. The solid and liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data show that the net increase of total aromatic carbon in the products was about 30% of the raw shale value. 37 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Conn, P.J.; Turner, T.F.; Berdan, G.L.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Thin-film methods for examining the decomposition chemistry of explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental techniques using thin-film samples and infrared spectroscopy have been developed to examine thermally-induced condensed-phase decomposition chemistry of explosives. Experiments with nitrocellulose (NC) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) were done to examine the effects of confining the decomposition proucts so that intimate contact was maintained with the remaining explosive during isothermal decomposition at temperatures below those of the respective DTA exotherms. The NC experiments showed that substantial NC decomposition occurred at 150C and confinement of the decomposition products influenced the decomposition reactions. Some of the mechanisms and reaction rates with confined samples compared favorably with published mechanisms and rates from unconfined samples, while other mechanisms and reaction rates differed. The TATB experiments showed that significant TATB degradation occurred at temperatures as low as 210C, and substantial degradation occurred within 24 hours at 250C which is about 80C below the temperature of the DTA exotherm for TATB.

Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Synthesis of Ternary Quantum Logic Circuits by Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent research in multi-valued logic for quantum computing has shown practical advantages for scaling up a quantum computer. Multivalued quantum systems have also been used in the framework of quantum cryptography, and the concept of a qudit cluster state has been proposed by generalizing the qubit cluster state. An evolutionary algorithm based synthesizer for ternary quantum circuits has recently been presented, as well as a synthesis method based on matrix factorization.In this paper, a recursive synthesis method for ternary quantum circuits based on the Cosine-Sine unitary matrix decomposition is presented.

Faisal Shah Khan; Marek Perkowski

2005-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

111

Decomposition of cumyl hydroperoxide in the presence of sulphonated silica in a flow-type system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation has been made of the decomposition of cumyl hydroperoxide (CHP) in the presence of silica-based sulphocationites in a flow-type system. It was established that the given specimens are effective catalysts for the decomposition of CHP into phenol and acetone. It was shown that, in the course of the process, no irreversible poisoning of the surface of the catalyst by the products of CHP decomposition occurs. Data of chromatographic analysis of the products of CHP decomposition in the presence of sulphuric acid and silica-based sulphocationites are given.

Shelpakova, N.A.; Ioffa, A.F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Nitryl perchlorate as the essential intermediate in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Qena, Egypt. Because of its use as a solid propellent and more generally in pyrotechnic systems, the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) has been extensively studied. The ...

Andrew K. Galwey; Mohamed A. Mohamed

1984-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

113

Proper Orthogonal Decomposition-Based Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Dynamic Wind Load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proper Orthogonal Decomposition-Based Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Dynamic Wind Load.1061/ ASCE 0733-9399 2005 131:4 325 CE Database subject headings: Simulation; Wind loads; Buildings; Random on the decomposition of the covariance and XPSD matrices is presented. A physically meaningful linkage between the wind

Chen, Xinzhong

114

Channel Specific Rate Constants Relevant to the Thermal Decomposition of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Channel Specific Rate Constants Relevant to the Thermal Decomposition of Disilane ... Silane and disilane are routinely used as the source gases for silicon chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. ... Each of the reactions relevant to the thermal decomposition of disilane is, of course, pressure dependent. ...

Keiji Matsumoto; Stephen J. Klippenstein; Kenichi Tonokura; Mitsuo Koshi

2005-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

115

Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCR systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCRE Journal. Keywords: Multi-component, , evaporation, UWS, Adbue, urea decomposition, thermolysis SCR Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. In the multi-component evaporation model, the influence of urea

Boyer, Edmond

116

Address Decomposition for the Shaping of Multi-dimensional Signal Constellations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to minimize the av- erage energy of the constellation. In continuous approximation, the distributionAddress Decomposition for the Shaping of Multi-dimensional Signal Constellations A. K constellation. This scheme, called as the ad- dress decomposition, is based on decomposing the addressing

Kabal, Peter

117

A New Method of Reduction and Decomposition of Mixed Scalar/Array Equations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modelica is designed to describe hybrid complex physical system in form of differential algebraic equations (DAEs), which usually consisting of scalar equations and array equations. General method of reduction and decomposition of modelica model can ... Keywords: reduction and decomposition, weighted bipartite graph, mixed scalar/array, DAEs, modelica

Junjie Tang; Jianwan Ding; Liping Chen

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign in Electric Motors Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2013/8/1 1 Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign in Electric Motors Industry of Automation Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign of Electric Motors Industry Redesign of Electric Motors Industry Institute of Process Control and Engineering, Department

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

119

A Hybrid Decomposition Scheme for Building Scientific Workflows , Kenneth Chiu2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

infrastructure for the composition of CCA components. 2 Hybrid DecomposA Hybrid Decomposition Scheme for Building Scientific Workflows Wei Lu1 , Kenneth Chiu2 , Satoshi methodologies, in this paper we present a hybrid problem decomposition scheme. By aug- menting Ccaffeine

120

A dimensional decomposition approach to identifying efficient units in large-scale DEA models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the use of a dimensional decomposition procedure together with lexicographic parametric programming to reduce computational burden when identifying the efficient decision making units in data envelopment analysis (DEA). The ... Keywords: Computational aspects, Data envelopment analysis, Decomposition, Efficiency analysis

Pekka J. Korhonen; Pyry-Antti Siitari

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF RANDOM FIACHRA KNOX, DANIELA KUHN AND DERYK OSTHUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF RANDOM GRAPHS FIACHRA KNOX, DANIELA K¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. We show that if pn log n the binomial random graph Gn,p has an approximate Hamilton decomposition. More precisely, we show that in this range Gn,p contains a set of edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles

Kühn, Daniela

122

A blind double color image watermarking algorithm based on QR decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel blind image watermarking scheme based on QR decomposition is proposed to embed color watermark image into color host image, which is significantly different from using the binary or gray image as watermark. When embedding watermark, ... Keywords: Blind extraction, Color watermark image, Image watermarking, QR decomposition

Qingtang Su, Yugang Niu, Hailin Zou, Yongsheng Zhao, Tao Yao

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

On the use of proper orthogonal decomposition to describe inflow turbulence and wind turbine loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of POD modes needed to accurately describe wind turbine blade and tower loads depends primarilyOn the use of proper orthogonal decomposition to describe inflow turbulence and wind turbine loads, USA Keywords: Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, inflow turbulence, wind turbine ABSTRACT: We discuss

Manuel, Lance

124

Geometric Task Decomposition in a Multi-Agent Environment Kaivan Kamali1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the task-space among team members and includes two phases: static and dynamic. Static decomposition then starts the mission (in the simulation) and the performance of the team is measured. This process is re is already decomposed among team members by static decompo- sition. The decomposition is modified to improve

Martinez, Tony R.

125

ECG ARTIFACT REMOVAL FROM SURFACE EMG SIGNALS BY COMBINING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ECG ARTIFACT REMOVAL FROM SURFACE EMG SIGNALS BY COMBINING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION decomposition, ECG interference artifact, Data preprocessing. Abstract: The electrocardiography (ECG) artifact (ECG) artifact. In many cases however, the sEMG is the only available signal, making this task more

Dupont, Stéphane

126

On the Reaction Mechanism of Acetaldehyde Decomposition on Mo(110)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The strong Mo-O bond strength provides promising reactivity of Mo-based catalysts for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates. Combining the novel dimer saddle point searching method with periodic spin-polarized density functional theory calculations, we investigated the reaction pathways of a acetaldehyde decomposition on the clean Mo(110) surface. Two reaction pathways were identified, a selective deoxygenation and a nonselective fragmentation pathways. We found that acetaldehyde preferentially adsorbs at the pseudo 3-fold hollow site in the ?2(C,O) configuration on Mo(110). Among four possible bond (?-C-H, ?-C-H, C-O and C-C) cleavages, the initial decomposition of the adsorbed acetaldehyde produces either ethylidene via the C-O bond scission or acetyl via the ?-C-H bond scission while the C-C and the ?-C-H bond cleavages of acetaldehyde leading to the formation of methyl (and formyl) and formylmethyl are unlikely. Further dehydrogenations of ethylidene into either ethylidyne or vinyl are competing and very facile with low activation barriers of 0.24 and 0.31 eV, respectively. Concurrently, the formed acetyl would deoxygenate into ethylidyne via the C-O cleavage rather than breaking the C-C or the C-H bonds. The selective deoxygenation of acetaldehyde forming ethylene is inhibited by relatively weaker hydrogenation capability of the Mo(110) surface. Instead, the nonselective pathway via vinyl and vinylidene dehydrogenations to ethynyl as the final hydrocarbon fragment is kinetically favorable. On the other hand, the strong interaction between ethylene and the Mo(110) surface also leads to ethylene decomposition instead of desorption into the gas phase. This work was financially supported by the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC). Computing time was granted by a user project (emsl42292) at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). This work was financially supported by the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC). Computing time was granted by a user project (emsl42292) at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). The EMSL is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Mei, Donghai; Karim, Ayman M.; Wang, Yong

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Thermal Decomposition of Diethyl Ether. V. The Production of Ethanol from Diethyl Ether and the Pyrolysis of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The Thermal Decomposition of Diethyl Ether. V. The Production of Ethanol from Diethyl Ether and the Pyrolysis of Ethanol G. R. Freeman The two modes of decomposition of ethanol at 525 degrees C, namely dehydration and dehydrogenation, are affected...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Object detection with a multistatic array using singular value decomposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across a surface and that travels down the surface. The detection system converts the return signals from a time domain to a frequency domain, resulting in frequency return signals. The detection system then performs a singular value decomposition for each frequency to identify singular values for each frequency. The detection system then detects the presence of a subsurface object based on a comparison of the identified singular values to expected singular values when no subsurface object is present.

Hallquist, Aaron T.; Chambers, David H.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Lattice Boltzmann study of spinodal decomposition in two dimensions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A lattice Boltzmann model using the Shan-Chen prescription for a binary immiscible fluid is described, and the macroscopic equations obeyed by the model are derived. The model is used to quantitatively examine spinodal decomposition of a two-dimensional binary fluid. This model allows examination of the early-time period corresponding to interface formation, and shows agreement with analytical solutions of the linearized Cahn-Hilliard equation, despite the fact that the model contains no explicit free-energy functional. This regime has not, to the knowledge of the authors, been previously observed using any lattice Boltzmann method. In agreement with other models, a scaling law with the exponent 2/3 is observed for late-time domain growth. Breakdown of scaling is also observed for certain sets of simulation parameters.

Jonathan Chin and Peter V. Coveney

2002-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

130

Embedded H-holomorphic maps and open book decompositions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate nicely embedded H--holomorphic maps into stable Hamiltonian three--manifolds. In particular we prove that such maps locally foliate and satisfy a no--first--intersection property. Using the compactness results of arXiv:0904.1603 we show that connected components of the space of such maps can be compactified if they contain a global surface of section. As an application we prove that any contact structure on a 3--manifold admits and H--holomorphic open book decomposition. This work is motivated by the program laid out by Abbas, Cieliebak and Hofer to give a proof to the Weinstein conjecture using holomorphic curves. The results in this paper, with the exception of the compactness statement, have been independently obtained by C. Abbas in arXiv:0907.3512.

von Bergmann, Jens

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite recent insights into thermal stability of ettringite and structural changes during decomposition, a lack of knowledge on nucleation and growth mechanisms of metaettringite remained. Therefore, a better understanding of the kinetic modelling of this heterogeneous reaction was proposed. Thanks to an experimental approach allowing to check the validity of kinetic assumptions (rate-determining step, expression of the rate as d?/dt=k f(?)), a good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental ? vs. t and d?/dt vs. t kinetic curves. The reaction area of the region in which the rate-limiting step occurs was also elucidated. Finally, we demonstrated that the rate-limiting step of the growth process follows an Arrhenius law in non-isothermal conditions.

J. Pourchez; F. Valdivieso; P. Grosseau; R. Guyonnet; B. Guilhot

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of fine roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) at different sites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long-term decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of Norway spruce finest (energy content and nitrogen concentration was determined. After...

Krista Lhmus; Mari Ivask

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of fine roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) at different sites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long-term decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of Norway spruce finest (energy content and nitrogen concentration was determined. After...

Krista Lhmus; Mari Ivask

134

Thermal decomposition of phosphorus and sulphur compounds. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most industrial chemical processes consist of highly complex sequence of interrelated reactions in which neutral and charged molecular fragments are known to play major roles. These molecular fragments are normally very reactive and are present in small quantities, which are difficult to detect experimentally. Accordingly, in order to postulate a mechanism for a given chemical process, conventional end product analysis aids in the selection of a suitable mechanism(s). Consequently, the improvement of industrial chemical processes is often achieved by semiempirical experimentation. The determination of detailed mechanism would permit the development of rational strategies for removing undesired products and enhancing the yield of desired ones. Chemical warfare agents (CWAs), e.g., G-series and VX nerve agents, are highly electrophilic organophosphonate derivatives, some-of-which are known inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. Because of the relative ease of preparation of CWAs, effective decontamination procedures need also to be developed. The most direct way of destroying a CWA is through incineration, which can totally decompose their toxic and hazardous products. This process requires a detailed understanding of the high temperature decomposition kinetics of the CWA of interest. However, for such highly toxic chemicals, this information is not available. The lack of understanding is not surprising since even at the present time there are serious uncertainties regarding the detailed high temperature chemistry of CWAs. In addition, CWAs and/or some of their decomposition products may act as inhibitors or promoters of the combustion. Since combustion is a manifestation of exothermic chemical change, obviously, some consideration of what occurs at the molecular level must be the first step towards developing any degree of understanding.

Kafafi, S.A.; Tsang, W.

1999-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

135

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

136

Thermal runaway reaction hazard and decomposition mechanism of the hydroxylamine system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 50 wt% HA/water solutions [7-9]. These studies show that HA decomposition is highly exothermic with a large pressure build-up in a contained environment [8]. The presence of air or oxygen is not necessary to initiate the decomposition because HA... in water are of interest. Several groups have investigated the kinetics and mechanism of the HAN decomposition using various techniques and under different conditions [13-16]. However, due to its highly exothermic and rapid behavior of the reaction...

Wei, Chunyang

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Climate Change Attribution Using Empirical Decomposition of Climatic Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The climate change attribution problem is addressed using empirical decomposition. Cycles in solar motion and activity of 60 and 20 years were used to develop an empirical model of Earth temperature variations. The model was fit to the Hadley global temperature data up to 1950 (time period before anthropogenic emissions became the dominant forcing mechanism), and then extrapolated from 1951 to 2009. After subtraction of the model, the residuals showed an approximate linear upward trend after 1942. Herein we assume that the residual upward warming observed during the second half of the 20th century has been mostly induced by a worldwide rapid increase of anthropogenic emissions, urbanization and land use change. The warming observed before 1942 is relatively small and it is assumed to have been mostly naturally induced by a climatic recovery since the Little Ice Age of the 17th century and the Dalton Minimum at the beginning of the 19th century. The resulting full natural plus anthropogenic model fits the enti...

Loehle, Craig; 10.2174/1874282301105010074

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Monte Carlo Domain Decomposition for Robust Nuclear Reactor Analyses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Monte Carlo (MC) neutral particle transport codes are considered the gold-standard for nuclear simulations, but they cannot be robustly applied to high-fidelity nuclear reactor analysis without accommodating several terabytes of materials and tally data. While this is not a large amount of aggregate data for a typical high performance computer, MC methods are only embarrassingly parallel when the key data structures are replicated for each processing element, an approach which is likely infeasible on future machines. The present work explores the use of spatial domain decomposition to make full-scale nuclear reactor simulations tractable with Monte Carlo methods, presenting a simple implementation in a production-scale code. Good performance is achieved for mesh-tallies of up to 2.39TB distributed across 512 compute nodes while running a full-core reactor benchmark on the Mira Blue Gene/Q supercomputer at the Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, the effects of load imbalances are explored with an updated performance model that is empirically validated against observed timing results. Several load balancing techniques are also implemented to demonstrate that imbalances can be largely mitigated, including a new and efficient way to distribute extra compute resources across coarse domain meshes.

Nicholas Horelik; Andrew Siegel; Benoit Forget; Kord Smith

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Thermal decomposition of Colorado and Kentucky reference oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal pyrolysis studies have been conducted on a Green River Formation oil shale from Colorado and a New Albany oil shale from Kentucky. The conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas, and residue products was obtained for different isothermal reaction times in the temperature range of 375/degree/C to 440/degree/C (707/degree/ to 824/degree/F) using a heated sand bath reactor system. Particular attention was paid to the formation of the bitumen intermediate during decomposition of the two shales. The maximum amount of extractable bitumen in the New Albany shale was 14% or less of the original kerogen at any given temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas, and residue products is a major pathway of conversion of this shale during pyrolysis. In contrast, a significant fraction of the Colorado oil shale kerogen was converted to the intermediate bitumen during pyrolysis. The bitumen data imply that the formation of soluble intermediates may depend on original kerogen structure and may be necessary for producing high yields by pyrolysis. 24 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Turner, T.F.; Ennen, L.W.; Chong, S.L.; Glaser, R.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Instability and decomposition on the surface of strained alloy films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A continuum dynamical model is developed to determine the morphological and compositional instabilities on the free surface of heteroepitaxial alloy films in the absence of growth. We use a linear stability analysis to study the early nonequilibrium processes of surface evolution, and calculate the stability conditions and diagrams for different cases of material parameters. There are two key considerations in our treatment: the coupling between top free surface of the film and the bulk phase underneath, and the dependence of both Youngs and shear elastic moduli on local composition. The combination and interplay of different elastic effects caused by lattice misfit between film and substrate (misfit strain), composition dependence of film lattice parameter (compositional strain), and of film elastic constants lead to complicated and rich stability results, in particular the joint stability or instability for morphological and compositional profiles, the asymmetry between tensile and compressive layers, as well as the possible stabilization and suppression of surface decomposition even below the effective critical temperature. We also compare our results with the observations of some postdeposition annealing experiments.

Zhi-Feng Huang and Rashmi C. Desai

2002-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Asymmetric modes decomposition in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the investigated overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs) are azimuthally symmetric; thus, they are designed through two dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. However, 2-D PIC simulations cannot reveal the effect of asymmetric modes on beam-wave interaction. In order to investigate whether asymmetric mode competition needs to be considered in the design of overmoded RBWOs, a numerical method of determining the composition of both symmetric and asymmetric modes in three dimensional (3-D) PIC simulations is introduced in this paper. The 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of an X-band overmoded RBWO are analyzed. Our analysis indicates that the 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of our device are quite different due to asymmetric mode competition. In fact, asymmetric surface waves, especially EH{sub 11} mode, can lead to serious mode competition when electron beam propagates near the surface of slow wave structures (SWSs). Therefore, additional method of suppressing asymmetric mode competition, such as adjusting the reflections at both ends of SWSs to decrease the Q-factor of asymmetric modes, needs to be utilized in the design of overmoded RBWOs. Besides, 3-D PIC simulation and modes decomposition are essential for designing overmoded RBWOs.

Zhang, Dian; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@nudt.edu.cn; Zhong, Huihuang; Jin, Zhenxing; Ju, Jinchuan [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Systematic decomposition of the neutrinoless double beta decay operator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the systematic decomposition of the dimension nine neutrinoless double beta decay operator, focusing on mechanisms with potentially small contributions to neutrino mass, while being accessible at the LHC. We first provide a (d=9 tree-level) complete list of diagrams for neutrinoless double beta decay. From this list one can easily recover all previously discussed contributions to the neutrinoless double beta decay process, such as the celebrated mass mechanism or "exotics", such as contributions from left-right symmetric models, R-parity violating supersymmetry and leptoquarks. More interestingly, however, we identify a number of new possibilities which have not been discussed in the literature previously. Contact to earlier works based on a general Lorentz-invariant parametrisation of the neutrinoless double beta decay rate is made, which allows, in principle, to derive limits on all possible contributions. We furthermore discuss possible signals at the LHC for mediators leading to the short-range part of the amplitude with one specific example. The study of such contributions would gain particular importance if there were a tension between different measurements of neutrino mass such as coming from neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology or single beta decay.

Florian Bonnet; Martin Hirsch; Toshihiko Ota; Walter Winter

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

Weak coherence of groups and finite decomposition complexity.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The weak regular coherence (WRC) property of a finitely generated group $\\Gamma$ was introduced by G. Carlsson and this author to play the role of a weakening of Waldhausen's regular coherence as part of computation of the integral $K$-theoretic assembly map. This property is a coarse invariant of the word metric. It was shown that groups with finite asymptotic dimension (FAD) have this property. A new class of metric spaces (sFDC) was introduced recently by A. Dranishnikov and M. Zarichnyi. This class includes most notably the spaces with finite decomposition complexity (FDC) studied by E. Guentner, D. Ramras, R. Tessera, and G. Yu and so is larger than FAD. The main theorem of this paper shows that a group that belongs to sFDC is weakly regular coherent. As a consequence, groups $\\Gamma$ with sFDC have some remarkable algebraic and topological properties. One such property is vanishing of the Whitehead group $\\textit{Wh} (\\Gamma)$ for any group that has finite $K(\\Gamma,1)$ and FDC, which verifies a long-standing conjecture for this class of groups.

Boris Goldfarb

144

Catalysed thermal decomposition of KClO3 and carbon gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic decomposition of KClO3 is studied in the presence of MnO2, activated carbons and sodium sulphide. This investigation describes the use of thermogravimetry as a convenient technique to investigate ca...

S. Martins; J. B. Fernandes; S. C. Mojumdar

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Mechanism for decomposition of aurichalciteA controlled rate thermal analysis study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Controlled rate thermal analysis (CRTA) of a series of synthetic aurichalcite (Zn,Cu2+)5(CO3)2(OH)6 with the ratio of Cu/Zn varying from 0.1 to 0.5 proves that the dehydroxylation and carbonate loss occur as non-isothermal and isothermal decompositions. The temperature of the thermal decomposition increases as the Cu/Zn ratio increases. Thermal decomposition of aurichalcite provides a method for preparing mixed oxide catalysts at the molecular level as opposed to the particle level. CRTA technology enables separation of the processes of dehydration, dehydroxylation and decarbonation. X-ray diffraction of the products of the thermal decomposition proved to be a mixture of the oxides ZnO and Cu2O.

Veronika Vgvlgyi; Ashley Locke; Matthew Hales; Jnos Kristf; Ray L. Frost; Erzsbet Horvth; Wayde N. Martens

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Specificity of mono- and disilane decomposition at silicon surface under conditions of epitaxial growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Basic kinetic parameters of surface hydrogen desorption and of adsorbed silicon hydrides decomposition has been evaluated by kinetic simulation based on data of the technological experiments on silicon layer g...

L. K. Orlov; N. L. Ivina; T. N. Smyslova

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Decomposition algorithms for global solution of deterministic and stochastic pooling problems in natural gas value chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, a Benders decomposition algorithm is designed and implemented to solve both deterministic and stochastic pooling problems to global optimality. Convergence of the algorithm to a global optimum is proved and ...

Armagan, Emre

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Improvement of Ensemble Technique Using Spectral Analysis and Decomposition of Air Pollution Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The current study proposes a novel approach for the multi-model ensemble to be applied in air pollution forecasting. The methodology is based on decomposition of air pollution time series on different components ...

Oxana Tchepel; Isabel Ribeiro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Spectral Decomposition Using S-transform for Hydrocarbon Detection and Filtering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectral decomposition is a modern tool that utilizes seismic data to generate additional useful information in seismic exploration for hydrocarbon detection, lithology identification, stratigraphic interpretation, filtering and others. Different...

Zhang, Zhao

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

150

Control Of Electric Motor Parameters On The Basis Of Qr- Decomposition Technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Control of DC motor on the basis of QR-decomposition technique is given in this paper. Authors propose to control DC motor parameter using step-by-step method of rotor s parameters definition. The first step ...

First A. Viktor Melnikov

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

A Note on the Functional Decomposition of Symbolic Polynomials Stephen M. Watt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Note on the Functional Decomposition of Symbolic Polynomials Stephen M. Watt Ontario Research, CANADA N6A 5B7 watt@uwo.ca It often arises that the general form of a polynomial is known

Watt, Stephen M.

152

The effect of ?-irradiation on the structure and subsequent thermal decomposition of brucite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...?The effect of ?-irradiation on the structure, phase composition and kinetics of isothermal decomposition of natural textural brucite Mg(OH)2 has been investigated by Mn2+ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)...

A. P. Shpak; E. A. Kalinichenko; A. S. Lytovchenko

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Phosgene in the Thermal Decomposition Products of Poly (Vinyl Chloride): Generation, Detection and Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......3) an electrical discharge between wires covered...insulation; and (4) electric arc initiated flaming combustion...phosgene is found by the electric arc decomposition, the...PVC generated by an electric discharge show that this substance......

James E. Brown; Merritt M. Birky

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Decomposition of Ablefoam and EF-AR20 Foam (Ablefoam Replacement)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary thermal decomposition experiments with Ablefoam and EF-AR20 foam (Ablefoam replacement) were done to determine the important chemical and associated physical phenomena that should be investigated to develop the foam decomposition chemistry sub-models that are required in numerical simulations of the fire-induced response of foam-filled engineered systems for nuclear safety applications. Although the two epoxy foams are physically and chemically similar, the thermal decomposition of each foam involves different chemical mechanisms, and the associated physical behavior of the foams, particularly ''foaming'' and ''liquefaction,'' have significant implications for modeling. A simplified decomposition chemistry sub-model is suggested that, subject to certain caveats, may be appropriate for ''scoping-type'' calculations.

ULIBARRI, TAMARA A.; DERZON, DORA K.; ERICKSON, KENNETH L.; CASTANEDA, JAIME N.; BOREK III, THEODORE T.; RENLUND, ANITA M.; MILLER, JILL C.; CLAYTON, DANIEL; FLETCHER, THOMAS H.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Production of GHG from the Decomposition of in vitro Inundated Phytomass and Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A set of experiments was designed to measure the production of carbon dioxide and methane during decomposition of inundated samples of representative vegetation and soil samples originating from the James Bay ...

Normand Thrien; Ken Morrison

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Controlling the Decomposition Pathway of LiBH4 via Confinement in Highly Ordered Nanoporous Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The wetting and decomposition behavior of LiBH4 has been investigated in the presence of highly ordered nanoporous hard carbon (NPC) with hexagonally packed 2 nm diameter columnar pores. Calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and IR spectroscopy measurements ...

Xiangfeng Liu; David Peaslee; C. Z. Jost; E. H. Majzoub

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

157

Isotopic Effects of Hydrogen During the Decomposition of Water in Electrolysis with a Solid Polymer Electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The partition coefficients of hydrogen isotopes in the decomposition of water in electrolyzers with a solid polymer electrolyte are measured in a wide range of deuterium content in the initial water (from the ...

O. M. Ivanchuk; V. G. Goryanina; M. B. Rozenkevich

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

External Electric Field Catalyzed N2O Decomposition on Mn-Embedded Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

External Electric Field Catalyzed N2O Decomposition on Mn-Embedded Graphene ... Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China ...

E. H. Song; J. M. Yan; J. S. Lian; Q. Jiang

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

159

Kinetic Isotope Effects in the N2O Decomposition over NiO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetic Isotope Effects in the N2O Decomposition over NiO ... The 15N and 18O kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) in the catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide on NiO powder were determined in the temperature range of 625?825 K, and the following temperature dependencies were found:? KIE(15N) = (0.821 0.180) + (1445 128)/T and KIE(18O) = (1.384 ...

Peter emva; Antonija Lesar; Ivan Kobal; Marjan Senega?nik

2001-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

160

Three phase crystallography and solute distribution analysis during residual austenite decomposition in tempered nanocrystalline bainitic steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interphase carbide precipitation due to austenite decomposition was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography in tempered nanostructured bainitic steels. Results showed that cementite (?) forms by a paraequilibrium transformation mechanism at the bainitic ferriteaustenite interface with a simultaneous three phase crystallographic orientation relationship. - Highlights: Interphase carbide precipitation due to austenite decomposition Tempered nanostructured bainitic steels High resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography Paraequilibrium ? with three phase crystallographic orientation relationship.

Caballero, F.G. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Yen, Hung-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Rd. Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6139 (United States); Cornide, J. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Chang, Hsiao-Tzu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Rd. Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Garcia-Mateo, C. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Yang, Jer-Ren [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Rd. Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Effect of nanoclay loading on the thermal decomposition of nanoclay polyurethane elastomers obtained by bulk polymerization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermoplastic urethane (TPU) nanocomposite was prepared successfully by dispersion at high shear stress of the nanoclay in polyol and further bulk polymerization. Our results from DSC studies showed an increase in decomposition temperature when nanoclay was loaded at 3,5% on elastomeric PU made from TDI, PTMEG and BDO, while not when nanoclay content was lower (1,5%). The exotherms at 370-375C could be adscribed to the decomposition of the hard segments according to previous work.

Javier Quagliano; Javier Bocchio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Kinetics of glucose epimerization and decomposition in subcritical and supercritical water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glucose decomposition kinetics in subcritical and supercritical water were studied for the temperatures 573, 623, and 673 K, pressures between 25 and 40 MPa, and residence times between 0.02 and 2 s. Glucose decomposition products were fructose, saccharinic acids, erythrose, glyceraldehyde, 1,6-anhydroglucose, dihydroxyacetone, pyruvaldehyde, and small amounts of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Fructose was also studied and found to decompose to products similar to those of glucose, except that its epimerization to glucose was negligibly low and no formation of 1,6-anhydroglucose was detected. The authors concluded that only the forward epimerization of glucose to fructose was important. The glucose decomposition pathway could be described in terms of a forward epimerization rate, r{sub gf}, a fructose to decomposition products rate, r{sub f}, and a glucose to decomposition products rate, r{sub g}. A kinetic model based on this pathway gave good correlation of the experimental data. In the subcritical region, r{sub g}, r{sub f}, and r{sub gf} showed only small changes with pressure at a given temperature. In the supercritical region, the rate of glucose decomposition decreased with pressure at a given temperature. The reason for this decrease was mainly due to the decrease in r{sub gf}. The pressure effect in the supercritical region shows that there is a shift among the kinetic rates, which can lead to higher selectivity for glucose when decomposing cellulosic materials.

Kabyemela, B.M.; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Malaluan, R.M.; Arai, Kunio [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Born--Oppenheimer decomposition for quantum fields on quantum spacetimes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum Field Theory on Curved Spacetime (QFT on CS) is a well established theoretical framework which intuitively should be a an extremely effective description of the quantum nature of matter when propagating on a given background spacetime. If one wants to take care of backreaction effects, then a theory of quantum gravity is needed. It is now widely believed that such a theory should be formulated in a non-perturbative and therefore background independent fashion. Hence, it is a priori a puzzle how a background dependent QFT on CS should emerge as a semiclassical limit out of a background independent quantum gravity theory. In this article we point out that the Born-Oppenheimer decomposition (BOD) of the Hilbert space is ideally suited in order to establish such a link, provided that the Hilbert space representation of the gravitational field algebra satisfies an important condition. If the condition is satisfied, then the framework of QFT on CS can be, in a certain sense, embedded into a theory of quantum gravity. The unique representation of the holonomy-flux algebra underlying Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) violates that condition. While it is conceivable that the condition on the representation can be relaxed, for convenience in this article we consider a new classical gravitational field algebra and a Hilbert space representation of its restriction to an algebraic graph for which the condition is satisfied. An important question that remains and for which we have only partial answers is how to construct eigenstates of the full gravity-matter Hamiltonian whose BOD is confined to a small neighbourhood of a physically interesting vacuum spacetime.

Kristina Giesel; Johannes Tambornino; Thomas Thiemann

2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mechanics Research Communications 38 (2011) 431436 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of FGMs. In order to achieve high performance in both thermal and mechanical resistances for ther- mal resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. (Paulino, 2002). These materials are named as functionally graded resistance, while the other phase can be metallic that leads to high strength and toughness. Moreover

Paulino, Glaucio H.

165

Materials Science and Engineering A369 (2004) 124137 Studies of the microstructure and properties of dense ceramic coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for wear resistance and zirconia-based materials for ther- mal barrier coatings [1­4]. The high temperature (enthalpy) availability within the thermal plasma enables melting, relatively high-velocity delivery applications. The advent of high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray has made a significant impact

New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

166

Suppression of thermal conductivity in InxGa12xN alloys by nanometer-scale disorder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power requires low lattice thermal conductivity while maintaining high mobility of the charge carriers. The binary InN and GaN materials have high ther- mal conductivity materials9­14 (the room-temperature thermalSuppression of thermal conductivity in InxGa12xN alloys by nanometer-scale disorder T. Tong,1,a) D

Wu, Junqiao

167

Analysis of the reduced thermal conductivity in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers from chirp characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

injection which we term "thermal impact" , the ther- mal conductivity of the active region is estimatedAnalysis of the reduced thermal conductivity in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers from chirp; published online 21 September 2006 The thermal conductivity of self-organized quantum dot QD active regions

Klotzkin, David

168

Ris Energy Report 5 Solar thermal 41 by the end of 2004 about 110 million m2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risø Energy Report 5 Solar thermal 41 6.3.2 by the end of 2004 about 110 million m2 of solar ther be within the competence of the existing solar thermal industry. Solar thermal PETER AHM, PA ENERgy LTD- mal collectors were installed worldwide. Figure 24 il- lustrates the energy contribution from

169

International Conference of Modeling, Optimization and Simulation -MOSIM'12 June 6-8, 2012 -Bordeaux -France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the electric motor (electric bicycle on hybrid ther- mal/electric vehicle. An electric motor supplied by a battery constitutes a reversible OF MINIMAL ENERGY CONTROLS FOR AN ELECTRIC BICYCLE D. GROSSOLEIL, D.MEIZEL XLIM, UMR CNRS Limoges University

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

170

Design for, and Evaluation of Life Cycle Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?. DESIGN FOR, AND EVALUATION OF LIFE CYCLE PERFORMANCE David J. Ahner Eldon W. Hall GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT EQUIPMENT DEGRADATION Project evaluation necessarily requires performance estimates over..., operating procedures, equipment availabilities, etc. This paper discusses the general nature, and the ther mal interaction of power plant components as individual equipment degradation occurs, describing overall plant performance trends and quant...

Ahner, D. J.; Hall, E. W.

171

Disruption of Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Activity in Prostate Cancer by a Novel Dietary Diterpene Carnosol: Implications for Chemoprevention  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...quantitatively determined with a thermal energy analyzer. The smoke was trapped...liquid chromatography-thermal energy ana lyzer methodology (sensitivity...nitrosoanatabine; TEA, ther mal energy analyzer; HPLC, high-performance...cigars were purchased on the open market in 1977 and 1978. Experimental...

Jeremy J. Johnson; Deeba N. Syed; Yewseok Suh; Chenelle R. Heren; Mohammad Saleem; Imtiaz A. Siddiqui; and Hasan Mukhtar

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

SSFP-Based MR Thermometry Vaishali Paliwal,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SSFP-Based MR Thermometry Vaishali Paliwal,1 AbdEl-Monem El-Sharkawy,2 Xiangying Du,3 Xiaoming Yang,3 and Ergin Atalar1�4* Of the various techniques employed to quantify temperature changes by MR for MR- based temperature mapping during the application of ther- mal therapies (1�3). When administering

Atalar, Ergin

173

Water Vapor Radiometry : Outline of Goals and Tasks for the Spring Semester 2001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that can accu­ rately measure the spectrum of the water vapor emis­ sion. The current receivers follow, as in a conventional re­ ceiver, the correlation receiver splits the rf signal into two with a splitter that follows the feed horn. Both branches are mixed with a carefully controlled ther­ mal load. A 180 ffi phase shift

Backer, Don

174

Carrier pocket engineering applied to ``strained'' Si/Ge superlattices to design useful thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermoelectric materials T. Koga,a) X. Sun, S. B. Cronin, and M. S. Dresselhausb) Department of Physics to provide a promising strategy for designing materials with a large thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is already a good thermoelectric material, 3 the reduction of the lattice ther- mal conductivity ph due

Cronin, Steve

175

ELSEVIER Fusion Engineering and Design 29 (1995) 43.~50 Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electric output to the distribution grid [3]. Ther- mal cycling of heat transport and power conversion 0920 at a constant temperature to the primary heat exchanger. Several conventional TES systems were evaluated dur MW(e) output during the dwell period of 200 s. Thermal energy resulting from direct nuclear heating

Najmabadi, Farrokh

176

Ion acoustic shock formation in a converging magnetic field geometry Q.-Z. Luo, N. D'Angelo, and R. L. Merlino  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. L. Merlino Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 with the interaction of planets with the solar wind and the interaction of comets with the interstellar medium energy into ther- mal energy in plasmas and for accelerating charged particles. Geophysical

Merlino, Robert L.

177

Randomized Model Predictive Control for HVAC Systems Alessandra Parisio, Damiano Varagnolo, Daniel Risberg,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Randomized Model Predictive Control for HVAC Systems Alessandra Parisio, Damiano Varagnolo, Daniel Conditioning (HVAC) sys- tems play a fundamental role in maintaining acceptable ther- mal comfort and Indoor. A possible solu- tion is to develop effective control strategies for HVAC sys- tems, but this is complicated

Johansson, Karl Henrik

178

ccsd-00009559,version1-5Oct2005 Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. hal.hyper17418 October 5, 2005 (DOI: will be inserted by hand later)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is exposed to a temperature as high as 3.5 ? 108 K, which corresponds to an equilibrium den- sity of about the He-burning shell suffers recurrent ther- mal instabilities (thermal pulses or TPs). After each TP 1011 neutrons per cm-3 . However, due to such a high neutron density, the resulting nucleosynthesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spectrum of time intervals. In therange of seconds, when load variationsare small and random, the automatic by a number of generation control functions such as hydro scheduling, unit commitment, hydro-ther- mal present, functions such as fuel, hydro, and maintenance scheduling are performed to ensure that the load

Gross, George

180

Local transport in Joint European Tokamak edge-localized, high-confinement mode plasmas with H, D, DT, and T isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mode and the scaling of the global thermal energy confinement time, E .4 Large extrapolations of the energy confinement- mated using the total electron number, Ne and the total ther- mal energy, Wth , i.e., * AWth /(NeB), Wth and plasma current varied together in H, D, DT, and T isotopes. The local energy transport in more than fifty

Budny, Robert

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Stochastic Differential Algebraic Equations in Transient Noise Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a resistance R, maintained in ther- mal equilibrium at a temperature T, can be described as the sum of the de by the discrete nature of current due to the elementary charge, is also modelled by a Gaussian white noise process|I|, where q is the elementary charge. If the current through the pn- junction is described

Römisch, Werner

182

Lattice QCD with Domain Decomposition on Intel Xeon Phi Co-Processors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gap between the cost of moving data and the cost of computing continues to grow, making it ever harder to design iterative solvers on extreme-scale architectures. This problem can be alleviated by alternative algorithms that reduce the amount of data movement. We investigate this in the context of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics and implement such an alternative solver algorithm, based on domain decomposition, on Intel Xeon Phi co-processor (KNC) clusters. We demonstrate close-to-linear on-chip scaling to all 60 cores of the KNC. With a mix of single- and half-precision the domain-decomposition method sustains 400-500 Gflop/s per chip. Compared to an optimized KNC implementation of a standard solver [1], our full multi-node domain-decomposition solver strong-scales to more nodes and reduces the time-to-solution by a factor of 5.

Heybrock, Simon; Joo, Balint; Kalamkar, Dhiraj D.; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Vaidyanathan, Karthikeyan; Wettig, Tilo; Dubey, Pradeep

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Acid-catalytic decomposition of peracetic acid in the liquid phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper elucidates the kinetic relationships of peracetic acid (PAA) decomposition in the presence of mineral acids and their heterogeneous analogs, polystyrene-di-vinylbenzene cation-exchangers, differing in physicochemical and morphological parameters. It is shown that the thermal decomposition of PAA in acetic acid is an acid-catalyzed reaction. The controlling step of the reaction is protonation of the substrate with formation of an active intermediate form. Sulfonated cation-exchangers are twice as effective as sulfuric acid in this process. Polystyrene-divinylbenzene sulfonated cation-exchangers can be used with success as acid catalysts in oxidation processes involving PAA, because of their high effectiveness, stability, and availability.

Kharchuk, V.G.; Kolenko, I.P.; Petrov, L.A.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

An analysis of the parallel scalability of spatial domain decomposition for the neutron transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decomposition can yield reasonable scalabilty for a range of problem sizes and domain widths. Our results indicate that for a processor size range up to 64 processors using a nCube2 parallel system, problems with approximately 1024 cells and a domain width... decomposition can yield reasonable scalabilty for a range of problem sizes and domain widths. Our results indicate that for a processor size range up to 64 processors using a nCube2 parallel system, problems with approximately 1024 cells and a domain width...

Perez, Lennard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

185

Title: Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak

Maruyama, Shigeo

186

Towards efficient interface conditions for a Schwarz domain decomposition algorithm for an advection equation with biharmonic diffusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of deriving efficient interface conditions for solving biharmonic diffusion-advection equations using a Schwarz global-in-time domain decomposition algorithm. General interface conditions are proposed, which lead to well-posed ... Keywords: Biharmonic operator, Domain decomposition methods, Optimized conditions

Elise Nourtier-Mazauric; Eric Blayo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

The Singular-Value Decomposition in the Extended Max Algebra* Bart De Schutter+ and Bart De Moor*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

numbers and the extended max algebra to define the sing&r-value decomposition of a matrix in the extendedThe Singular-Value Decomposition in the Extended Max Algebra* Bart De Schutter+ and Bart De Moor ABSTRACT First we establish a connection between the field of the real numbers and the extended max algebra

188

Automatic screening of obstructive sleep apnea from the ECG based on empirical mode decomposition and wavelet analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automatic screening of obstructive sleep apnea from the ECG based on empirical mode decomposition apnea from the ECG based on empirical mode decomposition and wavelet analysis M O Mendez1,2 , J Corthout different methods to detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during sleep time based only on the ECG signal

189

Synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals by thermal decomposition of iron carboxylate salts{  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's group12 recently published a study of c-Fe2O3 nanocrystals with different shapes. Iron acetylacetonateSynthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals by thermal decomposition of iron carboxylate September 2004 Iron oxide (Fe3O4, magnetite) nanocrystals of 6 to 30 nm with narrow size distributions (s

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

190

Thermal decomposition and flammability of fire-resistant, UV/visible-sensitive polyarylates, copolymers and blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal decomposition and flammability of fire-resistant, UV/visible- sensitive polyarylates temperature, low notch sensitivity, and good electrical properties. Most of all, these materials show a high resistance to ignition and flame spreading without additives [6]. A high-temperature wholly aromatic poly

191

An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Approach for Voltage Sag Detection in a Smart Grid Context  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Approach for Voltage Sag Detection in a Smart Grid Context Yassine Amirat1,2 , Mohamed Benbouzid2 , Tianzhen Wang3 and Sylvie Turri2 Abstract­Smart grids have become, using the instantaneous power for voltage sags detection in smart grids. Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy

Brest, Université de

192

Thermal Activation of the High Explosive NTO: Sublimation, Decomposition, and Autocatalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal Activation of the High Explosive NTO: Sublimation, Decomposition, and Autocatalysis Gregory of Chemistry, UniVersity of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 ReceiVed: July 26, 2001; In Final Form: January 15 of 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) leads to competitive sublimation and condensed

Utah, University of

193

A decomposition approach for commodity pickup and delivery with time-windows under uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider a special class of large-scale, network-based, resource allocation problems under uncertainty, namely that of multi-commodity flows with time-windows under uncertainty. In this class, we focus on problems involving commodity pickup and delivery ... Keywords: Decomposition, Multi-commodity routing and scheduling, Robust routing and scheduling, Uncertainty

Lavanya Marla, Cynthia Barnhart, Varun Biyani

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of urea-water solution decomposition, for gas temperatures between 550 and 650 K, the highest concentrations were for NH3 and HNCO. On the other hand, the concentrations of CO2 were highest for gas temperatures of about 500 - 550 K. For temperatures above...

Park, Yong Hun

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

Cheaters, diffusion and nutrients constrain decomposition by microbial enzymes in spatially  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTER Cheaters, diffusion and nutrients constrain decomposition by microbial enzymes in spatially of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA Correspondence: E-mail: allisons@uci.edu Abstract Extracellular enzymes-limiting step in nutrient mineralization. Because the factors regulating enzyme production are poorly understood

German, Donovan P.

196

Deposition, resuspension, and decomposition of particulate organic matter in the sediments of Lake Itasca, Minnesota, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sediment traps were used to investigate the settling, resuspension, and decomposition of particulate organic matter in...?2 d?1 at 4 m and increased to 2.1 to 3.2 g m?2 d?1 two meters above the bottom sediment in...

Randall E. Hicks; Christopher J. Owen; Peter Aas

1994-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

197

Internal tide generation at the continental shelf modelled using a modal decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internal tide generation at the continental shelf modelled using a modal decomposition: two are required. Using this formulation, we calculate the internal tide generated by a time-periodic barotropic-layer or uniformly stratified. For the two-layer case, we derive expressions for the shoreward and oceanward energy

198

Thermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of vacuum flash pyrolysis of SiH 2Cl2. Ban and Gilbert6 observed SiCl2 by mass spectrometry under sili- conThermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis powered homogeneous pyrolysis of dichlorosilane are reported. Pyrolyses at temperatures of 1350 to 1700 K

Swihart, Mark T.

199

The Role of Photodegradation in Surface Litter Decomposition Across a Grassland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA ABSTRACT Differences in litter decomposition the litter layer at three grassland sites in Minnesota, Colorado, and New Mexico, USA, that represented mesic lignin:N were placed at each site under screens that either passed all solar radiation wavelengths

Minnesota, University of

200

HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR EXPANDERS: A PROOF OF KELLY'S CONJECTURE FOR LARGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR EXPANDERS: A PROOF OF KELLY'S CONJECTURE FOR LARGE TOURNAMENTS DANIELA K¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. A long-standing conjecture of Kelly states that every regular as well as Alon, Gutin and Krivelevich. 1. Introduction 1.1. Kelly's conjecture. A graph or digraph G has

Kühn, Daniela

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Ab Initio Dynamics of Cellulose Pyrolysis: Nascent Decomposition Pathways at 327 and 600 C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reserves in lignocellulosic biomass.1 Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, which involves rapidAb Initio Dynamics of Cellulose Pyrolysis: Nascent Decomposition Pathways at 327 and 600 °C Vishal pyrolysis at 327 and 600 °C using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations with rare events

Auerbach, Scott M.

202

Scale-up analysis and development of gliding arc discharge facility for volatile organic compounds decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influences of inlet gas flow rate and reactor configuration on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decomposition efficiency in a traditional gliding arc (T-GA) facility are studied based on laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. The ratio of the nozzle diameter and the shortest distance of two electrodes should be maintained in a suitable value range to guarantee the decomposition efficiency, which indicates simply enlarging the nozzle inner diameter is not a proper way to raise the T-GA treatment capacity in a fixed supply voltage condition. A developed gliding arc gas discharge (D-GA) reactor based on a modified gas feed system is proposed: small flow rate air goes through the bottom nozzle to process the GA evolution, and high flow rate contaminated gas goes frontal through the plasma region and decomposes. The performances of D-GA reactor in the decomposition of \\{VOCs\\} with relative high gas flow rate, including decomposition efficiency and specific energy consumption, are better than T-GA reactor. D-GA reactor also avoids the drawbacks of the increases of power system amount and electric power consumption in multi-electrode GA system.

Zheng Bo; Jianhua Yan; Xiaodong Li; Yong Chi; Kefa Cen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Aquatic Botany 64 (1999) 381398 Controls on soil cellulose decomposition along a salinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aquatic Botany 64 (1999) 381­398 Controls on soil cellulose decomposition along a salinity gradient gradient, where nutrients, soil moisture, temperature and salinity among other factors also varied. Our placed at seven marsh sites along the salinity gradient, and soil and in- terstitial water samples were

Brix, Hans

204

FUSION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES USING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION TO IMPROVE FACE RECOGNITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FUSION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES USING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION TO IMPROVE FACE of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN-37996 ABSTRACT In this effort, we propose a new image fusion technique, utilizing). In this method, we decompose images from different imaging modalities into their IMFs. Fusion is performed

Koschan, Andreas

205

THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN OECD COUNTRIES: A DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN OECD COUNTRIES: A DECOMPOSITION the impacts of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on economic activities to find out whether and both renewable and non-renewable energy consumption in the short- and long run. This finding confirms

206

Convergent Decomposition Solvers for Tree-reweighted Free Energies Jeremy Jancsary Gerald Matz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convergent Decomposition Solvers for Tree-reweighted Free Energies Jeremy Jancsary Gerald Matz of tree- reweighted free energies for the purpose of obtaining approximate marginal probabil- ities efficient for tree-reweighted energies arising from a small number of spanning trees. While this assumption

207

Stability and Error Estimates for Vector Field Interpolation and Decomposition on the Sphere with RBFs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the water in the oceans (surface ocean currents). According to the Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition, any vector, these respective components of the horizontal ocean currents give information on gyres and overturning flow [35 applications from the atmospheric and oceanic sciences (e.g., in diagnosing the horizontal wind and ocean

Wright, Grady B.

208

To appear in Proc. KDD-97 A dataset decomposition approach to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To appear in Proc. KDD-97 A dataset decomposition approach to data mining and machine discovery to analyze a given dataset, the method decomposes it to a hierar- chy of smaller and less complex datasets allocation dataset, showing that the decom- position can (1) discover meaningful intermedi- ate concepts, (2

Bohanec, Marko

209

Variance Decomposition Sensitivity Analysis of a Passive Residual Heat Removal System Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for improved reliability and safety. Sensitivity analysis can provide relevant insights on the responseVariance Decomposition Sensitivity Analysis of a Passive Residual Heat Removal System Model YU Yua Removal system (RHRs) in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Keywords: Uncertainty

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

Outfix-Free Regular Languages and Prime Outfix-Free Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Outfix-Free Regular Languages and Prime Outfix-Free Decomposition Yo-Sub Han and Derick Wood and a set X of strings is outfix-free if no string in X is an outfix of any other string in X. We examine the outfix-free regular languages. Based on the properties of outfix strings, we develop a polynomial

Han, Yo-Sub

211

Optimal investment under multiple defaults risk: a BSDE-decomposition approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal investment under multiple defaults risk: a BSDE-decomposition approach Ying JIAO Idris KHARROUBI Huy^en PHAM February 23, 2011 Abstract We study an optimal investment problem under contagion risk characterizes explicitly the value function and optimal strategies to the optimal investment problem. We

Le Pennec, Erwan

212

HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR TOURNAMENTS DANIELA KUHN, DERYK OSTHUS AND ANDREW TREGLOWN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR TOURNAMENTS DANIELA K¨UHN, DERYK OSTHUS AND ANDREW TREGLOWN into edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. More precisely, for each > 0 every regular tournament G of sufficiently large order n contains at least (1/2 - )n edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. This gives an approximate

Osthus, Deryk

213

Experimental and modeling study of the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in internal combustion engines [2], [3], [4], [5] and [6]. Biodiesel fuels are composed of methyl esters) 1288-1300" DOI : 10.1016/j.combustflame.2010.11.009 #12;1. Introduction Fuel thermal decomposition are of importance in some practical cases such as diesel engines. The first reactions of diesel fuels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Experimental and theoretical investigation of BCl3 decomposition in H2 G. Reinischa,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a 1D model of a CVD reactor. Comparison of calculated steady state concentrations with in situ FT3 are commonly used as boron precursors. The decomposition of BCl3 in a hydrogen-rich CVD reactor depends itself on a first H2 dissociation step. No direct vali- dation with experimental data has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

Homogeneous Decomposition Mechanisms of Diethylzinc by Raman Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for direct reaction products in an inverted, impinging-jet test reactor coupled to a Raman spectrometer. The homogeneous thermal decomposition of DEZn in N2 carrier was followed in an impinging-jet, up-flow reactor vibrational frequencies of DEZn, as well as anticipated intermediates and products. Comparison of the measured

Anderson, Timothy J.

216

Eddy mean flow decomposition and eddy diffusivity estimates in the tropical Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eddy mean flow decomposition and eddy diffusivity estimates in the tropical Pacific Ocean: 2] Eddy diffusivity of the surface velocity field in the tropical Pacific Ocean was estimated using diffusivity estimates in the tropical Pacific Ocean: 2. Results, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 3154, doi:10

217

An analysis of decomposition approaches in multi-objectivization via segmentation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multi-objectivization via Segmentation (MOS) has been shown to give improved results over other previous multi-objectivization approaches. This paper explores the mechanisms that make different segmentations in MOS successful in the context of the Traveling ... Keywords: Multi-Objectivization via Progressive Segmentation (MOPS), Multi-Objectivization via Segmentation (MOS), Multi-objectivization Via Decomposition (MVD), Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)

Darrell F. Lochtefeld, Frank W. Ciarallo

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Applied Soil Ecology 21 (2002) 7188 Soil invertebrate and microbial communities, and decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applied Soil Ecology 21 (2002) 71­88 Soil invertebrate and microbial communities, and decomposition. Spongberg Department of Earth, Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 for quantification of ecological impact of chemical contamination of soils. This study examined the effects

Neher, Deborah A.

219

An algorithm for a decomposition of weighted digraphs --with applications to life cycle analysis in ecology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in ecology L. Sun M. Wang § Abstract In the analysis of organism life cycles in ecology, comparisons of life the decomposition was formalized by Wardle [Ecology 79(7), 2539-2549 (1998)]. However there are difficulties no such simple cycles are obtainable. When applied to life cycle analysis in ecology, the proposed method

Wang, Mei

220

Sunlight and SoilLitter Mixing: Drivers of Litter Decomposition in Drylands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Solar Radiation Influence on Decomposition ..................... 280 3.3 Evaluating the Role of Sunlight of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA e-mail: throop@nmsu.edu S.R. Archer · D.D. Breshears School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA e

Archer, Steven R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Lagrangian decomposition of the Hadley and Ferrel cells J. Kjellsson1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lagrangian decomposition of the Hadley and Ferrel cells J. Kjellsson1 and K. Döös1 Received 22 May to the Eulerian mean, but yield half the Hadley cell amplitude, and twice that of the Ferrel cell. Cross-equatorial transports of some 130 Sv result in two cells that account for the remainder of the Hadley cells

Döös, Kristofer

222

Extraction of Vibration Components from a Rotating Propeller Model Based on Complex Empirical Mode Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of Vibration Components from a Rotating Propeller Model Based on Complex Empirical Mode dydynoel@kaist.ac.kr Abstract -- In this paper, we present extraction of vibration components embedded decomposition (CEMD), an extended version of EMD, is employed to extract the vibration components. With FEKO

Myung, Noh-Hoon

223

CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION NUMBERS OF Co 2 J  URGEN M  ULLER AND JENS ROSENBOOM Abstract. We present an algorithm to condense induced, condensation has become one of the most valuable tools in computational representation theory of #12;nite

Mueller, Jürgen

224

CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION an algorithm to condense induced modules for a finite group over a finite field. It is built. Introduction In recent years, condensation has become one of the most valuable tools in computational

Mueller, Jürgen

225

CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION NUMBERS OF Co2 J¨URGEN M¨ULLER AND JENS ROSENBOOM Abstract. We present an algorithm to condense induced modules, condensation has become one of the most valuable tools in computational representation theory of finite groups

Mueller, Jürgen

226

AUDIO ENCODING BASED ON THE EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION Kais Khaldi1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUDIO ENCODING BASED ON THE EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION Kais Khaldi1 , Abdel-Ouahab Boudraa23. The pro- posed approach is applied to several audio signals compres- sion. Results are compared to wavelet and audio quality. 1. INTRODUCTION Audio coding at low bit rate and high fidelity is an impor- tant task

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

ROBUST 3-WAY TENSOR DECOMPOSITION AND EXTENDED STATE KALMAN FILTERING TO EXTRACT FETAL ECG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ROBUST 3-WAY TENSOR DECOMPOSITION AND EXTENDED STATE KALMAN FILTERING TO EXTRACT FETAL ECG Mohammad ABSTRACT This paper addresses the problem of fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) extraction from multichannel that are robust to outliers are proposed and used to better track weak traces of the fetal ECG. Then, the state

Boyer, Edmond

228

Partial wave decomposition of the N3LO equation of state  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By means of a partial wave decomposition, we separate their contributions to the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter for the N3LO pseudo-potential. In particular, we show that although both the tensor and the spin-orbit terms do not contribute to the equation of state, they give a non-vanishing contribution to the separate (JLS) channels.

D. Davesne; J. Meyer; A. Pastore; J. Navarro

2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

229

CAUSAL/ANTICAUSAL DECOMPOSITION FOR MIXED-PHASE DESCRIPTION OF BRASS AND BOWED STRING SOUNDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CAUSAL/ANTICAUSAL DECOMPOSITION FOR MIXED-PHASE DESCRIPTION OF BRASS AND BOWED STRING SOUNDS, in order to lo- cally model divergent oscillations in a steady way [4]. This mixed-phase representation- ous interaction instruments (CII): brass and bowed string. The aim of this work is to better

Dupont, Stéphane

230

Use of thin-film samples to study thermal decomposition chemistry of explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of reliable models for design, performance, stability, and hazard analyses of energetic materials requires detailed understanding of three principal chemical reaction regimes: initial condensed-phase decomposition, subsequent interaction of decomposition products with the remaining condensed phase, and gas- phase reaction of decomposition products to form the ultimate combustion products. The initial condensed-phase decomposition has been particularly difficult to study, due to the inability to probe directly chemistry in the condensed phase under isothermal conditions and with the spatial and temporal resolution needed at high temperatures and reaction rates. Thin-film samples provide a means to study condensed-phase chemistry at isothermal conditions and with microsecond temporal resolution. This paper describes results from experiments in which thin-film samples nd multiple diagnostics are used to examine condensed-phase chemistry and monitor evolved gas species from explosives such as RDX, HMX, TATB. Sample heating rates, reaction temperatures, and reaction times varied from about 10{sup 8} to less that 1{degree}C/s, from ambient to about 500{degree}C, and from about 10{sup {minus}3} to greater that 10{sup 5} seconds, respectively. Conventional infrared spectroscopy and time-resolved infrared spectral photography were used to detect condensed-phase decomposition products. Mass spectrometry, using both time-of-flight and quadrupole mass spectrometers, was used to monitor evolved gas species. Results from these experiments have been encouraging. For example, conventional infrared spectra from totally confined samples of RDX that were thermally aged at 170{degree}C, for 18 hours, indicated condensed-phase formation of H{sub 2}O and HCN.

Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Use of thin-film samples to study thermal decomposition chemistry of explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of reliable models for design, performance, stability, and hazard analyses of energetic materials requires detailed understanding of three principal chemical reaction regimes: initial condensed-phase decomposition, subsequent interaction of decomposition products with the remaining condensed phase, and gas- phase reaction of decomposition products to form the ultimate combustion products. The initial condensed-phase decomposition has been particularly difficult to study, due to the inability to probe directly chemistry in the condensed phase under isothermal conditions and with the spatial and temporal resolution needed at high temperatures and reaction rates. Thin-film samples provide a means to study condensed-phase chemistry at isothermal conditions and with microsecond temporal resolution. This paper describes results from experiments in which thin-film samples nd multiple diagnostics are used to examine condensed-phase chemistry and monitor evolved gas species from explosives such as RDX, HMX, TATB. Sample heating rates, reaction temperatures, and reaction times varied from about 10{sup 8} to less that 1{degree}C/s, from ambient to about 500{degree}C, and from about 10{sup {minus}3} to greater that 10{sup 5} seconds, respectively. Conventional infrared spectroscopy and time-resolved infrared spectral photography were used to detect condensed-phase decomposition products. Mass spectrometry, using both time-of-flight and quadrupole mass spectrometers, was used to monitor evolved gas species. Results from these experiments have been encouraging. For example, conventional infrared spectra from totally confined samples of RDX that were thermally aged at 170{degree}C, for 18 hours, indicated condensed-phase formation of H{sub 2}O and HCN.

Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A unified statistical framework for material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) has been an active research area over the past few years. Even with some success, the problem of optimal energy selection and three material decomposition including malignant tissue is still on going research topic, and more systematic studies are required. This paper aims to address this in a unified statistical framework in a mammographic environment.Methods: A unified statistical framework for energy level optimization and decomposition of three materials is proposed. In particular, an energy level optimization algorithm is derived using the theory of the minimum variance unbiased estimator, and an iterative algorithm is proposed for material composition as well as system parameter estimation under the unified statistical estimation framework. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, the authors performed simulation studies as well as real experiments using physical breast phantom and ex vivo breast specimen. Quantitative comparisons using various performance measures were conducted, and qualitative performance evaluations for ex vivo breast specimen were also performed by comparing the ground-truth malignant tissue areas identified by radiologists.Results: Both simulation and real experiments confirmed that the optimized energy bins by the proposed method allow better material decomposition quality. Moreover, for the specimen thickness estimation errors up to 2 mm, the proposed method provides good reconstruction results in both simulation and real ex vivo breast phantom experiments compared to existing methods.Conclusions: The proposed statistical framework of PCXD has been successfully applied for the energy optimization and decomposition of three material in a mammographic environment. Experimental results using the physical breast phantom and ex vivo specimen support the practicality of the proposed algorithm.

Choi, Jiyoung; Kang, Dong-Goo; Kang, Sunghoon; Sung, Younghun [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), San 14, Nong-seo dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Kyunggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), San 14, Nong-seo dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Kyunggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Jong Chul [Bio-Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Bio-Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Characterizations of the thermal decomposition of brucite prepared by solgel technique for synthesis of nanocrystalline MgO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brucite was synthesized by the solgel technique using magnesium diethoxide in a homogeneous reaction medium. Its decomposition, including dehydroxylation, crystallization and phase transformation was studied by XRD, TGADTG, CTEM, HRTEM, SAED and FTIR techniques. It has been proposed that during the dehydroxylation and decomposition of the magnesium diethoxide gel, some vacancies are generated. The decomposition of brucite with hexagonal structure to form periclase with the cubic structure occurs in the temperature range from 473 to 773 K. In this case, nanocrystalline MgO is formed from the break down of the brucite crystalline structure.

J.A Wang; O Novaro; X Bokhimi; T Lpez; R Gmez; J Navarrete; M.E Llanos; E Lpez-Salinas

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Formation Mechanism of Hydrogenated Silicon Clusters during Thermal Decomposition of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Formation Mechanism of Hydrogenated Silicon Clusters during Thermal Decomposition of Disilane ... Hydrogenated silicon clusters (SinHm) were detected during the thermal decomposition of disilane in a flow reactor by using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry coupled with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization at a temperature range of 680?860 K and total pressures of 20?40 Torr. ... The SinH2n+2 (n ? 2), SinH2n (n ? 2), SinH2n-2 (n ? 5), and SinH2n-4 (n ? 5) containing up to 10 silicon atoms were observed as gas-phase products during the disilane pyrolysis, while no ion signal due to Si1 species such as Si, SiH, SiH2, and SiH3 was detected. ...

Kenichi Tonokura; Tetsuya Murasaki; Mitsuo Koshi

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

235

On low-rank updates to the singular value and Tucker decompositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The singular value decomposition is widely used in signal processing and data mining. Since the data often arrives in a stream, the problem of updating matrix decompositions under low-rank modification has been widely studied. Brand developed a technique in 2006 that has many advantages. However, the technique does not directly approximate the updated matrix, but rather its previous low-rank approximation added to the new update, which needs justification. Further, the technique is still too slow for large information processing problems. We show that the technique minimizes the change in error per update, so if the error is small initially it remains small. We show that an updating algorithm for large sparse matrices should be sub-linear in the matrix dimension in order to be practical for large problems, and demonstrate a simple modification to the original technique that meets the requirements.

O'Hara, M J

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

236

Adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of methanol decomposition on Cu(100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method was used to calculate the dynamics of methanol decomposition on Cu(100) at room temperature over a time scale of minutes. Mechanisms of reaction were found using min-mode following saddle point searches based upon forces and energies from density functional theory. Rates of reaction were calculated with harmonic transition state theory. The dynamics followed a pathway from CH3-OH, CH3-O, CH2-O, CH-O and finally C-O. Our calculations confirm that methanol decomposition starts with breaking the O-H bond followed by breaking C-H bonds in the dehydrogenated intermediates until CO is produced. The bridge site on the Cu(100) surface is the active site for scissoring chemical bonds. Reaction intermediates are mobile on the surface which allows them to find this active reaction site. This study illustrates how the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method can model the dynamics of surface chemistry from first principles.

Xu, Lijun; Mei, Donghai; Henkelman, Graeme A.

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Examination of the thermal decomposition of kraft pine lignin by Fourier transform infrared evolved gas analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of kraft lignin was examined by Fourier-transform IR evolved-gas analysis, a technique designed for on-the-fly, simultaneous monitoring of multiple vapor-phase species. Initial degradation occurs at 120-300 degrees from bond fragmentation in the phenylpropane side chains as evidenced by the formation of HCO2H, HCHO, CO2, H2O and SO2. The presence of SO2 is supporting evidence that S from the kraft pulping process may be incorporated into the lignin structure in the form of sulfoxide and(or) sulfone linkages. Major decomposition initiates at approximately 300 degrees and extends to 480 degrees at which point half the intital weight has been lost. MeOH 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and a 2-methoxy-4-alkyl- substituted phenol are the most apparent species evolving in this region and indicate fragmentation of the major chain linkages between the monomeric phenol units in the lignin structure.

Fenner, R.A.; Lephardt, J.O.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

ccsd-00000419(version1):18Jun2003 Decomposition in bunches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ordinary map E.R. Garc´ia Barroso, P.D. Gonz´alez P´erez Abstract. 1 A polar hypersurface P of a complex generalized to the case of reduced plane curve germs by Kuo, Lu, Eggers, Garc´ia Barroso and Wall among others of the permitted subset. Garc´ia Barroso has compared these two decompositions and shown that they coincide in [GB

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON SPECIES COMPOSITION MEDIATES DECOMPOSITION IN AN OLD-FIELD ECOSYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decomposition of leaf litter collected from an old-fi eld community grown under a combination of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (+300ppm) and elevated surface temperature (+ 3.2C) was examined in ambient conditions over 8 months in two separate experiments. In the fi rst experiment, we examined the main effects and interactions of CO2 and warming on litter quality and subsequent mass loss rates. Multi-species litter bags were constructed with litter collected from chambers with ambient CO2 and ambient temperatures (ACAT), elevated CO2 and elevated temperature (ECET), ambient CO2 and elevated temperature (ACET), and elevated CO2 and ambient temperature (ECAT). Litter collected from 6 species in each chamber was represented in decomposition bags in equal proportions. There were no differences in initial litter percent carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) among treatments. After 8 months, litter collected from ACET chambers lost over 20% more mass than litter collected from ECET or ACAT chambers, although biological differences were small. In the second experiment, we examined the indirect effect climate change may have on plant community composition, litter inputs, and subsequent mass loss rates. Litter bags were made from the same chambers mentioned above, but the amount of litter in the bag from each species was proportional to peak standing biomass of that species within the treatment. Initial litter in ECAT bags had up to 4% less C and 29% less N than ECET and ACET bags. Mass loss from ACET bags was 48% higher than mass loss from ECAT bags and 37% higher than mass loss from ACAT bags after 8 months of decomposition. These differences may have been driven by the higher proportion of litter from Lespedeza, a N-fi xer, in the natural ACET bags. Taken together, these data suggest that climate change will have a larger effect on decomposition by causing shifts in plant communities than it will by altering litter quality.

Tyner, M.L.; Classen, A.T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Thermal Properties of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys: Phase Decomposition Effects of Heat Treatments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to generate computational estimates of the alloys specific heat and thermal conductivity. Section 2 describes the technical background in which this thesis is based, including uranium metal alloy theory and properties. Section 3 describes the experimental... the phases and distorted phases that occur during phase decomposition. The authors conducted numerous experiments involving uranium, plutonium, and neptunium, as well as alloys with other metals. In the a0 = 3.4808 ! 0.00314 xMo !" Mox ? 10 case...

Creasy, John Thomas

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A quasimechanism of melt acceleration in the thermal decomposition of crystalline organic solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been know for half a century that many crystalline organic solids undergo an acceleration in the rate of thermal decomposition as the melting temperature is approached. This acceleration terminates at the melting point, exhibiting an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence in the faster decomposition rate from the liquid phase. This observation has been modeled previously using various premelting behaviors based on e.g. freezing point depression induced by decomposition products or solvent impurities. These models do not, however, indicate a mechanism for liquid formation and acceleration which is an inherent function of the bulk thermodynamics of the molecule. Here we show that such an inherent thermodynamic mechanism for liquid formation exists in the form of the so-called quasi-liquid layer at the solid surface. We explore a kinetic mechanism which describes the acceleration of rate and is a function of the free energies of sublimation and vaporization. We construct a differential rate law from these thermodynamic free energies and a normalized progress variable. We further construct a reduced variable formulation of the model which is a simple function of the metastable liquid activity below the melting point, and show that it is applicable to the observed melt acceleration in several common organic crystalline solids. A component of the differential rate law, zero order in the progress variable, is shown to be proportional to the thickness of the quasiliquid layer predicted by a recent thermodynamic theory for this phenomenon. This work therefore serves not only to provide new insight into thermal decomposition in a broad class or organic crystalline solids, but also further validates the underlying thermodynamic nature of the phenomenon of liquid formation on the molecular surface at temperatures below the melting point.

Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Sequential and parallel algorithms for minimum cost parallel decomposition of finite state machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

form a lattice, where each node in the lattice has a cost associated with it. An algorithm to build the lattice is presented. Also to find the best pos- sible parallel decomposition, an optimal cost algorithm is proposed. Sequential snd parallel.... The OSI Reference Model C. Bottlenecks in Communication Protocols D. High Speed Protocols E. High-Speed Implementations F. Structure of the Thesis THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A. Set Theory . B. Partially Ordered Sets and Lattices C. Sequential Machines...

Shelke, Rajendra Ram

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Thermal decomposition of Cu-based hydroxycarbonate catalytic precursors for the low-temperature co-shift reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of Cu-Zn-Al hydroxycarbonate precursors to obtain water-gas shift catalysts was studied by employing a variety of experimental techniques. A set of six samples containing 34 wt% of Cu an...

M. J. L. Gins; C. R. Apestegua

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Kinetics of disilane molecule decomposition on the growth surface of silicon in vacuum gas-phase epitaxy reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The range of the characteristic decomposition rates of dihydride molecule radicals adsorbed by the silicon surface in the temperature interval 450700C is experimentally found for a number of kinetic models. A r...

L. K. Orlov; T. N. Smyslova

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction study of the thermal decomposition of an ettringite-group crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...?A Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction study of the thermal decomposition of a naturally occurring, ettringite-group crystal is presented. Raman spectra, ... previous studies that reported higher temperatur...

S. K. Deb; M. H. Manghnani; K. Ross; R. A. Livingston

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Decomposition of Diagonal Hermitian Quantum Gates Using Multiple-Controlled Pauli Z Gates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum logic decomposition refers to decomposing a given quantum gate to a set of physically implementable gates. An approach has been presented to decompose arbitrary diagonal quantum gates to a set of multiplexed-rotation gates around z axis. In this paper, a special class of diagonal quantum gates, namely diagonal Hermitian quantum gates, is considered and a new perspective to the decomposition problem with respect to decomposing these gates is presented. It is first shown that these gates can be decomposed to a set that solely consists of multiple-controlled Z gates. Then a binary representation for the diagonal Hermitian gates is introduced. It is shown that the binary representations of multiple-controlled Z gates form a basis for the vector space that is produced by the binary representations of all diagonal Hermitian quantum gates. Moreover, the problem of decomposing a given diagonal Hermitian gate is mapped to the problem of writing its binary representation in the specific basis mentioned above. Moreover, CZ gate is suggested to be the two-qubit gate in the decomposition library, instead of previously used CNOT gate. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can lead to circuits with lower costs in comparison with the previous ones.

Mahboobeh Houshmand; Morteza Saheb Zamani; Mehdi Sedighi; Mona Arabzadeh

2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

247

DIRECT DECOMPOSITION OF METHANE TO HYDROGEN ON METAL LOADED ZEOLITE CATALYST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manufacture of hydrogen from natural gas is essential for the production of ultra clean transportation fuels. Not only is hydrogen necessary to upgrade low quality crude oils to high-quality, low sulfur ultra clean transportation fuels, hydrogen could eventually replace gasoline and diesel as the ultra clean transportation fuel of the future. Currently, refinery hydrogen is produced through the steam reforming of natural gas. Although efficient, the process is responsible for a significant portion of refinery CO2 emissions. This project is examining the direct catalytic decomposition of methane as an alternative to steam reforming. The energy required to produce one mole of hydrogen is slightly lower and the process does not require water-gas-shift or pressure-swing adsorption units. The decomposition process does not produce CO2 emissions and the product is not contaminated with CO -- a poison for PEM fuel cells. In this work we examined the direct catalytic decomposition of methane over a metal modified zeolite catalyst and the recovery of catalyst activity by calcination. A favorable production of hydrogen was obtained, when compared with previously reported nickel-zeolite supported catalysts. Reaction temperature had a strong influence on catalyst activity and on the type of carbon deposits. The catalyst utilized at 873 and 973 K could be regenerated without any significant loss of activity, however the catalyst utilized at 1073 K showed some loss of activity after regeneration.

Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch; Harry W. Rollins

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of 'salt-and-pepper' noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain multiscale decomposition, the proposed method is anticipated to be useful in advanced clinical and preclinical applications where the interview sampling rate varies.

Tang Shaojie; Tang Xiangyang [Imaging and Medical Physics, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Uppergate Dr., C-5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); School of Automation, Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710121 (China); Imaging and Medical Physics, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Uppergate Dr., C-5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

In Situ Hydrogenation of Amorphous Silicon Prepared by Thermal Decomposition of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layers with thicknesses of 90-600 ? grown by thermal decomposition of disilane were treated with rf hydrogen plasma just after deposition at the same temperature (430-440?C). During this process (referred to as in situ hydrogenation), atomic hydrogen passivates defects, and the effective thickness of this passivated layer is estimated to be 220 ?. Atomic hydrogen also induces structural relaxation of the Si network even in a-Si:H deposited at high temperature (>400?C) while the change of bonded hydrogen content is rather small in in situ hydrogenation.

Mitsuyuki Yamanaka; Yutaka Hayashi; Isao Sakata

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Completely positive maps within the framework of direct-sum decomposition of state space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate completely positive maps for an open system interacting with its environment. The families of the initial states for which the reduced dynamics can be described by a completely positive map are identified within the framework of direct-sum decomposition of state space. They includes not only separable states with vanishing or nonvanishing quantum discord but also entangled states. A general expression of the families as well as the Kraus operators for the completely positive maps are explicitly given. It significantly extends the previous results.

Longjiang Liu; D. M. Tong

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

252

Theoretical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of a Jet Fuel Surrogate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a scramjet, the fuel can be used to cool down the engine walls. The thermal decomposition of the jet fuel changes the reacting mixture before its combustion. A numerical study of the pyrolysis of norbornane, a jet fuel surrogate, has been performed. Rate constants of some sensitive reaction channels have been calculated by means of quantum chemical calculations at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor and important and/or sensitive pathways have been derived.

Sirjean, Baptiste; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Ruiz-Lopez, M F; Fournet, Ren

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Investigation of two industrial developmental injectors using Large Eddy Simulation and ProperOrthogonal Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the two injectors in both inert and reactive situations. The different codes and models are described in Chapter 3 of Ref. [1] and specific details for each simulation are given in the two following sections. 3.1 Injector A An inert LES simulation... and exhibits frequency peaks at 96.4 Hz, 474.3 Hz, 1035 Hz, 1459 Hz (strongest peak), 1603 Hz, 3507 Hz and 5102 Hz among others. Figure 4.6 shows the previous spectra in log-log scale to give an alternative perspective. 4.1.3 Proper Orthogonal Decomposition...

Ayache, Simon

2012-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

254

On Partial and Generic Uniqueness of Block Term Tensor Decomposition in Signal Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X i=1 u0i v 0 i w 0 i 2 there is a permutation of f1; : : : ; rg such that ui vi wi = u 0 (i) v 0 (i) w 0 (i) 8i = 1; : : : ; k: An interesting property of higher-order tensors is that their decompositions are often unique... number r such that the points of S are in r-general linear position. If one chooses a basis for W so that the points of S can be written as columns of a matrix (well de ned up to rescaling columns), then kS will be the maximum number r such that all...

Yang, Ming 1984-

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

255

Decomposition of molybdate-hexamethylenetetramine complex: One single source route for different catalytic materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate-hexamethylentetramine (HMTA) complex (HMTA){sub 2}(NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}.2H{sub 2}O was studied as a function of treatment conditions in the range 300-1173 K. The evolution of solid products during decomposition was studied by thermal analysis and in situ EXAFS. Depending on the nature of the gas used for treatment, single phases of highly dispersed nitrides Mo{sub 2}N, carbide Mo{sub 2}C, or oxide MoO{sub 2} can be obtained. The nature of the products obtained was explained by qualitative thermodynamical considerations. Morphology of the solids considerably depends on such preparation parameters as temperature and mass velocity of the gas flow. For the nitride-based materials, catalytic activity was evaluated in the model thiophene HDS reaction. It was demonstrated that NH{sub 3}-treated samples showed better catalytic activity than N{sub 2}-treated ones due to cleaner surface and better morphology. Transmission microscopy, XRD and XPS studies showed that MoS{sub 2} is formed on the surface during HDS reaction or sulfidation with H{sub 2}S. Optimized nitride-derived catalysts showed mass activity several times higher than unsupported MoS{sub 2} or MoS{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reference catalyst. - Graphical Abstract: Depending on the conditions, decomposition of molybdate-HTMA complex yields highly dispersed molybdenum nitride, carbide or oxide. Research Highlights: > Decomposition of molybdate-HTMA complex yields highly dispersed Mo{sub 2}N, Mo{sub 2}C or MoO{sub 2}. > In situ EXAFS shows formation of common amorphous product MoC{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} at 673 K. > Crystalline Mo{sub 2}N with surface area near 200 m{sup 2}/g was obtained at 823 K. > High mass activity in thiophene HDS was observed.

Chouzier, Sandra [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Czeri, Tivadar; Roy-Auberger, Magalie; Pichon, Christophe [IFP Energies nouvelles, BP 3, 69390 Vernaison (France); Geantet, Christophe; Vrinat, Michel [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Afanasiev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.afanasiev@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

The kinetics of microbial decomposition in a fecal pellet-seawater system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contributed. to the dynamics of nutrient release. Large zooplankton were filtered out, but the medium for decomposition was not . otherwise al- tered. Af'ter one week, a rapid regeneration of DIP was ob- served in the experimental flasks. This was assumed.... . . . The logarithm of oxygen change (ln X/X ) versus time for the aerobic series. . . . . . . Page 13 15 Change in oxygen concentration re3. ative to the initial oxygen value of the sea- water medium f' or various time periods. . . The logarithm of oxygen...

Kaplan, Warren Allan

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Combined iterative reconstruction and image-domain decomposition for dual energy CT using total-variation regularization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for its capability of material decomposition and energy-selective imaging. A generic problem of DECT, however, is that the decomposition process is unstable in the sense that the relative magnitude of decomposed signals is reduced due to signal cancellation while the image noise is accumulating from the two CT images of independent scans. Direct image decomposition, therefore, leads to severe degradation of signal-to-noise ratio on the resultant images. Existing noise suppression techniques are typically implemented in DECT with the procedures of reconstruction and decomposition performed independently, which do not explore the statistical properties of decomposed images during the reconstruction for noise reduction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative approach that combines the reconstruction and the signal decomposition procedures to minimize the DECT image noise without noticeable loss of resolution. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which balances the data fidelity and total variation of decomposed images in one framework, and the decomposition step is carried out iteratively together with reconstruction. The noise in the CT images from the proposed algorithm becomes well correlated even though the noise of the raw projections is independent on the two CT scans. Due to this feature, the proposed algorithm avoids noise accumulation during the decomposition process. The authors evaluate the method performance on noise suppression and spatial resolution using phantom studies and compare the algorithm with conventional denoising approaches as well as combined iterative reconstruction methods with different forms of regularization. Results: On the Catphan600 phantom, the proposed method outperforms the existing denoising methods on preserving spatial resolution at the same level of noise suppression, i.e., a reduction of noise standard deviation by one order of magnitude. This improvement is mainly attributed to the high noise correlation in the CT images reconstructed by the proposed algorithm. Iterative reconstruction using different regularization, including quadratic orq-generalized Gaussian Markov random field regularization, achieves similar noise suppression from high noise correlation. However, the proposed TV regularization obtains a better edge preserving performance. Studies of electron density measurement also show that our method reduces the average estimation error from 9.5% to 7.1%. On the anthropomorphic head phantom, the proposed method suppresses the noise standard deviation of the decomposed images by a factor of ?14 without blurring the fine structures in the sinus area. Conclusions: The authors propose a practical method for DECT imaging reconstruction, which combines the image reconstruction and material decomposition into one optimization framework. Compared to the existing approaches, our method achieves a superior performance on DECT imaging with respect to decomposition accuracy, noise reduction, and spatial resolution.

Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei, E-mail: leizhu@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

On the use of the singular value decomposition for text retrieval  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) has been proposed for text retrieval in several recent works. This technique uses the SVD to project very high dimensional document and query vectors into a low dimensional space. In this new space it is hoped that the underlying structure of the collection is revealed thus enhancing retrieval performance. Theoretical results have provided some evidence for this claim and to some extent experiments have confirmed this. However, these studies have mostly used small test collections and simplified document models. In this work we investigate the use of the SVD on large document collections. We show that, if interpreted as a mechanism for representing the terms of the collection, this technique alone is insufficient for dealing with the variability in term occurrence. Section 2 introduces the text retrieval concepts necessary for our work. A short description of our experimental architecture is presented in Section 3. Section 4 describes how term occurrence variability affects the SVD and then shows how the decomposition influences retrieval performance. A possible way of improving SVD-based techniques is presented in Section 5 and concluded in Section 6.

Husbands, P.; Simon, H.D.; Ding, C.

2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

259

Synthesis of multi-qudit Hybrid and d-valued Quantum Logic Circuits by Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent research in generalizing quantum computation from 2-valued qudits to d-valued qudits has shown practical advantages for scaling up a quantum computer. A further generalization leads to quantum computing with hybrid qudits where two or more qudits have different finite dimensions. Advantages of hybrid and d-valued gates (circuits) and their physical realizations have been studied in detail by Muthukrishnan and Stroud (Physical Review A, 052309, 2000), Daboul et al. (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 2525-2536, 2003), and Bartlett et al (Physical Review A, Vol.65, 052316, 2002). In both cases, a quantum computation is performed when a unitary evolution operator, acting as a quantum logic gate, transforms the state of qudits in a quantum system. Unitary operators can be represented by square unitary matrices. If the system consists of a single qudit, then Tilma et al (J.Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 (2002) 10467-10501) have shown that the unitary evolution matrix (gate) can be synthesized in terms of its Euler angle parameterization. However, if the quantum system consists of multiple qudits, then a gate may be synthesized by matrix decomposition techniques such as QR factorization and the Cosine-sine Decomposition (CSD). In this article, we present a CSD based synthesis method for n qudit hybrid quantum gates, and as a consequence, derive a CSD based synthesis method for n qudit gates where all the qudits have the same dimension.

Faisal Shah Khan; Marek Perkowski

2005-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

260

Effect of a fluorinated nickel surface on the decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) are a commercial class of lubricants widely used in computer and aerospace industries. This is a study of the degradation of a perfluorinated ether in the presence of a metal fluoride. Perfluorodiethoxymethane (PFDEM) is a PFPE analog. Temperature programmed desorption shows no contribution of PFDEM toward nickel fluoride on an NiF{sub 2} surface obtained by CF{sub 3}I adsorption. Higher coverages of nickel fluoride do not show any evidence of NiF{sub 2} contribution from PFDEM. The results do not agree with the idea that a fluorinated surface might induce decomposition of PFPEs, leading to addition fluoride formation on the surface. The metal fluoride bond strength is not a legitimate concern for decomposition of PFE lubricants. Impurity in PFPEs might be the cause of initial surface fluoridation leading to breakdown of PFPEs which could cause additional metal fluoride formation. It is clear that the reaction of PFPEs with metals does not involve a direct formation of a simple M-F bond; results do not show any C-F bond cleavage of the fluorinated ether and do not support a proposed autocatalytic mechanism.

Sreevidya, S.

1995-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Prediction of Experimental Methanol Decomposition Rates on Platinum from First Principles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A portion of this work was conducted at EMSL, a national scientific user facility. A microkinetic model for methanol decomposition on platinum is presented. The model incorporates competitive decomposition pathways, beginning with both OH and CH bond scission in methanol, and uses results from density functional theory (DFT) calculations [Greeley and Mavrikakis, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 (2002) 7193, Greeley and Mavrikakis, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (2004) 3910]. Results from reaction kinetics experiments show that the rate of H2 production increases with increasing temperature and methanol concentration in the feed and is only nominally affected by the presence of CO or H2 with methanol. The model, based on the values of binding energies, pre-exponential factors and activation energy barriers derived from first principles calculations, accurately predicts experimental reaction rates and orders. The model also gives insight into the most favorable reaction pathway, the rate-limiting step, the apparent activation energy, coverages, and the effects of pressure. It is found that the pathway beginning with the CH bond scission (CH3OH?H2COH?HCOH?CO) is dominant compared with the path beginning with OH bond scission. The cleavage of the first CH bond in methanol is the rate-controlling step. The surface is highly poisoned by CO, whereas COH appears to be a spectator species.

Kandoi, Shampa; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Sanchez-Castillo, Marco A.; Evans, Steven T.; Gokhale, Amit A.; Dumesic, James A.; Mavrikakis, Manos

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

METHANE HYDRATE STUDIES: DELINEATING PROPERTIES OF HOST SEDIMENTS TO ESTABLISH REPRODUCIBLE DECOMPOSITION KINETICS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of methane hydrate as an energy source requires development of a reliable method for its extraction from its highly dispersed locations in oceanic margin sediments and permafrost. The high pressure (up to 70 MPa) and low temperature (272 K to 278 K) conditions under which hydrates are stable in the marine environment can be mimicked in a laboratory setting and several kinetic studies of pure methane hydrate decomposition have been reported. However, the effect of host sediments on methane hydrate occurrence and decomposition are required to develop reliable hydrate models. In this paper, we describe methods to measure sediment properties as they relate to pore-space methane gas hydrate. Traditional geotechnical techniques are compared to the micrometer level by use of the synchrotron Computed Microtomography (CMT) technique. CMT was used to measure the porosity at the micrometer level and to show pore-space pathways through field samples. Porosities for three sediment samples: one from a site on Georges Bank and two from the known Blake Ridge methane hydrate site, from different depths below the mud line were measured by traditional drying and by the new CMT techniques and found to be in good agreement. The integration of the two analytical approaches is necessary to enable better understanding of methane hydrate interactions with the surrounding sediment particles.

MAHAJAN,D.SERVIO,P.JONES,K.W.FENG,H.WINTERS,W.J.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Mechanical Response and Decomposition of Thermally Degraded Energetic Materials: Experiments and Model Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report progress of a continuing effort to characterize and simulate the response of energetic materials (EMs), primarily HMX-based, under conditions leading to cookoff. Our experiments include mechanical-effects testing of HMX and FIMX with binder at temperatures nearing decomposition thresholds. Additional experiments have focused on decomposition of these EMs under confinement, measuring evolution of gas products and observing the effect of pressurization on the solid. Real-time measurements on HMX show abrupt changes that maybe due to sudden void collapse under increasing load. Postmortem examination shows significant internal damage to the pellets, including voids and cracks. These experiments have been used to help develop a constitutive model for pure HMX. Unconfined uniaxial compression tests were performed on HMX and LX-14 to examine the effect of binders on the deviatoric strength of EM pellets, and to assess the need of including deviatoric terms in the model. A scale-up experiment will be described that is being developed to validate the model and provide additional diagnostics.

KANESHIGE,MICHAEL J.; RENLUND,ANITA M.; SCHMITT,ROBERT G.; WELLMAN,GERALD W.

1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

264

PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear and isothermal heating, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, was used to monitor CP decomposition at linear heating rates of 1-7 C min{sup -1} in perforated pans and of 0.1-1.0 C min{sup -1} in sealed pans. The kinetic triplet was calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05, and predictions for 210 and 240 C are compared to isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

Weese, R K; Burnham, A K

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

265

Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theoretical prediction of high-pressure Arrhenius parameters by nonlinear regression: application to silane and disilane decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theoretical prediction of high-pressure Arrhenius parameters by nonlinear regression: application to silane and disilane decomposition ... The average SiNW growth rate using disilane (Si2H6) at 400 ... ... Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Disilane ...

Karl F. Roenigk; Klavs F. Jensen; Robert W. Carr

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Thermochemistry and Thermal Decomposition of the Chlorinated Disilanes (Si2HnCl6-n, n ) 0-6) Studied by ab Initio Molecular Orbital Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermochemistry and Thermal Decomposition of the Chlorinated Disilanes (Si2HnCl6-n, n ) 0 decomposition reactions of the chlorinated disilanes have been characterized using ab initio molecular orbital reaction for these compounds. Heats of formation for the chlorinated disilane reactants and chlorinated

Swihart, Mark T.

267

Thermal decomposition of n-dodecane: experiments and kinetic modeling Olivier Herbinet, Paul-Marie Marquaire, Frdrique Battin-Leclerc, Ren Fournet,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decomposition of hydrocarbon fuel prior the entrance in the combustion chamber is an envisaged way to cool (typically a blend of heavy hydrocarbons) heat sink capability due to the endothermicity of its thermal decomposition [2-5]. Because of the large heat load found in a hypersonic vehicle, engine temperature

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

Size-selected Pt Nanoparticles Synthesized via Micelle Encapsulation: Effect of Pretreatment and Oxidation State on the Activity for Methanol Decomposition and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Oxidation State on the Activity for Methanol Decomposition and Oxidation Jason R. Croya , S. Mostafaa,b , H-synthesized Pt nanoparticles supported on ZrO2 was studied for methanol decomposition and oxidation reactions. An O2-pretreatment is observed to be effective for producing clean, stable, and active nanoparticles

Kik, Pieter

269

J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1997 1147 Laser-induced decompositions of 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trioxolane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oligomerization occurring on the reactor walls. The multiple of the ArF laser induced photolytic products in the atmosphere is naturally of great interest, studies on their gas-phase thermal and photolytical decomposition radiation.4 We have recently studied the TEA CO2 laser-photosensitized (SF6) (homogeneous) decomposition

Haas, Yehuda

270

High deposition rate preparation of amorphous silicon solar cells by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane diluted in helium (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6//He = 1/9) have been studied while systematically varying the film deposition rate. The properties and composition of the films were monitored by measuring the optical band gap, IR vibrational spectrum, dark conductivity, and the photoconductivity as a function of the deposition rate. The photoluminescence of the high deposition rate films gave a peak at 1.33 eV. These films, whose properties are rather similar to those of the conventional a-Si:H films prepared from monosilane, have been used to fabricate nip-type a-Si:H solar cells. At a deposition rate of 11 A/sec, a conversion efficiency of 6.86% was obtained. This high efficiency shows that disilane is applicable for mass production fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells.

Kenne, J.; Ohashi, Y.; Matsushita, T.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1984-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Deposition of Phosphorus Doped Silicon Films by Thermal Decomposition of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phosphorus doped silicon films are deposited in the temperature range 520665C by thermal decomposition of Si2H6. It is found that (i) the deposition rate is not decreased by the addition of PH3 in contrast with the deposition rate for the SiH4 system and is about 100 times higher than that for the SiH4 system for phosphorus concentration above 1?1020 cm-3, (ii) phosphorus concentration is proportional to the PH3 partial pressure and to the 3/2 power of Si2H6 partial pressure. These characteristics mean that Si2H6 is suitable as a source gas to prepare the heavily phosphorus doped polycrystalline silicon for fabricating gate or emitter electrodes of LSI's.

Satoshi Nakayama; Hiroki Yonezawa; Junichi Murota

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Isospin coupling-channel decomposition of nuclear symmetry energy in covariant density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The isospin coupling-channel decomposition of the potential energy density functional is carried out within the covariant density functional theory, and their isospin and density dependence in particular the influence on the symmetry energy is studied. It is found that both isospin-singlet and isospin-triplet components of the potential energy play the dominant role in deciding the symmetry energy, especially when the Fock diagram is introduced. The results illustrate a quite different mechanism to the origin of the symmetry energy from the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory, and demonstrate the importance of the Fork diagram in the CDF theory, especially from the isoscalar mesons, in the isospin properties of the in-medium nuclear force at high density.

Qian Zhao; Bao Yuan Sun; Wen Hui Long

2014-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

273

Ab initio calculations of various protonation sites in perfluorodiethyl ether: Models for high temperature lubricant decomposition?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricants have found successful application in spacecraft mechanisms and computer hard drives, there eventual breakdown is irksome, and the mechanism of decomposition is the subject of much scrutiny. However, very little notice is taken of the monomer ethers on which the polymer lubricants are based. Recently, concerted studies of the Lewis base properties of various fluorinated ethers have been performed, both from an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. As an extension of the theoretical work, this study presents ab initio theoretical consideration of the multiple potential basic sites within perfluorodiethyl ether, (CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}){sub 2}O, by way of the proton affinity of the molecule at various possible protonation sites (i.e., oxygen and fluorine atoms). The results indicate that although protonation at the oxygen is more energetically favored, protonation at the fluorine is not much higher in energy and provides for formation of an excellent leaving group, HF.

Ball, D.W. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Pressurized thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of algae, wood chip residue, and grape marc: A comparative study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pressurized thermal decomposition of two marine algae, Pinus radiata chip residue and grape marc using high temperature, high pressure reactions has been studied. The yields and composition of the products obtained from liquefactions under CO of a mixture of biomass and H2O (with or without catalyst) were compared with products from liquefaction of dry biomass under N2, at different temperatures, gas pressures and for CO runs, water to biomass ratios. Thermochemical reactions of algae produced significantly higher dichloromethane solubles and generally higher product yields to oil and asphaltene than Pinus radiata and grape marc under the reaction conditions used. Furthermore, the biofuels derived from algae contained significant concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons as opposed to those from radiata pine and grape marc which were richer in aromatic compounds. The possibility of air transport fuel production from algae thus appears to have considerable advantages over that from radiata pine and grape marc.

Dirgarini J.N. Subagyono; Marc Marshall; W. Roy Jackson; Alan L. Chaffee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation result is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.

Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Erickson, Kenneth L

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Isospin coupling-channel decomposition of nuclear symmetry energy in covariant density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The isospin coupling-channel decomposition of the potential energy density functional is carried out within the covariant density functional theory, and their isospin and density dependence in particular the influence on the symmetry energy is studied. It is found that both isospin-singlet and isospin-triplet components of the potential energy play the dominant role in deciding the symmetry energy, especially when the Fock diagram is introduced. The results illustrate a quite different mechanism to the origin of the symmetry energy from the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory, and demonstrate the importance of the Fork diagram in the CDF theory, especially from the isoscalar mesons, in the isospin properties of the in-medium nuclear force at high density.

Zhao, Qian; Long, Wen Hui

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

CP: AN INVESTIGATION OF COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO VARIOUS STIMULI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Fontes, A T

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

278

Production of high-V. I. oils by thermal decomposition of ethylene/propylene copolymer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process of copolymerization of ethylene with propylene can be readily controlled, so that copolymers with practically any desired composition can be obtained, with a specific alternation of monomer units and with a specific number of lateral branches. This paper examines the preparation of high-V.I. synthetic lube oils by the thermal decomposition of an ethylene/propylene copolymer with a molecular weight of 100,000-1,000,000, containing 40-85% (mole) ethylene, synthesized on ZieglerNatta organometallic systems. It determines the distillation curve, and the physicochemical and service properties of the distillation cuts. It finds that the oils have high viscosity indices, low solid points, and good oxidation resistance and anticorrosion properties. These oils can be used in vehicles and mechanisms operating in the Far North and in the Arctic.

Seidov, N.M.; Abasov, A.I.; Abasova, T.M.; Bairamov, V.A.; Kuliev, R.Sh.; Mustafaev, A.M.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Growth and stability of oxidation resistant Si nanocrystals formed by decomposition of alkyl silanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis and characterization of 1-10 nm Si nanocrystals highly resistant to oxidation is described. The nanocrystals were prepared by thermal decomposition of tetramethylsilane at 680 C, or in a gold- induced catalytic process at lower temperatures down to 400-450 C using trioctylamine as an initial solvent. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of samples obtained in the presence of gold show that the nanocrystals form via solid-phase epitaxial attachment of Si to the gold crystal lattice. The results of computational modeling performed using first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that the enhanced stability of nanocrystals to oxidation is due to the presence of N or N-containing groups on the surface of nanocrystals.

Zaitseva, N; Hamel, S; Dai, Z R; Saw, C; Williamson, A J; Galli, G

2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

280

Base catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals. [Final report, September 4, 1990--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are vast amounts of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which have pervaded our environment during the past fifty years, leaving us with serious, crucial problems of remediation and disposal. The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ``dioxins`` and pesticides in soil sediments and living systems is a serious problem that is receiving considerable attention concerning the cancer-causing nature of these synthetic compounds.US EPA scientists developed in 1989 and 1990 two novel chemical Processes to effect the dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCP and other pollutants in soil, sludge, sediment and liquids. This improved technology employs hydrogen as a nucleophile to replace halogens on halogenated compounds. Hydrogen as nucleophile is not influenced by steric hinderance as with other nucleophile where complete dehalogenation of organohalogens can be achieved. This report discusses catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals.

Rogers, C.J.; Kornel, A.; Sparks, H.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Electromagnetic Properties for Arbitrary Spin Particles: Part 1 $-$ Electromagnetic Current and Multipole Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a set of two papers, we propose to study an old-standing problem, namely the electromagnetic interaction for particles of arbitrary spin. Based on the assumption that light-cone helicity at tree level and $Q^2=0$ should be conserved non-trivially by the electromagnetic interaction, we are able to derive \\emph{all} the natural electromagnetic moments for a pointlike particle of \\emph{any} spin. In this first paper, we propose a transparent decomposition of the electromagnetic current in terms of covariant vertex functions. We also define in a general way the electromagnetic multipole form factors, and show their relation with the electromagnetic moments. Finally, by considering the Breit frame, we relate the covariant vertex functions to multipole form factors.

Cdric Lorc

2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

282

Method for hydroperoxide decomposition using novel porphyrins synthesized from dipyrromethanes and aldehydes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention comprises a method for the oxidation of alkanes to alcohols and for decomposition of hydroperoxides to alcohols utilizing new compositions of matter, which are metal complexes of porphyrins. Preferred complexes have hydrogen, haloalkyl or haloaryl groups in meso positions, two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloaryl, and two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloalkyl, but not all four of the meso atoms or groups being hydrogen. Other preferred complexes are ones in which all four of the meso positions are substituted with haloalkyl groups and the beta positions are substituted with halogen atoms. A new method of synthesizing porphyrinogens is also disclosed.

Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

283

Method for hydroperoxide decomposition using novel porphyrins synthesized from dipyrromethanes and aldehydes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention comprises a method for the oxidation of alkanes to alcohols and for decomposition of hydroperoxides to alcohols utilizing new compositions of matter, which are metal complexes of porphyrins. Preferred complexes have hydrogen, haloalkyl or haloaryl groups in meso positions, two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloaryl, and two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloalkyl, but not all four of the meso atoms or groups being hydrogen. Other preferred complexes are ones in which all four of the meso positions are substituted with haloalkyl groups and the beta positions are substituted with halogen atoms. A new method of synthesizing porphyrinogens is also disclosed.

Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

An SKU decomposition algorithm for the tactical planning in the FMCG industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper we propose an MILP model to address the optimization of the tactical planning for the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) industry. This model is demonstrated for a case containing 10 Stock-Keeping Units (SKUs), but is intractable for realistically sized problems. Therefore, we propose a decomposition based on single-SKU submodels. To account for the interaction between SKUs, slack variables are introduced into the capacity constraints. In an iterative procedure the cost of violating the capacity is slowly increased, and eventually a feasible solution is obtained. Even for the relatively small 10-SKU case, the required CPU time could be reduced from 1144s to 175s using the algorithm. Moreover, the algorithm was used to optimize cases of up to 1000 SKUs, whereas the full model is intractable for cases of 25 or more SKUs. The solutions obtained with the algorithm are typically within a few percent of the global optimum.

M.A.H. van Elzakker; E. Zondervan; N.B. Raikar; H. Hoogland; I.E. Grossmann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

1758 J. Phys. Chem. 1992, 96, 1758-1764 Ab Initio MO Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Fluorinated Disilanes,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Fluorinated Disilanes, Edgar W. Ignaciot and H. Bernhard Schlegel* Department of Chemistry, Wayne State disilane, the SiH2+ SiH, and SiH3SiH+ H2paths are favored over other modes of decomposition Fluorinated silanes and disilanes, and reactive intermediates derived from these compounds, are important

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

286

Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two Methods to Reduce Exergy Losses in a Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two Methods to Reduce Exergy Losses in a Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Reactor ... The first design uses optimal control theory to obtain a more uniform distribution of the entropy production. ... This optimized design is found to perform the best, but it requires significant changes in the heating equipment in order to approximately realize the optimal temperature profiles. ...

Leen V. van der Ham; Joachim Gross; Ad Verkooijen; Signe Kjelstrup

2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

287

A tale of shales: the relative roles of production, decomposition, and dilution in the accumulation of organic-rich strata,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Paleontology, New York State Museum, The State Education Department, Albany, NY 12230, USA e College of MarineA tale of shales: the relative roles of production, decomposition, and dilution in the accumulation Abstract A new consensus on the processes responsible for organic carbon burial in ancient epeiric seas has

Sageman, Brad

288

Decomposition of fluorohydrocarbons in atmospheric-pressure flowing air using coaxial-line-based microwave torch plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of the investigation of decomposition of fluorohydrocarbons C2H2F4 (HFC-134a) and CHClF2 (CFC-22) in atmospheric-pressure flowing air using a coaxial-line-based microwave torch plasma are presented. Conce...

M. Jasi?ski; P. Szczucki; M. Dors; J. Mizeraczyk

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

A Lagrangean Decomposition Heuristic for the Design and Planning of Offshore Hydrocarbon Field Infrastructures with Complex Economic Objectives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Lagrangean Decomposition Heuristic for the Design and Planning of Offshore Hydrocarbon Field Infrastructures with Complex Economic Objectives ... An Efficient Multiperiod MINLP Model for Optimal Planning of Offshore Oil and Gas Field Infrastructure ... An Efficient Multiperiod MINLP Model for Optimal Planning of Offshore Oil and Gas Field Infrastructure ...

Susara A. van den Heever; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Sriram Vasantharajan; Krisanne Edwards

2001-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

290

Design of piecewise weighted linear interpolation based on even-odd decomposition and its application to image resizing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, an image interpolation method based on even-odd decomposition (EOD) is proposed. An input signal for interpolation is decomposed to even and odd vectors by EOD. And then different interpolation methods are applied to even and odd vectors, ... Keywords: Image interpolation, cubic convolution interpolation, low complexity, image resizing.

Byong-Deok Choi; Hoon Yoo

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Structure of the Synthetic K-rich Phyllomanganate Birnessite Obtained by High-Temperature Decomposition of KMnO4.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-rich birnessite prepared from the thermal decomposition of KMnO4 at 1000°C in air has been refined by Rietveld, and rechargeable battery technology [25-42]. More recently, mesoporous hollow shells with birnessite walls have also been synthesized [43]. Besides, birnessites play a pivotal role in the fate of heavy metals

Boyer, Edmond

292

Strategies for Optimised STG Decomposition Mark Schaefer1 Walter Vogler1 Ralf Wollowski2 Victor Khomenko3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. They perform better, use less energy and emit less radiation than conventional synchronous circuits. A widely used formalism for their modelling are signal transition graphs (STGs), which are interpreted Petri are a faster synthesis and a reduced peak memory usage. In this paper, we deal with the decomposition method

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

293

The effect of cranberry cultivation and restoration on nutrient uptake, cycling, and decomposition in three streams on Cape Cod  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, cranberry cultivation, restoration Introduction Humans manipulate and alter whole ecosystems in order, and are necessary to maintaining a healthy environment. They link aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and filterThe effect of cranberry cultivation and restoration on nutrient uptake, cycling, and decomposition

Vallino, Joseph J.

294

Kinetics of methyl radical-hydroxyl radical collisions and methanol decomposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CH{sub 3} + OH bimolecular reaction and the dissociation of methanol are studied theoretically at conditions relevant to combustion chemistry. Kinetics for the CH{sub 3} + OH barrierless association reaction and for the H + CH{sub 2}OH and H + CH{sub 3}O product channels are determined in the high-pressure limit using variable reaction coordinate transition state theory and multireference electronic structure calculations to evaluate the fragment interaction energies. The CH{sub 3} + OH {yields} {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O abstraction reaction and the H{sub 2} + HCOH and H{sub 2} + H{sub 2}CO product channels feature localized dynamical bottlenecks and are treated using variational transition state theory and QCISD(T) energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The {sup 1}CH{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O product channel has two dynamical regimes, featuring both an inner saddle point and an outer barrierless region, and it is shown that a microcanonical two-state model is necessary to properly describe the association rate for this reaction over a broad temperature range. Experimental channel energies for the methanol system are reevaluated using the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach. Pressure dependent, phenomenological rate coefficients for the CH{sub 3} + OH bimolecular reaction and for methanol decomposition are determined via master equation simulations. The predicted results agree well with experimental results, including those from a companion high-temperature shock tube determination for the decomposition of methanol.

Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Phase Transition and Thermal Decomposition of Silver Isocyanate (AgNCO)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal behavior of AgNCO (silver isocyanate) has been studied via thermal analysis, optical spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Upon quenching the high temperature polymorph (HT-AgNCO) to room temperature, a new modification has been obtained (q-AgNCO). Its crystal structure was solved from X-ray powder diffraction data and refined by the Rietveld method (Pmmn (no. 59), a = 3.579(3) A, b = 5.777(4) A, c = 5.807(2) A, V = 120.08(3) A3, Z = 2, T = 295 K). The structure consists of chains of Ag+ ions bridged by isocyanate units. HT-AgNCO exists between T = 135 C and the melting/decomposition point and exhibits virtually free rotation of the complex anions. According to preliminary single-crystal studies, HT-AgNCO (C2/m, a = 5.87 A, b = 3.51 A, c = 5.81 A, B = 105.953 degrees, Z = 2, T = 373 K) is structurally related to ?-NaN3. The crystal structures of both, HT-AgNCO and q-AgNCO have been compared with that of the room temperature modification (RT-AgNCO). The thermal behavior and the ionic conductivity of AgNCO are discussed with respect to the related compounds AgN3 and KSCN. Decomposition of AgNCO proceeds in distinct steps, as seen from TGA, and results in the formation of nanoparticles of elemental silver and an amorphous polymer consisting of C, N and O, only.

Schmidt, C.; Dinnebier, R; Jansen, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Understanding of Ethanol Decomposition on Rh(111) From Density Functional Theory and Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reaction mechanisms of ethanol decomposition on Rh(1 1 1) were elucidated by means of periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations. We propose that the most probable reaction pathway is via CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}O* on the basis of our mechanistic study: CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH* {yields} CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}O* {yields} CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O* {yields} CH{sub 2}CHO* {yields} CH{sub 2}CO* {yields} CHCO* {yields} CH* + CO* {yields} C* + CO*. In contrast, the contribution from the pathway via CH{sub 3}CHOH* is relatively small, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH* {yields} CH{sub 3}CHOH* {yields} CH{sub 3}CHO* {yields} CH{sub 3}CO* {yields} CH{sub 2}CO* {yields} CHCO* {yields} CH* + CO* {yields} C* + CO*. According to our calculations, one of the slow steps is the formation of the oxametallacycle CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O* species, which leads to the production of CHCO*, the precursor for C-C bond breaking. Finally, the decomposition of ethanol leads to the production of C and CO. Our calculations, for ethanol combustion on Rh, the major obstacle is not C-C bond cleavage, but the C contamination on Rh(1 1 1). The strong C-Rh interaction may deactivate the Rh catalyst. The formation of Rh alloys with Pt and Pd weakens the C-Rh interaction, easing the removal of C, and, as expected, in accordance with the experimental findings, facilitating ethanol combustion.

Liu, P.; Choi, Y.M.

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

297

The Galaxy and beyond with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

square wave injected by a noise diode in each receiver horn; this rain gauge signal provides a good measure for each telescope of the time-varying contributions to system temperature of atmospheric emission and rain. The AMI correlators are add... in the CMB spectrum, made up of three main components: the thermal SZ effect, caused by ther- mal motion of the electrons in the plasma in the huge gravitational potential wells of galaxy clusters; relativistic effects introduced by energetic non...

Perrott, Yvette Chanel

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

298

Advances in Reduced-Order Modeling Based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Single and Two-Phase Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dimensions, (x; y; z). R(x;x0) can then be written as: R(x;x0) = 1 M MX i=1 u(x; ti)uT (x0; ti): (2.6) C. General Scheme for Reduced-Order Modeling Based on Proper Or- thogonal Decomposition Reduced-order models utilizing proper orthogonal... dimensions, (x; y; z). R(x;x0) can then be written as: R(x;x0) = 1 M MX i=1 u(x; ti)uT (x0; ti): (2.6) C. General Scheme for Reduced-Order Modeling Based on Proper Or- thogonal Decomposition Reduced-order models utilizing proper orthogonal...

Fontenot, Raymond Lee

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

299

High resolution microstructure analysis of the decomposition of Cu{sub 90}CO{sub 10} alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Homogeneous Cu-Co alloys with a Co concentration up to 10 at.% Co are prepared by rapid quenching. This allows for the first time the investigation of the decomposition process of the Cu{sub 90}Co{sub 10} supersaturated solid solution on a nanometer scale using a combination of atom probe/field ion microscopy (AP/FIM) analyses and transmission electron microscopy. Annealing of a Cu{sub 90}Co{sub 10} alloy at 440 C for various times leads to a compositional modulated microstructure. The composition profiles determined by AP/FIM analyses clearly exclude a classical nucleation and growth behavior and instead suggest a spinodal type decomposition whereby the compositions of the precipitates continuously increase. In contrast, at the grain boundaries of the Cu{sub 90}Co{sub 10} alloy heterogeneous nucleation of pure Co particles is observed.

Busch, R.; Gaertner, F.; Borchers, C.; Haasen, P. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallphysik] [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallphysik; Bormann, R. [GKSS-Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. for Materials Research] [GKSS-Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. for Materials Research

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Income distribution effects of the Swedish 1991 tax reform: An analysis of a microsimulation using generalized Kakwani decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1991 a major tax reform was implemented in Sweden. This study compares the income equalization (income redistribution), vertical and horizontal equity properties of the pre- and post-reform tax and transfer systems. The method used is a decomposition, first proposed by Kakwani (1984), of the difference between the generalized Gini coefficients of the pre- and post-tax/transfer income distributions. The post-reform income distribution was obtained through a microsimulation carried out by the Ministry of Finance. Several findings on the income distribution effect of the 1991 tax and benefit reform emerge from the study. The overall methodological conclusion is that much more information was gained when different generalizations of the decomposition were considered.

Mrten Palme

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Fiber Optic Sensing Technology for Detecting Gas Hydrate Formation and Decomposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fiber optic-based distributed sensing system (DSS) has been integrated with a large volume (72 L) pressure vessel providing high spatial resolution, time resolved, 3-D measurement of hybrid temperature-strain (TS) values within experimental sediment gas hydrate systems. Areas of gas hydrate formation (exothermic) and decomposition (endothermic) can be characterized through this proxy by time series analysis of discrete data points collected along the length of optical fibers placed within a sediment system. Data is visualized as a 'movie' of TS values along the length of each fiber over time. Experiments conducted in the Seafloor Processing Simulator (SPS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory show clear indications of hydrate formation and dissociation events at expected P-T conditions given the thermodynamics of the CH4-H2O system. The high spatial resolution achieved with fiber optic technology makes the DSS a useful tool for visualizing time resolved formation and dissociation of gas hydrates in large-scale sediment experiments.

Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Leeman, John R [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Ulrich, Shannon M [ORNL; Alford, Jonathan E [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Madden, Megan Elwood [University of Oklahoma, Norman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A Posteriori Analysis of Adaptive Multiscale Operator Decomposition Methods for Multiphysics Problems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was concerned with the accurate computational error estimation for numerical solutions of multiphysics, multiscale systems that couple different physical processes acting across a large range of scales relevant to the interests of the DOE. Multiscale, multiphysics models are characterized by intimate interactions between different physics across a wide range of scales. This poses significant computational challenges addressed by the proposal, including: (1) Accurate and efficient computation; (2) Complex stability; and (3) Linking different physics. The research in this project focused on Multiscale Operator Decomposition methods for solving multiphysics problems. The general approach is to decompose a multiphysics problem into components involving simpler physics over a relatively limited range of scales, and then to seek the solution of the entire system through some sort of iterative procedure involving solutions of the individual components. MOD is a very widely used technique for solving multiphysics, multiscale problems; it is heavily used throughout the DOE computational landscape. This project made a major advance in the analysis of the solution of multiscale, multiphysics problems.

Donald Estep; Michael Holst; Simon Tavener

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

303

Demonstration of base catalyzed decomposition process, Navy Public Works Center, Guam, Mariana Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) is a chemical dehalogenation process designed for treating soils and other substrate contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, dioxins, furans, and other hazardous organic substances. PCBs are heavy organic liquids once widely used in industry as lubricants, heat transfer oils, and transformer dielectric fluids. In 1976, production was banned when PCBs were recognized as carcinogenic substances. It was estimated that significant quantities (one billion tons) of U.S. soils, including areas on U.S. military bases outside the country, were contaminated by PCB leaks and spills, and cleanup activities began. The BCD technology was developed in response to these activities. This report details the evolution of the process, from inception to deployment in Guam, and describes the process and system components provided to the Navy to meet the remediation requirements. The report is divided into several sections to cover the range of development and demonstration activities. Section 2.0 gives an overview of the project history. Section 3.0 describes the process chemistry and remediation steps involved. Section 4.0 provides a detailed description of each component and specific development activities. Section 5.0 details the testing and deployment operations and provides the results of the individual demonstration campaigns. Section 6.0 gives an economic assessment of the process. Section 7.0 presents the conclusions and recommendations form this project. The appendices contain equipment and instrument lists, equipment drawings, and detailed run and analytical data.

Schmidt, A.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Brown, M.D.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.N.; Wilcox, W.A.; Gano, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, B.C.; Gavaskar, A.R. [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)] [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Control of xenon oscillations in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor via two-stage decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Xenon induced spatial oscillations developed in large nuclear reactors, like Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) need to be controlled for safe operation. Otherwise, a serious situation may arise in which different regions of the core may undergo variations in neutron flux in opposite phase. If these oscillations are left uncontrolled, the power density and rate of change of power at some locations in the reactor core may exceed their respective thermal limits, resulting in fuel failure. In this paper, a state feedback based control strategy is investigated for spatial control of AHWR. The nonlinear model of AHWR including xenon and iodine dynamics is characterized by 90 states, 5 inputs and 18 outputs. The linear model of AHWR, obtained by linearizing the nonlinear equations is found to be highly ill-conditioned. This higher order model of AHWR is first decomposed into two comparatively lower order subsystems, namely, 73rd order slow subsystem and 17th order fast subsystem using two-stage decomposition. Composite control law is then derived from individual subsystem feedback controls and applied to the vectorized nonlinear model of AHWR. Through the dynamic simulations it is observed that the controller is able to suppress xenon induced spatial oscillations developed in AHWR and the overall performance is found to be satisfactory.

R.K. Munje; J.G. Parkhe; B.M. Patre

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Radiation-Induced Decomposition of U(VI) Phase to Nanocrystals of UO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U{sup 6+}-phases are common alteration products, under oxidizing conditions, of uraninite and the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel. These U{sup 6+}-phases are subjected to a radiation field caused by the {alpha}-decay of U, or in the case of spent nuclear fuel, incorporated actinides, such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np. In order to evaluate the effects of {alpha}-decay events on the stability of the U{sup 6+}-phases, we report, for the first time, the results of ion beam irradiations (1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) of U{sup 6+}-phases. The heavy-particle irradiations are used to simulate the ballistic interactions of the recoil-nucleus of an {alpha}-decay event with the surrounding structure. The Kr{sup 2+}-irradiation decomposed the U{sup 6+}-phases to UO{sub 2} nanocrystals at doses as low as 0.006 displacements per atom (dpa). U{sup 6+}-phases accumulate substantial radiation doses ({approx}1.0 displacement per atom) within 100,000 years if the concentration of incorporated {sup 239}Pu is as high as 1 wt%. Similar nanocrystals of UO{sub 2} were observed in samples from the natural fission reactors at Oklo, Gabon. Multiple cycles of radiation-induced decomposition to UO{sub 2} followed by alteration to U{sup 6+}-phases provide a mechanism for the remobilization of incorporated radionuclides.

S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing; L. Wang

2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

306

Estimation of seasonal correction factors through Fourier decomposition analysisa new  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radon concentrations in homes have been shown to vary considerably with season. It is important to account for this by applying a correction factor to any home radon measurement of less than one year. To date, Irish radon measurement services have used correction factors based on data derived for the UK in the 1980s. In the absence of similar data for Ireland at the time, these were considered suitable for use due to the similarities between the climates, house types and lifestyles in the two countries. In order to better estimate the long-term radon concentration, measurements from 5640 Irish homes were used to derive a set of correction factors specifically for Ireland. These were generated by means of Fourier decomposition analysis and the new correction factors compared, using 95% confidence intervals, to those derived for the UK using the same analysis and to those currently in use for Ireland. In both cases, a significant difference was found between 10 of the 12 monthly seasonal correction factors. This paper presents the methods used in detail and the results of the analysis.

rlaith Burke; Stephanie Long; Patrick Murphy; Catherine Organo; David Fenton; Peter Anthony Colgan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

A stabilized proper orthogonal decomposition reduced-order model for large scale quasigeostrophic ocean circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, a stabilized proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) reduced-order model (ROM) is presented for the barotropic vorticity equation. We apply the POD-ROM model to mid-latitude simplified oceanic basins, which are standard prototypes of more realistic large-scale ocean dynamics. A mode dependent eddy viscosity closure scheme is used to model the effects of the discarded POD modes. A sensitivity analysis with respect to the free eddy viscosity stabilization parameter is performed for various POD-ROMs with different numbers of POD modes. The POD-ROM results are validated against the Munk layer resolving direct numerical simulations using a fully conservative fourth-order Arakawa scheme. A comparison with the standard Galerkin POD-ROM without any stabilization is also included in our investigation. Significant improvements in the accuracy over the standard Galerkin model are shown for a four-gyre ocean circulation problem. This first step in the numerical assessment of the POD-ROM shows that it could r...

San, Omer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Operator-Schmidt decompositions and the Fourier transform, with applications to the operator-Schmidt numbers of unitaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The operator-Schmidt decomposition is useful in quantum information theory for quantifying the nonlocality of bipartite unitary operations. We construct a family of unitary operators on C^n tensor C^n whose operator-Schmidt decompositions are computed using the discrete Fourier transform. As a corollary, we produce unitaries on C^3 tensor C^3 with operator-Schmidt number S for every S in {1,...,9}. This corollary was unexpected, since it contradicted reasonable conjectures of Nielsen et al [Phys. Rev. A 67 (2003) 052301] based on intuition from a striking result in the two-qubit case. By the results of Dur, Vidal, and Cirac [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 057901 quant-ph/0112124], who also considered the two-qubit case, our result implies that there are nine equivalence classes of unitaries on C^3 tensor C^3 which are probabilistically interconvertible by (stochastic) local operations and classical communication. As another corollary, a prescription is produced for constructing maximally-entangled operators from biunimodular functions. Reversing tact, we state a generalized operator-Schmidt decomposition of the quantum Fourier transform considered as an operator C^M_1 tensor C^M_2 --> C^N_1 tensor C^N_2, with M_1 x M_2 = N_1 x N_2. This decomposition shows (by Nielsen's bound) that the communication cost of the QFT remains maximal when a net transfer of qudits is permitted. In an appendix, a canonical procedure is given for removing basis-dependence for results and proofs depending on the "magic basis" introduced in [S. Hill and W. Wootters, "Entanglement of a pair of quantum bits," Phys Rev. Lett 78 (1997) 5022-5025, quant-ph/9703041 (and quant-ph/9709029)].

Jon E Tyson

2003-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

A comparison of thermal decomposition energy and nitrogen content of nitrocellulose in non-fat process of linters by DSC and EA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigations of nitrogen content and thermal decomposition activation energy (E a) of two different kinds of nitrocellulose (NC) products, NMNC and MNC from the non-fat and original processes of...

C. -P. Lin; C. -M. Shu

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Operator-Schmidt decomposition of the quantum Fourier transform on C^N1 tensor C^N2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operator-Schmidt decompositions of the quantum Fourier transform on C^N1 tensor C^N2 are computed for all N1, N2 > 1. The decomposition is shown to be completely degenerate when N1 is a factor of N2 and when N1>N2. The first known special case, N1=N2=2^n, was computed by Nielsen in his study of the communication cost of computing the quantum Fourier transform of a collection of qubits equally distributed between two parties. [M. A. Nielsen, PhD Thesis, University of New Mexico (1998), Chapter 6, arXiv:quant-ph/0011036.] More generally, the special case N1=2^n1<2^n2=N2 was computed by Nielsen et. al. in their study of strength measures of quantum operations. [M.A. Nielsen et. al, (accepted for publication in Phys Rev A); arXiv:quant-ph/0208077.] Given the Schmidt decompositions presented here, it follows that in all cases the communication cost of exact computation of the quantum Fourier transform is maximal.

Jon Tyson

2002-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

311

Thermal decomposition of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ): A density functional theory and ab initio study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density functional theory and ab initio methods are employed to investigate decomposition pathways of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine initiated by unimolecular loss of NO{sub 2} or HONO. Geometry optimizations are performed using M06/cc-pVTZ and coupled-cluster (CC) theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T), is used to calculate accurate single-point energies for those geometries. The CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ energies for NO{sub 2} elimination by NN and CN bond fission are, including zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections, 43.21 kcal/mol and 50.46 kcal/mol, respectively. The decomposition initiated by trans-HONO elimination can occur by a concerted H-atom and nitramine NO{sub 2} group elimination or by a concerted H-atom and nitroalkyl NO{sub 2} group elimination via barriers (at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level with ZPE corrections) of 47.00 kcal/mol and 48.27 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level, the ordering of these four decomposition steps from energetically most favored to least favored is: NO{sub 2} elimination by NN bond fission, HONO elimination involving the nitramine NO{sub 2} group, HONO elimination involving a nitroalkyl NO{sub 2} group, and finally NO{sub 2} elimination by CN bond fission.

Veals, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Donald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

312

Development of microbial-enzyme-mediated decomposition model parameters through steady-state and dynamic analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model, based on the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that describes the dynamics of physically defined pools of soil organic matter (SOC). These include particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved organic matter (POC, MOC, and DOC, respectively), microbial biomass, and associated exoenzymes. The ranges and/or distributions of parameters were determined by both analytical steady-state and dynamic analyses with SOC data from the literature. We used an improved multi-objective parameter sensitivity analysis (MOPSA) to identify the most important parameters for the full model: maintenance of microbial biomass, turnover and synthesis of enzymes, and carbon use efficiency (CUE). The model predicted an increase of 2 C (baseline temperature =12 C) caused the pools of POC-Cellulose, MOC, and total SOC to increase with dynamic CUE and decrease with constant CUE, as indicated by the 50% confidence intervals. Regardless of dynamic or constant CUE, the pool sizes of POC, MOC, and total SOC varied from 8% to 8% under +2 C. The scenario analysis using a single parameter set indicates that higher temperature with dynamic CUE might result in greater net increases in both POC-Cellulose and MOC pools. Different dynamics of various SOC pools reflected the catalytic functions of specific enzymes targeting specific substrates and the interactions between microbes, enzymes, and SOC. With the feasible parameter values estimated in this study, models incorporating fundamental principles of microbial-enzyme dynamics can lead to simulation results qualitatively different from traditional models with fast/slow/passive pools.

Wang, Gangsheng [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

First 20 years of DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition): Model evolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Mathematical models, such as the DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition) model, are powerful tools that are increasingly being used to examine the potential impacts of management and climate change in agriculture. DNDC can simulate the processes responsible for production, consumption and transport of nitrous oxide (N2O). During the last 20 years DNDC has been modified and adapted by various research groups around the world to suit specific purposes and circumstances. In this paper we review the different versions of the DNDC model including models developed for different ecosystems, e.g. Forest-DNDC, Forest-DNDC-Tropica, regionalised for different areas of the world, e.g. NZ-DNDC, UK-DNDC, modified to suit specific crops, e.g. DNDC-Rice, DNDC-CSW or modularised e.g. Mobile-DNDC, Landscape-DNDC. A family tree and chronological history of the DNDC model is presented, outlining the main features of each version. A literature search was conducted and a survey sent out to c. 1500 model users worldwide to obtain information on the use and development of DNDC. Survey results highlight the many strengths of DNDC including the comparative ease with which the DNDC model can be used and the attractiveness of the graphical user interface. Identified weaknesses could be rectified by providing a more comprehensive user manual, version control and increasing model transparency in collaboration with the Global Research Alliance Modelling Platform (GRAMP), which has much to offer the DNDC user community in terms of promoting the use of DNDC and addressing the deficiencies in the present arrangements for the models stewardship.

Sarah L. Gilhespy; Steven Anthony; Laura Cardenas; David Chadwick; Agustin del Prado; Changsheng Li; Thomas Misselbrook; Robert M. Rees; William Salas; Alberto Sanz-Cobena; Pete Smith; Emma L. Tilston; Cairistiona F.E. Topp; Sylvia Vetter; Jagadeesh B. Yeluripati

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

315

In situ experimental study of reed leaf decomposition along a full salinity gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study on Phragmites australis leaf litter decomposition was conducted in the estuarine environment, Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal, using the leaf-bag technique, with fine- (1mm) and coarse-mesh (5mm) bags. The leaf bags were placed in the field sites at day 0, covering a complete salinity gradient, and replicates were collected over time, at days 3 (leaching), 7, 15, 30 and 60. The biomass loss through the leaching phase, about 20% of the initial leaf mass, was independent of both the salinity and the bag mesh size. The biomass decay pattern along the salinity gradient varied through time and presented strong similarities between the two mesh sizes, with the remaining biomass always lower in the 5mm mesh-size bags. At days 7 and 15, the lowest remaining biomass was observed at the head of the estuary, the preferential distribution area of P. australis. At day 30, the remaining biomass was higher in the marine area and diminished under a direct relationship with salinity, reaching the lowest value in the freshwater environment, with values ranging from 66% to 44% of the initial weight in 5mm bags, and from 79% to 51% in 1mm bags. The largest heterogeneity in the remaining biomass among the study areas positioned along the salinity gradient was found close to days 30 (5mm) and 40 (1mm). The overall results indicate that the relationship between leaf decay rate and salinity depends on the decay time considered (k15, k30 or k60) and, for the later stages (k60), also on the leaf-bag mesh size. This implies that the use of leaf litter decay rates as a functional indicator in transitional waters will need to take into consideration the factor location in the salinity gradient and leaf litter stage at which the decay rate is determined. The differences between the decay rates with the mesh size acted mainly at the level of the absolute k value and not at the level of the pattern along the salinity gradient. Even so, the data obtained at the mouth of the estuary, in the area closest to a fully marine environment, indicated that after the initial biomass loss through leaching, P.australis decayed either very slowly, in the 5mm, or not at all, in the 1mm mesh bags.

Victor Quintino; Franca Sangiorgio; Fernando Ricardo; Renato Mamede; Adlia Pires; Rosa Freitas; Ana Maria Rodrigues; Alberto Basset

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

RADIATION-INDUCED DECOMPOSITION OF U(VI) ALTERATION PHASES OF UO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U{sup 6+}-phases are common alteration products of spent nuclear fuel under oxidizing conditions, and they may potentially incorporate actinides, such as long-lived {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np, delaying their transport to the biosphere. In order to evaluate the ballistic effects of {alpha}-decay events on the stability of the U{sup 6+}-phases, we report, for the first time, the results of ion beam irradiations (1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) for six different structures of U{sup 6+}-phases: uranophane, kasolite, boltwoodite, saleeite, carnotite, and liebigite. The target uranyl-minerals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and identification confirmed by SAED (selected area electron diffraction) in TEM (transmission electron microscopy). The TEM observation revealed no initial contamination of uraninite in these U{sup 6+} phases. All of the samples were irradiated with in situ TEM observation using 1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+} in the IVEM (intermediate-voltage electron microscope) at the IVEM-Tandem Facility of Argonne National Laboratory. The ion flux was 6.3 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}/sec. The specimen temperatures during irradiation were 298 and 673 K, respectively. The Kr{sup 2+}-irradiation decomposed the U{sup 6+}-phases to nanocrystals of UO{sub 2} at doses as low as 0.006 dpa. The cumulative doses for the pure U{sup 6+}-phases, e.g., uranophane, at 0.1 and 1 million years (m.y.) are calculated to be 0.009 and 0.09 dpa using SRIM2003. However, with the incorporation of 1 wt.% {sup 239}Pu, the calculated doses reach 0.27 and {approx}1.00 dpa in ten thousand and one hundred thousand years, respectively. Under oxidizing conditions, multiple cycles of radiation-induced decomposition to UO{sub 2} followed by alteration to U{sup 6+}-phases should be further investigated to determine the fate of trace elements that may have been incorporated in the U{sup 6+}-phases.

S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

317

Reactions of tungsten-titanium alloys with decomposition products from a glow UHF discharge in a tetrafluoromethane-oxygen mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decomposition products from tetrafluoromethane mixed with oxygen react with WTi alloy in an HF glow discharge, the extent of reaction being dependent on the atomic fluorine concentration, temperature, and surface potential. The rates of reaction with the CF/sub 4/ products are proportional to the atomic fluorine concentrations. The effective activation energies have been determined for the atomic fluorine reacting with the alloy components in various gases. The metal removal rate increases when the specimen is negative with respect to the plasma potential, which is ascribed to the surface being bombarded by positive ions or to the electric field affecting the surface reaction rates.

Amirov, I.I.; Vinogradov, G.K.; Slovetskii, D.I.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

A domain decomposition method of stochastic PDEs: An iterative solution techniques using a two-level scalable preconditioner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances in high performance computing systems and sensing technologies motivate computational simulations with extremely high resolution models with capabilities to quantify uncertainties for credible numerical predictions. A two-level domain decomposition method is reported in this investigation to devise a linear solver for the large-scale system in the Galerkin spectral stochastic finite element method (SSFEM). In particular, a two-level scalable preconditioner is introduced in order to iteratively solve the large-scale linear system in the intrusive SSFEM using an iterative substructuring based domain decomposition solver. The implementation of the algorithm involves solving a local problem on each subdomain that constructs the local part of the preconditioner and a coarse problem that propagates information globally among the subdomains. The numerical and parallel scalabilities of the two-level preconditioner are contrasted with the previously developed one-level preconditioner for two-dimensional flow through porous media and elasticity problems with spatially varying non-Gaussian material properties. A distributed implementation of the parallel algorithm is carried out using MPI and PETSc parallel libraries. The scalabilities of the algorithm are investigated in a Linux cluster.

Subber, Waad, E-mail: wsubber@connect.carleton.ca; Sarkar, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit_sarkar@carleton.ca

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Identifying the Oil Price-Macroeconomy Relationship: An Empirical Mode Decomposition Analysis of U.S. Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work applies the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method to data on real quarterly oil price (West Texas Intermediate - WTI) and U.S. gross domestic product (GDP). This relatively new method is adaptive and capable of handling non-linear and non-stationary data. Correlation analysis of the decomposition results was performed and examined for insights into the oil-macroeconomy relationship. Several components of this relationship were identified. However, the principal one is that the medium-run cyclical component of the oil price exerts a negative and exogenous influence on the main cyclical component of the GDP. This can be interpreted as the supply-driven or supply-shock component of the oil price-GDP relationship. In addition, weak correlations suggesting a lagging demand-driven, an expectations-driven, and a long-run supply-driven component of the relationship were also identified. Comparisons of these findings with significant oil supply disruption and recession dates were supportive. The study identified a number of lessons applicable to recent oil market events, including the eventuality of persistent economic and price declines following a long oil price run-up. In addition, it was found that oil-market related exogenous events are associated with short- to medium-run price implications regardless of whether they lead to actual supply disruptions.

Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Thermal Decomposition of Bulk K-CoMoSx Mixed Alcohol Catalyst Precursors and Effects on Catalyst Morphology and Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cobalt molybdenum sulfide-type mixed alcohol catalysts were synthesized via calcination of precipitated bulk sulfides and studied with temperature programmed decomposition analysis. Precursors containing aqueous potassium were also considered. Precipitates thermally decomposed in unique events which released ammonia, carbon dioxide, and sulfur. Higher temperature treatments led to more crystalline and less active catalysts in general with ethanol productivity falling from 203 to 97 g (kg cat){sup -1} h{sup -1} when the calcination temperature was increased from 375 to 500 C. The addition of potassium to the precursor led to materials with crystalline potassium sulfides and good catalytic performance. In general, less potassium was required to promote alcohol selectivity when added before calcination. At calcination temperatures above 350 C, segregated cobalt sulfides were observed, suggesting that thermally decomposed sulfide precursors may contain a mixture of molybdenum and cobalt sulfides instead of a dispersed CoMoS type of material. When dimethyl disulfide was fed to the precursor during calcination, crystalline cobalt sulfides were not detected, suggesting an important role of free sulfur during decomposition.

Menart, M. J.; Hensley, J. E.; Costelow, K. E.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

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321

A Domain Decomposition Approach for Large-Scale Simulations of Flow Processes in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulation of the system behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic media involves solving fully coupled mass- and heat-balance equations. In this study, we develop a domain decomposition approach for large-scale gas hydrate simulations with coarse-granularity parallel computation. This approach partitions a simulation domain into small subdomains. The full model domain, consisting of discrete subdomains, is still simulated simultaneously by using multiple processes/processors. Each processor is dedicated to following tasks of the partitioned subdomain: updating thermophysical properties, assembling mass- and energy-balance equations, solving linear equation systems, and performing various other local computations. The linearized equation systems are solved in parallel with a parallel linear solver, using an efficient interprocess communication scheme. This new domain decomposition approach has been implemented into the TOUGH+HYDRATE code and has demonstrated excellent speedup and good scalability. In this paper, we will demonstrate applications for the new approach in simulating field-scale models for gas production from gas-hydrate deposits.

Zhang, Keni; Moridis, G.J.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

DRAFT DO NOT QUOTE Energy Prices and Energy Intensity in China: A Structural Decomposition Analysis and Econometrics Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the start of its economic reforms in 1978, China's energy prices relative to other prices have increased. At the same time, its energy intensity, i.e., energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has declined dramatically, by about 70%, in spite of increases in energy consumption. Is this just a coincidence? Or does a systematic relationship exist between energy prices and energy intensity? In this study, we examine whether and how Chinas energy price changes affect its energy intensity trend during 1980-2002 at a macro level. We conduct the research by using two complementary economic models: the input-output-based structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and econometric regression models and by using a decomposition method of own-price elasticity of energy intensity. Findings include a negative own-price elasticity of energy intensity, a price-inducement effect on energyefficiency improvement, and a greater sensitivity (in terms of the reaction of energy intensity towards changes in energy prices) of the industry sector, compared to the overall economy. Analysts can use these results as a starting point for China's energy and carbon

Xiaoyu Shi; Karen R. Polenske; Xiaoyu Shi; Karen R. Polenske

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Schur-decomposition for 3D matrix equations and its application in solving radiative discrete ordinates equations discretized by Chebyshev collocation spectral method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Schur-decomposition for three-dimensional matrix equations is developed and used to directly solve the radiative discrete ordinates equations which are discretized by Chebyshev collocation spectral method. Three methods, say, the spectral methods based on 2D and 3D matrix equation solvers individually, and the standard discrete ordinates method, are presented. The numerical results show the good accuracy of spectral method based on direct solvers. The CPU time cost comparisons against the resolutions between these three methods are made using MATLAB and FORTRAN 95 computer languages separately. The results show that the CPU time cost of Chebyshev collocation spectral method with 3D Schur-decomposition solver is the least, and almost only one thirtieth to one fiftieth CPU time is needed when using the spectral method with 3D Schur-decomposition solver compared with the standard discrete ordinates method.

Li Benwen [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, P.O. Box 314, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China)], E-mail: heatli@hotmail.com; Tian Shuai; Sun Yasong; Hu, Zhang-Mao [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, P.O. Box 314, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China)

2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

324

Shock tube and theoretical studies on the thermal decomposition of propane : evidence for a roaming radical channel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of propane has been studied using both shock tube experiments and ab initio transition state theory-based master equation calculations. Dissociation rate constants for propane have been measured at high temperatures behind reflected shock waves using high-sensitivity H-ARAS detection and CH{sub 3} optical absorption. The two major dissociation channels at high temperature are C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 5} (eq 1a) and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (eq 1b). Ultra high-sensitivity ARAS detection of H-atoms produced from the decomposition of the product, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, in (1a), allowed measurements of both the total decomposition rate constants, k{sub total}, and the branching to radical products, k{sub 1a}/k{sub total}. Theoretical analyses indicate that the molecular products are formed exclusively through the roaming radical mechanism and that radical products are formed exclusively through channel 1a. The experiments were performed over the temperature range 1417-1819 K and gave a minor contribution of (10 {+-} 8%) due to roaming. A multipass CH{sub 3} absorption diagnostic using a Zn resonance lamp was also developed and characterized in this work using the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}I as a reference reaction. The measured rate constants for CH{sub 3}I decomposition agreed with earlier determinations from this laboratory that were based on I-atom ARAS measurements. This CH{sub 3} diagnostic was then used to detect radicals from channel 1a allowing lower temperature (1202-1543 K) measurements of k1a to be determined. Variable reaction coordinate-transition state theory was used to predict the high pressure limits for channel (1a) and other bond fission reactions in C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. Conventional transition state theory calculations were also used to estimate rate constants for other tight transition state processes. These calculations predict a negligible contribution (<1%) from all other bond fission and tight transition state processes, indicating that the bond fission channel (1a) and the roaming channel (1b) are indeed the only active channels at the temperature and pressure ranges of the present experiments. The predicted reaction exo- and endothermicities are in excellent agreement with the current version of the Active Thermochemical Tables. Master equation calculations incorporating these transition state theory results yield predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the dissociation rate constants for channel 1a. The final theoretical results reliably reproduce the measured dissociation rate constants that are reported here and in the literature. The experimental data are well reproduced over the 500-2500 K and 1 x 10{sup -4} to 100 bar range (errors of {approx}15% or less) by the following Troe parameters for Ar as the bath gas: k{sub {infinity}} = 1.55 x 10{sup 24}T{sup -2.034} exp(-45490/T) s{sup -1}, k{sub 0} = 7.92 x 10{sup 53}T{sup -16.67} exp(-50380/T) cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, and F{sub c} = 0.190 exp(-T/3091) + 0.810 exp(-T/128) + exp(-8829/T).

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Su, M.-C.; Michael, J. V.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

325

Investigation of Thermal Decomposition as the Kinetic Process That Causes the Loss of Crystalline Structure in Sucrose Using a Chemical Analysis Approach (Part II)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Thermal Decomposition as the Kinetic Process That Causes the Loss of Crystalline Structure in Sucrose Using a Chemical Analysis Approach (Part II) ... In the fast heating method, initial decomposition components, glucose (0.365%) and 5-HMF (0.003%), were found in the sucrose sample coincident with the onset temperature of the first endothermic peak. ... Three sample pans of sucrose were loaded in the DSC cell; one pan was placed on the sample platform, and the others were placed on the bottom of the DSC cell. ...

Joo Won Lee; Leonard C. Thomas; John Jerrell; Hao Feng; Keith R. Cadwallader; Shelly J. Schmidt

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

326

Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly s...

Meshcheryakov, Oleg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Evaluation of the economic impact of hydrogen production by methane decomposition with steam reforming of methane process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There has been considerable interest in the development of more efficient processes to generate hydrogen. Currently, steam methane reforming (SMR) is the most widely applied route for producing hydrogen from natural gas. Researchers worldwide have been working to invent more efficient routes to produce hydrogen. One of the routes is thermocatalytic decomposition of methane (TCDM) - a process that decomposes methane thermally to produce hydrogen from natural gas. TCDM has not yet been commercialized. However, the aim of this work was to conduct an economic and environmental analysis to determine whether the TCDM process is competitive with the more popular SMR process. The results indicate that the TCDM process has a lower carbon footprint. Further research on TCDM catalysts could make this process economically competitive with steam methane reforming.

Kartick C. Mondal; S. Ramesh Chandran

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

A STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Fontes, A T

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

329

Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theoretical prediction of high-pressure arrhenius parameters by nonlinear regression: application to silane and disilane decomposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arrhenius parameters are estimated for silane and disilane thermal decomposition reactions by direct regression of RRKM predictions on published static and shock-tube data. For silane decomposition, they find E/sub infinity/ = 57.4-61.1 kcal/mol and log A/sub infinity/ = 14.9-16.3, while for disilane they find E/sub infinity/ = 51.1-52.5 kcal/mol and log A/sub infinity/ = 15.2-16.2. The lower limiting values correspond to inclusion of negative temperature dependence in the collision efficiency, while the higher values correspond to inclusion of weak or negligible temperature dependence. The Arrhenium parameters for both silane and disilane decomposition differ substantially from previously published values. For silane, they predict preexponentials approximately an order of magnitude greater than the previous values for the same activation energy. For disilane, they find A/sub infinity/ is roughly an order of magnitude higher than the literature values and E/sub infinity/ is greater by more than 2 kcal/mol. Falloff curves for both silane and disilane decomposition are given. Implications of these results for the activation energy of SiH/sub 2/ insertion into H/sub 2/ and SiH/sub 4/ and for ..delta..H/sub f//sup 0/(SiH/sub 2/) are discussed.

Roenigk, K.F.; Jensen, K.F.; Carr, R.W.

1987-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

330

Delamination of Surfactant-Intercalated Brucite-Like Hydroxy Salts of Cobalt and Copper and Solvothermal Decomposition of the Resultant Colloidal Dispersions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Delamination of Surfactant-Intercalated Brucite-Like Hydroxy Salts of Cobalt and Copper and Solvothermal Decomposition of the Resultant Colloidal Dispersions ... These are neutral layered solids whose structure is derived from that of brucite-like M(OH)2. ... Brucite consists of hexagonal packing of OH? ions, and the M2+ ions occupy alternate layers of octahedral sites. ...

Jacqueline. T. Rajamathi; Anthony Arulraj; N. Ravishankar; James Arulraj; Michael Rajamathi

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

331

Application of basic zeolites in the decomposition reaction of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol and the isomerization of 3-carene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Basic zeolite catalysts can be generated via ion exchange or via impregnation with alkali metals and alkali metal acetates following different methods. The decomposition of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol and the isomerization reaction of 3-carene to 2-carene have been studied in the gas phase over various basic zeolites to investigate their value as test reactions for basic properties of zeolites.

U Meyer; W.F Hoelderich

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Domain decomposition for coupling finite and boundary element methods in EEG Emmanuel Olivi1, Maureen Clerc1 and Theodore Papadopoulo1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the patient head. Yet, the skull anisotropy happens to be highly anisotropic, and must then be modeled.e. for the brain and the scalp). A domain decomposition (DD) framework allows to split the global system. This work presents such a coupling formulation of a 3-DD method solving iteratively a BEM for the brain

Boyer, Edmond

333

Limestone calcination with CO{sub 2} capture (II): decomposition in CO{sub 2}/steam and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decomposition of limestone particles (0.25-0.5 mm) in a steam dilution atmosphere (20-100% steam in CO{sub 2}) was investigated by using a continuously operating fluidized bed reactor for CO{sub 2} capture. The decomposition conversion of limestone increased as the steam dilution percentage in the CO{sub 2} supply gas increased. At a bed temperature of 1193 K, the conversions were 72% without dilution (100% CO{sub 2}) and 98% with 60% steam dilution. The decomposition conversions obtained with steam dilution and N{sub 2} dilution differed significantly, and this result is explained in terms of the difference between the heat transfer to particle in steam and N{sub 2} dilution atmosphere. The reactivities of the CaO produced from limestone decomposition with steam dilution and without dilution (100% CO{sub 2}) were tested by means of hydration and carbonation reactions. In the hydration test, the time required for complete conversion (CaO{yields}Ca(OH){sub 2}) of the CaO produced by steam dilution was approximately half that required for the CaO produced without dilution. In the carbonation test, carbonation conversion (CaO{yields}CaCO{sub 3}) of the CaO produced by steam dilution was approximately 70%, whereas the conversion was approximately 40% for the CaO produced without dilution. 17 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Yin Wang; Shiying Lin; Yoshizo Suzuki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Pd and PdAg Nanoparticles within a Macroreticular Basic Resin: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid Decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pd and PdAg Nanoparticles within a Macroreticular Basic Resin: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid Decomposition ... Palladium nanoparticles were immobilized within the pores of metal organic frameworks MIL-125 and amine-functionalized NH2-MIL-125 using photoassisted and ion exchange deposition methods. ...

Kohsuke Mori; Masahiro Dojo; Hiromi Yamashita

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Hydrogen production from methanol decomposition over Pt/Al2O3 and ceria promoted Pt/Al2O3 catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rights reserved. Keywords: Methanol decomposition; Pt/alumina; Ceria; Hydrogen; PEM fuel cell 1 exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cell system. PEM fuel cells convert hydrogen gas into useful electric power is seen as an attractive means of providing the necessary hydrogen to the fuel cell. With the exception

Gulari, Erdogan

336

Sources of Corn for Ethanol Production in the United States: A Review and Decomposition Analysis of the Empirical Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of corn for ethanol production in the United States quintupled between 2001 and 2009, generating concerns that this could lead to the conversion of forests and grasslands around the globe, known as indirect land-use change (iLUC). Estimates of iLUC and related food versus fuel concerns rest on the assumption that the corn used for ethanol production in the United States would come primarily from displacing corn exports and land previously used for other crops. A number of modeling efforts based on these assumptions have projected significant iLUC from the increases in the use of corn for ethanol production. The current study tests the veracity of these assumptions through a systematic decomposition analysis of the empirical data from 2001 to 2009. The logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method (Type I) was used to estimate contributions of different factors to meeting the corn demand for ethanol production. Results show that about 79% of the change in corn used for ethanol production can be attributed to changes in the distribution of domestic corn consumption among different uses. Increases in the domestic consumption share of corn supply contributed only about 5%. The remaining contributions were 19% from added corn production, and 2% from stock changes. Yield change accounted for about two-thirds of the contributions from production changes. Thus, the results of this study provide little support for large land-use changes or diversion of corn exports because of ethanol production in the United States during the past decade.

Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Thermal Fatigue of Polycrystalline Copper in CLIC Accelerating Structures: Surface Roughening and Hardening as a Function of Grain Orientation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The accelerating structures of CLIC will be submitted to 2 x 1010 thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, high temperature annealed OFE Copper samples were thermally fatigued with the help of pulsed laser irradiation. They underwent postmortem Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) measurements and?hardness observations. Previous work has confirmed that surface roughening depends on the orientation of near-surface grains*,**. It is clearly observed that, through thermal cycling, the increase of hardness of a crystallographic direction is related to the amount of surface roughening induced by fatigue. Near-surface grains, oriented [1 0 0] with respect to the surface, exhibiting ver...

Aicheler, M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Studies of magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in tri(ethylene glycol)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, water-soluble magnetite nanoparticles have been directly synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate, Fe(acac)3 in tri(ethyleneglycol). Size and morphology of the nanoparticles are determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements while the crystal structure is identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface charge and surface coating of the nanoparticles are recognized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and zeta potential measurements. Magnetic properties are determined using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. The results show that as-prepared magnetite nanoparticles are relatively monodisperse, single crystalline and superparamagnetic in nature with the blocking temperature at around 100K. The magnetite nanoparticles are found to be highly soluble in water due to steric and electrostatic interactions between the particles arising by the surface adsorbed tri(ethyleneglycol) molecules and associated positive charges, respectively. Cytotoxicity studies on human cervical (SiHa), mouse melanoma (B16F10) and mouse primary fibroblast cells demonstrate that up to a dose of 80?g/ml, the magnetic nanoparticles are nontoxic to the cells. Specific absorption rate (SAR) value has been calculated to be 885 and 539W/gm for samples with the iron concentration of 1 and 0.5mg/ml, respectively. The high SAR value upon exposure to 20MHz radiofrequency signifies the applicability of as-prepared magnetite nanoparticles for a feasible magnetic hyperthermia treatment.

Dipak Maity; S.N. Kale; Ruchika Kaul-Ghanekar; Jun-Min Xue; Jun Ding

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Non-Enzymatic Decomposition of Collagen Fibers by a Biglycan Antibody and a Plausible Mechanism for Rheumatoid Arthritis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory and destructive joint disorder that affects tens of millions of people worldwide. Normal healthy joints maintain a balance between the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and the proteolytic degradation of damaged ones. In the case of RA, this balance is shifted toward matrix destruction due to increased production of cleavage enzymes and the presence of (autoimmune) immunoglobulins resulting from an inflammation induced immune response. Herein we demonstrate that a polyclonal antibody against the proteoglycan biglycan (BG) causes tissue destruction that may be analogous to that of RA affected tissues. The effect of the antibody is more potent than harsh chemical and/or enzymatic treatments designed to mimic arthritis-like fibril de-polymerization. In RA cases, the immune response to inflammation causes synovial fibroblasts, monocytes and macrophages to produce cytokines and secrete matrix remodeling enzymes, whereas B cells are stimulated to produce immunoglobulins. The specific antigen that causes the RA immune response has not yet been identified, although possible candidates have been proposed, including collagen types I and II, and proteoglycans (PG's) such as biglycan. We speculate that the initiation of RA associated tissue destruction in vivo may involve a similar non-enzymatic decomposition of collagen fibrils via the immunoglobulins themselves that we observe here ex vivo.

Antipova, Olga; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (IIT)

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

Modeling Ethanol Decomposition on Transition Metals: A Combined Application of Scaling and Brnsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Applying density functional theory (DFT) calculations to the rational design of catalysts for complex reaction networks has been an ongoing challenge, primarily because of the high computational cost of these calculations. Certain correlations can be used to reduce the number and complexity of DFT calculations necessary to describe trends in activity and selectivity across metal and alloy surfaces, thus extending the reach of DFT to more complex systems. In this work, the well-known family of Brnsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) correlations, connecting minima with maxima in the potential energy surface of elementary steps, in tandem with a scaling relation, connecting binding energies of complex adsorbates with those of simpler ones (e.g., C, O), is used to develop a potential-energy surface for ethanol decomposition on 10 transition metal surfaces. Using a simple kinetic model, the selectivity and activity on a subset of these surfaces are calculated. Experiments on supported catalysts verify that this simple model is reasonably accurate in describing reactivity trends across metals, suggesting that the combination of BEP and scaling relations may substantially reduce the cost of DFT calculations required for identifying reactivity descriptors of more complex reactions.

Ferrin, Peter A.; Simonetti, Dante A.; Kandoi, Shampa; Kunkes, Edward L.; Dumesic, James A.; Norskov, Jens K.; Mavrikakis, Manos

2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Video microscope and elastic light scattering studies of fast-mode kinetics in surface-mediated spinodal decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present time-resolved video microscope and elastic light scattering studies of the domain-pattern selection and growth of spinodal decomposition in critical mixtures of guaiacol and glycerol-water constrained to a cell 0.5 mm thick. The structure functions show two peaks with different kinetics: a slow mode with L(t)?t1/3 and a fast mode with L(t)?tb, where b ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 depending on the quench depth (0.03 C??T?0.35 C). In this study we discuss our observations of the fast modes growth. We have used both elastic light scattering and direct visualization via video microscopy and digital image processing to study the morphology and kinetics of these structures. Parameters such as the quench depth and the treatment of the cells windows have been varied, with results suggesting that domain growth proceeds with a power law that is independent of which phase wets the surface.

Christopher Harrison; William Rippard; Andrew Cumming

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Feasibility study: Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of selected conceptual processes for pyrolytic conversion of organic feedstocks or the decomposition/detoxification of hazardous wastes by coupling the process to the geopressured-geothermal resource. The report presents a detailed discussion of the resource and of each process selected for evaluation including the technical evaluation of each. A separate section presents the economic methodology used and the evaluation of the technically viable process. A final section presents conclusions and recommendations. Three separate processes were selected for evaluation. These are pyrolytic conversion of biomass to petroleum like fluids, wet air oxidation (WAO) at subcritical conditions for destruction of hazardous waste, and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) also for the destruction of hazardous waste. The scientific feasibility of all three processes has been previously established by various bench-scale and pilot-scale studies. For a variety of reasons detailed in the report the SCWO process is the only one deemed to be technically feasible, although the effects of the high solids content of the geothermal brine need further study. This technology shows tremendous promise for contributing to solving the nation's energy and hazardous waste problems. However, the current economic analysis suggests that it is uneconomical at this time. 50 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Propp, W.A.; Grey, A.E.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Plum, M.M.; Haefner, D.R.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Efficiency and emissions of a spark ignition engine fueled with synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the tests developed in a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine, intended for installation in vehicles, fueled with synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas. The experimental tests were carried out at three equivalence ratios and different speeds and loads. Two synthetic blends were used and the results were compared with those of gasoline and methane. Efficiency and emissions were calculated for the different fuels under the same operation conditions and it was found that at lean equivalence ratios, brake thermal efficiency with synthetic gases approached to the traditional fuels and even improved it at ?=0.7. BSCO2 emissions increased due to the CO2 content of the gaseous blends. While CO increased at stoichiometric conditions, it decreased at lean conditions because the H2 contained in synthetic gases improved combustion at these conditions. BSHC measured were very low with synthetic gases because of the low content of methane in blends. The change in the fraction of H2 and CO2 of the synthetic blends led to quite different results in BSNOx. Syngas 1 \\{BSNOx\\} emissions were the lowest of all fuels, while syngas 2 \\{BSNOx\\} were the highest because of its high H2 fraction.

J. Arroyo; F. Moreno; M. Muoz; C. Monn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

A periodic Energy Decomposition Analysis (pEDA) method for the Investigation of Chemical Bonding in Extended Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the binding energy between two fragments (e.g. the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic and dispersion interaction, Pauli repulsion and orbital relaxation energies. The pEDA presented here for an AO-based implementation can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight th...

Raupach, Marc

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The Kronecker product in terms of Hubbard operators and the ClebschGordan decomposition of SU(2)SU(2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review the properties of the Kronecker (direct, or tensor) product of square matrices A?B?C? in terms of Hubbard operators. In its simplest form, a Hubbard operator X{sub n}{sup i,j} can be expressed as the n-square matrix which has entry 1 in position (i,j) and zero in all other entries. The algebra and group properties of the observables that define a multipartite quantum system are notably straightforward in such a framework. In particular, we use the Kronecker product in Hubbard notation to get the ClebschGordan decomposition of the product group SU(2)SU(2). Finally, the n-dimensional irreducible representations so obtained are used to derive closed forms of the ClebschGordan coefficients that rule the addition of angular momenta. Our results can be further developed in many different directions. -- Highlights: The Kronecker product is studied in terms of Hubbard operators. Complicated calculations involving large matrices are reduced to simple relations of subscripts. The algebraic properties of the quantum observables of multipartite systems are studied. The ClebschGordan coefficients are given in terms of hypergeometric {sub 3}F{sub 2} functions. The results can be further developed in many different directions.

Enrquez, Marco; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar, E-mail: orosas@fis.cinvestav.mx

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Kinetics of the Decomposition of Fructose Catalyzed by Hydrochloric Acid in Subcritical Water:? Formation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, Levulinic, and Formic Acids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics of the Decomposition of Fructose Catalyzed by Hydrochloric Acid in Subcritical Water:? Formation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, Levulinic, and Formic Acids ... This paper deals with the dehydration of fructose (F) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and the rehydration of HMF to levulinic acid (LA) along with formic acid (FA) in subcritical water (sub-CW) in the presence of HCl as catalyst. ... Selective Liquid Phase Adsorption of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural on Nanoporous Hyper-Cross-Linked Polymers ...

Feridoun Salak Asghari; Hiroyuki Yoshida

2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

347

Improvements in the Determination of Decomposition Gases from 1,3,3-Trinitroazetidine and 5-Nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-trizol-3-one Using Capillary Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with the rapid liberation of heat and gas, are being considered...was passed through moisture, hydrocarbon, and oxygen traps and was...standard deviations for replicate data points ranged from about 2...Wardie. Decomposition, Combustion, and Detonation Chemistry......

Weiyi Zheng; Xiaoxia Dong; Evan Rogers; Jimmie C. Oxley; James L. Smith

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Electrochemical continuous decomposition of chloroform and other volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in water using a column type metal impregnated carbon fiber electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trihalomethane and other chlorinated hydrocarbons are known to be toxic to human health. However, removal of these compounds from water is not easy. The authors attempted continuous electrochemical decomposition of chloroform that is the main compound of trihalomethanes and some toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons in water using a metal-impregnated CFE, concentration of chloroform in 0.5 M K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the supporting electrolyte) solution was decreased from 0.23m mol/L to below the limit of detection of their analysis system (1 ppm) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The main product of electrolysis was methane. This high efficiency, determined by the chemical yield, hardly changed at a flow rate of 20 mL/min at a Ag-impregnated CFE. At a flow rate of 1 mL/min, chloroform was degraded with a decomposition efficiency of almost 100% even in the solution without the supporting electrolyte, whereas at a higher flow rate, the efficiency for the decomposition of chloroform decreased with a decrease in the concentration of the supporting electrolyte. Tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane were also decomposed at a Ag-impregnated CFE with an efficiency of almost 100%.

Sonoyama, Noriyuki; Sakata, Tadayoshi

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Theoretical analysis of the CO/sub 2/ molecule decomposition and contaminants yield in transversely excited atmospheric CO/sub 2/ laser discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretical studies on the phenomena of a CO/sub 2/ molecule decomposition and contaminants yield in transversely excited atmospheric CO/sub 2/ laser discharge plasma have been conducted by our comprehensive plasma kinetic model. In addition to the reliable 175 plasma kinetic rate equations, the excitation circuit and the steady-state Boltzmann equations were included in the theoretical model in order to exactly simulate the time-dependent discharge condition. When the total capacitance and the charging voltage of the main discharge capacitor were varied over a wide range, the amount of the CO/sub 2/ molecule decomposed per discharge pulse was found to be almost in proportion to only the deposited energy density: the energy deposited in the unit laser gas volume. It was also found that the amounts of CO, O/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, N/sub 2/O, NO/sub 2/, and NO yielded per discharge pulse increased almost proportionally with the increase of deposited energy density. The amount that the CO/sub 2/ molecule decomposition and contaminants yielded against the unit deposited energy density are summarized in this article. Moreover, the effect of the addition of CO, H/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O to the laser gas mixture on the suppression of the CO/sub 2/ molecule decomposition are also studied.

Hokazono, H.; Fujimoto, H.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Design of a nuclear reactor system for lunar base applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disadvantages. U02 and Pu02 fuels both have extremely poor ther mal conductivities, about 4 W/m K at 500 C, which would normally limit the maximum linear power in the reactor core to unacceptably low levels. For tunately, the ver y high melting temperatur es... conversion, however, high reactor exit temperatures are both necessary and desirable. The efficiency of the power conversion cycle is directly related to the difference between the high and low temperatur es in the system. Since the heat rejection...

Griffith, Richard Odell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

351

Kinetics of electron-induced decomposition of CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} coadsorbed with water (ice): A comparison with CCl{sub 4}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of decomposition and subsequent chemistry of adsorbed CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, activated by low-energy electron irradiation, have been examined and compared with CCl{sub 4}. These molecules have been adsorbed alone and coadsorbed with water ice films of different thicknesses on metal surfaces (Ru; Au) at low temperatures (25 K; 100 K). The studies have been performed with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TPD data reveal the efficient decomposition of both halocarbon molecules under electron bombardment, which proceeds via dissociative electron attachment (DEA) of low-energy secondary electrons. The rates of CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CCl{sub 4} dissociation increase in an H{sub 2}O (D{sub 2}O) environment (2-3x), but the increase is smaller than that reported in recent literature. The highest initial cross sections for halocarbon decomposition coadsorbed with H{sub 2}O, using 180 eV incident electrons, are measured (using TPD) to be 1.0{+-}0.2x10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} for CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 2.5{+-}0.2x10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} for CCl{sub 4}. RAIRS and XPS studies confirm the decomposition of halocarbon molecules codeposited with water molecules, and provide insights into the irradiation products. Electron-induced generation of Cl{sup -} and F{sup -} anions in the halocarbon/water films and production of H{sub 3}O{sup +}, CO{sub 2}, and intermediate compounds COF{sub 2} (for CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) and COCl{sub 2}, C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} (for CCl{sub 4}) under electron irradiation have been detected using XPS, TPD, and RAIRS. The products and the decomposition kinetics are similar to those observed in our recent experiments involving x-ray photons as the source of ionizing irradiation.

Faradzhev, N.S.; Perry, C.C.; Kusmierek, D.O.; Fairbrother, D.H.; Madey, T.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Energy savings and structural changes in the U.S. economy: Evidence from disaggregated data using decomposition techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the period 1973 to 1985, the U.S. economy saved energy in virtually every sector. Much of this period of energy saving was also marked by a significant drop in the ratio of energy use to GDP. However, since 1985 there has been a slowdown in the rate of energy saving, as key energy intensities (space heating, automobile driving, etc.) have declined less rapidly since 1985 than before. This paper examines delivered (or final) energy consumption trends from the early 1970s to 1994 and provides a framework for measuring key changes that affect U.S. energy use. Starting with estimates of outputs or activity levels for thirty major energy end uses, and energy intensities of each end use, we use the Adaptive Weighted Divisia decomposition to measure the impact of changes in the structure of the U.S. economy. In contrast to many similar decomposition studies, we define measures of structural changes for both households and branches of transportation. We find that between 1973 and 1985, lower energy intensities (corrected to average winter heating demand) reduced U.S. energy uses by about 1.7% per year, while structural changes reduced energy uses by 0.4% per year. After 1985, when oil prices declined markedly, intensities fell by only 0.8% per year and structural changes actually increased energy use by 0.4% per year. In the 1990s energy intensities in some industries have even edged upward. Changes in the ratio of energy to GDP (E/GDP) are affected both by intensities and the changes in the demand for energy services relative to GDP. During the first period, from 1973 to 1985, GDP increased faster than the growth in key structural and activity parameters that determine demand for energy services (such as home area, appliance ownership, and motor vehicle use) by 1.5% per year. From 1985 to 1994 the difference dropped to less than 0.3% per year, largely due to the reversal of structural trends. Thus, the sharp fall in the rate of decline in E/GDP from -3.1% to -1.1% per year was due almost as much to structural changes as it was to the slowdown in energy intensity reduction. The analysis presented here shows why the E/GDP is an increasingly unreliable yardstick for making measurements of how the energy-economy relationship is changing: effects not related to energy efficiency per se may have roughly the same impact on that ratio as energy saving itself. Since these effects have different causes, and potentially different impacts over the long run, looking at them in the aggregate by considering only the ratio of energy use to GDP is misleading.

Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Fault diagnosis for wind turbine planetary gearboxes via demodulation analysis based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and energy separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Planetary gearboxes play an important role in wind turbine drive trains. Fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes is a key topic for maintenance of wind turbines. Considering the spectral complexity of planetary gearbox vibration signals as well as their amplitude modulation and frequency modulation (AMFM) nature, we propose a simple yet effective method to diagnose planetary gearbox faults based on amplitude and frequency demodulations. We use the energy separation algorithm to estimate the amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency of modulated signals for further demodulation analysis, by exploiting the adaptability of Teager energy operator to instantaneous changes in signals and the fine time resolution. However, the energy separation algorithm requires signals to be mono-components. To satisfy this requirement, we decompose signals into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method as it can decompose any signal into mono-components. We further propose a criterion to guide the selection of the most relevant IMF for demodulation analysis according to the wavelet-like filter nature of EEMD and the AMFM characteristics of the planetary gearbox vibration signals. By matching the dominant peaks in the Fourier spectra of the obtained amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency with the theoretical characteristic frequency of each gear, we can diagnose planetary gearbox faults. The principle and effectiveness of the proposed method are illustrated by simulation and the experimental analysis of signals from a planetary gearbox of a wind turbine test rig. With the proposed method, both the wear and chipping faults can be detected and located for a sun gear of the planetary gearbox test rig.

Zhipeng Feng; Ming Liang; Yi Zhang; Shumin Hou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Decomposition of Risk Functionals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well known that most risk measures (risk functionals) are time .... to identify acceptable strategies in a decision or optimization process: the acceptability...

Alois Pichler

2014-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

355

ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

356

Iron(III) Oxide Nanoparticles in the Thermally Induced Oxidative Decomposition of Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iron(III) Oxide Nanoparticles in the Thermally Induced Oxidative Decomposition of Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 ... Iron(III) oxides, particularly in the form of nanoparticles, are being used as catalysts, pigments, gas sensors, contrast agents in the magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic storage media, and furthermore, as basic components in the ferrofluid technologies or in biomagnetic separation processes. ... Structural and magnetic properties, methods of synthesis, and applications of seven Fe(III) oxide polymorphs, including rare beta, epsilon, amorphous, and high-pressure forms, are reviewed. ...

Radek Zboril; Libor Machala; Miroslav Mashlan; Virender Sharma

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

357

Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly sensitive explosives can be also caused by intense charge-dipole attacks of surrounding water vapor molecules electrostatically attracted from ambient humid air and strongly accelerated towards charged sites on explosive surfaces. Emission of electrons, photons and heat from ionized hot spots randomly migrating on charged surface of highly sensitive explosive aerosol nanoparticles converts such particles into the form of short-circuited thermionic nanobatteries.

Oleg Meshcheryakov

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

358

J. Phys III FYance 7 (1997) 405-440 FEBRUARY 1997, PAGE 405 Analyse du coInportelnent therInique du sol d'une serre  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of energy inside the soil, which is the only element with high thermal capacitance. Its specific part kinds of heating exchangers along each month of an entire cultivation period- hot air convector, aerial of the greenhouse (soil charicteristics, crop density, cover transparency). (*) Auteur auquel doit Atre adress4e la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

Mini Review Appl. Chem. Eng., Vol. 25, No. 2, April 2014, 134-141  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(biochemical platform), (ther- mochemical platform), (Microorganism platform), (Combined Heat & Power

360

Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, June 12-15, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Decomposition-Based Control for a Powered Knee and Ankle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-15, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Decomposition-Based Control for a Powered Knee and Ankle Transfemoral Prosthesis to energetically passive devices. The knee and ankle joints of the native limb, however, generate significant net, the authors have developed a prototype of a powered knee and ankle transfemoral prosthesis, as described

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

DISK MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO DISTRIBUTION FROM STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS: APPLICATION TO ROTATION CURVE DECOMPOSITION OF NGC 5278 (KPG 390 A)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we extend the study on the mass distribution of the spiral galaxy NGC 5278, performing 1D and 2D (GALFIT) bulge-disk decomposition to determine which components constitute the baryonic mass in this galaxy. Our analysis does not detect any bulge; instead we find a bright source probably related to the central active galactic nucleus and an exponential disk. We fix the stellar disk contribution to the rotation curve (RC) with broadband photometric observations and population synthesis models, to obtain the 2D mass distribution of the stellar disk. In the particular case of NGC 5278, we find that the typical assumption of considering the mass-to-luminosity ratio (M/L) of the disk as constant along the galactocentric radius is not valid. We also extract a baryonic RC from the mass profile to determine the inability of this baryonic RC and also the baryonic RC with more than and less than 30% disk mass (in order to consider the disk mass errors) to fit the entire RC. We perform the RC decomposition of NGC 5278 by considering the baryonic RC and four types of dark matter (DM) halo: Hernquist, Burkert, Navarro, Frenk, and White, and Einasto. Our results determine that the Hernquist DM halo better models our observed RC in the case of disk mass M{sub d} = 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} and also with less than 30% disk mass. In the case of more than 30% disk mass, the cored Einasto (n < 4) DM halo is the best-fitting model.

Repetto, P.; Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R., E-mail: prsatch6@gmail.com [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Fpplvon Krmn equation: Energy decomposition analysis and energy budget  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Fpplvon Krmn (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode ak and its companion mode a?k is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

Naoto Yokoyama and Masanori Takaoka

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

363

Towards a kinetic understanding of the ignition of air-propane mixture by a non-equilibrium discharge: the decomposition mechanisms of propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The decomposition of propane in non-thermal plasmas of N2/C3H8 and N2/O2/C3H8 mixtures (oxygen percentage up to 20%) at low temperature is studied in a photo-triggered discharge. Quenching of nitrogen metastable states dissociate C3H8 to produce propene and hydrogen. Oxidation reactions are growing in importance when the O2 concentration increases, but the dissociation quenching reactions still occurs for the air-based mixture. Even for a low concentration of oxygen, OH is an important specie involved in the conversion of the hydrocarbon. A kinetic analysis emphasises that OH comes in great part from the production of H, in which the methyl radical plays a role, strengthening the role of the dissociation processes of propane and propene in the medium reactivity. Results of PLIF measurements performed on OH during the diffuse afterglow of a nanosecond corona discharge correlate with results obtained on the photo-triggered discharge.

Stéphane Pasquiers; Sabrina Bentaleb; Pascal Jeanney; Nicole Blin-Simiand; Pierre Tardiveau; Lionel Magne; Katell Gadonna; Nicolas Moreau; François Jorand

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Single-wavenumber Representation of Nonlinear Energy Spectrum in Elastic-Wave Turbulence of {F}ppl-von {K}rmn Equation: Energy Decomposition Analysis and Energy Budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A single-wavenumber representation of nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., stretching energy spectrum is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the F\\"oppl-von K\\'arm\\'an (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wavenumber space, and analytical expressions of detailed energy budget in the nonlinear interactions are obtained for the first time in wave turbulence systems. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic and bending energies are comparable with each other at large wavenumbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, the stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wavenumbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode $a_{\\bm{k}}$ and its companion mode $a_{-\\bm{k}}$ is observed at the small wavenumbers. Energy transfer shows that the energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wavenumbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wavenumbers. A total-energy flux consistent with the energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

Naoto Yokoyama; Masanori Takaoka

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

365

Decomposition in Integer Linear Programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vector of multipliers u that yield the largest bound are called optimal (dual) multipliers. It is easy to see that ..... Let us now return to the TSP example to further explore the use of the price and cut method. ... This shows the additional power of price and cut over the ...... Plant location with minimum inventory. Mathematical.

2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

366

Thermocatalytic decomposition of vulcanized rubber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and natural rubber. The liquid product yields of SBR and natural rubber consistently represented 20 to 30% of the original feedstock by weight. Generally, approximately 1 to 3% of the feedstock was converted to naphtha, while the remainder was liquefied...

Qin, Feng

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

367

ccsd00000419 Decomposition in bunches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ordinary map E.R. Garc#19;#16;a Barroso, P.D. Gonz#19;alez P#19;erez Abstract. 1 A polar hypersurface P, Eggers, Garc#19;#16;a Barroso and Wall among others (see [K-L], [Eg], [GB] and [Wa]). They give correspond bijectively to the connected components of the permitted subset. Garc#19;#16;a Barroso has

368

AVALANCHES, SANDPILES AND TUTTE DECOMPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT: Sandpile and avalanche models of failure were introduced recently ... of these models, Abelian sandpiles (Dhar, 1990) and Abelian avalanches.

1910-00-40T23:59:59.000Z

369

FINITELY CONVERGENT DECOMPOSITION ALGORITHMS FOR ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

variables, i.e., they are valid for any feasible first-stage solutions. ... Alabama, 361 Stadium Drive, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (mzhang@cba.ua.edu) ...... q ? Z+ be the frequency of implementing full Gomory cutting plane method to the. 30.

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

370

Direct dynamics simulation of dioxetane formation and decomposition via the singlet OOCH2CH2 biradical: Non-RRKM dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electronic structure calculations and direct chemical dynamics simulations are used to study the formation and decomposition of dioxetane on its ground state singlet potential energy surface. The stationary points for 1O2 + C2H4, the singlet {center_dot}O-O-CH2-CH2{center_dot} biradical, the transition state (TS) connecting this biradical with dioxetane, and the two transition states and gauche {center_dot}O-CH2-CH2-O{center_dot} biradical connecting dioxetane with the formaldehyde product molecules are investigated at different levels of electronic structure theory including UB3LYP, UMP2, MRMP2, and CASSCF and a range of basis sets. The UB3LYP/6-31G* method was found to give representative energies for the reactive system and was used as a model for the simulations. UB3LYP/6-31G* direct dynamics trajectories were initiated at the TS connecting the {center_dot}O-O-CH2-CH2{center_dot} biradical and dioxetane by sampling the TS's vibrational energy levels, and rotational and reaction coordinate energies, with Boltzmann distributions at 300, 1000, and 1500 K. This corresponds to the transition state theory model for trajectories that pass the TS. The trajectories were directed randomly towards both the biradical and dioxetane. A small fraction of the trajectories directed towards the biradical recrossed the TS and formed dioxetane. The remainder formed 1O2 + C2H4 and of these {approx} 40% went directly from the TS to 1O2 + C2H4 without getting trapped and forming an intermediate in the {center_dot}O-O- CH2-CH2{center_dot} biradical potential energy minimum, a non-statistical result. The dioxetane molecules which are formed dissociate to two formaldehyde molecules with a rate constant two orders of magnitude smaller than that predicted by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory. The reaction dynamics from dioxetane to the formaldehyde molecules do not follow the intrinsic reaction coordinate or involve trapping in the gauche {center_dot}O-CH2-CH2-O{center_dot} biradical potential energy minimum. Important non-statistical dynamics are exhibited for this reactive system.

Sun, Rui; Park, Kyoyeon; De Jong, Wibe A.; Lischka, Hans; Windus, Theresa L.; Hase, William L.

2012-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

371

Monthly Energy Review - November 2000  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

November 2000 November 2000 www.eia.doe.gov Energy Information Administration On the Web at: www.eia.doe.gov/mer Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration's recent monthly energy statistics. The statisti cs cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and ther- mal and metric conversion factors. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95-91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2), that: The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes

372

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NGA.VP  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Workmen Workmen adjust valves on a Panhandle Eastern pipeline. Energy Information Administration / Natural Gas Annual 1997 237 Metric and Thermal Conversion Tables Metric Conversions Table B1 presents Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States for 1993 through 1997 in metric units of mea- sure. Volumes are shown in cubic meters instead of cubic feet. Prices are shown in dollars per thousand cubic meters instead of dollars per thousand cubic feet. The data in this ta- ble have been converted from the data that appear in Table 1 of this report. Thermal Conversions Table B2 presents the thermal (Btu) conversion factors and the converted data for natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 through 1997. A brief documentation for the ther- mal conversion factors follows: · Marketed Production. The conversion factor is calcu- lated by adding the total heat content of dry production

373

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NewNGA02.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

184 184 Energy Information Administration / Natural Gas Annual 2001 Metric and Thermal Conversion Tables Metric Conversions Table B1 presents Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States for 1997 through 2001 in metric units of mea- sure. Volumes are shown in cubic meters instead of cubic feet. Prices are shown in dollars per thousand cubic meters instead of dollars per thousand cubic feet. The data in this ta- ble have been converted from the data that appear in Table 1 of this report. Thermal Conversions Table B2 presents the thermal (Btu) conversion factors and the converted data for natural gas supply and disposition from 1997 through 2001. A brief documentation for the ther- mal conversion factors follows: · Marketed Production. The conversion factor is calcu- lated by adding the total heat content of dry production to the total heat content of extraction loss and dividing

374

C:\Annual\VENTCHAP.V8\NGA02.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

66 66 Energy Information Administration / Natural Gas Annual 2002 Metric and Thermal Conversion Tables Metric Conversions Table B1 presents Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States for 1998 through 2002 in metric units of mea- sure. Volumes are shown in cubic meters instead of cubic feet. Prices are shown in dollars per thousand cubic meters instead of dollars per thousand cubic feet. The data in this ta- ble have been converted from the data that appear in Table 1 of this report. Thermal Conversions Table B2 presents the thermal (Btu) conversion factors and the converted data for natural gas supply and disposition from 1998 through 2002. A brief documentation for the ther- mal conversion factors follows: · Marketed Production. The conversion factor is calcu- lated by adding the total heat content of dry production to the total heat content of extraction loss and dividing

375

NGA98fin5.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

An An overhead pipeline crossing on the White River near Newport, Arkansas. 237 Energy Information Administration / Natural Gas Annual 1998 Metric and Thermal Conversion Tables Metric Conversions Table B1 presents Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States for 1994 through 1998 in metric units of mea- sure. Volumes are shown in cubic meters instead of cubic feet. Prices are shown in dollars per thousand cubic meters instead of dollars per thousand cubic feet. The data in this ta- ble have been converted from the data that appear in Table 1 of this report. Thermal Conversions Table B2 presents the thermal (Btu) conversion factors and the converted data for natural gas supply and disposition from 1994 through 1998. A brief documentation for the ther- mal conversion factors follows: · Marketed Production. The conversion factor is calcu- lated by adding the total heat content

376

E&PFocus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

advances, higher oil prices, advances, higher oil prices, reduced costs, and environmental needs have aligned to create a "perfect storm" of growth opportunity for a well-established method for enhancing oil recovery (EOR) in the U.S.: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) flooding. The U.S. Department of Energy is sup- porting critical research to help America's oil producers take full advantage of that growth opportunity (see table on p. 3). CO 2 flooding is the fastest-growing EOR technique in the U.S. While production vol- umes and the number of projects for ther- mal, chemical, and other EOR processes have fallen off sharply since 1980, the num- ber of CO 2 projects has more than tripled, to more than 70 projects as of yearend 2004. Meanwhile, CO 2 production volumes have jumped twentyfold since the early 1980s

377

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NGAla1109.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

215 215 Energy Information Administration / Natural Gas Annual 2000 Metric and Thermal Conversion Tables Metric Conversions Table B1 presents Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States for 1996 through 2000 in metric units of mea- sure. Volumes are shown in cubic meters instead of cubic feet. Prices are shown in dollars per thousand cubic meters instead of dollars per thousand cubic feet. The data in this ta- ble have been converted from the data that appear in Table 1 of this report. Thermal Conversions Table B2 presents the thermal (Btu) conversion factors and the converted data for natural gas supply and disposition from 1996 through 2000. A brief documentation for the ther- mal conversion factors follows: · Marketed Production. The conversion factor is calcu- lated by adding the total heat content of dry production to the total heat content of extraction loss and dividing

378

Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

Basoli, Francesco [Universit degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy] [Universit degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; Senesi, Roberto [ORNL] [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Licoccia, Silvia [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"] [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Disentanglement in a two-qubit system subjected to dissipation environments RID A-4660-2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the interaction picture, the Hamiltonian of the atom- field coupled system has the form #1;#1;=1#2; H = #5; k #3;gk#1;1#2;ei#1;#2;?#3;k#2;t#6;a1#7;#8;b1#6;ak + H.c.#4; + #5; k #3;gk#1;2#2;ei#1;#2;?#3;k#2;t#6;a2#7;#8;b2#6;bk + H.c.#4; , #1;1#2; where #6;bi... matrix of the atoms interacting with their local ther- mal reservoirs of mean thermal photon numbers m and n: d#4; dt = ? 1 2 #5;1#1;m + 1#2;#3;#6;+1#6;?1#4; ? 2#6;?1#4;#6;+1 + #4;#6;+1#6;?1#4; ? 1 2 #5;1m#3;#6; ? 1#6;+ 1#4; ? 2#6;+ 1...

Ikram, Manzoor; Li, Fu-li; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

An nual En ergy Re view 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

An nual En ergy Re view 2001 An nual En ergy Re view 2001 The An nual En ergy Re view (AER) pres ents the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min - is tra tion's his tor i cal en ergy sta tis tics. For many se ries, sta tis tics are given for ev ery year from 1949 through 2001. The sta tis tics, ex pressed in ei ther phys i cal units or Brit ish ther mal units, cover all ma jor en ergy ac tiv i ties, in - clud ing con sump tion, pro duc tion, trade, stocks, and prices, for all ma jor en - ergy com mod i ties, in clud ing fos sil fu els, elec tric ity, and re new able en ergy sources. Pub li ca tion of this re port is re quired un der Pub lic Law 95-91 (De part ment of En ergy Or ga ni za tion Act), Sec tion 205(c), and is in keep ing with re spon - si bil i ties given to the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min is tra tion un der Sec tion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Characterization and performance of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared via decomposition of M(Cu, Zn)-ammonia complexes under sub-atmospheric pressure for methanol synthesis from H2 and CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from hydrognation of CO2 is investigated over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by decomposition of M(Cu, Zn)-ammonia complexes (DMAC) at various temperatures. The catalysts were characterized in detail, including X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, N2O chemisorption, temperature-programmed reduction and evolved gas analyses. The influences of DMAC temperature, reaction temperature and specific Cu surface area on catalytic performance are investigated. It is considered that the aurichalcite phase in the precursor plays a key role in improving the physiochemical properties and activities of the final catalysts. The catalyst from rich-aurichalcite precursor exhibits large specific Cu surface area and high space time yield of methanol (212 g/(Lcat h); T = 513 K, p = 3 MPa, SV = 12000 h?1).

Danjun Wang; Jun Zhao; Huanling Song; Lingjun Chou

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Receptor modulation in brain slices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , M.M. J. Pharmac. exp. Ther. 185, 371378 (1973).Pilc, A. & Enna, S.J. J. Pharmac. exp. Ther. 237, ...

E.W. Karbon; S.J. Enna

1986-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

0022.3565/86/2362.0350S02.oo/0 THE JOURN"L or PH..R COLO<:Y..,..D EXPF.H'''ENT''L THER"PEl'TIC~  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. EVONIUK,2REID W. VON BORSTEL and RICHARD J. WURTMAN Laboratory of Neuroendocrine Regulation, Department

Wurtman, Richard

384

MalE of Group A Streptococcus Participates in the Rapid Transport of Maltotriose and Longer Maltodextrins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a-amylase is unable to break down maltotriose, which allows...salivary isoamylases on starch and glycogen. Clin...Muhlemann. 1981. Oral starch degradation and its influence...Levine. 1993. Salivary alpha-amylase: role in dental plaque...

Samuel A. Shelburne III; Han Fang; Nnaja Okorafor; Paul Sumby; Izabela Sitkiewicz; David Keith; Payal Patel; Celest Austin; Edward A. Graviss; James M. Musser; Dar-Chone Chow

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

385

Mal-das-folhas da seringueira: dinmica de inculo do patgeno, progresso e danos, em trs condies topogrficas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Brazil currently accounts for only 1.15% of the world production of natural rubber. A limiting factor on the rubber production in Brazil is the South (more)

Jaime Honorato Jnior

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Near Real-Time Push Middleware  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 15, 2011. 83. Mal, S. , Chattopadhyay, A. , Yang, A. ,June 15, 2011. Mal, S. , Chattopadhyay, A. , Yang, A. ,

Mal, Siddhartha Byron

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Autocatalytic decomposition of water on Ni(110)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of water with clean Ni(110) at temperatures between 425 and 770 K has been studied by work function ([Delta][phi]), desorption mass analysis, and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). Water is observed to dissociate on clean Ni(110), forming adsorbed oxygen and H[sub 2](g) in a process which is itself catalyzed (and hence termed autocatalytic) by the adsorbed oxygen product. Initial dissociation of water is believed to originate on defects where adsorbed oxygen then promotes growth of O (2 [times] 1) islands in a process which becomes self-poisoning in the limit of saturation of the (2 [times] 1) phase (0.5 ML (ML = monolayer)). The growth kinetics indicate the autocatalysis process is most active when the oxygen coverage is 0.1 ML. A statistical theory supported by computer simulation is developed which models the autocatalytic growth kinetics in terms of nucleation of islands along step edges. The temperature dependence of autocatalysis exhibits a maximum at approx. 600 K. This complex temperature dependence is explained in terms of transition-state theory. 25 refs., 10 figs.

Callen, B.W.; Griffiths, K.; Norton, P.R. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada)); Harrington, D.A. (Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada))

1992-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

388

Spinodal phase decomposition with dissipative fluid dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spinodal amplification of density fluctuations is treated perturbatively within dissipative fluid dynamics including not only shear and bulk viscosity but also heat conduction, as well as a gradient term in the local pressure. The degree of spinodal amplification is calculated along specific dynamical phase trajectories and the results suggest that the effect can be greatly enhanced by tuning the collision energy so that maximum compression occurs inside the region of spinodal instability.

Randrup, J., E-mail: JRandrup@LBL.gov [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

RANK-SPARSITY INCOHERENCE FOR MATRIX DECOMPOSITION ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jun 11, 2009 ... uncertainty principle between the sparsity pattern of a matrix and its row and column spaces, and use it to ..... to some graph). ...... [31] YALMIP: A Toolbox for Modeling and Optimization in MATLAB, Proceedings of the. CACSD...

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

390

Rank-Sparsity Incoherence for Matrix Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Suppose we are given a matrix that is formed by adding an unknown sparse matrix to an unknown low-rank matrix. Our goal is to decompose the given matrix into its sparse and low-rank components. Such a problem arises in a ...

Chandrasekaran, Venkat

391

Rank-Sparsity Incoherence for Matrix Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jun 11, 2009 ... Abstract: Suppose we are given a matrix that is formed by adding an unknown sparse matrix to an unknown low-rank matrix. Our goal is to...

Venkat Chandrasekaran

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

392

A model introducing SOAs quality attributes decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--Recently, service oriented architecture (SOA) has been popularized with the emergence of standards like Web services. These are chronologically, object oriented architectures (OOA), component based architectures (CBA) and service oriented of improving the dynamism. Service oriented architecture is a popular architectural paradigm aiming to model

393

Decomposition of TrPTL formulas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Partial orders based verifications methods are now well developed. In this framework, several suitable logics have already been defined. We focus on this paper on the logic TrPTL, as defined by Thiagarajan, for w...

Raphal Meyer; Antoine Petit

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Flows between which tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period for many applications 4 · Gasoline and crude oil blending · Raw material feed scheduling · Storage. "no bounds" on concentration total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

395

Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

problem is a general model for many applications, and it is difficult to solve · Gasoline and crude oil tanks in which time periods · Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period · Maximum total profit total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component in blending tanks

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

396

Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ``red oil`` explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material.

Paddleford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Institute of Technology, GA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Sparse and Low-Rank Matrix Decompositions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@mit.edu; parrilo@mit.edu; willsky@mit.edu) School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Purdue University West and Computer Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 USA (email: venkatc. This work was supported in part by a MURI funded through AFOSR Grant FA9550-06-1-0324, and by a MURI funded

398

Finite element decomposition of the human neocortex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?. .. . , . . . . . C. Application of Software Tools to the Human Neocortex. . . . . . . . 72 . . . . 72 . . . . 74 VIII RESULTS. . . . . 77 A. B. C. D. E. F. Contour Extraction . , Solid Model Reconstruction of the Right Hemisphere. . . . Extraction.... Summary. B. Future Work. . . . . . 101 . . . . . 101 REFERENCES. , . . . . . 105 . . . . . 110 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Reconstruction stages. . . . . . 2 Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulation . . . . . 13 3 IVS and EVS of two contours...

Chow, Seeling

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

399

Fisher matrix decomposition for dark energy prediction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......experiments, in particular dark energy surveys, on which a large amount...attempting to constrain dark energy equation-of-state...performance of a future survey. Because of these ambiguities...not know the nature of dark energy in general any choice......

T. D. Kitching; A. Amara

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Approximate Uni-directional Benders Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tention of visiting as many markets as is necessary to meet demand for a set of ... K. The markets may have lim- ited quantities of each product (capacity C).

C N Burt, N Lipovetzky, A R Pearce, P J Stuckey

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

DECOMPOSITION OF LARGE-SCALE STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tic case. The coupling constraints, namely the constraints preventing the ... tic context, prices are a random process whose dynamics are not available, so the.

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

402

Actes JFPC 2008 Techniques de Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

`eme de satisfaction de contraintes (CSP) peut ^etre associ´e avec un r´eseau de contraintes, qui repr´epen- dantes du CSP, en examinant le r´eseau de contraintes sous-jacent. La seconde ´etape exploite ces composantes ind´ependantes en r´esolvant les CSP ind´ependants par- tiels correspondants, et combine leur

Deville, Yves

403

Fairness and Aggregation: A Primal Decomposition Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for this capacity is very time consuming and there will be a scalabil- ity issue if we want to design a fast, low-overhead on the signalling overhead and time available to transmit and process information, it is not possible to solve that is gaining wide interest both in wire-line networks, such as ABR services in ATM [1, 2], non- QoS constrained

Rosenberg, Catherine P.

404

Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. We demonstrate a wide range of flame conditions, including ignition, self sustaining flames, various combustion reactions resulting in wider or narrower reaction zones, and self-extinguishing flames (Fig. 4). Note that we have published parts...

Melek, Zeki

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

405

Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. We demonstrate a wide range of flame conditions, including ignition, self sustaining flames, various combustion reactions resulting in wider or narrower reaction zones, and self-extinguishing flames (Fig. 4). Note that we have published parts...

Melek, Zeki

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Hamilton Decompositions of Graphs with Primitive Complements .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A graph G is a pair (V, E) where V is the set of vertices(or nodes) and E is the set of edges connecting the (more)

OZKAN, SIBEL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Flow Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the energy and the species equa­ tions. In addition, we also examined the feasibility and efficiency of POD that POD can be used to efficiently approximate solutions to the compressible viscous flows coupled a chemical reaction in the gas phase above the surface of the film to deposit desired materials onto

408

Lagrangian decomposition of the Hadley Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The Lagrangian trajectory code TRACMASS is extended to the atmosphere to examine the tropi- cal Hadley Cells using fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. (more)

Kjellsson, Joakim

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Studies of siloxane decomposition in biomethane combustion.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biogas, which is produced from sludge biodegradation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), and landfill gas (LFG), which is generated from solid waste in landfills, are (more)

Jalali, Mir Aydin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BILEVEL DECOMPOSITION ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the collaboration of several departments within a company. ... This decentralization allows the different departments collaborating on the project to find the...

2004-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

411

Secondary kinetics of methanol decomposition : theoretical rate coefficients for {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH, {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3}.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct variable reaction coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) rate coefficients are reported for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH, {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} barrierless association reactions. The predicted rate coefficient for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH reaction ({approx} 1.2 x 10{sup -10} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} for 300-2500 K) is 4-5 times larger than previous estimates, indicating that this reaction may be an important sink for OH in many combustion systems. The predicted rate coefficients for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2} reactions are found to be in good agreement with the range of available experimental measurements. Product branching in the self-reaction of methylene is discussed, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} + 2H and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} + H{sub 2} products are predicted in a ratio of 4:1. The effect of the present set of rate coefficients on modeling the secondary kinetics of methanol decomposition is briefly considered. Finally, the present set of rate coefficients, along with previous VRC-TST determinations of the rate coefficients for the self-reactions of CH{sub 3} and OH and for the CH{sub 3} + OH reaction, are used to test the geometric mean rule for the CH{sub 3}, {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and OH fragments. The geometric mean rule is found to predict the cross-combination rate coefficients for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reactions to better than 20%, with a larger (up to 50%) error for the CH{sub 3} + OH reaction.

Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Chemistry

2007-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

412

Electrophilic, Ambiphilic, and Nucleophilic C-H bond Activation: Understanding the electronic continuum of C-H bond activation through transition-state and reaction pathway interaction energy decompositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential energy and interaction energy profiles for metal- and metal?ligand-mediated alkane C?H bond activation were explored using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA). The set of complexes explored range from late transition metal group 10 (Pt and Pd) and group 11 (Au) metal centers to group 7?9 (Ir, Rh, Ru, and W) metal centers as well as a group 3 Sc complex. The coordination geometries, electron metal count (d{sup 8}, d{sup 6}, d{sup 4}, and d{sup 0}), and ligands (N-heterocycles, O-donor, phosphine, and Cp*) are also diverse. Quantitative analysis using ALMO-EDA of both directions of charge-transfer stabilization (occupied to unoccupied orbital stabilization) energies between the metal?ligand fragment and the coordinated C?H bond in the transition state for cleavage of the C?H bond allows classification of C?H activation reactions as electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic on the basis of the net direction of charge-transfer energy stabilization. This bonding pattern transcends any specific mechanistic or bonding paradigm, such as oxidative addition, ?-bond metathesis, or substitution. Late transition metals such as Au(III), Pt(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) metal centers with N-heterocycle, halide, or O-donor ligands show electrophilically dominated reaction profiles with forward charge-transfer from the C?H bond to the metal, leading to more stabilization than reverse charge transfer from the metal to the C?H bond. Transition states and reaction profiles for d{sup 6} Ru(II) and Ir(III) metals with Tp and acac ligands were found to have nearly equal forward and reverse charge-transfer energy stabilization. This ambiphilic region also includes the classically labeled electrophilic cationic species Cp*(PMe{sub 3})Ir(Me). Nucleophilic character, where the metal to C?H bond charge-transfer interaction is most stabilizing, was found in metathesis reactions with W(II) and Sc(III) metal center complexes in reactions as well as late transition metal Ir(I) and Rh(I) pincer complexes that undergo C?H bond insertion. Comparison of pincer ligands shows that the PCP ligand imparts more nucleophilic character to an Ir metal center than a deprotonated PNP ligand. The PCP and POCOP ligands do not show a substantial difference in the electronics of C?H activation. It was also found that Rh(I) is substantially more nucleophilic than Ir(I). Lastly, as a qualitative approximation, investigation of transition-state fragment orbital energies showed that relative frontier orbital energy gaps correctly reflect electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic charge-transfer stabilization patterns.

Ess, Daniel H; Goddard, William A; Periana, Roy A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

`Itinraire d'un enfant mou', `Le mal court' ou `L'chec sied au hros' : tude pour un sous-titre au  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

statut de héros étrangers au monde comme certains personnages de Steinbeck ou de l'étranger de Camus, par some of Steinbeck's characters or Camus' outsider, for example. B

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Entre L'ombre et la lumire: La problmatique du mal et l'instance du gouffre chez Charles Baudelaire et Albert Camus.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? During the seventeenth century, Pascal explored the causality and effect of evil upon humanity. In The Penses, he correlates the role of both lightness (more)

Pilot-Darier-Baziere, Laurence

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Monthly Energy Review - January 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

January January 2001 www.eia.doe.gov Energy Information Administration On the Web at: www.eia.doe.gov/mer E n e r g y P l u g : E n e r g y E d u c a t i o n R e s o u r c e s M o r e o n R e n e w a b l e E n e r g y ( S e e N e w A p p e n d i x E ) Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration's recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and ther- mal and metric conversion factors. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95-91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2), that: The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal

416

of a thirty attends the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ed ves to help stu deemed critica uage immersio 0 weeks. Ther you can app tion process lik plication

Li, X. Rong

417

Synthesis of the Sterically Related Nickel Gallanediyl Complexes [Ni(CO)3(GaAr?)] (Ar?=C6H3-2,6-(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)2) and [Ni(CO)3(GaL)] (L=HC[C(CH3)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)]2): Thermal Decomposition of [Ni(CO)3(GaAr?)] to give the Cluster [Ni4(CO)7(GaAr?)3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6 H 3 -2,6-(C 6 H 3 -2,6-iPr 2 ) 2 ) and [Ni(CO) 3 (GaL)] (LC(CH 3 )N(C 6 H 3 -2,6-iPr 2 )] 2 ): Thermal DecompositionC 6 H 3 -2,6-(C 6 H 3 -2,6-iPr 2 ) 2 ) and GaL (L = HC[C(Me)

Serrano, Oracio; Hoppe, Elke; Power, Philip P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Cubic Ammonium Perchlorate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Wight* Center for Thermal Analysis, Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S., 1400 E., Salt to dissociative sublimation of AP. A new computational technique (advanced isoconversional method) has been used respectively rises to 110 and 130 kJ mol-1, which are assigned to the activation energy of sublimation

Utah, University of

419

Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

420

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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421

Decomposition Algorithms with Parametric Gomory Cuts for Two ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aug 15, 2012 ... been in existence for over four decades, the only study that has attempted to integrate .... Care and Tind [11] use lift-and-project .... We exploit this facial or extreme-point property of binary vectors to derive valid inequalities.

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

SPARSE AND LOW-RANK MATRIX DECOMPOSITION VIA ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MATLAB scripts for generating matrix C are as follows: ..... [41] L. G. Valiant, Graph-theoretic arguments in low-level complexity, 6th Symposium on Mathe-.

2009-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

423

Finding good decompositions for dynamic programming on dense graphs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well-known that for graphs with high edge density the tree-width is always high while the clique-width can be low. Boolean-width is a new parameter that is never higher than tree-width or clique-width and can in fact be as small as logarithmic ...

Eivind Magnus Hvidevold; Sadia Sharmin; Jan Arne Telle; Martin Vatshelle

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

DETECTION AND DECOMPOSITION: TREATMENT-INDUCED CYCLIC GENE EXPRESSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*,, , WENSHENG QIN,,|||| and JIN CHEN*,§,§§,|||| *MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory Michigan State University-induced disruption of the core set of cyclic genes (which control many downstream pathways) occurs in almost all the disruptions of two core circadian clock genes due to cold treatment in Arabidopsis.9 When a stress treatment

Qin, Wensheng

425

Real Time Dynamic Fracture with Volumetric Approximate Convex Decompositions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

¨uller Nuttapong Chentanez Tae-Yong Kim NVIDIA Figure 1: Destruction of a Roman arena with 1m vertices and 500k and complex objects in real time. The common method for fracture simulation in computer games is to pre-fracture models and replace objects by their pre-computed parts at run-time. This popular method

Müller-Fischer, Matthias

426

Decomposition of H2SO4 by Direct Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental apparatus is presented in Figure 2 and consists of four parts:? the 1.5 kW solar furnace (Figure 2a), the high-temperature reactor (Figure 2b), the H2SO4 + N2 inlet feeding system and the reaction product collector system. ... A large temperature gradient was observed in the hot zone both across the horizontal section and along the vertical direction. ...

Sergio Brutti; Giovanni De Maria; Giovanni Cerri; Ambra Giovannelli; Bruno Brunetti; Patrizia Cafarelli; Elvio Semprin; Vincenzo Barbarossa; Antonio Ceroli

2007-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

427

Fast decomposition of polynomials with known Galois group  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Let f(X) be a separable polynomial with coefficients in a field K, generating a field extension M/K. If this extension is Galois with a solvable automorphism group, then the equation f(X) = 0 can be solved by radicals. The ...

Andreas Enge; Franois Morain

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Implementation of a block-decomposition algorithm for solving large ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 12, 2011 ... large-scale conic semidefinite programming problems. Renato D. C. ... (2) where A? denotes the adjoint of A and K? is the dual cone of K defined as ...... ?k?1 ?, k ? 0 mod k and ?P,k?1/?D,k?1 > ? ... the problems included in our computational tests but before that, we make some general remarks about.

Renato D. C. MonteiroSchool of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332-0205 (email: ` `%%%`#`&12_`__~~~\\376?I ?t ?o ?u ?t ?o ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

429

Optimizing Sequential Cycles through Shannon Decomposition and Retiming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sequential cycles. Designers usually attack such cycles by manually combining Shannonde- composition the number of registers on a sequential cycle--a loop that passes through combinational logic and one or more the combinational delay around the cycle to the delay of only the mux: dmux. This transformation makes it possible

Tardieu, Olivier

430

MICRORGANISMS CONCERNED IN THE DECOMPOSITION OF CELLULOSES IN THE SOIL  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1886 ttber garung der Cellulose mit Bildung von Methan und Kohlensiiure. Ztshr. physiol. Chem., 10...OMELIANSKI, W. 1904(a) Ueber die Trennung der Wasserstoff- und Methan- garung der Cellulose. Centrbl. Bakt., 2 Abt...

Selman A. Waksman; C. E. Skinner

1926-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

On full Jacobian decomposition of the augmented Lagrangian ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 21, 2014 ... The augmented Lagrangian method (ALM) is a benchmark for ... novel analysis is presented to illustrate how to choose refined step sizes for ... derive the worst-

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

432

PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY SUPERADIABATIC DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a cylindrical vessel packed with a porous ceramic medium with a high thermal capacity. The intensive heat internal surfaces permits the accumulation of combustion energy in the solid matrix. As a result, flame hydrocarbons via the superadiabatic partial oxidation have shown the high potential of this approach. It has

433

Problem Decomposition for Reuse Daniel Jackson* and Michael Jackson**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

out of the approach presented. School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA supported by a Research Initiation Award from the National Science Foundation (NSF), under grant CCR­9308726, by a grant from the TRW Corporation, and by the Wright Laboratory, Aeronautical Systems Center, Air Force

434

The role of nutrients in decomposition of a thecate dinoflagellate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

tablishment of thermal stratification, and is succeeded by ..... observed. Finally, free-swimming ciliates appeared, although they appeared ... recovery in densities of free bacteria and a continuous in- .... assumption that the pool of dissolved carbon was exploited .... for the examination of water and wastewater, 17th ed. Ameri-.

2000-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

435

The unified framework of some proximal-based decomposition ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 22, 2010 ... [9] Fukushima, M.: Application of the alternating directions method of ... [29] Tseng, P.: A modified forward-backword splitting method for...

2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

436

A Decomposition of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning LOUISE C. SIME*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

means of calculating MOC and heat transport in the Atlantic (e.g., Bryan 1962). The basin has zero net;throughflow and surface freshwater fluxes. This makes such calculations easier in the Atlantic as compared

Matthews, Adrian

437

Decomposition of the Height Function of Scherk's First Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that Scherk's first surface, a one-parameter family of solutions to the minimal surface equation, may be written as a linear superposition of other solutions with specific parametric values.

Randall D. Kamien

2000-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

438

Intermediate Products in the Bacterial Decomposition of Hexadecanol and Octadecanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deterioration of water quality. In the arid Southwestern region of the Uni ted States, the lack of a large natural supply of water and only moderate annual rainfall have retarded the development of the area for both industrial and agricultural purposes. Clearly...

Langley, W. D.

439

Markov Entropy Decomposition: A Variational Dual for Quantum Belief Propagation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a lower bound for the free energy of a quantum many-body system at finite temperature. This lower bound is expressed as a convex optimization problem with linear constraints, and is derived using strong subadditivity of vonNeumann entropy and a relaxation of the consistency condition of local density operators. The dual to this minimization problem leads to a set of quantum belief propagation equations, thus providing a firm theoretical foundation to that approach. The minimization problem is numerically tractable, and we find good agreement with quantum MonteCarlo calculations for spin-12 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in two dimensions. This lower bound complements other variational upper bounds. We discuss applications to Hamiltonian complexity theory and give a generalization of the structure theorem of [P. Hayden et al., Commun. Math. Phys. 246, 359 (2004).] to trees in an appendix.

David Poulin and Matthew B. Hastings

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

440

Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Based Control of Transverse Beam Vibrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computation Box 8205, North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695­8205 Abstract LQG compensator control time step at which the real­time processor runs. For complex structural systems such as shells [16, 17 of thin cylin­ drical shells perturbed by a periodic external force. This investigation provides the next

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Decomposition Algorithms for Two-Stage Chance-Constrained ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 1, 2014 ... power system operator wishes to have a plan in which all energy supply needs are met with ...... we can take advantage of the special structure of this class of ...... program for unit commitment with uncertain wind power output.

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

442

Mixed-Integer Rounding Enhanced Benders Decomposition for ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nov 13, 2014 ... ... aspect of service system operations, and becomes particularly ... A common practice in service system management is to conduct the staffing...

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

443

Biomedical Paper Task Decomposition of Laparoscopic Surgery for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tasks in MIS education is to teach the optimal application of instrument F/T necessary to conduct an operation. Although the acquisition of laparoscopic technical skill and the assessment of performance

444

A Branch-and-Cut Decomposition Algorithm for Solving Chance ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

remediation [10], and reliable network design [11, 12]. CCMPs have a ..... In addition, the set of possible inequalities that can be produced by the procedure SepCuts pro- cedure is finite ...... Water Resources Research 29, 551561. (1993

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

445

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, M.W.

1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

The Latent Process Decomposition of cDNA Microarray Datasets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rogers,S. Girolami,M. Campbell,C. Breitling,R. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Volume 2, Number 2. pp 143-156 IEEE Computer Society Press

Rogers, S.; Girolami, M.

447

CS decomposition based Bayesian subspace estimation Olivier Besson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Department Electronics Optronics Signal, Toulouse (e- mail: olivier.besson@isae.fr). The work of O. Besson

Dobigeon, Nicolas

448

BAYESIAN SUBSPACE ESTIMATION USING CS DECOMPOSITION Olivier Besson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Yves Tourneret University of Toulouse, ISAE, Department Electronics Optronics Signal, Toulouse, France

Dobigeon, Nicolas

449

Flavor decomposition of the elastic nucleon electromagnetic form factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The u- and d-quark contributions to the elastic nucleon electromagnetic form factors have been determined using experimental data on GEn , GMn , GpE , and GpM . Such a flavor separation of the form factors became possible up to 3.4 GeV2 with recent data on GEn from Hall A at JLab. At a negative four-momentum transfer squared Q2 above 1 GeV2, for both the u- and d-quark components, the ratio of the Pauli form factor to the Dirac form factor, F2/F1, was found to be almost constant, and for each of F2 and F1 individually, the d-quark component drops continuously with increasing Q2.

C.D. Cates, C.W. Jager, S. Riordan, B. Wojtsekhowski

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

An improved Benders decomposition applied to a multi-layer ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Require: A starting cut pool P. Initialize the tree: T = {o} where o has no branching ..... work design and routing, Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Technology,. Linkpings...

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

451

Expected Future Value Decomposition Based Bid Price Generation ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Each root-to-leaf path in the tree represents one specific scenario and ..... In terms of the input data used by each model, in simulation period ts, PH uses the.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Benders decomposition for the hop-constrainted survivable network ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Later on, in the context of a directed spanning tree problem (which can be seen as ...... Ph.D. thesis, Universit Blaise Pascal - Clermond-Ferrand II. Dolan, E. D....

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

453

DOUBLE COSET DECOMPOSITIONS AND COMPUTATIONAL HARMONIC ANALYSIS ON GROUPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

theoretic indexing scheme to derive algorithms that generalize the Cooley­Tukey FFT to arbitrary finite and Tukey [17], and their many variants (see e.g. [26]). Our results may be considered a generalization of the Cooley­Tukey algorithm to nonabelian finite groups. The computation of Fourier transforms on nonabelian

Rockmore, Dan

454

Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio wavefunctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum $j$, leading to $j$-$j$ coupling, phenomenological models suggested decades ago that for $0p$-shell nuclides a simpler picture can be realized via coupling of total spin $S$ and total orbital angular momentum $L$. I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell model (NCSM) calculations using modern \\textit{ab initio} two-body interactions, and dissect the resulting wavefunctions into their component $L$- and $S$-components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly fifty years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest $L$-$S$ may be a useful tool for analyzing \\textit{ab initio} wavefunctions of light nuclei, for example in the case of rotational bands.

Calvin W. Johnson

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

455

Evolutionary Decomposition and the Mechanisms of Cultural Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R. McElreath, and M. Lubell (2008), Conformists andRicherson, R. McElreath, M. Lubell, E. Edsten, T.M. Waring,A.V. Bell, C. Efferson, M. Lubell, P.J. Richerson, and T.

Beheim, Bret A; Baldini, Ryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Decomposition of formaldehyde by EPD photocatalyst filters in HVAC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study used electrophoretic deposition (EPD) to apply titanium oxide (TiO2) coating on stainless steel filters and investigated the effectiveness of photocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by TiO2 under various conditions of heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC). The results showed photocatalytic efficiency could reach 35.59% at 21C and 36.39% at 26C with 7 photocatalyst filters and 5 UVC lamps, the overall efficiency of formaldehyde removal of 52.37% at 21C, and 56.8% at 26C. By all experimental data can be found that the temperature for the photocatalytic performance is not obvious in the range of this study.

Chien-Chih Chen; Ching-Song Jwo; Tun-Ping Teng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Masas and Bimodule Decompositions of II_1 Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

examples of non unitary conjugate masas. Finally, it is shown that for k greater than/equal to 2 and for each subset S \\subseteq N, there exist uncountably many non conjugate singular masas in L(Fk) whose Pukanszky invariant is S u {1}....

Mukherjee, Kunal K.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

458

Quantifier Elimination via Triangular Decomposition Changbo Chen, Marc Moreno Maza  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.220 9939 12.060 39801 Barry 7.320 1087 Fail Fail blood-coagulation-2 1438.769 96093 Fail Fail cdc2-cyclin

Moreno Maza, Marc

459

Energy-Aware Distributed QR Decomposition on Wireless Sensor Nodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......IEEE, Atlantic City, New Jersey, October 1720...Prasanna, V. (2005) Energy-Balanced Task Allocation...2, pp. 115 131. ACM New York, NY, USA. [39] Xie...and Qin, X. (2008) An Energy-Delay Tunable Task Allocation......

Sherine Abdelhak; Rabi S. Chaudhuri; Chandra S. Gurram; Soumik Ghosh; Magdy Bayoumi

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Energetics and Mechanism of the Decomposition of Trifluoromethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Either CF3OH or HF can act as catalysts for HF-elimination via an H-transfer relay. ... The H-transfer relay occurs within a compact and nearly planar eight-member cycle, and (HF)2 appears to be a better autocatalyst. ...

Minh Tho Nguyen; Myrna H. Matus; Vu Thi Ngan; Ralf Haiges; Karl O. Christe; David A. Dixon

2008-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Optimization Online - Sparse and Low-Rank Matrix Decomposition ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nov 1, 2009 ... This exact recovery is achieved via solving a convex relaxation problem where the L1 norm and the nuclear norm are utilized for being...

Xiaoming Yuan

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Evolutionary Decomposition and the Mechanisms of Cultural Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

464. Paciotti, B. and C. Hadley (2003), The ultimatum gameexceptions (Paciotti and Hadley, 2003; Efferson et al. 2007;point in time (Paciotti and Hadley, 2003; McElreath, 2004;

Beheim, Bret A; Baldini, Ryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Irreducible Infeasible Subsystem Decomposition for Probabilistically Constrained Stochastic Integer Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but it may not be done almost surely. Consider the wild re initial response planning problem for example. This problem involves making e ective strategic resource deployment plans so that the total deployment, relocation, re damage, and dispatch cost... is minimized. Dispatch of resources to all res during a re season may be too expensive, or it may just not be possible, depending on the number of available resources to provide initial response. Thus, strategic deployment decisions should be made while...

Gallego Arrubla, Julian Andres

2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

465

Methane Decomposition: Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Filaments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for hydrogen is to power fuel cells. Major automobile manufac- turers are currently working towards developing ppm in the preferential oxidation reactor (PROX). The hydrogen can be introduced in the fuel cell only for the performance of PEM fuel cells.6 Other conventional process of hydrogen production such as partial oxidation

Goodman, Wayne

466

Preparation and microbial decomposition of synthetic [14C]ligins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...13. Kratzl, K. & Vierhapper, F. (1971) Monatsh. Chem. 102, 425-430. 14. Okabe, J. & Kratzl, K. (1965) Tappi 48,347-354. 15. Ludemann, H.-D. & Nimz, H. (1974) Makromol. Chem. 175, 2393-2407. 16. Lundquist, K...

T K Kirk; W J Connors; R D Bleam; W F Hackett; J G Zeikus

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Decomposition and Polymerization of Solid Carbon Monoxide under Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By performing constant-pressure deformable-cell ab initio molecular dynamics simulations we have studied the pressure-induced chemical instability of CO above 5 GPa. The simulation shows that, contrary to previous speculations, polymerization proceeds without CO bond dissociation. The resulting polymer consists of a disordered network of small polycarbonyl (CO)n chains connecting fivefold C4O cycles. The computed vibrational spectra and electronic gap agree very well with (and shed light on) very recent experimental data.

Stphane Bernard; Guido L. Chiarotti; Sandro Scandolo; Erio Tosatti

1998-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

468

A new and fast approach towards sEMG decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 3 of Clinical Neurophysiology, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 5 Neuroscience Lab, Department entire text from title page to figure legends: 6500 The number of words of the abstract: 207 The number

469

Decomposition methods based on projected gradient for network ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fields, as for instance transportation and data transmission. The aim of a net- ... on the routes origin/destination chosen by the users (travellers or data package) .... erties of Armijo line search, while in Appendix B we prove some results used in.

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

470

Physical and Computational Domain Decompositions for Modeling Subsurface Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hydrocarbons contribute almost two�thirds of the nation's energy supply. Moreover, recoverable reserves energy from existing oil and gas fields. Numerical simulation is essential for risk assessment, cost of the most serious environmental problems facing the world. For example, more than 50% of drinking water

Yotov, Ivan

471

A Local Convergence Analysis of Bilevel Decomposition Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

These problems usually arise in engineering design projects that require the collaboration of several departments within a company. For example, when...

2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

472

On the Implementation of Interior Point Decomposition Algorithms for ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oct 31, 2005 ... ... in the case where the number of scenarios is fixed, by keeping .... over the unit hypercube of appropriate dimension and generate a new ...... an application to international stock markets, Review of Economics and...

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

473

A discrete Adomian decomposition method for discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­called rogue waves) in the ocean [30]. The theoretical solution for the NLS equation (1a) has been given among, cf. [36,37]. Here we will only present the two most important quantities. First the L2 -norm (mass of the power of

Ehrhardt, Matthias

474

Clarinet in Bb Moderato q  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oe oe f m chai yim to vim A vi nu mal 21 chai yim to vim A vi nu mal chai yim to vim A vi nu mal 21 chai yim to vim A vi nu mal J oe .oe J oe oe oe oe oe Db Gb kei nu cha deish a b kei nu cha

Cytron, Ron K.

475

The Decision to Lever  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2013. Ralph Goldsticker. Volatility Targeting May Miss theR. Shah. Understanding Low Volatility Strategies: Minimumfor the expected return and volatility of the fully-invested

Anderson, Robert M; Bianchi, Stephen W; Goldberg, Lisa R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute venous thrombosis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

venous thromboembolic complications... %), nausea (12%), vom- iting (5%), acute gout flare (74-81% within the first three months of ther- apy... .health.umt.eduDIS...

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - anterior circulation revascularization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

revascularization ther- apy, gene... rats showed re- gional defects localized in the LCA-supplied area, including the anterior wall, apex Source: Arizona, University of -...

478

Building Technologies Program - 1995 Annual Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WI. Also ide Films for Electrochromic Devices," published as1) (1995). posited Electrochromic Coatings," nology: 1973-37747, July 1995. Use of Electrochromic Windows," Ther- LBL

Selkowitz, S.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

High-speed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system was operated as ei- ther a multi-channel interferometer or a polarimeter diagnos- tic, separately. To reconstruct the equilibrium current and magnetic field profiles and to...

480

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draft Programmaticof ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. Depart~on Ocean TherUial Energy Conversion, June 18, 1979. Ocean

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ther mal decomposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

E-Print Network 3.0 - antihypertensive drug treatment Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the medical treatment of vascular risk factors. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2005 Dec... , Stricker BHC, Leufkens HGM, de Boer A. Methods to assess intended effects of ... Source:...

482

E-Print Network 3.0 - adeno-associated virus vectors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

virus vectors: A historical perspective. Mol. Ther. 10... ., and NATH- WANI, A.C. (2004). ... Source: Mandel, Ronald J. - Department of Neuroscience, University of...

483

E-Print Network 3.0 - adeno-associated virus vector Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

virus vectors: A historical perspective. Mol. Ther. 10... ., and NATH- WANI, A.C. (2004). ... Source: Mandel, Ronald J. - Department of Neuroscience, University of...

484

E-Print Network 3.0 - amodiaquine combination therapy Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

combination ther- apy (ACT) trials that took place in sub-Saharan African regions... , Uganda, Malawi and Kenya. The drugs tested in these trials were amodiaquine, sulphadoxine...

485

Download  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Respiration in the open ocean. Nature 420: 379384. DELONG, E. F., AND oTHERS. 2006. Community genomics among stratified microbial assemblages in the...

2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

486

JOl/mal 0(\\ 'egetaliol/ Sciellce 2,' 539-544, 1991 IA\\'S.' OI'I/I/ls Press Ul'l'mla, Primed ill The UiliTed Siaies olAmerim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, N. C. l,2* & Podani, J.1,3 Iinlemalional Centrefor E/l\\'ironmental and Marine Sciences communities (Kenkel, juhasz-Nagy & Podani 1989). Pattern recogni tion refers to the detection of the intensity the relation ship b

Kenkel, Norm

487

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Ethyl Alcohol: Evidence for Cross-Tolerance in the Rat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...332 (1968). 3. R. K. Kubena and H. Barry ill, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 173, 94 (1970); B. C. Bose, A. W. Saifi, A. W. Bhagwat, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 141, 520 (1963). 4. H. I. Bicher and R. Mechoulam, Arch. Int...

L. Michael Newman; Michael P. Lutz; Michael H. Gould; Edward F. Domino

1972-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

488

G E O M A T I C A TOWARD BETTER SUPPORT FOR SPATIAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the information may be mini- mal" [Sinton 1978]. The importance of the temporal dimension for decision making

489

Dr. Olga S. Walsh is a Soil Fertility and Precision Nutrient Management Specialist. She joined Montana State University's Agricultural Experiment Station and the Department of the Research Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,500. Olga S. Walsh, Mal Westcott, Chengci Chen. 2012. Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat Advisory Committee. Funded: $20,944. Olga S. Walsh, Mal Westcott. 2012. Comparison of Foliar Applied,838. Olga S. Walsh, Mal Westcott. 2012. Evaluation of Sensor-Based Technologies and Nitrogen Sources

Lawrence, Rick L.

490

Metallurgical characterization of self catalytic structural materials for sulfuric acid decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eight heats of material with base alloy chemistries of Alloys 800 HT or 617 with platinum additions of 2, 5, 15, or 30 wt% have been characterized according to their microstructural features. The goals of characterization ...

Rigual, David Andrs

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

A Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition for Comparison of Global mRNA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Departments of Bioengineering and Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States from Multiple Organisms Sri Priya Ponnapalli1 , Michael A. Saunders2 , Charles F. Van Loan3 , Orly

Van Loan, Charles F.

492

One Size Does Not Fit All: Human Failure Event Decomposition and Task Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered or exacerbated by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question remains central as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PSAs tend to be top-downdefined as a subset of the PSAwhereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) are more likely to be bottom-upderived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications. In this paper, I first review top-down and bottom-up approaches for defining HFEs and then present a seven-step guideline to ensure a task analysis completed as part of human error identification decomposes to a level suitable for use as HFEs. This guideline illustrates an effective way to bridge the bottom-up approach with top-down requirements.

Ronald Laurids Boring, PhD

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

A decomposition approach to project compression in CPM/PERT networks with concave activity cost functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . IV. 2 DECRIPTION OF MAIN SUBROUTINES . IV. 3 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE . . IV. 4 LIMITATIONS OF THE COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURE . . 16 18 21 22 CHAPTER V APPLICATIONS OF THE PROPOSED METHOD . . 25 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 29... on the k "linear segment for activity (i, j) Subject to tc Maximize g P u, js ybs, (iu) E A k=1 (6) K t, + Q pijs ? tg & ? L0oi k=1 ? tt+t?= T V(i j) E A v&3$ & Lssk Luis rp V (i j ) 6 A, and k = 1, 2, . . . , K (9) 6;, s(L?t ? L;, (s &)) & ybs...

Kuyumcu, Ahmet

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

494

Methane production during the anaerobic decomposition of composted and raw organic refuse in simulated landfill cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production from landfills if organic waste is composted prior to. The quantities and rates of methane production were measured from simulated landfill cells containing composted and raw simulated refuse. The refuse was composted in an open pile...

West, Margrit Evelyn

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Basic properties of the mixed oxides obtained by thermal decomposition of hydrotalcites containing different metallic compositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Al, Fe, or Cr in a Mg(OH){sub 2} matrix or Al dissolved in hydroxides of Mg, Cu, Ni, Co, or Zn are used as precursors of basic catalysts. Decarbonation is studied by thermal analysis. The average basic strength, evaluated by the decarbonation temperature, is related to the partial charge of oxygen in the LDHs obtained from the Sanderson theory of electronegativity. The enthalpy of adsorption of CO{sub 2} on the resulting mixed oxides is measured by calorimetry. A homogeneous surface is generally observed for CO{sub 2} adsorption, with initial heats of adsorption close to those reported for MgO. The number of sites determined by this method is proportional to the rate constants for {beta}-isophorone isomerization, suggesting that both techniques measure surface properties. The layered structure in which OH{sup {minus}} is the compensating anion can be re-formed by hydration. This process does not appreciably change the adsorption of CO{sub 2}; thus, oxygens and hydroxyls show similar basic strengths in this case.

Valente, J.S.; Figueras, F.; Gravelle, M.; Kumbhar, P.; Lopez, J.; Besse, J.P.

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

496

Silicon Thin-Film Formation by Direct Photochemical Decomposition of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon thin-films have been deposited by the direct photolysis of disilane at a substrate temperature below 300C. The growth rate depends on irradiation intensity of a low pressure mercury-lamp, and a typical rate of 15 /min has been obtained under ~0.08 watts/cm2 illumination, regardless of substrate temperature. The deposited films are composed of an amorphous network containing bonded-hydrogen in the range 69 at.%. The bonding configurations of SiH groups varied from silicon dihydride to monohydride with increasing substrate temperature, and correspondingly the dark conductivity decreased from 10-7 to 10-11 ?-1cm-1. A broad photoluminescence peak at 1.4 eV was observed for a specimen grown at 200C.

Yasuyoshi Mishima; Masataka Hirose; Yukio Osaka; Kunihiro Nagamine; Yoshinori Ashida; Nobuhisa Kitagawa; Kazuyoshi Isogaya

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Channel specific rate constants relevant to the thermal decomposition of disilane.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rate constants for the thermal dissociation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} are predicted with a novel transition state model. The saddle points for dissociation on the Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} potential energy surface are lower in energy than the corresponding separated products, as confirmed by high level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. Thus, the dissociations of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} to produce SiH{sub 2} + SiH{sub 4} (R1) and H{sub 3}SiSiH + H{sub 2} (R2) both proceed through tight inner transition states followed by loose outer transition states. The present 'dual' transition state model couples variational phase space theory treatments of the outer transition states with ab initio based fixed harmonic vibrator treatments of the inner transition states to obtain effective numbers of states for the two transition states acting in series. It is found that, at least near room temperature, such a dual transition state model is generally required for the proper description of each of the dissociations. Only at quite high temperatures, i.e., above 2000 K for (R1) and 600 K for (R2), does a single fixed inner transition state provide an adequate description. Similarly, only at quite low temperatures (below 100 and 10 K for (R1) and (R2), respectively) does a single outer transition state provide an adequate description. Pressure dependent rate constants are obtained from solutions to the multichannel master equation. These calculations confirm that dissociation channel (R2) is negligible under conditions relevant to the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. Rate constants for the chemical activation reactions, SiH{sub 2} + SiH{sub 4} {yields} Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} (R-1) and SiH{sub 2} + SiH{sub 4} {yields} H{sub 3}SiSiH + H{sub 2} (R3), are also evaluated within the dual transition state model. It is found that reaction R3 is the dominant channel for low pressures and high temperatures, i.e., below 100 Torr for temperatures above 1100 K.

Matsumoto, Keiji (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Koshi, Mitsuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Tonokura, Kenichi (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electricity generation in China mainly depends on coal and its products, which has led to the increase in CO2 emissions. This paper intends to analyze the current status of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in China during the period 19912009, and apply the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) technique to find the nature of the factors influencing the changes in CO2 emissions. The main results as follows: (1) CO2 emission from electricity generation has increased from 530.96Mt in 1991 to 2393.02Mt in 2009, following an annual growth rate of 8.72%. Coal products is the main fuel type for thermal power generation, which accounts for more than 90% CO2 emissions from electricity generation. (2) This paper also presents CO2 emissions factor of electricity consumption, which help calculate CO2 emission from final electricity consumption. (3) In China, the economic activity effect is the most important contributor to increase CO2 emissions from electricity generation, but the electricity generation efficiency effect plays the dominant role in decreasing CO2 emissions.

Ming Zhang; Xiao Liu; Wenwen Wang; Min Zhou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Decomposition Based Solution Approaches for Multi-product Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network Design Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, S?la C?etinkaya Halit ?Uster Committee Members, Elif Ak?cal? Brett Peters Jennifer L....E., PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India; M.S., Texas A&M University Co?Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. S?la C?etinkaya Dr. Halit ?Uster Closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) management provides opportunity for cost savings through the integration...

Easwaran, Gopalakrishnan

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

500

Subgradient-based Decomposition Methods for Stochastic Mixed-integer Programs with Special Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

while on appoint- ment as a U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Fellow under the DHS Schol- arship and Fellowship Program, a program administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) for DHS through an interagency... agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE). ORISE is managed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities under DOE contract number DE-AC05-00OR22750. All opinions expressed in this paper are the author?s and do not necessarily reflect the policies...

Beier, Eric

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z