modes are nearly completely restored after ther-mal treatment. Similarly, electronic transitions in
StÃ¼we, Jogy
modes are nearly completely restored after ther- mal treatment. Similarly, electronic transitions, 338 (2003). 13. D. Chattopadhyay, I. Galeska, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 3370
Why Blow Away Heat? Harvest Server's Heat Using Ther-moelectric Generators
Huang, Polly
Why Blow Away Heat? Harvest Server's Heat Using Ther- moelectric Generators Ted Tsung-Te Lai, Wei ABSTRACT This paper argues for harvesting energy from servers' wasted heat in data centers. Our approach is to distribute a large number of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) on or nearby server hotspot components whose
Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition
Ghosh, Mukulika
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into "approximately convex" components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact convex decomposition and can...
Singular Value Decomposition Generalized
Abdi, HervÃ©
1 Overview The singular value decomposition (SVD) is a generalization of the eigen- ferent eigenvalues are pairwise orthogonal. Let X be a positive semi-definite, its eigen containing the eigenvalues of X. The SVD uses the eigen-decomposition of a positive semi-definite matrix
Electronic Structure: Density Functional Theory S. Kurth, M.A.L. Marques, and E. K. U. Gross
Gross, E.K.U.
Electronic Structure: Density Functional Theory S. Kurth, M.A.L. Marques, and E. K. U. Gross: July 5, 2003) PACS numbers: 71.15.Mb, 31.15.Ew 1 #12; I. INTRODUCTION Density functional theory (DFT systems becomes prohibitive. A di#erent approach is taken in density functional theory where, instead
Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
1 Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time. Combined heat and power genera%on plants are also called co-genera%on plants. #12. #12;Facing the challenge of variability, the power grid is in transi
California at Santa Barbara, University of
Abstract -- This paper describes a practical technique for the opti- mal scheduling of control is cru- cial for control dependent scheduling to accommodate practical archi- tectural goals. In contrast Â to the exclusion of all other costs. A scheduler minimizing every control path separately may miss operation
Dhananjay P. Mehendale
2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
P. J. Kelly conjectured in 1968 that every diregular tournament on (2n+1) points can be decomposed in directed Hamilton circuits [1]. We define so called leading diregular tournament on (2n+1) points and show that it can be decomposed in directed Hamilton circuits when (2n+1) is a prime number. When (2n+1) is not a prime number this method does not work and we will need to devise some another method. We also propose a general method to find Hamilton decomposition of certain tournament for all sizes.
Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.
Ferrizz, Robert Matthew
2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.
Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition
Lindner, Robert R; Murray, Claire E; Stanimirovi?, Snežana; Babler, Brian L; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W M; Dickey, John
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21cm absorption spectra from the 21cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the HI line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the up...
Descent theory for semiorthogonal decompositions
Elagin, Alexei D
2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
We put forward a method for constructing semiorthogonal decompositions of the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on a variety X under the assumption that the derived category of sheaves on X admits a semiorthogonal decomposition with components preserved by the action of the group G on X. This method is used to obtain semiorthogonal decompositions of equivariant derived categories for projective bundles and blow-ups with a smooth centre as well as for varieties with a full exceptional collection preserved by the group action. Our main technical tool is descent theory for derived categories. Bibliography: 12 titles.
Rank-Sparsity Incoherence for Matrix Decomposition
Venkat Chandrasekaran
2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
Jun 11, 2009 ... Keywords: matrix decomposition, convex relaxation, L1 norm minimization, nuclear norm minimization, uncertainty principle, semidefinite ...
Optimization Online - Vector Space Decomposition for Linear ...
Jean Bertrand Gauthier
2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 26, 2015 ... Abstract: This paper describes a vector space decomposition algorithmic framework for linear programming guided by dual feasibility ...
DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION FOR A MIXED FINITE ELEMENT ...
SIAM (#1) 1035 2001 Apr 10 12:32:38
2003-03-12T23:59:59.000Z
... porous media, where highly discontinuous conductivity coefficients are also ...... [14] B. Smith, P. Bjørstad, and W. Gropp, Domain Decomposition, Cambridge
Ozone decomposition in water solutions
Hewes, Cecil Grayson
1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. Hewes, III; B. S. , Texas ASH University Directed by Dr. R. R. Davison The rate of the decomposition of ozone in water solutions at various pH's and temperatures were ob- tained by an iodometrical method. The orders of the reactions and the reaction...
ABSTRACT DECOMPOSITION THEOREM AND APPLICATIONS
Grossberg, Rami
to obtain a Main Gap theorem for (5), which appears in the second author's Ph.D. the- sis [Le]. The main gap T is superstable and satisfies NDOP, every -saturated model has a decomposition in terms of an independent tree of small models, and furthermore, the tree is well-founded. This implies that the number of nonisomorphic
ABSTRACT DECOMPOSITION THEOREM AND APPLICATIONS
Grossberg, Rami
to obtain a Main Gap theorem for (5), which appears in the second author's Ph.D. theÂ sis [Le]. The main gap T is superstable and satisfies NDOP, every # # Âsaturated model has a decomposition in terms of an independent tree of small models, and furthermore, the tree is wellÂfounded. This implies that the number of nonisomorphic
Presented by Scalable Graph Decompositions
Approach #12;4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Sullivan_MapD_SC10 Tree by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Sullivan_MapD_SC10 Finding a tree decomposition Â· Tree.S. Department of Energy Sullivan_MapD_SC10 Yeast Protein Interaction Network Motivation Â· Massive data
SEMI-ALGEBRAIC CANONICAL DECOMPOSITION OF MULTI-WAY ARRAYS AND JOINT EIGENVALUE DECOMPOSITION
Boyer, Edmond
, Rennes, F-35000, France ABSTRACT A semi-algebraic algorithm based on Joint EigenValue De- composition, the "Closed Form Solution" (CFS) presented in [10] and [11] resorts to the Joint EigenValue DecompositionSEMI-ALGEBRAIC CANONICAL DECOMPOSITION OF MULTI-WAY ARRAYS AND JOINT EIGENVALUE DECOMPOSITION
Generalized covariation and extended Fukushima decompositions for Banach valued processes.
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Generalized covariation and extended Fukushima decompositions for Banach valued processes corresponding results when B = C([-, 0]) and X = X(Â·). This will consitute a significant Fukushima decomposition random variables, Malliavin calculus, Generalized Fukushima decomposition. LUISS Guido Carli - Libera
A Theoretical Framework for Chimera Domain Decomposition
Keeling, Stephen L.
A Theoretical Framework for Chimera Domain Decomposition S. L. Keeling Sverdrup Technology, Inc. Steger, UC Davis, May 2-4, 1997. 1 Introduction. The Chimera scheme is a domain decomposition method- ometry is divided into simply shaped regions. Unlike other approaches [5], the Chimera method simplifies
HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR EXPANDERS: APPLICATIONS
KÃ¼hn, Daniela
HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR EXPANDERS: APPLICATIONS DANIELA KÂ¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract is linear in n and which is a robust outexpander has a decomposition into edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles into (n - 1)/2 edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles, whenever n is sufficiently large. This verified a conjecture
Modeling Northern Peatland Decomposition and Peat
Moore, Tim
Modeling Northern Peatland Decomposition and Peat Accumulation Steve Frolking,1 * Nigel T. Roulet,2´al, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada ABSTRACT To test the hypothesis that long-term peat accumula- tion is related to contemporary carbon flux dynamics, we present the Peat Decomposition Model (PDM), a new model of long-term peat
Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Polar Form
Gallier, Jean
: E # F and g: F # E are linear maps, then g #f and f #g always have the same nonÂzero eigenÂ valuesChapter 2 Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Polar Form 2.1 Polar Form In this chapter, we. SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION (SVD) AND POLAR FORM The fact that f # # f and f # f # are self
Directed Graphs, Decompositions, and Spatial Linkages
Shai, Offer; Whiteley, Walter
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The decomposition of a system of constraints into small basic components is an important tool of design and analysis. Specifically, the decomposition of a linkage into minimal components is a central tool of analysis and synthesis of linkages. In this paper we prove that every pinned 3-isostatic (minimally rigid) graph (grounded linkage) has a unique decomposition into minimal strongly connected components (in the sense of directed graphs) which we call 3-Assur graphs. This analysis extends the Assur decompositions of plane linkages previously studied in the mathematical and the mechanical engineering literature. These 3-Assur graphs are the central building blocks for all kinematic linkages in 3-space. They share a number of key combinatorial and geometric properties with the 2-Assur graphs, including an associated lower block-triangular decomposition of the pinned rigidity matrix which provides a format for extending the motion induced by inserting one driver in a bottom Assur linkage to the joints of the e...
Multilinear operators for higher-order decompositions.
Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose two new multilinear operators for expressing the matrix compositions that are needed in the Tucker and PARAFAC (CANDECOMP) decompositions. The first operator, which we call the Tucker operator, is shorthand for performing an n-mode matrix multiplication for every mode of a given tensor and can be employed to concisely express the Tucker decomposition. The second operator, which we call the Kruskal operator, is shorthand for the sum of the outer-products of the columns of N matrices and allows a divorce from a matricized representation and a very concise expression of the PARAFAC decomposition. We explore the properties of the Tucker and Kruskal operators independently of the related decompositions. Additionally, we provide a review of the matrix and tensor operations that are frequently used in the context of tensor decompositions.
Unimolecular decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane: RRKM calculations
Osterheld, T.H.; Allendorf, M.D.; Melius, C.F.
1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Based on reaction thermochemistry and estimates of Arrhenius A-factors, it is expected that Si-C bond cleavage, C-H bond cleavage, and HCl elimination will be the primary channels for the unimolecular decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane. Using RRKM theory, we calculated rate constants for these three reactions. The calculations support the conclusion that these three reactions are the major decomposition pathways. Rate constants for each reaction were calculated in the high-pressure limit (800--1500 K) and in the falloff regime (1300--1500 K) for bath gases of both helium and hydrogen. These calculations thus provide branching fractions as well as decomposition rates. We also calculated bimolecular rate constants for the overall decomposition in the low-pressure limit. Interesting and surprising kinetic behavior of this system and the individual reactions is discussed. The reactivity of this chlorinated organosilane is compared to that of other organosilanes.
Approximate convex decomposition and its applications
Lien, Jyh-Ming
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
in representations with an unmanageable number of components. In this work, we have developed an approximate technique, called Approximate Convex Decomposition (ACD), which decomposes a given polygon or polyhedron into "approximately convex" pieces that may provide...
Thermal decomposition of nitrated tributyl phosphate
Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), nitric acid and water mixtures are subject to thermal decomposition. The gaseous and liquid decomposition product yields are highly path dependent. Higher temperatures accelerate decomposition rates, but may result in lower extent of reaction than comparable low temperature cases. Actual extent of reaction, and gaseous by-products generation, are affected by the presence of Zr(IV), condensate reflux back into the reaction vessel, the water/HNO{sub 3} and the HNO{sub 3}/TBP molar ratios, and whether the decomposition occurs at isobaric or constant volume conditions. Higher gaseous production results from condensate reflux, lower H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3} ratios, and with excess HNO{sub 3} and water present as a second liquid phase. Principal gaseous products include N{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and N{sub 2}O. Measurable concentrations of NO{sub 2} were not observed, although gas coloration indicative of NO{sub 2} were obsessed during the beginning of decomposition measurements. Principal liquid products are dibutyl phosphoric acid and butyl nitrate. Air sparging of TBP solutions (e.g., thru transfers using air lift pumps) may increase the hazards of TBP decomposition reactions by lowering the H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3} molar ratios. Runaway reactions were not observed under the conditions of this study. Possible reaction mechanisms and pathways are discussed.
Thermal decomposition of charring materials
Nurbakhsh, S.
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Experimental techniques and methods were developed to investigate the transient process of wood pyrolysis under different levels of external radiation, moisture content of the wood sample, and oxygen concentration of the ambient atmosphere. A unique small-scale combustion-wind tunnel was constructed to conduct the pyrolysis experiments and to obtain the time dependent gasification mass flux, surface and in-depth temperatures, and evolved products of pyrolysis (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and total hydrocarbons (THC)) for thermally thick samples of Douglas-fir. Experiments were performed both in inert atmosphere (nitrogen), and in air at several different heat fluxes and three different moisture contents of wood. Time dependent empirical chemical composition, char yield, and the heat of combustion of the pyrolysis products were determined. The experimental results indicate that the presence of moisture reduces the pyrolysis mass flux and delays the occurrence of its maxima. Presence of oxygen drastically increases the pyrolysis mass flux but its effect specially at lower temperatures depends on the experimental conditions such as the boundary layer thickness over the wood surface. Char yield, chemical composition of the volatiles, and the heat of combustion were found to vary during the pyrolysis process and with changes in the environmental conditions and wood moisture content. The pyrolysis temperature assumption often used for the simplified modeling of wood pyrolysis was examined in detail by considering two otherwise identical models; one with infinitely fast decomposition kinetics and the other with finite rate chemistry. It was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature is not a material property and different pyrolysis temperatures are needed for every problem.
Thermal decomposition of nitrated tributyl phosphate
Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Extended contact between heated mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Most solvent extraction operations are conducted at ambient conditions without heating TBP and have been performed safely for decades, but several explosions involving TBP have occurred in the US, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. This investigation was undertaken to characterize the products of thermal decomposition of both single- and two-phase mixtures of TBP, nitric acid, and water under a variety of conditions. The data indicate that the extent of reaction and the rate of gaseous product formation are affected by the presence of Zr{sup 4+}, distillation compared with reflux conditions, temperature, water/HNO{sub 3} and HNO{sub 3}/TBP ratios, and whether the decomposition occurs under constant pressure or constant volume conditions. Higher reaction temperatures accelerate the rate of decomposition, but the extent of decomposition, as measured by the quantity of gaseous products, was greater at lower temperatures when the decomposition was performed under distillation conditions. Higher gas production occurs under reflux conditions, lower H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3} ratios, and when a separate water-HNO{sub 3} phase is initially present. The major gaseous products include N{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, and N{sub 2}O. Measurable amounts of NO{sub 2} were not present in the final product mixture, although an orange color suggesting the presence of NO{sub 2} was observed in the early stages of decomposition. The major liquid products were dibutyl phosphoric acid, butyl nitrate, and water. Small amounts of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} carboxylic acids were also present. Because of the small sample sizes that were employed and the isothermal conditions of the decomposition, runaway reactions were not observed. Some possible reaction pathways are considered.
Dioumaeva, Irina; Trumbore, Susan; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Goulden, Michael L.; Litvak, Marcy; Hirsch, Adam I.
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2003 Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest:of decomposition for upland boreal peat under black spruceand $50% in sphagnum moss peat), despite slow decomposition
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GASEOUS AND SOLID PRODUCTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE
Knutsen, G.F.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Gary F. Knutsen (M. S.OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Contents Abstract . .OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Gary F. Knutsen
Information processing with longitudinal spectral decomposition of ultrashort pulses
Saperstein, Robert Elliot
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
decomposition of ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. , doc. IDdecomposition of ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 47, A21-A31 (decomposition of ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 47, A21-A31 (
Adomian Decomposition Method for Quark Gluon Plasma Model
Constantinescu, Radu; Ionescu, Carmen; Stoicescu, Mihai [Dept. of Theoretical Physics, University of Craiova, 13 Al. I. Cuza Str., Craiova, 200 585e (Romania)
2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
The paper investigates the possibility of obtaining analytical solutions for the Quark Gluon Plasma model using the Adomian decomposition method.
A parallel interior point decomposition algorithm for block angular ...
2008-05-24T23:59:59.000Z
a parallel and distributed high performance computing environment. We compare our. MPI (Message Passing Interface) implementation of the decomposition ...
Fuzzy Functional Dependencies and Lossless Join Decomposition
Parker, Lorraine M.
Recognition]: Models General Terms: Design, Theory Additional Key Words and Phrases: Functional dependencyFuzzy Functional Dependencies and Lossless Join Decomposition of Fuzzy Relational Database Systems with the application of fuzzy logic in a relational database environment with the objective of capturing more meaning
SPEECH DECOMPOSITION AND ENHANCEMENT Sungyub Yoo
Allen, Jont
SPEECH DECOMPOSITION AND ENHANCEMENT by Sungyub Yoo BS, Soonchunhyang University, 1995 MS enhance speech intelligibility is examined. Computer algorithms to decompose speech into two different enhanced speech. The energy of the enhanced speech was adjusted to be equal to the original speech
Decomposition of Electromagnetic Q and P Media
Lindell, I V
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Two previously studied classes of electromagnetic media, labeled as those of Q media and P media, are decomposed according to the natural decomposition introduced by Hehl and Obukhov. Six special cases based on either non-existence or sole existence of the three Hehl-Obukhov components, are defined for both medium classes.
Research Article Decomposition of Epoxy Model Compounds
Guo, John Zhanhu
-critical water (NCW) or subcritical water, i.e., water at 250Â300 Â°C [20], turn out to be alternative candidatesResearch Article Decomposition of Epoxy Model Compounds in Near-Critical Water Two tpyes of epoxy water (NCW). In the case of model compound I, at low temperatures the water molecules behave
Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign of Electric Motors
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign of Electric Motors Industry Yongheng Redesign of Electric Motors Industry Introduction of the Supply Chain Model 3/22/13 2 Analia Rodriguez #12 Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign of Electric Motors Industry #12;Lagrangean Decomposition
Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization
Fan, Xingzhe
1 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization DecompositionDecomposition Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-2 CONTENTSCONTENTS Introduction (Marta;2 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-3 Layering as Optimization Decomposition Introduction By Marta
A HIC Primitive Spinodal Decomposition Signature
Armando Barrañón; J. A. López
2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
Evidence of a primitive spinodal decomposition has been obtained for central Ni+Ni Heavy Ion Collision, since higher order charge correlations show a peak when four fragments of size equal to 6 are produced with an excitation of 4.75 MeV. This can be considered as a signature of a primitive breakup in equal sized fragments with a privileged fragment size. This computational result confirms other experimental and theoretical evidences about spinodal decompostion in HIC.
Finite element decomposition of the human neocortex
Chow, Seeling
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
dividing boundary types of neuroanatomical consistency . . . . . . . . 5 1 18 Mapping a template onto the object domain. . . . ?53 FIGURE Page 19 Hierarchical division of the human brain into its anatomical parts, . . . 54 20 Decomposition of a... major gyrus into macro elements . ?. , 56 21 Different gyral shapes and their lines of symmetry. . . . 57 22 Mapping gyral line of symmetry at different levels of detail. . . . . . . . 58 23 Sectional view in a human brain atlas. , . . . 60 24...
Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Polar Form
Gallier, Jean
g always have the same non-zero eigen- values! Furthermore, if E = F, then 0 is an eigenvalue for fChapter 2 Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Polar Form 2.1 Polar Form In this chapter, we = f(u), f(v) = u, (f f)(v) . Similarly, f f is self-adjoint. 29 #12;30 CHAPTER 2. SINGULAR VALUE
Treatment of nitrocellulose by thermal decomposition
Campbell, R.K.; Freedman, D.L.; Kim, B.J.
1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Waste fines generated during the manufacture of nitrocellulose (NC) are classified as a RCRA K044 hazardous waste due to their explosive properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate controlled thermal treatment of NC in order to render it nonhazardous and allow for more economical ultimate disposal. The results indicate that controlled thermal decomposition at 130--150 C is a technically feasible process. Rates improved significantly at higher temperatures. At 150 C, only 10 hours were needed to reduce the nitrogen content of NC from 13.7% to below 10% (versus 105 h at 130 C), a level found in many commercial, nonhazardous grades of NC. The air flow rate over the heated NC, and the moisture content of the NC or air above it had no discernible effect on rates of nitrogen removal. Greater mass loss from the NC than what was attributable to the nitro groups alone indicated that decomposition of the polymer backbone also occurred. This was confirmed by FTIR analyses, the appearance of CO{sub 2} in the off-gas, and a lack of correlation between percent nitrogen and heat of combustion. Samples of thermally treated NC containing 9.7% nitrogen failed three of the basic tests used by the Bureau of Explosives to ascertain explosive characteristics, indicating that the product was no longer hazardous based on its energetic properties. Although technically feasible, use of thermal decomposition to treat NC fines will most likely be restricted by safety concerns. Operating close to 130 C would mitigate the risk, but considerably extends the time required for treatment. The most suitable application of this technology may instead by treatment of NC-contaminated soils.
Histamine Formation and Honeycombing During Decomposition of Skipjack Tuna,
Histamine Formation and Honeycombing During Decomposition of Skipjack Tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis pelamis, caught in Hawaiian waters. Fresh skipjack tuna tis- sue was practically devoid of histamine
A Numerical Algorithm for Block-Diagonal Decomposition of Matrix ...
2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
orthogonal matrix Q and a partition K = K1 ?···? Kl. In general there is no guarantee that this corresponds to the decomposition into simple compo- nents, but in ...
On parallelizing dual decomposition in stochastic integer programming
Miles Lubin
2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z
Oct 9, 2012 ... Abstract: For stochastic mixed-integer programs, we revisit the dual decomposition algorithm of Car\\o{}e and Schultz from a computational ...
adomian decomposition method: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
of low significance. A. S. Reese; T. B. Williams; J. A. Sellwood; Eric I. Barnes; Brian A. Powell 2007-02-27 267 Optimising Performance Through Unbalanced Decompositions...
Rhode Island, University of
. Decomposition Algorithms Edward A. Burstein, Sergei M. Abornev, and Yana K. Reshetnyak Institute of Theoretical on the possibility that the shape of elementary spectral component could be accurately described by a uniparametric and Arsenin, 1986). The regularizing factors (functions, algorithms, or logical premises) allow one to develop
Thermal reaction of nickel and Si0.75Ge0.25 alloy K. L. Peya)
, Singapore 117576 S. Chattopadhyay and H. B. Zhao Advanced Materials for Micro- and Nano-Systems Programme, par- ticularly for furnace annealing. On the other hand, rapid ther- mal annealing RTA
A&A 566, A95 (2014) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201323241
Departamento de Astronomia de la Universidad de Guanajuato, Apartado Postal 144, C.P. 36000 Guanajuato, GTO of complex interlinked processes involving ther- mal pulses, hot bottom burning, and the third dredge-up (see
Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors
Djurcic, Zelimir
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
reactors are determined from thermal power measure- ments and ?ssion rate calculations.of a reactor’s ther- mal power is given by a calculation ofCALCULATIONS During the power cycle of a nuclear reactor,
T. Eronen; J. C. Hardy; V. Elomaa; U. Hager; J. Hakala; A. Jokinen; A. Kankainen; V. S. Kolhinen; I. Moore; H. Penttila; S. Rahaman; J. Rissanen; A. Saastamoinen; T. Sonoda; J. Aysto
2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z
The beta-decay Q_EC-values of the superallowed beta emitters 26m-Al, 42-Sc and 46-V have been measured with a Penning trap to a relative precision of better than 8x10^-9. Our result for 46-V, 7052.72(31) keV, confirms a recent measurement that differed significantly from the previously accepted reaction-based Q_EC-value. However, our results for 26m-Al and 42-Sc, 4232.83(13) keV and 6426.13(21) keV, are consistent with previous reaction-based values. By eliminating the possibility of a systematic difference between the two techniques, this result demonstrates that no significant shift in the deduced value of V_ud should be anticipated.
Maroniche, Guillermo A.; Mongelli, Vanesa C.; Llauger, Gabriela; Alfonso, Victoria; Taboga, Oscar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vas, Mariana del, E-mail: mdelvas@cnia.inta.gov.ar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1 viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread.
Reliability, Sufficiency, and the Decomposition of Proper Scores
BrÃ¶cker, Jochen
Reliability, Sufficiency, and the Decomposition of Proper Scores Jochen BrÂ¨ocker October 23, 2009 scoring rules allow for a decomposition into terms related to the resolution and to the reliability to forecasts for finiteÂvalued targets. Both resolution and reliability are shown to have a positive effect
DECOMPOSITION OF MULTIVARIATE DATASETS WITH STRUCTURE/ORDERING
analysis. However, contrary to Fourier decomposition these new variables are located in frequency as well as location (space, time, wavelength etc). 1 Introduction The maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysisDECOMPOSITION OF MULTIVARIATE DATASETS WITH STRUCTURE/ORDERING OF OBSERVATIONS OR VARIABLES USING
The mysteries of goal decomposition Scott Munro1
Liaskos, Sotirios
The mysteries of goal decomposition Scott Munro1 Sotirios Liaskos2 Jorge Aranda3 1 Department languages such as i*. High-level goals of stakeholders are recursively decomposed into lower level ones, goal modeling, i-star 1 Introduction Goal decomposition is central in goal modeling. High-level goals
.ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION USING SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION BASED SPEECH ENHANCEMENT
.ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION USING SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION BASED SPEECH ENHANCEMENT B. T. Lilly the performance of a speechrecognition system in the presence of noise, is to enhance the speech prior to its is the enhanced speech signal. In the experiments presented in this paper, we use singu- lar value decomposition
APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF ROBUSTLY EXPANDING REGULAR DIGRAPHS
Osthus, Deryk
APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF ROBUSTLY EXPANDING REGULAR DIGRAPHS DERYK OSTHUS and is a robust outexpander has an approximate decomposition into edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles, i.e. G contains a set of r -o(r) edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. Here G is a robust outexpander if for every set S which
Space Decompositions: Theory and Practice Paulo Cezar Pinto Carvalho 1
Space Decompositions: Theory and Practice Paulo Cezar Pinto Carvalho 1 Jonas de Miranda Gomes 1 The use of space decompositions in Mathematics ranges from Algebraic Topology to Numerical Analysis. The existence of certain subdivisions of a space allows us to obtain valuable information about the geometry
Information processing with longitudinal spectral decomposition of ultrafast pulses
Fainman, Yeshaiahu
Information processing with longitudinal spectral decomposition of ultrafast pulses Robert E of waveforms depending on whether their frequency response is or is not known a priori. Ultrafast pulses prove synthesis and detection relying on longitudinal spectral decomposition of subpicosecond optical pulses
Generalized spectral decomposition for stochastic nonlinear problems
Nouy, Anthony [Research Institute in Civil Engineering and Mechanics (GeM), Nantes Atlantic University, Ecole Centrale Nantes, UMR CNRS 6183, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: anthony.nouy@univ-nantes.fr; Le Maitre, Olivier P. [LIMSI-CNRS, BP133, F-91403 Orsay (France); DEN/DM2S/SFME, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)], E-mail: olm@limsi.fr
2009-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present an extension of the generalized spectral decomposition method for the resolution of nonlinear stochastic problems. The method consists in the construction of a reduced basis approximation of the Galerkin solution and is independent of the stochastic discretization selected (polynomial chaos, stochastic multi-element or multi-wavelets). Two algorithms are proposed for the sequential construction of the successive generalized spectral modes. They involve decoupled resolutions of a series of deterministic and low-dimensional stochastic problems. Compared to the classical Galerkin method, the algorithms allow for significant computational savings and require minor adaptations of the deterministic codes. The methodology is detailed and tested on two model problems, the one-dimensional steady viscous Burgers equation and a two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion problem. These examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms which exhibit convergence rates with the number of modes essentially dependent on the spectrum of the stochastic solution but independent of the dimension of the stochastic approximation space.
Gaseous Decomposition Products of Safety Powders
Cubbison, C.E.
1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
19.6 Volume o f a i r added 70.8 T o t a l vo lume 90 .4 Volume a f t e r e x p l o s i o n — 74.4 C o n t r a c t i o n 16.0 R e s i d u e a f t e r a b s o r p t i o n o f c a r b o n d i o x i d e 68.8 74.4 6 8 . 8 = 5 .6 . Oxygen p r e s e... DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF SAFETY POWDERS. THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE I I THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL BHGUEBRING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS. BY C.E.CUBBISOH 1912. RD01D7 MaDSfl COHTEHTS. * * * * Pago * P r e f a c e 6...
E-Print Network 3.0 - acid decomposition contribution Sample...
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in the decomposition of organic material, is the primary source of acidity in unpolluted rainwater. NOTE: Parts per... in the decomposition of organic material, is the primary ......
E-Print Network 3.0 - approximate matrix decompositions Sample...
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for: approximate matrix decompositions Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Predictive low-rank decomposition for kernel Francis Bach Summary: problems General purpose matrix...
Methanol adsorption and decomposition on rhodium
Chuah, G.K.; Kruse, N.; Schmidt, W.A.; Block, J.H.; Abend, G. (Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))
1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The decomposition of methanol on rhodium probed from {approximately}200 atomic sites of the (001) or (111) planes or Rh field emitter crystals but randomly with regard to crystallographic zones was studied by pulsed field desorption mass spectrometry. High electric field pulses were used to quantitatively desorb the final products, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, thus achieving steady-state conditions. Substantial amounts of methoxy (mainly desorbed as CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions) were also present at the surface. Applying a steady electric field, F{sub R} {ge} 4 V/nm, between the field pulses, led to a deceleration of the decomposition reaction and to increase of the amount of adsorbed CH{sub 3}O and CH{sub 2}O species. There were indicators that the rate-determining step of the reaction is C-H bond cleavage in adsorbed methoxy to form the CH{sub 2}O intermediate. This was supported by the observation of a kinetic isotope effect in the formation of CD{sub 2}O and CHDO from methyl-d{sub 2}-alcohol, CHD{sub 2}OH. Here, the C-H bond breaking to form the CD{sub 2}O was found to be twice as fast as the breaking of the C-D bond which results in CHDO. Field ion microscopy was applied to investigate the influence of the reaction on the structure of the whole hemispherical single crystal surface. There were neither topographic changes nor corrosion of the Rh surface after field-free exposure to 2 Pa methanol at temperatures up to 423 K.
Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene
Abrefah, John; Klinger, George S.
2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
The radiation-damaged polystyrene (given the identification name of 'polycube') was fabricated by mixing high-density polystyrene material ("Dylene Fines # 100") with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used in the 1960s for criticality studies during processing of spent nuclear fuel. The polycubes have since been stored for almost 40 years at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) after failure of two processes to reclaim the plutonium and uranium oxides from the polystyrene matrix. Thermal decomposition products from this highly cross-linked polystyrene matrix were characterized using Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal furnace. The decomposition studies were performed in air and helium atmospheres at about 773 K. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different compared to virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the number of organic species generated and their concentrations. In the inert (i.e., helium) atmosphere, the major volatile organic products identified (in order of decreasing concentrations) were styrene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, nathphalene, propane, .alpha.-methylbenzene, indene and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. But in air, the major volatile organic species identified changed slightly. Concentrations of the organic species in the inert atmosphere were significantly higher than those for the air atmosphere processing. Overall, 38 volatile organic species were identified in the inert atmosphere compared to 49 species in air. Twenty of the 38 species in the inert conditions were also products in the air atmosphere. Twenty-two oxidized organic products were identified during thermal processing in air.
Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene
J Abrefah GS Klinger
2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
The radiation-damaged polystyrene material (''polycube'') used in this study was synthesized by mixing a high-density polystyrene (''Dylene Fines No. 100'') with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used on the Hanford Site in the 1960s for criticality studies to determine the hydrogen-to-fissile atom ratios for neutron moderation during processing of spent nuclear fuel. Upon completion of the studies, two methods were developed to reclaim the transuranic (TRU) oxides from the polymer matrix: (1) burning the polycubes in air at 873 K; and (2) heating the polycubes in the absence of oxygen and scrubbing the released monomer and other volatile organics using carbon tetrachloride. Neither of these methods was satisfactory in separating the TRU oxides from the polystyrene. Consequently, the remaining polycubes were sent to the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for storage. Over time, the high dose of alpha and gamma radiation has resulted in a polystyrene matrix that is highly cross-linked and hydrogen deficient and a stabilization process is being developed in support of Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. Baseline processes involve thermal treatment to pyrolyze the polycubes in a furnace to decompose the polystyrene and separate out the TRU oxides. Thermal decomposition products from this degraded polystyrene matrix were characterized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide information for determining the environmental impact of the process and for optimizing the process parameters. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal tube furnace was used for the characterization studies. The decomposition studies were performed both in air and helium atmospheres at 773 K, the planned processing temperature. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products identified for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different from those observed for virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the n umber of organic species generated and their concentrations.
The thermal decomposition of methane in a tubular reactor
Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The reaction rate of methane decomposition using a tubular reactor having a 1 inch inside diameter with an 8 foot long heated zone was investigated in the temperature range of 700 to 900 C with pressures ranging from 28.2 to 56.1 atm. Representing the rate by a conventional model, {minus}dC{sub CH4}/dt= k1 C{sub CH4} {minus}k2 C{sub H2}{sup 2}, the rate constant k1 for methane decomposition was determined. The activation energy, 31.3 kcal/mol, calculated by an Arrhenius Plot was lower than for previously published results for methane decomposition. This result indicates that submicron particles found in the reactor adhere to the inside of the reactor and these submicron high surface area carbon particles tend to catalyze the methane decomposition. The rate constant has been found to be approximately constant at 900 C with pressure range cited above. The rate of methane decomposition increases with methane partial pressure in first-order. The rate of the methane decomposition is favored by higher temperatures and pressures while the thermochemical equilibrium of methane decomposition is favored by lower pressures. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Decomposition algorithms for multi-area power system analysis
Min, Liang
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
. This dissertation investigates decomposition algorithms for multi-area power system transfer capability analysis and economic dispatch analysis. All of the proposed algorithms assume that areas do not share their network operating and economic information among...
Flow Decomposition Reveals Dynamical Structure of Markov Process
Jianghong Shi; Tianqi Chen; Bo Yuan; Ping Ao
2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
Markov process is widely applied in almost all aspects of literature, especially important for understanding non-equilibrium processes. We introduce a decomposition to general Markov process in this paper. This decomposition decomposes the process into 3 independent parts: stationary distribution, symmetric detailed-balance part and anti-symmetric breaking detailed-balance part. This complete decomposition captures the steady state as well as the dynamics of the process, providing an elegant perspective for construction or analyzing problems. In light of the decomposition, a unique definition of relative entropy is found to formally separate the effect of detailed-balance part and breaking detailed-balance part. We find that the relative Gini entropy production introduced in the paper is not affected by the non-detailed balance part of the process. This property do not holds for other entropy definition in general discrete case.
Applications of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Inviscid Transonic Aerodynamics
Tan, Bui-Thanh
Two extensions to the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique are considered for steady transonic aerodynamic applications. The first is to couple the POD approach with a cubic spline interpolation procedure in ...
Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces
Salinas, S. Adriana
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used...
Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water
Hollabaugh, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bowman, Melvin G. (Los Alamos, NM)
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
How to produce hydrogen from water was a problem addressed by this invention. The solution employs a combined electrolytical-thermochemical sulfuric acid process. Additionally, high purity sulfuric acid can be produced in the process. Water and SO.sub.2 react in electrolyzer (12) so that hydrogen is produced at the cathode and sulfuric acid is produced at the anode. Then the sulfuric acid is reacted with a particular compound M.sub.r X.sub.s so as to form at least one water insoluble sulfate and at least one water insoluble oxide of molybdenum, tungsten, or boron. Water is removed by filtration; and the sulfate is decomposed in the presence of the oxide in sulfate decomposition zone (21), thus forming SO.sub.3 and reforming M.sub.r X.sub.s. The M.sub.r X.sub.s is recycled to sulfate formation zone (16). If desired, the SO.sub.3 can be decomposed to SO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 ; and the SO.sub.2 can be recycled to electrolyzer (12) to provide a cycle for producing hydrogen.
Modularity of Directed Networks: Cycle Decomposition Approach
Natasa Djurdjevac Conrad; Ralf Banisch; Christof Schütte
2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of decomposing networks into modules (or clusters) has gained much attention in recent years, as it can account for a coarse-grained description of complex systems, often revealing functional subunits of these systems. A variety of module detection algorithms have been proposed, mostly oriented towards finding hard partitionings of undirected networks. Despite the increasing number of fuzzy clustering methods for directed networks, many of these approaches tend to neglect important directional information. In this paper, we present a novel random walk based approach for finding fuzzy partitions of directed, weighted networks, where edge directions play a crucial role in defining how well nodes in a module are interconnected. We will show that cycle decomposition of a random walk process connects the notion of network modules and information transport in a network, leading to a new, symmetric measure of node communication. walk process, for which we will prove that although being time-reversible it inherits all necessary information about directions and modular structure of the original network. Finally, we will use this measure to introduce a communication graph, for which we will show that although being undirected it inherits all necessary information about modular structures from the original network.
Thermal decomposition study of hydroxylamine nitrate during storage and handling
Zhang, Chuanji
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
4.5. Temperature-time behaviors of the exotherm durations in Fig. 4.1 ....... 52 Figure 4.6. Kinetic analysis of HAN (24mass%) decomposition in a glass cell without catalyst... .......................................... 59 Figure 4.13. Temperature-time behaviors of the exotherm durations in Fig. 4.9 ....... 61 Figure 4.14. Kinetic analysis of the industrial HAN sample (17mass%) decomposition in a glass cell...
Feature based volume decomposition for automatic hexahedral mesh generation
LU,YONG; GADH,RAJIT; TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.
2000-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
Much progress has been made through these years to achieve automatic hexahedral mesh generation. While general meshing algorithms that can take on general geometry are not there yet; many well-proven automatic meshing algorithms now work on certain classes of geometry. This paper presents a feature based volume decomposition approach for automatic Hexahedral Mesh generation. In this approach, feature recognition techniques are introduced to determine decomposition features from a CAD model. The features are then decomposed and mapped with appropriate automatic meshing algorithms suitable for the correspondent geometry. Thus a formerly unmeshable CAD model may become meshable. The procedure of feature decomposition is recursive: sub-models are further decomposed until either they are matched with appropriate meshing algorithms or no more decomposition features are detected. The feature recognition methods employed are convexity based and use topology and geometry information, which is generally available in BREP solid models. The operations of volume decomposition are also detailed in the paper. The final section, the capability of the feature decomposer is demonstrated over some complicated manufactured parts.
Normality of Monte Carlo criticality eigenfunction decomposition coefficients
Toth, B. E.; Martin, W. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Griesheimer, D. P. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A proof is presented, which shows that after a single Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport power method iteration without normalization, the coefficients of an eigenfunction decomposition of the fission source density are normally distributed when using analog or implicit capture MC. Using a Pearson correlation coefficient test, the proof is corroborated by results from a uniform slab reactor problem, and those results also suggest that the coefficients are normally distributed with normalization. The proof and numerical test results support the application of earlier work on the convergence of eigenfunctions under stochastic operators. Knowledge of the Gaussian shape of decomposition coefficients allows researchers to determine an appropriate level of confidence in the distribution of fission sites taken from a MC simulation. This knowledge of the shape of the probability distributions of decomposition coefficients encourages the creation of new predictive convergence diagnostics. (authors)
Maximum Margin Clustering for State Decomposition of Metastable Systems
Wu, Hao
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
When studying a metastable dynamical system, a prime concern is how to decompose the phase space into a set of metastable states. Unfortunately, the metastable state decomposition based on simulation or experimental data is still a challenge. The most popular and simplest approach is geometric clustering which is developed based on the classical clustering technique. However, the prerequisites of this approach are: (1) data are obtained from simulations or experiments which are in global equilibrium and (2) the coordinate system is appropriately selected. Recently, the kinetic clustering approach based on phase space discretization and transition probability estimation has drawn much attention due to its applicability to more general cases, but the choice of discretization policy is a difficult task. In this paper, a new decomposition method designated as maximum margin metastable clustering is proposed, which converts the problem of metastable state decomposition to a semi-supervised learning problem so that...
Helmholtz-Hodge Theorems: Unification of Integration and Decomposition Perspectives
Jose G. Vargas
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a Helmholtz-like theorem for differential forms in Euclidean space $E_{n}$ using a uniqueness theorem similar to the one for vector fields. We then apply it to Riemannian manifolds, $R_{n}$, which, by virtue of the Schlaefli-Janet-Cartan theorem of embedding, are here considered as hypersurfaces in $E_{N}$ with $N\\geq n(n+1)/2$. We obtain a Hodge decomposition theorem that includes and goes beyond the original one, since it specifies the terms of the decomposition. We then view the same issue from a perspective of integrability of the system ($d\\alpha =\\mu ,$ $\\delta \\alpha =\
A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar
Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)
1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.
Iterative image-domain decomposition for dual-energy CT
Niu, Tianye; Dong, Xue; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei, E-mail: leizhu@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its capability of material decomposition. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical values of DECT. Existing denoising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. In this work, the authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. Based on the design principles of a best linear unbiased estimator, the authors include the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. The regularization term enforces the image smoothness by calculating the square sum of neighboring pixel value differences. To retain the boundary sharpness of the decomposed images, the authors detect the edges in the CT images before decomposition. These edge pixels have small weights in the calculation of the regularization term. Distinct from the existing denoising algorithms applied on the images before or after decomposition, the method has an iterative process for noise suppression, with decomposition performed in each iteration. The authors implement the proposed algorithm using a standard conjugate gradient algorithm. The method performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan©600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. The results are compared with those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a denoising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation as the proposed method but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, the method maintains the same spatial resolution on the decomposed images as that of the CT images before decomposition (8 pairs/cm) while significantly reducing their noise standard deviation. Compared to that obtained by the direct matrix inversion, the noise standard deviation in the images decomposed by the proposed algorithm is reduced by over 98%. Without considering the noise correlation properties in the formulation, the denoising scheme degrades the spatial resolution to 6 pairs/cm for the same level of noise suppression. Compared to the edge-preserving algorithm, the method achieves better low-contrast detectability. A quantitative study is performed on the contrast-rod slice of Catphan phantom. The proposed method achieves lower electron density measurement error as compared to that by the direct matrix inversion, and significantly reduces the error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, the method reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusions: The authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative process and achieves both goals simultaneously. By exploring the full variance-covariance properties of the decomposed images and utilizing the edge predetection, the proposed algorithm shows superior performance on noise suppression with high image spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
BLIND HARMONIC ADAPTIVE DECOMPOSITION APPLIED TO SUPERVISED SOURCE SEPARATION Benoit Fuentes through an algorithm called Blind Harmonic Adaptive Decomposition (BHAD). This algorithm provides [1]. However, performing this task in a completely blind way remains challenging, basically due
Matijevic, Domagoj
1 Blind decomposition of multispectral(RGB) image using sparse component analysis (SCA): clustering to the blind decomposition of low-dimensional multi-spectral (RGB) images will be presented. We give static
Schwaenen, Markus
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 C. Computational procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1. Solver settings and grid for URANS study . . . . . . . 48 2. LES study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 D. Results... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 1. Orthogonal decomposition URANS . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2. Orthogonal decomposition LES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 E. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 V OPTIMIZING TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER USING...
Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.
1 Experimental Evaluation of Performance Improvements in Abductive Network Classifiers with Problem by problem decomposition for abductive network classifiers that classify four noisy waveform patterns having decomposition method and significantly superior to an abductive network committee approach. Index Terms
ECG ARTIFACT REMOVAL FROM SURFACE EMG SIGNALS BY COMBINING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION AND
ECG ARTIFACT REMOVAL FROM SURFACE EMG SIGNALS BY COMBINING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION separation, ensemble empirical mode decomposition, ECG interference artifact, data preprocessing Abstract: The electrocardiography (ECG) artifact in surface electromyography (sEMG) is a major source of noise influencing
Breaking Up is Hard to Do: An Investigation of Decomposition for Assume-Guarantee Reasoning
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
-way decompositions for a set of sys- tems and properties, using two different verifiers, FLAVERS and LTSA
Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCR systems
Boyer, Edmond
on the UWS evaporation is taken into account using a NRTL activity model. The thermal decomposition model
The decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane: Studies in a high-temperature flow reactor
Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Melius, C.F.
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Experimental measurements of the decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), a common silicon carbide precursor, in a high-temperature flow reactor are presented. The results indicate that methane and hydrogen chloride are major products of the decomposition. No chlorinated silane products were observed. Hydrogen carrier gas was found to increase the rate of MTS decomposition. The observations suggest a radical-chain mechanism for the decomposition. The implications for silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition are discussed.
An optimization approach for fitting canonical tensor decompositions.
Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Tensor decompositions are higher-order analogues of matrix decompositions and have proven to be powerful tools for data analysis. In particular, we are interested in the canonical tensor decomposition, otherwise known as the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC decomposition (CPD), which expresses a tensor as the sum of component rank-one tensors and is used in a multitude of applications such as chemometrics, signal processing, neuroscience, and web analysis. The task of computing the CPD, however, can be difficult. The typical approach is based on alternating least squares (ALS) optimization, which can be remarkably fast but is not very accurate. Previously, nonlinear least squares (NLS) methods have also been recommended; existing NLS methods are accurate but slow. In this paper, we propose the use of gradient-based optimization methods. We discuss the mathematical calculation of the derivatives and further show that they can be computed efficiently, at the same cost as one iteration of ALS. Computational experiments demonstrate that the gradient-based optimization methods are much more accurate than ALS and orders of magnitude faster than NLS.
Research Article Kinetic Study of Epoxy Resin Decomposition
Guo, John Zhanhu
Research Article Kinetic Study of Epoxy Resin Decomposition in Near-Critical Water A diglycidyl ether type epoxy resin from bisphenol A, E-51, was cured by methyl- hexahydrophthalic anhydride (Me, hydrogenolysis, and alcoholysis [1316] have been reported to decompose epoxy resin into its original mono- mers
Quantitative and qualitative measures of decomposition: Is there a link?
Eaton, Robert, J.; Sanchez, Felipe, G.
2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Decomposition rates of loblolly pine coarse woody debris (CWD) were determined by mass loss and wood density changes for trees that differed in source of mortality (natural, girdle-poison, and felling). Specifically, three treatments were examined: (1) control (CON): natural mortality; (2) CD: 5-fold increase in CWD compared with the CON; and (3) CS: 12-fold increase in snags compared with the CON. The additional CWD in the CD treatment plots and the additional snags in the CS plots were achieved by felling (for the CD plots) or girdling followed by herbicide injection (for the CS plots) select trees in these plots. Consequently,mortality on the CD plots is due to natural causes and felling. Likewise, mortality on the CS plots is due to natural causes and girdle-poison. In each treatment plot, mortality due to natural causes was inventoried since 1997, whereas mortality due to girdle-poison and felling were inventoried since 2001. No significant difference was detected between the rates of decomposition for the CWD on these treatment plots, indicating that source of the tree mortality did not influence rates of decomposition once the tree fell. These experimental measures of decomposition were compared with two decay classification systems (three- and five-unit classifications) to determine linkages. Changes in wood density did not correlate to any decay classification, whereas mass loss had a weak correlation with decay class. However, the large degree of variation limits the utility of decay classification systems in estimating mass loss.
Sequence Learning Through PIPE and Automatic Task Decomposition
Fernandez, Thomas
Sequence Learning Through PIPE and Automatic Task Decomposition Rafal P. Salustowicz and Jurgen by long time lags: we show that discrete Probabilistic Incremental Program Evolu- tion" PIPE can solve Memory" | LSTM. In fact, some- times PIPE even outperforms LSTM. Exist- ing discrete methods, however
Stability in Queueing Networks via the Finite Decomposition Property
Hasenbein, John
. Hasenbein1 Graduate Program in OR\\IE Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Texas at Austin such systems. In Gamarnik and Hasen- bein (2005) it is shown if a fluid network has the finite decomposition property (FDP) and is not weakly stable, then any queueing network associated with the fluid network
SEISMIC WAVES ESTIMATION AND WAVE FIELD DECOMPOSITION WITH FACTOR GRAPHS
Loeliger, Hans-Andrea
SEISMIC WAVES ESTIMATION AND WAVE FIELD DECOMPOSITION WITH FACTOR GRAPHS Stefano MaranÃ² Christoph, Dept. Information Technology & Electr. Eng., 8092 ZÃ¼rich ABSTRACT Physical wave fields are often from sensors of different kinds. In this paper we propose a technique for the analysis of vector wave
INDDGO: Integrated Network Decomposition & Dynamic programming for Graph Optimization
Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Weerapurage, Dinesh P [ORNL
2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
It is well-known that dynamic programming algorithms can utilize tree decompositions to provide a way to solve some \\emph{NP}-hard problems on graphs where the complexity is polynomial in the number of nodes and edges in the graph, but exponential in the width of the underlying tree decomposition. However, there has been relatively little computational work done to determine the practical utility of such dynamic programming algorithms. We have developed software to construct tree decompositions using various heuristics and have created a fast, memory-efficient dynamic programming implementation for solving maximum weighted independent set. We describe our software and the algorithms we have implemented, focusing on memory saving techniques for the dynamic programming. We compare the running time and memory usage of our implementation with other techniques for solving maximum weighted independent set, including a commercial integer programming solver and a semi-definite programming solver. Our results indicate that it is possible to solve some instances where the underlying decomposition has width much larger than suggested by the literature. For certain types of problems, our dynamic programming code runs several times faster than these other methods.
Optimization Decomposition of Resistive Power Networks with Energy Storage
Tan, Chee Wei
Optimization Decomposition of Resistive Power Networks with Energy Storage Xin Lou and Chee Wei Tan energy through space and time be optimized to benefit the power network with large-scale energy storage integration? With energy storage, there is a possibility to generate more energy when the demand is low
Decomposition of Representations of CAR Induced by Bogoliubov Endomorphisms
Jens B{ö}ckenhauer
1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
In a Fock representation, a non-surjective Bogoliubov transformation of CAR leads to a reducible representation. For the case that the corresponding Bogoliubov operator has finite corank, the decomposition into irreducible subrepresentations is clarified. In particular, it turns out that the number of appearing subrepresentations is completely determined by the corank.
FRACTAL DIMENSION ESTIMATION: EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION VERSUS WAVELETS
GonÃ§alves, Paulo
FRACTAL DIMENSION ESTIMATION: EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION VERSUS WAVELETS Paulo GoncÂ¸alves INRIA, France. {firstname.lastname}@ens-lyon.fr ABSTRACT We address the problem of fractal dimension estimation motions. Index Terms-- fractal dimension, regularity exponents, wavelet transform, EMD 1. MOTIVATION
Optimal MU-MIMO precoder with MISO decomposition approach
Gesbert, David
Optimal MU-MIMO precoder with MISO decomposition approach Mustapha Amara, Yi Yuan-Wu Orange Labs considered the best existing precoder design algorithm for a MISO multiuser sys- tem proposed in [1 procedure transforming the MU-MIMO channel for each iteration into a MU-MISO channel trough virtual channel
On the Implementation of Interior Point Decomposition Algorithms for ...
2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
Oct 31, 2005 ... Industrial Engineering and Management Science Technical Report 2005-04 ... We also describe our interior decomposition algorithms using the Jordan algebra operations. .... The theoretical analysis assumes taking fixed steps along the ..... portfolio vector, and by ˜r ? Rn the random vector of asset returns ...
FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSITION OF A CLASS OF WILD POLYNOMIALS
Coulter, Robert
FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSITION OF A CLASS OF WILD POLYNOMIALS ROBERT S. COULTER, GEORGE HAVAS AND MARIE for the functional de- composition of wild polynomials over a finite field. However partial solutions exist factoring methods in skew-polynomial rings. This algorithm is extended to a related class of wild
On decomposition and piecewise linearization in petroleum production
Foss, Bjarne A.
On decomposition and piecewise linearization in petroleum production optimization Vidar Gunnerud operations of large and complex petroleum assets is not a trivial task. There are numerous decisions- port. In petroleum assets with rate dependent gas to oil, or water to oil ratios, and with limited gas
Singular value decomposition methods for wave propagation analysis
Santolik, Ondrej
Singular value decomposition methods for wave propagation analysis O. SantoliÂ´k,1 M. Parrot, and F planarity. Simulations of Z-mode waves, which simultaneously propagate with different wave vectors, indicate the waves simultaneously propagate with wave vectors in two opposite hemispheres. Finally, we show
complexity of cylindrical decompositions of sub-pfaffian sets
1910-00-40T23:59:59.000Z
tence was proved in [9] by means of a quasi-constructive process of .... All functions defining a stratum have the same Pfaffian chain as the input functions. .... The output of the algorithm is a cell decomposition (i.e. subdivision into finite.
AN AGGREGATIONBASED DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION PRECONDITIONER FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW \\Lambda
the standard finite element framework from [18,24]. The preconditioner also works well in the context of finiteAN AGGREGATIONÂBASED DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION PRECONDITIONER FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW \\Lambda E. W. JENKINS analysis of a twoÂlevel additive Schwarz method in which the coarse mesh basis is constructed
AN AGGREGATION-BASED DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION PRECONDITIONER FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW
. Our analysis uses the standard finite element framework from [18,24]. The preconditioner also works well in the context of finite differences, however, as some of the examples in Â£ 3 illustrateAN AGGREGATION-BASED DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION PRECONDITIONER FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW E. W. JENKINS Â¡, C
Roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of alkanes.
Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
CASPT2 calculations predict the existence of roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of propane, n-butane, isobutane and neopentane. The roaming radical paths lead to the formation of an alkane and an alkene instead of the expected radical products. The predicted barriers for the roaming radical paths lie {approx}1 kcal/mol below the corresponding radical asymptotes.
EVEN CYCLE DECOMPOSITIONS OF GRAPHS WITH NO ODD-K4-MINOR
Kim, Yong Jung
EVEN CYCLE DECOMPOSITIONS OF GRAPHS WITH NO ODD-K4-MINOR TONY HUYNH, SANG-IL OUM, AND MARYAM VERDIAN-RIZI Abstract. An even cycle decomposition of a graph G is a partition of E(G) into cycles of even length. Evidently, every Eulerian bipartite graph has an even cycle decomposition. Seymour [circuits
Rapid Protein Side-Chain Packing via Tree Decomposition Jinbo Xu1,2
Xu, Jinbo
is taken into consideration, then our tree-decomposition based energy minimization algorithm is more thanRapid Protein Side-Chain Packing via Tree Decomposition Jinbo Xu1,2 1 School of Computer Science 02139. j3xu@theory.csail.mit.edu Abstract. This paper proposes a novel tree decomposition based side
Effects of Nitrate on Decomposition in Salt Marsh Peats Arianna Goodman
Vallino, Joseph J.
Effects of Nitrate on Decomposition in Salt Marsh Peats Arianna Goodman Oberlin College `13 Advisor and loss. Rapid nitrate addition to salt marshes may stimulate bacterial decomposition of existing peat, and the decomposition may contribute to creek bank destabilization and collapse. Alternately, peat deposited in high
Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis
Maruyama, Shigeo
1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol
DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL CATALYST FOR NO DECOMPOSITION
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu
2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the proposed research is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is proposed to perform temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions. It is also proposed to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the current reporting period first the GC-MS system was calibrated. Then the TPD runs for the 15% Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst after treatment with NO and subsequent treatments with NO and O{sub 2} were done. For these runs the catalyst was pretreated with dry helium for 2 hours at 40 C.
DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL CATALYST FOR NO DECOMPOSITION
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu
2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NOx emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the proposed research is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is proposed to perform temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions. It is also proposed to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting period some TPRx runs with the catalysts containing 15% and 10% Pt were repeated due to the uncertainty of the oxygen content of the feed. In this reporting period runs were made with feed gas mixtures containing water vapor. Two reaction regimes, one below and the other above 750 K were observed. Presence of water vapor slightly enhanced the catalyst activity, but decreased the selectivity towards N{sub 2} at low temperatures.
Spatial, temporal, and hybrid decompositions for large-scale vehicle routing with time windows
Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper studies the use of decomposition techniques to quickly find high-quality solutions to large-scale vehicle routing problems with time windows. It considers an adaptive decomposition scheme which iteratively decouples a routing problem based on the current solution. Earlier work considered vehicle-based decompositions that partitions the vehicles across the subproblems. The subproblems can then be optimized independently and merged easily. This paper argues that vehicle-based decompositions, although very effective on various problem classes also have limitations. In particular, they do not accommodate temporal decompositions and may produce spatial decompositions that are not focused enough. This paper then proposes customer-based decompositions which generalize vehicle-based decouplings and allows for focused spatial and temporal decompositions. Experimental results on class R2 of the extended Solomon benchmarks demonstrates the benefits of the customer-based adaptive decomposition scheme and its spatial, temporal, and hybrid instantiations. In particular, they show that customer-based decompositions bring significant benefits over large neighborhood search in contrast to vehicle-based decompositions.
Mechanism of iron catalysis of carbon monoxide decomposition in refractories
Xu, M.W.P.; Brown, J.J. Jr. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Materials Engineering)
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors discuss the catalytic effects of selected iron phases (metals, oxides, sulfides, and carbides) on the Boudouard reaction studied in an effort to more fully understand the disintegration of refractories when exposed to CO for long periods of time. It was found that active Fe atoms generated from the reduction of the iron oxides, especially {alpha}-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, are the actual catalysts for the Boudouard reaction. The catalytic process confirmed by thermodynamic calculations, kinetic data, and X-ray diffraction data, consists of adsorption and decomposition of CO simultaneously forming carbides of iron. The chemisorption and subsequent decomposition of the iron carbides, rather than diffusion, constitute the rate-controlling process for carbon deposition.
Computational studies of polysiloxanes : oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions.
Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Zhang, Z.; Amine, K. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( CSE); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)
2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
Silicon-containing solvents have tremendous potential for application as electrolytes for electrical energy storage devices such as lithium-ion (air) batteries and supercapacitors. Quantum chemical methods were employed to investigate trends in oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions of a series of polysiloxanes. Various electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents can be used to tune the oxidation potential in shorter chain siloxanes but not in longer ones. Decomposition reactions of siloxanes in their oxidized states were investigated and compared against their carbon analogues. These studies suggest that the Si-O group provides added stability for siloxanes over their carbon analogues. Computational studies have also been performed for various disiloxanes and siloxanes with spacer groups to understand their thermochemical stability and oxidation potentials.
Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition
Allebach, J.P.; Ochoa, E.; Sweeney, D.W.
1987-10-09T23:59:59.000Z
A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed. 3 figs.
Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition
Allebach, Jan P. (West Lafayette, IN); Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed.
A multilevel preconditioner for domain decomposition boundary systems
Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, Jinchao.
1991-12-11T23:59:59.000Z
In this note, we consider multilevel preconditioning of the reduced boundary systems which arise in non-overlapping domain decomposition methods. It will be shown that the resulting preconditioned systems have condition numbers which be bounded in the case of multilevel spaces on the whole domain and grow at most proportional to the number of levels in the case of multilevel boundary spaces without multilevel extensions into the interior.
Thermal decomposition of silane to form hydrogenated amorphous Si film
Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Ghosh, Arup K. (Rocky Point, NY); Wiesmann, Harold J. (Wantagh, NY); Rock, Edward B. (Oxford, GB); Lutz, III, Harry A. (Midlothian, VA)
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This invention relates to hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by thermally decomposing silano (SiH.sub.4) or other gases comprising H and Si, at elevated temperatures of about 1700.degree.-2300.degree. C., and preferably in a vacuum of about 10.sup.-8 to 10.sup.-4 torr, to form a gaseous mixture of atomic hydrogen and atomic silicon, and depositing said gaseous mixture onto a substrate outside said source of thermal decomposition to form hydrogenated amorphous silicon.
Isothermal decomposition of New Albany shale from Kentucky
Miknis, F.P.; Conn, P.J.; Turner, T.F.; Berdan, G.L.
1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The isothermal decomposition of a New Albany oil shale has been studied in the temperature range of 375/sup 0/C to 425/sup 0/C. The amount of conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas and residue products was obtained for different reaction times in this temperature range. Elemental analyses were obtained on the bitumen, oil, and solid reaction products. Molecular weights and /sup 13/C NMR measurements of the aliphatic and aromatic carbon fractions in the solid products were made to complete the analyses. The results show that the thermal decomposition of the New Albany oil shale exhibits complex behavior. None of the data fit a simple first-order kinetic expression with respect to kerogen concentration for all temperatures, indicating that multiple parallel reactions occur during the decomposition. However, by fitting the initial slopes of the oil conversion data, it was possible to obtain the weighted average rate constants at each temperature. These data gave a good fit to the Arrhenius equation with the frequency factor equal to 6.38 x 10/sup 15/ min/sup -1/, and the activation energy equal to 207.5 k.j mol/sup -1/ for the kerogen decomposition. The maximum bitumen concentration was 10% or less of the original kerogen at any temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas and residue occurs during heating. Since the highly aliphatic Green River oil shale forms large amounts of bitumen whereas the more aromatic New Albany shale forms only small amounts, the formation of bitumen may be related to the aromatic nature of the kerogen. In general, the chemical properties of the oil were fairly constant at all reaction times and temperatures studied. Hydrogen sulfide was the dominant species in the gas phase. The solid and liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data show that the net increase of total aromatic carbon in the products was about 30% of the raw shale value. 37 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.
Experimental evidence for spinodal decomposition in multifragmentation of heavy systems
Tabacaru, G; Bacri, C O; Bellaize, N; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Bouriquet, B; Brou, R; Buchet, P; Charvet, J L; Chbihi, A; Chomaz, P; Colin, J; Colonna, M; Cussol, D; Dayras, R; Demeyer, A N; Doré, D; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Gerlic, E; Guarnera, A; Guinet, D; Guiot, B; Hudan, S; Lautesse, P; Lavaud, F; Laville, J; Le Neindre, N; Lecolley, J F; Leduc, C; Legrain, R; Louvel, M; Lukasik, J; López, O; Maskay, A M; Nalpas, L; Normand, J; Pawlowski, P; Plagnol, E; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Saint-Laurent, F; Salou, S; Steckmeyer, J C; Tamain, B; Tassan-Got, L; Vient, E; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Multifragmentation of fused systems was observed for central collisions between 32 AMeV 129Xe and Sn, and 36 AMeV 155Gd and U. Previous extensive comparisons between the two systems led to the hypothesis of spinodal decomposition of finite systems as the origin of multifragmentation for incident energies around 30 AMeV. New results on velocity and charge correlations of fragments bring strong arguments in favor of this interpretation
Evaluation of microporous carbon filters as catalysts for ozone decomposition
Whinnery, L.; Coutts, D.; Shen, C.; Adams, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Quintana, C.; Showalter, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Ozone is produced in small quantities in photocopiers and laser printers in the workplace and large quantities in industrial waste water treatment facilities. Carbon filters are commonly used to decompose this unwanted ozone. The three most important factors in producing a filter for this purpose are flow properties, efficiency, and cost. Most ozone decomposition applications require very low back-pressure at modest flow rates. The tradeoff between the number of pores and the size of the pores will be discussed. Typical unfiltered emissions in the workplace are approximately 1 ppm. The maximum permissible exposure limit, PEL, for worker exposure to ozone is 0.1 ppm over 8 hours. Several methods have been examined to increase the efficiency of ozone decomposition. Carbon surfaces were modified with catalysts, the surface activated, and the surface area was increased, in attempts to decompose ozone more effectively. Methods to reduce both the processing and raw material costs were investigated. Several sources of microporous carbon were investigated as ozone decomposition catalysts. Cheaper processing routes including macropore templating, faster drying and extracting methods were also studied.
Volume Decomposition and Feature Recognition for Hexahedral Mesh Generation
GADH,RAJIT; LU,YONG; TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.
1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z
Considerable progress has been made on automatic hexahedral mesh generation in recent years. Several automatic meshing algorithms have proven to be very reliable on certain classes of geometry. While it is always worth pursuing general algorithms viable on more general geometry, a combination of the well-established algorithms is ready to take on classes of complicated geometry. By partitioning the entire geometry into meshable pieces matched with appropriate meshing algorithm the original geometry becomes meshable and may achieve better mesh quality. Each meshable portion is recognized as a meshing feature. This paper, which is a part of the feature based meshing methodology, presents the work on shape recognition and volume decomposition to automatically decompose a CAD model into meshable volumes. There are four phases in this approach: (1) Feature Determination to extinct decomposition features, (2) Cutting Surfaces Generation to form the ''tailored'' cutting surfaces, (3) Body Decomposition to get the imprinted volumes; and (4) Meshing Algorithm Assignment to match volumes decomposed with appropriate meshing algorithms. The feature determination procedure is based on the CLoop feature recognition algorithm that is extended to be more general. Results are demonstrated over several parts with complicated topology and geometry.
Spectral decomposition of broad-line agns and host galaxies
Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Yip, Ching-Wa; /Pittsburgh U.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Connolly,; /Pittsburgh U.; Burton, Ross E.; /Pittsburgh U. /Case Western Reserve U.; Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Szalay, Alex S.; /Johns Hopkins; Brinkmann, John; /Apache Point Observ.
2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasingly bluer than early-type galaxies with increasing host luminosity. Most of the AGNs with detected hosts are emitting at between 1% and 10% of their estimated Eddington luminosities, but the sensitivity of the technique usually does not extend to the Eddington limit. There are mild correlations among the AGN and host galaxy eigencoefficients, possibly indicating a link between recent star formation and the onset of AGN activity. The catalog of spectral reconstruction parameters is available as an electronic table.
Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu
2007-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NOx emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N2 will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO2 catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO2 catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO2 catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O2, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO2 catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions were done. It is also planned to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting periods, runs were made with catalysts containing 15% Pt and 10% Pt on SnO2 were done. Catalysts containing 10% Pt resulted in significantly lower actgivities than 15% PT catalysts. Therefore, in the following tests 15% Pt/SnO2 catalysts were used. Runs to elucidate the effects of temperature, oxygen, water vapor, pretreatment temperature, and space velocity on NO dissociation were completed. It was found that the presence of oxygen and water vapor did not affect the activation energy of the NO dissociation reaction indicating the presence of the same rate controlling step for all feed compositions. Activation energy was higher for higher gas velocities suggesting the presence of mass transfer limitations at lower velocities. Presence of oxygen in the feed inhibited the NO decomposition. Having water vapor in the feed did not significantly affect the catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 373 K, but significantly reduced catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 900 K. In this reporting period, since no release time was available, no laboratory work was undertaken. Focus was on obtaining equilibrium data on various feed mixtures at temperatures up to 1000 K.
Development Of A Novel Catalyst For No Decomposition
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu
2006-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N2 will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO2 catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO2 catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO2 catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions were done. It is also planned to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting periods, runs were made with catalysts containing 15% Pt and 10% Pt on SnO{sub 2} were done. Catalysts containing 10% Pt resulted in significantly lower activities than 15% PT catalysts. Therefore, in the following tests 15% Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts were used. In the current reporting period runs to elucidate the effects of temperature, oxygen, water vapor, pretreatment temperature, and space velocity on NO dissociation were completed. It was found that the presence of oxygen and water vapor did not affect the activation energy of the NO dissociation reaction indicating the presence of the same rate controlling step for all feed compositions. Activation energy was higher for higher gas velocities suggesting the presence of mass transfer limitations at lower velocities. Presence of oxygen in the feed inhibited the NO decomposition. Having water vapor in the feed did not significantly affect the catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 373 K, but significantly reduced catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 900 K.
Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale Akyurtlu
2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions were done. It is also planned to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. Temperature programmed desorption and temperature controlled reaction runs were made with catalysts containing 15% Pt and 10% Pt on SnO{sub 2}. Catalysts containing 10% Pt resulted in significantly lower activities than 15% PT catalysts. Therefore, in the remainder of the tests 15% Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts were used. Isothermal reaction studies were made to elucidate the effects of temperature, oxygen, water vapor, pretreatment temperature, and space velocity on NO dissociation. It was found that the presence of oxygen and water vapor did not affect the activation energy of the NO dissociation reaction indicating the presence of the same rate controlling step for all feed compositions. Activation energy was higher for higher gas velocities suggesting the presence of mass transfer limitations at lower velocities. Presence of oxygen in the feed inhibited the NO decomposition. Having water vapor in the feed did not significantly affect the catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 373 K, but significantly reduced catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 900 K. Long-term deactivation studies indicated that the catalyst deactivated slowly both with and without the presence of added oxygen in the feed, Deactivation started later in the presence of oxygen. The activities of the catalysts investigated were too low below 1000 K for commercial applications. Their selectivity towards N{sub 2} was good at temperatures above 700 K. A different method for catalyst preparation is needed to improve the catalyst performance.
DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL CATALYST FOR NO DECOMPOSITION
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F Akyurtlu
2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the proposed research is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is proposed to perform temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions. It is also proposed to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting period runs were made with feed gas mixtures containing water vapor. Two reaction regimes, one below and the other above 750 K were observed. Presence of water vapor slightly enhanced the catalyst activity, but decreased the selectivity towards N{sub 2} at low temperatures. For the current reporting period it was decided to Finish the runs with water vapor in the feed, check the effect of higher gas flow rate, and run experiments with catalyst treated at 900 K and 1000 K to drive off the OH groups. Unfortunately, shortly into the current period we had to change the gas feed preparation section. Then two flow controllers failed and we had to switch to rotameters and manual flow control as a stop gap measure. This affected the quality of the results and required repeated runs. Currently the results are satisfactory and the experiments are continuing. To take advantage of the down time the surface areas of the 15% Pt and 10% Pt catalysts were measured. The results indicate that when the catalysts are treated at 900 K for to hours to remove most of the OH groups on the surface, the activity of the 15% Pt catalyst increased.
DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL CATALYST FOR NO DECOMPOSITION
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu
2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the proposed research is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is proposed to perform temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions. It is also proposed to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting period the GC-MS system was calibrated and the TPD runs for the 15% Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst after treatment with NO and subsequent treatments with NO and O{sub 2} were done. For these runs the catalyst was pretreated with dry helium for 2 hours at 40 C. The Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPRx) of NO and NO+O{sub 2} mixtures on the catalysts containing 15% Pt and 10% Pt were also performed. In this reporting period some TPRx runs with the catalysts containing 15% and 10% Pt were repeated due to the uncertainty of the oxygen content of the feed.
DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL CATALYST FOR NO DECOMPOSITION
Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu
2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the proposed research is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is proposed to perform temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions. It is also proposed to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting period the GC-MS system was calibrated and the TPD runs for the 15% Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst after treatment with NO and subsequent treatments with NO and O{sub 2} were done. For these runs the catalyst was pretreated with dry helium for 2 hours at 40 C. In the current reporting period The Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPRx) of NO and NO+O{sub 2} mixtures on the catalysts containing 15% Pt and 10% Pt were completed.
The Static Quark Potential from the Gauge Independent Abelian Decomposition
Nigel Cundy; Y. M. Cho; Weonjong Lee
2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the relationship between colour confinement and the gauge independent Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian decomposition. The decomposition is defined in terms of a colour field $n$; the principle novelty of our study is that we have defined this field in terms of the eigenvectors of the Wilson Loop. This establishes an equivalence between the path ordered integral of the non-Abelian gauge fields with an integral over an Abelian restricted gauge field which is tractable both theoretically and numerically in lattice QCD. We circumvent path ordering without needing an additional path integral. By using Stokes' theorem, we can compute the Wilson Loop in terms of a surface integral over a restricted field strength, and show that the restricted field strength may be dominated by certain structures, which occur when one of the quantities parametrising the colour field $n$ winds itself around a non-analyticity in the colour field. If they exist, these structures will lead to a area law scaling for the Wilson Loop and provide a mechanism for quark confinement. We search for these structures in quenched lattice QCD. We perform the Abelian decomposition, and compare the electric and magnetic fields with the patterns expected theoretically. We find that the restricted field strength is dominated by objects which may be peaks a single lattice spacing in size or extended string-like lines of electromagnetic flux. The objects are not isolated monopoles, as they generate electric fields in addition to magnetic fields, and the fields are not spherically symmetric, but may be either caused by a monopole/anti-monopole condensate, some other types of topological objects or a combination of these. Removing these peaks removes the area law scaling of the string tension, suggesting that they are responsible for confinement.
E-Print Network 3.0 - acid decomposition uso Sample Search Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
in the decomposition of organic material, is the primary source of acidity in unpolluted rainwater. NOTE: Parts per... A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson ATOC 3500 Thursday, April ......
Decomposition of cumyl hydroperoxide in the presence of sulphonated silica in a flow-type system
Shelpakova, N.A.; Ioffa, A.F.
1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
An investigation has been made of the decomposition of cumyl hydroperoxide (CHP) in the presence of silica-based sulphocationites in a flow-type system. It was established that the given specimens are effective catalysts for the decomposition of CHP into phenol and acetone. It was shown that, in the course of the process, no irreversible poisoning of the surface of the catalyst by the products of CHP decomposition occurs. Data of chromatographic analysis of the products of CHP decomposition in the presence of sulphuric acid and silica-based sulphocationites are given.
Signal evaluations using singular value decomposition for Thomson scattering diagnostics
Tojo, H., E-mail: tojo.hiroshi@jaea.go.jp; Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Itami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Funaba, H.; Hayashi, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)
2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper provides a novel method for evaluating signal intensities in incoherent Thomson scattering diagnostics. A double-pass Thomson scattering system, where a laser passes through the plasma twice, generates two scattering pulses from the plasma. Evaluations of the signal intensities in the spectrometer are sometimes difficult due to noise and stray light. We apply the singular value decomposition method to Thomson scattering data with strong noise components. Results show that the average accuracy of the measured electron temperature (T{sub e}) is superior to that of temperature obtained using a low-pass filter (<20 MHz) or without any filters.
The Static Quark Potential from the Gauge Independent Abelian Decomposition
Cundy, Nigel; Lee, Weonjong
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the relationship between colour confinement and the gauge independent Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian decomposition. The decomposition is defined in terms of a colour field $n$; the principle novelty of our study is that we have defined this field in terms of the eigenvectors of the Wilson Loop. This establishes an equivalence between the path ordered integral of the non-Abelian gauge fields with an integral over an Abelian restricted gauge field which is tractable both theoretically and numerically in lattice QCD. We circumvent path ordering without needing an additional path integral. By using Stokes' theorem, we can compute the Wilson Loop in terms of a surface integral over a restricted field strength, and show that the restricted field strength may be dominated by certain structures, which occur when one of the quantities parametrising the colour field $n$ winds itself around a non-analyticity in the colour field. If they exist, these structures will lead to a area law scaling for the Wilson Loop and ...
Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign in Electric Motors Industry
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
2013/8/1 1 Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign in Electric Motors Industry of Automation Lagrangean Decomposition Algorithm for Supply Chain Redesign of Electric Motors Industry Redesign of Electric Motors Industry Institute of Process Control and Engineering, Department
Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition Sylvain: refinery planning and crude-oil operations scheduling. The proposed approach consists of using Lagrangian-study and a larger refinery problem show that the Lagrangian decomposition algorithm is more robust than the other
Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide
Sadoway, Donald Robert
on the moon and on Mars for the generation of oxygen along with the production of structural metalsProduction of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful
Causation-Based T2 Decomposition for Multivariate Process Monitoring and Diagnosis
Jin, Jionghua "Judy"
. Multivariate SPC using Hotelling 2 T statistic is widely adopted for change detection. However, 2 T control chart alone is not capable of identifying the root causes of the change. Thus, decomposition of 2 network, causal model, SPC, 2 T decomposition Biography Ms. Li is a research student in the Department
c Copyright by David Daly, 2001 ANALYSIS OF CONNECTION AS A DECOMPOSITION TECHNIQUE
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of
c Copyright by David Daly, 2001 #12;ANALYSIS OF CONNECTION AS A DECOMPOSITION TECHNIQUE BY DAVID of the decomposition techniques introducing an error of less than 11%. iii #12;To my father, who will never see William H. Sanders, for technical advice and support on the M¨obius project. Jenny Applequist
Distribution Free Decomposition of Multivariate Data \\Lambda SPR'98 Invited submission
neighbor method, kernel estimation, [8, 16, 18, 19]. For higher dimensional feature spaces, multivariateDistribution Free Decomposition of Multivariate Data \\Lambda SPR'98 Invited submission Dorin; Distribution Free Decomposition of Multivariate Data Abstract We present a practical approach to nonparametric
APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF RANDOM FIACHRA KNOX, DANIELA KUHN AND DERYK OSTHUS
KÃ¼hn, Daniela
APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF RANDOM GRAPHS FIACHRA KNOX, DANIELA KÂ¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. We show that if pn log n the binomial random graph Gn,p has an approximate Hamilton decomposition. More precisely, we show that in this range Gn,p contains a set of edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles
Kalganova, Tatiana
MODULAR DECOMPOSITION OF THE NORÂTSUM MULTIPLEÂVALUED PLA T. KALGANOVA P , N. LIPNITSKAYA P , G PLAÂbased combinational circuits by modular decomposition is presented. Main subjects are 1) Specific of variables, 3) Realization of functions by multipleÂvalued PLAÂbased combinational circuits, 4) Comparison
Litvak, Marcy
Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest: Temperature dependence and sources of respired boreal peat under black spruce forest with sphagnum and feather moss understory using incubation increments. At temperatures below 0°C, significant decomposition was observed in feather moss peat
Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps
Vallino, Joseph J.
Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps examined the effects of nutrient increases on peat decomposition. I analyzed peat and porewater nutrients of surface water nutrients. The initial C:N and C:P ratios of the peat were higher than the molar ratios
On the use of proper orthogonal decomposition to describe inflow turbulence and wind turbine loads
Manuel, Lance
On the use of proper orthogonal decomposition to describe inflow turbulence and wind turbine loads, USA Keywords: Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, inflow turbulence, wind turbine ABSTRACT: We discuss experienced by a wind turbine. A methodology is proposed that employs low- dimensional POD models
Geometric Task Decomposition in a Multi-Agent Environment Kaivan Kamali1
Martinez, Tony R.
the task-space among team members and includes two phases: static and dynamic. Static decomposition then starts the mission (in the simulation) and the performance of the team is measured. This process is re is already decomposed among team members by static decompo- sition. The decomposition is modified to improve
ECG ARTIFACT REMOVAL FROM SURFACE EMG SIGNALS BY COMBINING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION
Dupont, StÃ©phane
ECG ARTIFACT REMOVAL FROM SURFACE EMG SIGNALS BY COMBINING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION decomposition, ECG interference artifact, Data preprocessing. Abstract: The electrocardiography (ECG) artifact (ECG) artifact. In many cases however, the sEMG is the only available signal, making this task more
Embedded H-holomorphic maps and open book decompositions
von Bergmann, Jens
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate nicely embedded H--holomorphic maps into stable Hamiltonian three--manifolds. In particular we prove that such maps locally foliate and satisfy a no--first--intersection property. Using the compactness results of arXiv:0904.1603 we show that connected components of the space of such maps can be compactified if they contain a global surface of section. As an application we prove that any contact structure on a 3--manifold admits and H--holomorphic open book decomposition. This work is motivated by the program laid out by Abbas, Cieliebak and Hofer to give a proof to the Weinstein conjecture using holomorphic curves. The results in this paper, with the exception of the compactness statement, have been independently obtained by C. Abbas in arXiv:0907.3512.
Parallel Algorithms for Graph Optimization using Tree Decompositions
Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Weerapurage, Dinesh P [ORNL; Groer, Christopher S [ORNL
2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Although many $\\cal{NP}$-hard graph optimization problems can be solved in polynomial time on graphs of bounded tree-width, the adoption of these techniques into mainstream scientific computation has been limited due to the high memory requirements of the necessary dynamic programming tables and excessive runtimes of sequential implementations. This work addresses both challenges by proposing a set of new parallel algorithms for all steps of a tree decomposition-based approach to solve the maximum weighted independent set problem. A hybrid OpenMP/MPI implementation includes a highly scalable parallel dynamic programming algorithm leveraging the MADNESS task-based runtime, and computational results demonstrate scaling. This work enables a significant expansion of the scale of graphs on which exact solutions to maximum weighted independent set can be obtained, and forms a framework for solving additional graph optimization problems with similar techniques.
Object detection with a multistatic array using singular value decomposition
Hallquist, Aaron T.; Chambers, David H.
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across a surface and that travels down the surface. The detection system converts the return signals from a time domain to a frequency domain, resulting in frequency return signals. The detection system then performs a singular value decomposition for each frequency to identify singular values for each frequency. The detection system then detects the presence of a subsurface object based on a comparison of the identified singular values to expected singular values when no subsurface object is present.
Maruyama, Shigeo
Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol
Salloum, Maher N.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.
2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Metal particle beds have recently become a major technique for hydrogen storage. In order to extract hydrogen from such beds, it is crucial to understand the decomposition kinetics of the metal hydride. We are interested in obtaining a a better understanding of the uranium hydride (UH3) decomposition kinetics. We first developed an empirical model by fitting data compiled from different experimental studies in the literature and quantified the uncertainty resulting from the scattered data. We found that the decomposition time range predicted by the obtained kinetics was in a good agreement with published experimental results. Secondly, we developed a physics based mathematical model to simulate the rate of hydrogen diffusion in a hydride particle during the decomposition. We used this model to simulate the decomposition of the particles for temperatures ranging from 300K to 1000K while propagating parametric uncertainty and evaluated the kinetics from the results. We compared the kinetics parameters derived from the empirical and physics based models and found that the uncertainty in the kinetics predicted by the physics based model covers the scattered experimental data. Finally, we used the physics-based kinetics parameters to simulate the effects of boundary resistances and powder morphological changes during decomposition in a continuum level model. We found that the species change within the bed occurring during the decomposition accelerates the hydrogen flow by increasing the bed permeability, while the pressure buildup and the thermal barrier forming at the wall significantly impede the hydrogen extraction.
Thermal runaway reaction hazard and decomposition mechanism of the hydroxylamine system
Wei, Chunyang
2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
of 50 wt% HA/water solutions [7-9]. These studies show that HA decomposition is highly exothermic with a large pressure build-up in a contained environment [8]. The presence of air or oxygen is not necessary to initiate the decomposition because HA... in water are of interest. Several groups have investigated the kinetics and mechanism of the HAN decomposition using various techniques and under different conditions [13-16]. However, due to its highly exothermic and rapid behavior of the reaction...
Multiarray Signal Processing: Tensor decomposition meets compressed sensing Lek-Heng Lima
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Multiarray Signal Processing: Tensor decomposition meets compressed sensing Lek-Heng Lima , Pierre ; Available online July 29, 2010. Presented by O. Macchi. Email addresses: lekheng@math.berkeley.edu (Lek-Heng
Jrl Syst Sci & Complexity (2007) 20: 198214 STRUCTURAL DECOMPOSITION AND ITS
Benmei, Chen
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and disturbance decoupling (see, e.g., Chen[16] and Saberi et al.[17] ). The structural properties Minghua HE and Saberi[19] for non-singular systems. However, it will be seen shortly that the structural decomposition
Kammen, Daniel M.
of Copenhagen and RDRC ABSTRACT Globalization poses special challenges for economies in transition, particularly1 Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques undermine reform and structural adjustments efforts in this important emerging Asian economy. Key words
Armagan, Emre
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, a Benders decomposition algorithm is designed and implemented to solve both deterministic and stochastic pooling problems to global optimality. Convergence of the algorithm to a global optimum is proved and ...
Asymmetric modes decomposition in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator
Zhang, Dian; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@nudt.edu.cn; Zhong, Huihuang; Jin, Zhenxing; Ju, Jinchuan [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Most of the investigated overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs) are azimuthally symmetric; thus, they are designed through two dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. However, 2-D PIC simulations cannot reveal the effect of asymmetric modes on beam-wave interaction. In order to investigate whether asymmetric mode competition needs to be considered in the design of overmoded RBWOs, a numerical method of determining the composition of both symmetric and asymmetric modes in three dimensional (3-D) PIC simulations is introduced in this paper. The 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of an X-band overmoded RBWO are analyzed. Our analysis indicates that the 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of our device are quite different due to asymmetric mode competition. In fact, asymmetric surface waves, especially EH{sub 11} mode, can lead to serious mode competition when electron beam propagates near the surface of slow wave structures (SWSs). Therefore, additional method of suppressing asymmetric mode competition, such as adjusting the reflections at both ends of SWSs to decrease the Q-factor of asymmetric modes, needs to be utilized in the design of overmoded RBWOs. Besides, 3-D PIC simulation and modes decomposition are essential for designing overmoded RBWOs.
Systematic decomposition of the neutrinoless double beta decay operator
Florian Bonnet; Martin Hirsch; Toshihiko Ota; Walter Winter
2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the systematic decomposition of the dimension nine neutrinoless double beta decay operator, focusing on mechanisms with potentially small contributions to neutrino mass, while being accessible at the LHC. We first provide a (d=9 tree-level) complete list of diagrams for neutrinoless double beta decay. From this list one can easily recover all previously discussed contributions to the neutrinoless double beta decay process, such as the celebrated mass mechanism or "exotics", such as contributions from left-right symmetric models, R-parity violating supersymmetry and leptoquarks. More interestingly, however, we identify a number of new possibilities which have not been discussed in the literature previously. Contact to earlier works based on a general Lorentz-invariant parametrisation of the neutrinoless double beta decay rate is made, which allows, in principle, to derive limits on all possible contributions. We furthermore discuss possible signals at the LHC for mediators leading to the short-range part of the amplitude with one specific example. The study of such contributions would gain particular importance if there were a tension between different measurements of neutrino mass such as coming from neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology or single beta decay.
Thermal decomposition of Colorado and Kentucky reference oil shales
Miknis, F.P.; Turner, T.F.; Ennen, L.W.; Chong, S.L.; Glaser, R.
1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Isothermal pyrolysis studies have been conducted on a Green River Formation oil shale from Colorado and a New Albany oil shale from Kentucky. The conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas, and residue products was obtained for different isothermal reaction times in the temperature range of 375/degree/C to 440/degree/C (707/degree/ to 824/degree/F) using a heated sand bath reactor system. Particular attention was paid to the formation of the bitumen intermediate during decomposition of the two shales. The maximum amount of extractable bitumen in the New Albany shale was 14% or less of the original kerogen at any given temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas, and residue products is a major pathway of conversion of this shale during pyrolysis. In contrast, a significant fraction of the Colorado oil shale kerogen was converted to the intermediate bitumen during pyrolysis. The bitumen data imply that the formation of soluble intermediates may depend on original kerogen structure and may be necessary for producing high yields by pyrolysis. 24 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.
Climate Change Attribution Using Empirical Decomposition of Climatic Data
Loehle, Craig; 10.2174/1874282301105010074
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The climate change attribution problem is addressed using empirical decomposition. Cycles in solar motion and activity of 60 and 20 years were used to develop an empirical model of Earth temperature variations. The model was fit to the Hadley global temperature data up to 1950 (time period before anthropogenic emissions became the dominant forcing mechanism), and then extrapolated from 1951 to 2009. After subtraction of the model, the residuals showed an approximate linear upward trend after 1942. Herein we assume that the residual upward warming observed during the second half of the 20th century has been mostly induced by a worldwide rapid increase of anthropogenic emissions, urbanization and land use change. The warming observed before 1942 is relatively small and it is assumed to have been mostly naturally induced by a climatic recovery since the Little Ice Age of the 17th century and the Dalton Minimum at the beginning of the 19th century. The resulting full natural plus anthropogenic model fits the enti...
Welsh, Lisa Williamson
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
of the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems depends on nutrients recycled through the decomposition of plant detritus (Swift et al. 1979, Vargo et al. 1998). Thus, a better understanding of organic decomposition in wetland sediments... was then transported to the site in an anaerobic chamber constructed of PVC and maintained 12 under deoxygenated conditions until insertion into the slough sediments. The peeper was positioned in the slough for 2 weeks to allow equilibration and diffusion...
Kuyumcu, Ahmet
2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
A DECOMPOSITION APPROACH TO PROJECT COMPRESSION IN CPM/PERT NETWORKS WITH CONCAVE ACTIVITY COST FUNCTIONS A Thesis by AHMET KUYUMCU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering A DECOMPOSITION APPROACH TO PROJECT COMPRESSION IN CPM/PERT NETWORKS WITH CONCAVE ACTIVITY COST FUNCTIONS A Thesis by AHMET KUYUMCU Approved as to style...
Caballero, F.G. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Yen, Hung-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Rd. Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6139 (United States); Cornide, J. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Chang, Hsiao-Tzu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Rd. Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Garcia-Mateo, C. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Yang, Jer-Ren [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Rd. Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
Interphase carbide precipitation due to austenite decomposition was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography in tempered nanostructured bainitic steels. Results showed that cementite (?) forms by a paraequilibrium transformation mechanism at the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface with a simultaneous three phase crystallographic orientation relationship. - Highlights: • Interphase carbide precipitation due to austenite decomposition • Tempered nanostructured bainitic steels • High resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography • Paraequilibrium ? with three phase crystallographic orientation relationship.
The crystal and magnetic structures of LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3-x}M{sub x}O{sub 8} (M=Al, Ga, In)
Goossens, D.J., E-mail: goossens@rsc.anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Henderson, L.S.F.; Trevena, S. [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)] [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Hudspeth, J.M. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)] [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Avdeev, M.; Hester, J.R. [The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)] [The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)
2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} (A{sub 3}B{sub 3}O{sub 8}) is an example of a layered structure in that it consists of pairs of octahedral, perovskite-like layers alternating with a single tetrahedral layer. This work explores the doping of non-magnetic group 13 elements, M=Al, Ga and In, onto the B-site of LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3-x}M{sub x}O{sub 8} as a function of x. The structural and magnetic effects are examined using a combination of neutron and X-ray diffraction. Solubility limits are established. It is found that for M=Ga the solubility limit occurs between x=1.0 and x=1.25, for the synthesis conditions used, while there is evidence for low (x<0.25) but non-zero substitution of Al. Structural refinements at x=1 suggest that Ga prefers neither the tetrahedral nor octahedral sites. The magnetic structure of LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}GaO{sub 8} has been examined using neutron diffraction at 3.2 K and room temperature. At low temperature the staggered moment per Fe{sup 3+} is 3.8(1){mu}{sub B} in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} and 4.8(1){mu}{sub B} in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}GaO{sub 8}. The magnetic space group (P{sub 2b}2{sub 1} Prime ma Prime ) and moment direction (along c) does not appear to change with Ga substitution. - Graphical abstract: Solubility limits for group 13 elements in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solubility limits for group 13 elements in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution of the magnetic structure with temperature and doping is explored using neutron scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic space group is quoted as P{sub 2b}2{sub 1}'ma' and the staggered moments are obtained for LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} and LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}GaO{sub 8}.
Born--Oppenheimer decomposition for quantum fields on quantum spacetimes
Kristina Giesel; Johannes Tambornino; Thomas Thiemann
2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum Field Theory on Curved Spacetime (QFT on CS) is a well established theoretical framework which intuitively should be a an extremely effective description of the quantum nature of matter when propagating on a given background spacetime. If one wants to take care of backreaction effects, then a theory of quantum gravity is needed. It is now widely believed that such a theory should be formulated in a non-perturbative and therefore background independent fashion. Hence, it is a priori a puzzle how a background dependent QFT on CS should emerge as a semiclassical limit out of a background independent quantum gravity theory. In this article we point out that the Born-Oppenheimer decomposition (BOD) of the Hilbert space is ideally suited in order to establish such a link, provided that the Hilbert space representation of the gravitational field algebra satisfies an important condition. If the condition is satisfied, then the framework of QFT on CS can be, in a certain sense, embedded into a theory of quantum gravity. The unique representation of the holonomy-flux algebra underlying Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) violates that condition. While it is conceivable that the condition on the representation can be relaxed, for convenience in this article we consider a new classical gravitational field algebra and a Hilbert space representation of its restriction to an algebraic graph for which the condition is satisfied. An important question that remains and for which we have only partial answers is how to construct eigenstates of the full gravity-matter Hamiltonian whose BOD is confined to a small neighbourhood of a physically interesting vacuum spacetime.
Water Vapor Radiometry : Outline of Goals and Tasks for the Spring Semester 2001
Backer, Don
that can accuÂ rately measure the spectrum of the water vapor emisÂ sion. The current receivers follow, as in a conventional reÂ ceiver, the correlation receiver splits the rf signal into two with a splitter that follows the feed horn. Both branches are mixed with a carefully controlled therÂ mal load. A 180 ffi phase shift
Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd,,WO4...2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser
-order nonlinear susceptibility, high ther- mal conductivity, and strong Raman conversion properties. KGW has potential for enhanced non- linear device performance through longer interaction lengths with high amorphous glasses8 and crystalline materials such as lithium niobate,9 quartz,10 Ti:sapphire,11 and KY WO4 2
Boyer, Edmond
, page C9-2 17 DÉFORMATION PLASTIQUE A BASSE TEMPÉRATURE DU FLUORURE DE LITHIUM IRRADIÉ M. CAGNON taille croit avec la dose d'irradiation). Abstract. - Results are presented for the plastic properties for the ther- mal part of the flow stress by elastic interaction with moviiig dislocations (their number does
Temperature-aware Scheduling for Embedded Heterogeneous MPSoCs with Special Purpose IP Cores
Simunic, Tajana
and thermal envelope. Heteroge- neous MPSoCs provide even better performance and power Permission to make propose a thermal management tech- nique which reduces the performance penalty of central ther- mal, our technique can reduce the occurence of thermal violations by at least 3X while improving
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
of the electric motor (electric bicycle on hybrid ther- mal/electric vehicle. An electric motor supplied by a battery constitutes a reversible OF MINIMAL ENERGY CONTROLS FOR AN ELECTRIC BICYCLE D. GROSSOLEIL, D.MEIZEL XLIM, UMR CNRS Limoges University
Cronin, Steve
thermoelectric materials T. Koga,a) X. Sun, S. B. Cronin, and M. S. Dresselhausb) Department of Physics to provide a promising strategy for designing materials with a large thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is already a good thermoelectric material, 3 the reduction of the lattice ther- mal conductivity ph due
Chelated Indium Activable Tracers for Geothermal Reservoirs
Stanford University
Center (SLAC), for providing the califclmiurh-252 neutron source. Appreciation is extended to Lew, rock size, and temperature on the tracer adsoqjtion and ther- mal degradation. The rock employed for these measurements was gragwacke, a prek valent rock type at The Geysers, California geothermal field. The re
Gilli, Adrian
-rich sample is a sample with more than 1% TOC, which is considered as a potential source rock in petroleum were analysed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis (Espitalie´ et al., 1985a,b, 1986) in order to obtain TOC, hydrogen index (HI) and ther- mal maturity (Tmax) data. A thin section and palynological slide of each
ELSEVIER Fusion Engineering and Design 29 (1995) 43.~50 Engineering
Najmabadi, Farrokh
electric output to the distribution grid [3]. Ther- mal cycling of heat transport and power conversion 0920 at a constant temperature to the primary heat exchanger. Several conventional TES systems were evaluated dur MW(e) output during the dwell period of 200 s. Thermal energy resulting from direct nuclear heating
DOI: 10.1007/s00339-004-2690-2 Appl. Phys. A 79, 855857 (2004)
Dumitrica,Traian
to femtosecond laser excitation. Using molecular dynamics simulations based on a tight-binding electronic ther- mal motion, phonons are excited incoherently. In order to simulate the dynamical process of laser Hamiltonian we discuss two examples of laser-induced coherent phonons: (1) excitation of the E2g1 phonon mode
RESEARCH ARTICLE Time series analysis of infrared satellite data for detecting
Wright, Robert
successfully detected ther- mal anomalies in TIR data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR algorithm that analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy. These instruments provide data over potentially dangerous, high-temperature phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions
Mechanical engineering Department Seminar
power generation gas turbines and jet engines. As the energy efficiency of gas turbines in- creases to pro- vide thermal protection to turbine blades and vanes in the hottest sections of both electric with turbine inlet turbine, advances in turbine efficiency depend on improved ther- mal barrier coatings
Design for, and Evaluation of Life Cycle Performance
Ahner, D. J.; Hall, E. W.
?. DESIGN FOR, AND EVALUATION OF LIFE CYCLE PERFORMANCE David J. Ahner Eldon W. Hall GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT EQUIPMENT DEGRADATION Project evaluation necessarily requires performance estimates over..., operating procedures, equipment availabilities, etc. This paper discusses the general nature, and the ther mal interaction of power plant components as individual equipment degradation occurs, describing overall plant performance trends and quant...
Application Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability
Coskun, Ayse
-efficiency, and (ii) the effect of temperature optimization on system-level energy consumption. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent]. A closely related issue is ther- mal management: High power consumption not only increases opera- tional challenges--Performance, Energy, and Temperature (PET)--solely through novel hardware design. We know
Klotzkin, David
injection which we term "thermal impact" , the ther- mal conductivity of the active region is estimatedAnalysis of the reduced thermal conductivity in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers from chirp; published online 21 September 2006 The thermal conductivity of self-organized quantum dot QD active regions
Merlino, Robert L.
. L. Merlino Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 with the interaction of planets with the solar wind and the interaction of comets with the interstellar medium energy into ther- mal energy in plasmas and for accelerating charged particles. Geophysical
Surface composites: A new class of engineered materials Rajiv Singh and James Fitz-Gerald
Fitz-Gerald, James M.
applications, are generally com- posed of ceramic, metal, or polymeric matrix with a dispersed second phase for controlled catalytic activity, and creating adherent metal-ceramic and ceramic-polymeric joints. I and should possess chemical, ther- mal, and interfacial compatibility with the matrix. In FGM, the chemical
EarlyOff: Using House Cooling Rates To Save Energy Microsoft Research, UK and
Krumm, John
@microsoft.com Abstract Home heating systems often have a significant ther- mal inertia, as homes stay warm after the heating is turned off for significant periods of time. We present the EarlyOff concept, whereby home, home heating con- sumes more energy than any other household end- use [1]. While many houses have
Johansson, Karl Henrik
Randomized Model Predictive Control for HVAC Systems Alessandra Parisio, Damiano Varagnolo, Daniel Conditioning (HVAC) sys- tems play a fundamental role in maintaining acceptable ther- mal comfort and Indoor. A possible solu- tion is to develop effective control strategies for HVAC sys- tems, but this is complicated
Radiation Measurements 42 (2007) 15871599 www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas
Chen, Reuven
measurements made during dating appli- cations. This may be carried out using the thermoluminescence (TL data of Wintle and Murray [1998. Towards the development of a preheat procedure for OSL dating of a short ther- mal treatment (such as 10 s at 260 C) is commonly employed during dating studies of quartz
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
is exposed to a temperature as high as 3.5 Ã? 108 K, which corresponds to an equilibrium den- sity of about the He-burning shell suffers recurrent ther- mal instabilities (thermal pulses or TPs). After each TP 1011 neutrons per cm-3 . However, due to such a high neutron density, the resulting nucleosynthesis
J Sign Process Syst (2013) 72:181196 DOI 10.1007/s11265-013-0787-6
Qin, Xiao
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
online: 28 June 2013 © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract There is a lack of thermal of hard drives (HDDs) and solid state disks (SSDs). To address this problem, we build a ther- mal model of energy consumption and cooling costs of large-scale storage clusters, there is an urgent need for data
Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-
Gross, George
spectrum of time intervals. In therange of seconds, when load variationsare small and random, the automatic by a number of generation control functions such as hydro scheduling, unit commitment, hydro-ther- mal present, functions such as fuel, hydro, and maintenance scheduling are performed to ensure that the load
V European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ECCOMAS CFD 2010
MÃ¼ller,Bernhard
an important role include ink-jet printing, spray cooling, pesticide spraying, erosion processes due to rain and ther- mal spray coating. Drop impacts also play an important role in gas-liquid separation.g. density and viscosity are smeared out over several grid points. The result of those diffuse interface
Budny, Robert
-mode and the scaling of the global thermal energy confinement time, E .4 Large extrapolations of the energy confinement- mated using the total electron number, Ne and the total ther- mal energy, Wth , i.e., * AWth /(NeB), Wth and plasma current varied together in H, D, DT, and T isotopes. The local energy transport in more than fifty
M. Fakoor-Pakdaman Laboratory for Alternative Energy
Bahrami, Majid
transient in sustainable energy applications include the variable thermal load on (i) ther- mal solar panels in thermal energy storage (TES) systems; (ii) power electronics of solar/wind/tidal energy conversion systems and environmental conditions, the power electronics of the sustainable energy conversion systems, TES systems
SSFP-Based MR Thermometry Vaishali Paliwal,1
Atalar, Ergin
SSFP-Based MR Thermometry Vaishali Paliwal,1 AbdEl-Monem El-Sharkawy,2 Xiangying Du,3 Xiaoming Yang,3 and Ergin Atalar1Â4* Of the various techniques employed to quantify temperature changes by MR for MR- based temperature mapping during the application of ther- mal therapies (1Â3). When administering
Ris Energy Report 5 Solar thermal 41 by the end of 2004 about 110 million m2
RisÃ¸ Energy Report 5 Solar thermal 41 6.3.2 by the end of 2004 about 110 million m2 of solar ther be within the competence of the existing solar thermal industry. Solar thermal PETER AHM, PA ENERgy LTD- mal collectors were installed worldwide. Figure 24 il- lustrates the energy contribution from
Mechanics Research Communications 38 (2011) 431436 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Paulino, Glaucio H.
of FGMs. In order to achieve high performance in both thermal and mechanical resistances for ther- mal resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. (Paulino, 2002). These materials are named as functionally graded resistance, while the other phase can be metallic that leads to high strength and toughness. Moreover
New York at Stoney Brook, State University of
for wear resistance and zirconia-based materials for ther- mal barrier coatings [1Â4]. The high temperature (enthalpy) availability within the thermal plasma enables melting, relatively high-velocity delivery applications. The advent of high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray has made a significant impact
Suppression of thermal conductivity in InxGa12xN alloys by nanometer-scale disorder
Wu, Junqiao
power requires low lattice thermal conductivity while maintaining high mobility of the charge carriers. The binary InN and GaN materials have high ther- mal conductivity materials9Â14 (the room-temperature thermalSuppression of thermal conductivity in InxGa12xN alloys by nanometer-scale disorder T. Tong,1,a) D
Thermal Via Planning for 3-D ICs Computer Science Department, UCLA
Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"
cooling package techniques, such as cooling fans, might not prove effective for alleviating the ther- mal programming problem, and the horizontal via planning is based on two efficient techniques: path count- ing of the inter-layer di- electrics (ILD) [13]. There are two kinds of circuit cooling schemes for 3D ICs
President's Corner Technology Corner
Perez, Richard R.
. Solar ther- mal (i.e., steam generation from concentrated sunlight and conversion to electricity via turbines or thermal engines) is the least costly of the two at present; however, it is best suited to arid highly modular--a large power plant does not need to be centralized but can be dispersed into many
Lattice QCD with Domain Decomposition on Intel Xeon Phi Co-Processors
Heybrock, Simon; Joo, Balint; Kalamkar, Dhiraj D.; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Vaidyanathan, Karthikeyan; Wettig, Tilo; Dubey, Pradeep
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The gap between the cost of moving data and the cost of computing continues to grow, making it ever harder to design iterative solvers on extreme-scale architectures. This problem can be alleviated by alternative algorithms that reduce the amount of data movement. We investigate this in the context of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics and implement such an alternative solver algorithm, based on domain decomposition, on Intel Xeon Phi co-processor (KNC) clusters. We demonstrate close-to-linear on-chip scaling to all 60 cores of the KNC. With a mix of single- and half-precision the domain-decomposition method sustains 400-500 Gflop/s per chip. Compared to an optimized KNC implementation of a standard solver [1], our full multi-node domain-decomposition solver strong-scales to more nodes and reduces the time-to-solution by a factor of 5.
The thermochemistry and reaction mechanisms in the decomposition of energetic materials
Melius, C.F.
1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The chemical processes involved in the decomposition of energetic materials have been investigated theoretically using quantum chemical methods to determine the thermochemistry and reaction pathways. The Bond-Additivity-Corrected Moller-Plesset 4th order perturbation theory method (BAC-MP4) has been used to determine heats of formation and free energies of reaction intermediates of decomposition. In addition, the BAC-MP4 method has been used to determine action pathways involving these intermediates. A theoretical method for calculating solvation energies has been developed to treat the non-idealities of high pressure and the condensed phase. The resulting chemical processes involving decomposition and ignition are presented for nitrate compounds, nitramines, and nitromethane.
Solar decomposition of cadmium oxide for hydrogen production. Final subcontract report
Schreiber, J. D.; Yudow, B. D.; Carty, R. H.; Whaley, T. P.; Pangborn, J. B.
1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The reactor developed for this study performed satisfactorily in establishing the feasibility of cadmium oxide decomposition under the realistic conditions of the solar-furnace environment. The solar-furnace environment is very appropriate for the evaluation of design concepts. However, the solar furnace probably cannot give precise rate data. The flux is too nonuniform, so temperatures of reactant and corresponding reaction rates are also nonuniform. One of the most important results of this project was the recovery of samples from the quench heat exchanger that contained a surprisingly large amount of metallic cadmium. The fact that the sample taken from the quench heat exchanger was metallic in appearance and contained between 67% and 84% metallic cadmium would tend to indicate recombination of cadmium vapor and oxygen can be effectively prevented by the quenching operation. It would also tend to confirm recent studies that show cadmium oxide does not sublime appreciably. Determination of the decomposition rate of cadmium oxide was severely limited by fluctuating and nonuniform reactant temperatures and baseline drift in the oxygen sensor. However, the estimated rate based on a single run seemed to follow a typical solid decomposition rate pattern with an initial acceleratory period, followed by a longer deceleratory period. From a preliminary flowsheet analysis of the cadmium-cadmium oxide cycle, it was determined that at a cadmium oxide decomposition temperature of 1400/sup 0/C and a requirement of 0.2 V in the electrolyzer the efficiency was 41%, assuming total quenching of the cadmium oxide decomposition products. This efficiency could increase to a maximum of 59% if total recovery of the latent heats of vaporization and fusion of the decomposition products is possible.
The Singular-Value Decomposition in the Extended Max Algebra* Bart De Schutter+ and Bart De Moor*
numbers and the extended max algebra to define the sing&r-value decomposition of a matrix in the extendedThe Singular-Value Decomposition in the Extended Max Algebra* Bart De Schutter+ and Bart De Moor ABSTRACT First we establish a connection between the field of the real numbers and the extended max algebra
Automatic screening of obstructive sleep apnea from the ECG based on empirical mode decomposition apnea from the ECG based on empirical mode decomposition and wavelet analysis M O Mendez1,2 , J Corthout different methods to detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during sleep time based only on the ECG signal
Maruyama, Shigeo
of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak
HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR EXPANDERS: A PROOF OF KELLY'S CONJECTURE FOR LARGE
KÃ¼hn, Daniela
HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR EXPANDERS: A PROOF OF KELLY'S CONJECTURE FOR LARGE TOURNAMENTS DANIELA KÂ¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. A long-standing conjecture of Kelly states that every regular as well as Alon, Gutin and Krivelevich. 1. Introduction 1.1. Kelly's conjecture. A graph or digraph G has
Ab Initio Dynamics of Cellulose Pyrolysis: Nascent Decomposition Pathways at 327 and 600 C
Auerbach, Scott M.
reserves in lignocellulosic biomass.1 Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, which involves rapidAb Initio Dynamics of Cellulose Pyrolysis: Nascent Decomposition Pathways at 327 and 600 Â°C Vishal pyrolysis at 327 and 600 Â°C using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations with rare events
Archer, Steven R.
temperature and radiant energy levels and soil-litter mixing. Temperature and radiant energy effects on litterSoil moisture and soil-litter mixing effects on surface litter decomposition: A controlled University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA c Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky
Convergent Decomposition Solvers for Tree-reweighted Free Energies Jeremy Jancsary Gerald Matz
Convergent Decomposition Solvers for Tree-reweighted Free Energies Jeremy Jancsary Gerald Matz of tree- reweighted free energies for the purpose of obtaining approximate marginal probabil- ities efficient for tree-reweighted energies arising from a small number of spanning trees. While this assumption
Eddy mean flow decomposition and eddy diffusivity estimates in the tropical Pacific Ocean
Eddy mean flow decomposition and eddy diffusivity estimates in the tropical Pacific Ocean: 2] Eddy diffusivity of the surface velocity field in the tropical Pacific Ocean was estimated using diffusivity estimates in the tropical Pacific Ocean: 2. Results, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 3154, doi:10
CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION
Mueller, JÃ¼rgen
CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION an algorithm to condense induced modules for a finite group over a finite field. It is built. Introduction In recent years, condensation has become one of the most valuable tools in computational
CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION
Mueller, JÃ¼rgen
CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION NUMBERS OF Co 2 J URGEN M ULLER AND JENS ROSENBOOM Abstract. We present an algorithm to condense induced, condensation has become one of the most valuable tools in computational representation theory of #12;nite
CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION
Mueller, JÃ¼rgen
CONDENSATION OF INDUCED REPRESENTATIONS AND AN APPLICATION: THE 2-MODULAR DECOMPOSITION NUMBERS OF Co2 JÂ¨URGEN MÂ¨ULLER AND JENS ROSENBOOM Abstract. We present an algorithm to condense induced modules, condensation has become one of the most valuable tools in computational representation theory of finite groups
To appear in Proc. KDD-97 A dataset decomposition approach to
Bohanec, Marko
To appear in Proc. KDD-97 A dataset decomposition approach to data mining and machine discovery to analyze a given dataset, the method decomposes it to a hierar- chy of smaller and less complex datasets allocation dataset, showing that the decom- position can (1) discover meaningful intermedi- ate concepts, (2
Classification of hyperspectral images by tensor modeling and additive morphological decomposition
Boyer, Edmond
. AMD defines a scale-space decomposition for multivariate images without any loss of information. AMD`emes, MINES Paristech, France Abstract Pixel-wise classification in high-dimensional multivariate images is modeled as a tensor structure and tensor principal components analysis is compared as dimensional
Thermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis
Swihart, Mark T.
of vacuum flash pyrolysis of SiH 2Cl2. Ban and Gilbert6 observed SiCl2 by mass spectrometry under sili- conThermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis powered homogeneous pyrolysis of dichlorosilane are reported. Pyrolyses at temperatures of 1350 to 1700 K
CONTENT-ADAPTIVE SPEECH ENHANCEMENT BY A SPARSELY-ACTIVATED DICTIONARY PLUS LOW RANK DECOMPOSITION
Ellis, Dan
CONTENT-ADAPTIVE SPEECH ENHANCEMENT BY A SPARSELY-ACTIVATED DICTIONARY PLUS LOW RANK DECOMPOSITION.papadopoulos[at]lss.supelec.fr dpwe[at]ee.columbia.edu ABSTRACT One powerful approach to speech enhancement employs strong models, we proposed a speech enhancement model that decomposes the spectrogram into sparse activation
Speech enhancement by low-rank and convolutive dictionary spectrogram decomposition
Ellis, Dan
Speech enhancement by low-rank and convolutive dictionary spectrogram decomposition Zhuo Chen1 Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA zc2204@columbia.edu Abstract A successful speech enhancement, performance will suffer. In previous work, we proposed a speech enhance- ment framework based on decomposing
Outfix-Free Regular Languages and Prime Outfix-Free Decomposition
Han, Yo-Sub
Outfix-Free Regular Languages and Prime Outfix-Free Decomposition Yo-Sub Han and Derick Wood and a set X of strings is outfix-free if no string in X is an outfix of any other string in X. We examine the outfix-free regular languages. Based on the properties of outfix strings, we develop a polynomial
Spatial fractal characteristic of spinodal decomposition in Fe-Cr-Ni duplex stainless steel
Shek, C.H.; Wong, K.W.; Lai, J.K.L. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science] [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science; Shao, Y.Z. [Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Physics] [Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Physics
1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Owing to the extensive use of duplex stainless steels in areas like chemical and petrochemical industries, considerable interest has arisen concerning the thermal degradation of these materials during service, and the consequent changes on the mechanical properties. The embrittlement of these steels is basically due to the decomposition of the ferrite phase at elevated temperatures, and duplex steels are seldom used at temperatures above 300 C. Although the microstructure of spinodal decomposition has been studied extensively using atom probe, it is interesting to investigate the development of fractal characteristics in the microstructure during spinodal decomposition. In this paper the authors present part of their recent results in this aspect on a duplex stainless steel. The {alpha} and {alpha}{prime} domains evolved from the primary ferrite phase during spinodal decomposition have different morphologies. The {alpha} (Fe-rich) forms the matrix while the {alpha}{prime} (Cr-rich) domains are developed in the form of discrete regions embedded within the {alpha} matrix. The distribution of these domains follows the fractal-growth characteristics with fractal dimensions ranging from 0.1 to 0.2. In addition, there exists a lower critical dimension beyond which the self-similarity of the domains breaks down.
Elemental mapping of spinodal decomposition in duplex stainless , J M Titchmarsh2
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
Elemental mapping of spinodal decomposition in duplex stainless steels T Yamada1 , J M Titchmarsh2 300o C, regions of delta ferrite in duplex stainless steels are susceptible to SD (Cottrell, 1995 steel that has been aged at two temperatures for various times. 2. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Duplex stainless
HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR TOURNAMENTS DANIELA KUHN, DERYK OSTHUS AND ANDREW TREGLOWN
Osthus, Deryk
HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF REGULAR TOURNAMENTS DANIELA KÂ¨UHN, DERYK OSTHUS AND ANDREW TREGLOWN into edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. More precisely, for each > 0 every regular tournament G of sufficiently large order n contains at least (1/2 - )n edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. This gives an approximate
Experimental and theoretical investigation of BCl3 decomposition in H2 G. Reinischa,*
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
in a 1D model of a CVD reactor. Comparison of calculated steady state concentrations with in situ FT3 are commonly used as boron precursors. The decomposition of BCl3 in a hydrogen-rich CVD reactor depends itself on a first H2 dissociation step. No direct vali- dation with experimental data has been
Anderson, Timothy J.
for direct reaction products in an inverted, impinging-jet test reactor coupled to a Raman spectrometer. The homogeneous thermal decomposition of DEZn in N2 carrier was followed in an impinging-jet, up-flow reactor vibrational frequencies of DEZn, as well as anticipated intermediates and products. Comparison of the measured
The role of peat decomposition in patterned mires: a case study from the central Swiss Alps
Bern, Universität
The role of peat decomposition in patterned mires: a case study from the central Swiss Alps., Stefanova V., van Leeuwen J. F. N., van der Knaap W. O., Colombaroli D. & Tinner W. (2013): The role of peat and is unique in its pattern. In two of five pools there is in the contact zone between the basal peat
PLANE-WAVE DECOMPOSITION OF A SOUND SCENE USING A CYLINDRICAL MICROPHONE ARRAY
Zotkin, Dmitry N.
PLANE-WAVE DECOMPOSITION OF A SOUND SCENE USING A CYLINDRICAL MICROPHONE ARRAY Dmitry N. Zotkin] and for the cylindrical array [2]. An alternative approach is to note that in the plane-wave basis [9] a sound field of converting a sound field into the plane-wave basis de- composes it into directional components. In a recent
Plan Quality Optimisation via Block Decomposition Fazlul Hasan Siddiqui and Patrik Haslum
Haslum, Patrik
on LAMA @ 30m Figure 1: Total IPC quality score as a function of time for LAMA and three plan optimisationPlan Quality Optimisation via Block Decomposition Fazlul Hasan Siddiqui and Patrik Haslum.lastname@anu.edu.au Abstract AI planners have to compromise between the speed of the planning process and the quality
Applied Soil Ecology 21 (2002) 7188 Soil invertebrate and microbial communities, and decomposition
Neher, Deborah A.
Applied Soil Ecology 21 (2002) 71Â88 Soil invertebrate and microbial communities, and decomposition. Spongberg Department of Earth, Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 for quantification of ecological impact of chemical contamination of soils. This study examined the effects
Wang, Mei
in ecology L. Sun M. Wang Â§ Abstract In the analysis of organism life cycles in ecology, comparisons of life the decomposition was formalized by Wardle [Ecology 79(7), 2539-2549 (1998)]. However there are difficulties no such simple cycles are obtainable. When applied to life cycle analysis in ecology, the proposed method
CLASSIFICATION USING EFFICIENT LU DECOMPOSITION IN Zille Huma Kamal, Ajay Gupta, Leszek Lilien,
Gupta, Ajay
1 CLASSIFICATION USING EFFICIENT LU DECOMPOSITION IN SENSORNETS Zille Huma Kamal, Ajay Gupta of sensornet nodes will be consuming energy to identify the category (classification) that relates to the event applications, such as classification, need to be extremely energy-aware. The classification process is also
BLIND CHANNEL IDENTIFICATION OF MISO SYSTEMS BASED ON THE CP DECOMPOSITION OF CUMULANT TENSORS
BLIND CHANNEL IDENTIFICATION OF MISO SYSTEMS BASED ON THE CP DECOMPOSITION OF CUMULANT TENSORS algorithm for identifying the parameters of MISO sys- tem. 1. INTRODUCTION We consider the following-Input Single-Output (MISO) channel, y[n] is the output signal. Signals and system are assumed to be complex
THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN OECD COUNTRIES: A DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS
1 THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN OECD COUNTRIES: A DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS Sahar Shafiei, Ruhul A. Salim and Helen Cabalu School of Economics & Finance, Curtin Business the impacts of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on economic activities to find out whether
Thermal decomposition and flammability of fire-resistant, UV/visible- sensitive polyarylates temperature, low notch sensitivity, and good electrical properties. Most of all, these materials show a high resistance to ignition and flame spreading without additives [6]. A high-temperature wholly aromatic poly
An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Approach for Voltage Sag Detection in a Smart Grid Context
Brest, UniversitÃ© de
An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Approach for Voltage Sag Detection in a Smart Grid Context Yassine Amirat1,2 , Mohamed Benbouzid2 , Tianzhen Wang3 and Sylvie Turri2 AbstractÂSmart grids have become, using the instantaneous power for voltage sags detection in smart grids. Copyright Â© 2013 Praise Worthy
Thermal Activation of the High Explosive NTO: Sublimation, Decomposition, and Autocatalysis
Utah, University of
Thermal Activation of the High Explosive NTO: Sublimation, Decomposition, and Autocatalysis Gregory of Chemistry, UniVersity of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 ReceiVed: July 26, 2001; In Final Form: January 15 of 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) leads to competitive sublimation and condensed
Schneider, Kai
ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012) 013005 (11pp) doi:10 based on the wavelet-vaguelette decomposition. After validation of the new method using an academic test confinement, but the associated vessel erosion also impairs the awaited viability of long lasting discharges
Matrix Decomposition-Based Data Distortion Techniques for Privacy Preservation in Data Mining
Zhang, Jun
. The second is to modify the data mining algorithms so that they allow data mining operations on distributedMatrix Decomposition-Based Data Distortion Techniques for Privacy Preservation in Data Mining Jun-Based Data Distortion Techniques for Privacy Preservation in Data Mining Jun Zhang and Jie Wang, University
A Characteristic Domain Decomposition and SpaceTime Local Refinement Method for
Sharpley, Robert
partial differential equations model the reactive transport of solutes in groundwater and surface water with other domain decomposition and local refinement schemes. 1 Introduction FirstÂorder linear hyperbolic interfaces that introduce extra difficulties. Physical interfaces arise, for example, in the modeling
Domain decomposition for coupled Stokes and Darcy flows q Danail Vassilev a
Yotov, Ivan
and fluid flow StokesÂDarcy flow BeaversÂJosephÂSaffman condition Mixed finite element a b s t r a c t A non iteration. Finite element techniques appropriate for the type of each subdomain problem are used-overlapping domain decomposition method is presented to solve a coupled StokesÂ Darcy flow problem in parallel
ROBUST 3-WAY TENSOR DECOMPOSITION AND EXTENDED STATE KALMAN FILTERING TO EXTRACT FETAL ECG
Boyer, Edmond
ROBUST 3-WAY TENSOR DECOMPOSITION AND EXTENDED STATE KALMAN FILTERING TO EXTRACT FETAL ECG Mohammad ABSTRACT This paper addresses the problem of fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) extraction from multichannel that are robust to outliers are proposed and used to better track weak traces of the fetal ECG. Then, the state
Partial wave decomposition of the N3LO equation of state
D. Davesne; J. Meyer; A. Pastore; J. Navarro
2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
By means of a partial wave decomposition, we separate their contributions to the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter for the N3LO pseudo-potential. In particular, we show that although both the tensor and the spin-orbit terms do not contribute to the equation of state, they give a non-vanishing contribution to the separate (JLS) channels.
Aquatic Botany 64 (1999) 381398 Controls on soil cellulose decomposition along a salinity
Brix, Hans
in a Phragmites australis wetland in Denmark Irving A. Mendelssohn a, , Brian K. Sorrellb,1 ,Hans Brix b , Hans tensile strength loss; Physico-chemistry; Nutrients; Soil reduction; Phragmites australis 1. Introduction rates found along environmental gradients. Relative soil decomposition was determined in a Phragmites
Macrophyte Decomposition Rates in the Tres Rios Constructed Treatment Wetland: Preliminary Results!
Hall, Sharon J.
Macrophyte Decomposition Rates in the Tres Rios Constructed Treatment Wetland: Preliminary Results wetland. Plant Ecology 200:69-82. Literature Cited! Figure 1A: Aerial photo of the treatment flow cell, such as those associated with municipal wastewater treatment.! Constructed treatment wetlands perform important
Choi, Jiyoung; Kang, Dong-Goo; Kang, Sunghoon; Sung, Younghun [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), San 14, Nong-seo dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Kyunggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), San 14, Nong-seo dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Kyunggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Jong Chul [Bio-Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Bio-Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) has been an active research area over the past few years. Even with some success, the problem of optimal energy selection and three material decomposition including malignant tissue is still on going research topic, and more systematic studies are required. This paper aims to address this in a unified statistical framework in a mammographic environment.Methods: A unified statistical framework for energy level optimization and decomposition of three materials is proposed. In particular, an energy level optimization algorithm is derived using the theory of the minimum variance unbiased estimator, and an iterative algorithm is proposed for material composition as well as system parameter estimation under the unified statistical estimation framework. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, the authors performed simulation studies as well as real experiments using physical breast phantom and ex vivo breast specimen. Quantitative comparisons using various performance measures were conducted, and qualitative performance evaluations for ex vivo breast specimen were also performed by comparing the ground-truth malignant tissue areas identified by radiologists.Results: Both simulation and real experiments confirmed that the optimized energy bins by the proposed method allow better material decomposition quality. Moreover, for the specimen thickness estimation errors up to 2 mm, the proposed method provides good reconstruction results in both simulation and real ex vivo breast phantom experiments compared to existing methods.Conclusions: The proposed statistical framework of PCXD has been successfully applied for the energy optimization and decomposition of three material in a mammographic environment. Experimental results using the physical breast phantom and ex vivo specimen support the practicality of the proposed algorithm.
CPUF - a chemical-structure-based polyurethane foam decomposition and foam response model.
Fletcher, Thomas H. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Thompson, Kyle Richard; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Dowding, Kevin J.; Clayton, Daniel (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Chu, Tze Yao; Hobbs, Michael L.; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III
2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A Chemical-structure-based PolyUrethane Foam (CPUF) decomposition model has been developed to predict the fire-induced response of rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foam-filled systems. The model, developed for the B-61 and W-80 fireset foam, is based on a cascade of bondbreaking reactions that produce CO2. Percolation theory is used to dynamically quantify polymer fragment populations of the thermally degrading foam. The partition between condensed-phase polymer fragments and gas-phase polymer fragments (i.e. vapor-liquid split) was determined using a vapor-liquid equilibrium model. The CPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE and CALORE, which support chemical kinetics and enclosure radiation. Elements were removed from the computational domain when the calculated solid mass fractions within the individual finite element decrease below a set criterion. Element removal, referred to as ?element death,? creates a radiation enclosure (assumed to be non-participating) as well as a decomposition front, which separates the condensed-phase encapsulant from the gas-filled enclosure. All of the chemistry parameters as well as thermophysical properties for the CPUF model were obtained from small-scale laboratory experiments. The CPUF model was evaluated by comparing predictions to measurements. The validation experiments included several thermogravimetric experiments at pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 30 bars. Larger, component-scale experiments were also used to validate the foam response model. The effects of heat flux, bulk density, orientation, embedded components, confinement and pressure were measured and compared to model predictions. Uncertainties in the model results were evaluated using a mean value approach. The measured mass loss in the TGA experiments and the measured location of the decomposition front were within the 95% prediction limit determined using the CPUF model for all of the experiments where the decomposition gases were vented sufficiently. The CPUF model results were not as good for the partially confined radiant heat experiments where the vent area was regulated to maintain pressure. Liquefaction and flow effects, which are not considered in the CPUF model, become important when the decomposition gases are confined.
On low-rank updates to the singular value and Tucker decompositions
O'Hara, M J
2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
The singular value decomposition is widely used in signal processing and data mining. Since the data often arrives in a stream, the problem of updating matrix decompositions under low-rank modification has been widely studied. Brand developed a technique in 2006 that has many advantages. However, the technique does not directly approximate the updated matrix, but rather its previous low-rank approximation added to the new update, which needs justification. Further, the technique is still too slow for large information processing problems. We show that the technique minimizes the change in error per update, so if the error is small initially it remains small. We show that an updating algorithm for large sparse matrices should be sub-linear in the matrix dimension in order to be practical for large problems, and demonstrate a simple modification to the original technique that meets the requirements.
Thermal decomposition of HfCl{sub 4} as a function of its hydration state
Barraud, E. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux et de Metallurgie, UMR CNRS INPL 7584, Ecole des Mines, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Begin-Colin, S. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux et de Metallurgie, UMR CNRS INPL 7584, Ecole des Mines, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France) and Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, GMI, UMR CNRS-ULP 7504, Ecole de Chimie, Polymeres et Materiaux, 23, rue du Loess, BP 43, F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: begin@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr; Le Caer, G. [Groupe Matiere Condensee et Materiaux, UMR CNRS-Universite de Rennes-I 6626, Campus de Beaulieu, Batiment 11A, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Villieras, F. [Laboratoire Environnement et Mineralurgie, UMR CNRS-INPL 7569, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie de Nancy, F-54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Barres, O. [Laboratoire Environnement et Mineralurgie, UMR CNRS-INPL 7569, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie de Nancy, F-54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)
2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
The thermogravimetric behavior of HfCl{sub 4} powders with different hydration states has been compared. Strongly hydrated powders consist of HfOCl{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O with n>4. Partially hydrated powders consist of particles with a HfCl{sub 4} core and a hydrated outerlayer of HfOCl{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O with n in the range of 0-8. Hydrated powders decomposed at temperature lower than 200 deg. C whereas the decomposition of partially hydrated powders was completed at a temperature of around 450 deg. C. The observed differences in decomposition temperature is related to the structure of HfOCl{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O, which is different if n is higher or smaller than 4 and leads to intermediate compounds, which decompose at different temperatures.
Yakov Itin; Friedrich W. Hehl
2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
We study properties of the fourth rank elasticity tensor C within linear elasticity theory. First C is irreducibly decomposed under the linear group into a "Cauchy piece" S (with 15 independent components) and a "non-Cauchy piece" A (with 6 independent components). Subsequently, we turn to the physically relevant orthogonal group, thereby using the metric. We find the finer decomposition of S into pieces with 9+5+1 and of A into those with 5+1 independent components. Some reducible decompositions, discussed earlier by numerous authors, are shown to be inconsistent. --- Several physical consequences are discussed. The Cauchy relations are shown to correspond to A=0. Longitudinal and transverse sound waves are basically related by S and A, respectively.
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, T.
1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, effects of Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst preparation on the activity of over-exchanged copper for NO decomposition are reported. The Cu-ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by incorporating Cu{sup 2+} cations into ZSM-5 zeolites from an aqueous cupric acetate solution adjusted to different pH values by adding either acetic anhydride or aqueous ammonia in the solution. The Cu{sup 2+} exchange levels increased with increasing pH level. STEM/EDX analysis identified CuO particles (5--6 nm) on the zeolite surface for the materials exchanged at pH > 6. Conversion and kinetics measurements of NO decomposition to N{sub 2} over these catalysts showed that the over-exchanged copper was not active. Short-time wash with aqueous ammonia removed this copper. The catalyst activity correlated very well with the amount of copper remaining in the ZSM-5 channels.
Hofmann, M. [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)] [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Augustusplatz 10/11, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Augustusplatz 10/11, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.
ccsd-00000419(version1):18Jun2003 Decomposition in bunches
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
-ordinary map E.R. GarcÂ´ia Barroso, P.D. GonzÂ´alez PÂ´erez Abstract. 1 A polar hypersurface P of a complex generalized to the case of reduced plane curve germs by Kuo, Lu, Eggers, GarcÂ´ia Barroso and Wall among others of the permitted subset. GarcÂ´ia Barroso has compared these two decompositions and shown that they coincide in [GB
Thermal Properties of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys: Phase Decomposition Effects of Heat Treatments
Creasy, John Thomas
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
to generate computational estimates of the alloys specific heat and thermal conductivity. Section 2 describes the technical background in which this thesis is based, including uranium metal alloy theory and properties. Section 3 describes the experimental... the phases and distorted phases that occur during phase decomposition. The authors conducted numerous experiments involving uranium, plutonium, and neptunium, as well as alloys with other metals. In the a0 = 3.4808 ! 0.00314 xMo !" Mox ? 10 case...
Constraints on the Decomposition of the Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies
B. Fuchs
2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
I discuss anew how arguments about the internal dynamics of galactic disks set constraints on the otherwise ambiguous decomposition of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies into the contributions by the various constituents of the galaxies. Analyzing the two sample galaxies NGC 3198 and NGC 2985 I conclude from the multiplicities of the spiral arms and the values of the Q disk stability parameters that the disks of both galaxies are `maximum disks'.
Catalytic decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 on Pt(111)
Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Weaver, Jason F.; Szanyi, Janos
2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
The decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 formed on BaO/Pt(111) (Pt(111) surface is partially covered by BaO) in the presence of CO was studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), infrared reflection absorption (IRA) and X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectroscopies. The exposure of BaO/Pt(111) to elevated NO2 pressure (1.0×10-4 Torr) at 450 K leads to the formation of Ba(NO3)2, chemisorbed O (OPt) and Pt-oxide-like domains. During TPD, the Ba(NO3)2 begins to thermally decompose near 490 K, releasing NO and NO2 with the maximum NOx desorption rate seen at 605 K. The OPt species formed following the exposure of BaO/Pt(111) to NO2 react with CO to release CO2 at 450 K. The consumption of OPt during CO oxidation initiates the migration of O from the Pt-oxide-like domains to the chemisorbed phase, where the CO oxidation reaction occurs. Therefore, the removal of OPt by CO leads to the reduction of oxidized Pt, and to the formation of metallic Pt(111) domains, where, subsequently, catalytic decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 can take place. The Pt-catalyzed decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 occurs readily at 450 K, a temperature much lower than the onset of the decomposition temperature of Ba(NO3)2 in the presence of oxidized Pt. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.
Sequential and parallel algorithms for minimum cost parallel decomposition of finite state machines
Shelke, Rajendra Ram
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
form a lattice, where each node in the lattice has a cost associated with it. An algorithm to build the lattice is presented. Also to find the best pos- sible parallel decomposition, an optimal cost algorithm is proposed. Sequential snd parallel.... The OSI Reference Model C. Bottlenecks in Communication Protocols D. High Speed Protocols E. High-Speed Implementations F. Structure of the Thesis THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A. Set Theory . B. Partially Ordered Sets and Lattices C. Sequential Machines...
Calculation of excitation energies from the CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decomposition
Baudin, Pablo, E-mail: baudin.pablo@gmail.com [Institute of Molecular Science, University of Valencia, Valencia, ES-46071 (Spain) [Institute of Molecular Science, University of Valencia, Valencia, ES-46071 (Spain); qLEAP – Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Marín, José Sánchez; Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J., E-mail: sanchez@uv.es [Institute of Molecular Science, University of Valencia, Valencia, ES-46071 (Spain)
2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model is reported. It employs a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals that significantly reduces the computational cost and the storage requirements of the method compared to standard implementations. Our algorithm also exploits a partitioning form of the CC2 equations which reduces the dimension of the problem and avoids the storage of doubles amplitudes. We present calculation of excitation energies of benzene using a hierarchy of basis sets and compare the results with conventional CC2 calculations. The reduction of the scaling is evaluated as well as the effect of the Cholesky decomposition parameter on the quality of the results. The new algorithm is used to perform an extrapolation to complete basis set investigation on the spectroscopically interesting benzylallene conformers. A set of calculations on medium-sized molecules is carried out to check the dependence of the accuracy of the results on the decomposition thresholds. Moreover, CC2 singlet excitation energies of the free base porphin are also presented.
DIRECT DECOMPOSITION OF METHANE TO HYDROGEN ON METAL LOADED ZEOLITE CATALYST
Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch; Harry W. Rollins
2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The manufacture of hydrogen from natural gas is essential for the production of ultra clean transportation fuels. Not only is hydrogen necessary to upgrade low quality crude oils to high-quality, low sulfur ultra clean transportation fuels, hydrogen could eventually replace gasoline and diesel as the ultra clean transportation fuel of the future. Currently, refinery hydrogen is produced through the steam reforming of natural gas. Although efficient, the process is responsible for a significant portion of refinery CO2 emissions. This project is examining the direct catalytic decomposition of methane as an alternative to steam reforming. The energy required to produce one mole of hydrogen is slightly lower and the process does not require water-gas-shift or pressure-swing adsorption units. The decomposition process does not produce CO2 emissions and the product is not contaminated with CO -- a poison for PEM fuel cells. In this work we examined the direct catalytic decomposition of methane over a metal modified zeolite catalyst and the recovery of catalyst activity by calcination. A favorable production of hydrogen was obtained, when compared with previously reported nickel-zeolite supported catalysts. Reaction temperature had a strong influence on catalyst activity and on the type of carbon deposits. The catalyst utilized at 873 and 973 K could be regenerated without any significant loss of activity, however the catalyst utilized at 1073 K showed some loss of activity after regeneration.
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
H pato-Gastroent rologie9 ' Ã© Ã© CHU Clermont-Ferrand, H tel-DieuÃ´ , FR Laboratoire Solvay Pharma10 Laboratoire Solvay Pharma, 42 rue Rouget de Lisles, 92151 Suresnes CEDEX,FR * Correspondence should
High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.
Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred
2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.
de la Rue du Can, Stephane
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2005. Development of Energy Balances for the State ofIEA). 2010. World Energy Balance, 1971 to 2008. Paris: IEA.REPORT California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition
Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei, E-mail: leizhu@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for its capability of material decomposition and energy-selective imaging. A generic problem of DECT, however, is that the decomposition process is unstable in the sense that the relative magnitude of decomposed signals is reduced due to signal cancellation while the image noise is accumulating from the two CT images of independent scans. Direct image decomposition, therefore, leads to severe degradation of signal-to-noise ratio on the resultant images. Existing noise suppression techniques are typically implemented in DECT with the procedures of reconstruction and decomposition performed independently, which do not explore the statistical properties of decomposed images during the reconstruction for noise reduction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative approach that combines the reconstruction and the signal decomposition procedures to minimize the DECT image noise without noticeable loss of resolution. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which balances the data fidelity and total variation of decomposed images in one framework, and the decomposition step is carried out iteratively together with reconstruction. The noise in the CT images from the proposed algorithm becomes well correlated even though the noise of the raw projections is independent on the two CT scans. Due to this feature, the proposed algorithm avoids noise accumulation during the decomposition process. The authors evaluate the method performance on noise suppression and spatial resolution using phantom studies and compare the algorithm with conventional denoising approaches as well as combined iterative reconstruction methods with different forms of regularization. Results: On the Catphan©600 phantom, the proposed method outperforms the existing denoising methods on preserving spatial resolution at the same level of noise suppression, i.e., a reduction of noise standard deviation by one order of magnitude. This improvement is mainly attributed to the high noise correlation in the CT images reconstructed by the proposed algorithm. Iterative reconstruction using different regularization, including quadratic orq-generalized Gaussian Markov random field regularization, achieves similar noise suppression from high noise correlation. However, the proposed TV regularization obtains a better edge preserving performance. Studies of electron density measurement also show that our method reduces the average estimation error from 9.5% to 7.1%. On the anthropomorphic head phantom, the proposed method suppresses the noise standard deviation of the decomposed images by a factor of ?14 without blurring the fine structures in the sinus area. Conclusions: The authors propose a practical method for DECT imaging reconstruction, which combines the image reconstruction and material decomposition into one optimization framework. Compared to the existing approaches, our method achieves a superior performance on DECT imaging with respect to decomposition accuracy, noise reduction, and spatial resolution.
Theoretical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of a Jet Fuel Surrogate
Sirjean, Baptiste; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Ruiz-Lopez, M F; Fournet, René
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In a scramjet, the fuel can be used to cool down the engine walls. The thermal decomposition of the jet fuel changes the reacting mixture before its combustion. A numerical study of the pyrolysis of norbornane, a jet fuel surrogate, has been performed. Rate constants of some sensitive reaction channels have been calculated by means of quantum chemical calculations at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor and important and/or sensitive pathways have been derived.
Ayache, Simon
2012-09-03T23:59:59.000Z
of the two injectors in both inert and reactive situations. The different codes and models are described in Chapter 3 of Ref. [1] and specific details for each simulation are given in the two following sections. 3.1 Injector A An inert LES simulation... and exhibits frequency peaks at 96.4 Hz, 474.3 Hz, 1035 Hz, 1459 Hz (strongest peak), 1603 Hz, 3507 Hz and 5102 Hz among others. Figure 4.6 shows the previous spectra in log-log scale to give an alternative perspective. 4.1.3 Proper Orthogonal Decomposition...
On Partial and Generic Uniqueness of Block Term Tensor Decomposition in Signal Processing
Yang, Ming 1984-
2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z
X i=1 u0i v 0 i w 0 i 2 there is a permutation of f1; : : : ; rg such that ui vi wi = u 0 (i) v 0 (i) w 0 (i) 8i = 1; : : : ; k: An interesting property of higher-order tensors is that their decompositions are often unique... number r such that the points of S are in r-general linear position. If one chooses a basis for W so that the points of S can be written as columns of a matrix (well de ned up to rescaling columns), then kS will be the maximum number r such that all...
Liang, Lan
2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
and carbon blacks for reuse. It is noted that molten salts, especially aluminum chloride (AlCl3), of which the base metal has an electron structure t 4 requirement with the polymer undergoing decomposition, can act as catalysts for decomposing tire... rubbers.10 The fact that molten salt catalysis can be used to decompose tire rubbers has been known for several decades.11-12 However, to date no literature reports a successful commercial catalytic conversion process for the disposal of scrap tires...
Application of subgroup decomposition in diffusion theory to gas cooled thermal reactor problem
Yasseri, S.; Rahnema, F. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Program, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, the accuracy and computational efficiency of the subgroup decomposition (SGD) method in diffusion theory is assessed in a ID benchmark problem characteristic of gas cooled thermal systems. This method can be viewed as a significant improvement in accuracy of standard coarse-group calculations used for VHTR whole core analysis in which core environmental effect and energy angle coupling are pronounced. It is shown that a 2-group SGD calculation reproduces fine-group (47) results with 1.5 to 6 times faster computational speed depending on the stabilizing schemes while it is as efficient as single standard 6-group diffusion calculation. (authors)
Chouzier, Sandra [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Czeri, Tivadar; Roy-Auberger, Magalie; Pichon, Christophe [IFP Energies nouvelles, BP 3, 69390 Vernaison (France); Geantet, Christophe; Vrinat, Michel [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Afanasiev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.afanasiev@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne cedex (France)
2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate-hexamethylentetramine (HMTA) complex (HMTA){sub 2}(NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}.2H{sub 2}O was studied as a function of treatment conditions in the range 300-1173 K. The evolution of solid products during decomposition was studied by thermal analysis and in situ EXAFS. Depending on the nature of the gas used for treatment, single phases of highly dispersed nitrides Mo{sub 2}N, carbide Mo{sub 2}C, or oxide MoO{sub 2} can be obtained. The nature of the products obtained was explained by qualitative thermodynamical considerations. Morphology of the solids considerably depends on such preparation parameters as temperature and mass velocity of the gas flow. For the nitride-based materials, catalytic activity was evaluated in the model thiophene HDS reaction. It was demonstrated that NH{sub 3}-treated samples showed better catalytic activity than N{sub 2}-treated ones due to cleaner surface and better morphology. Transmission microscopy, XRD and XPS studies showed that MoS{sub 2} is formed on the surface during HDS reaction or sulfidation with H{sub 2}S. Optimized nitride-derived catalysts showed mass activity several times higher than unsupported MoS{sub 2} or MoS{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reference catalyst. - Graphical Abstract: Depending on the conditions, decomposition of molybdate-HTMA complex yields highly dispersed molybdenum nitride, carbide or oxide. Research Highlights: > Decomposition of molybdate-HTMA complex yields highly dispersed Mo{sub 2}N, Mo{sub 2}C or MoO{sub 2}. > In situ EXAFS shows formation of common amorphous product MoC{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} at 673 K. > Crystalline Mo{sub 2}N with surface area near 200 m{sup 2}/g was obtained at 823 K. > High mass activity in thiophene HDS was observed.
Completely positive maps within the framework of direct-sum decomposition of state space
Longjiang Liu; D. M. Tong
2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate completely positive maps for an open system interacting with its environment. The families of the initial states for which the reduced dynamics can be described by a completely positive map are identified within the framework of direct-sum decomposition of state space. They includes not only separable states with vanishing or nonvanishing quantum discord but also entangled states. A general expression of the families as well as the Kraus operators for the completely positive maps are explicitly given. It significantly extends the previous results.
The kinetics of microbial decomposition in a fecal pellet-seawater system
Kaplan, Warren Allan
1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
contributed. to the dynamics of nutrient release. Large zooplankton were filtered out, but the medium for decomposition was not . otherwise al- tered. Af'ter one week, a rapid regeneration of DIP was ob- served in the experimental flasks. This was assumed.... . . . The logarithm of oxygen change (ln X/X ) versus time for the aerobic series. . . . . . . Page 13 15 Change in oxygen concentration re3. ative to the initial oxygen value of the sea- water medium f' or various time periods. . . The logarithm of oxygen...
General Electric-Magnetic decomposition of fields, positivity and Rainich-like conditions
Jose M M Senovilla
2000-10-29T23:59:59.000Z
We show how to generalize the classical electric-magnetic decomposition of the Maxwell or the Weyl tensors to arbitrary fields described by tensors of any rank in general $n$-dimensional spacetimes of Lorentzian signature. The properties and applications of this decomposition are reviewed. In particular, the definition of tensors quadratic in the original fields and with important positivity properties is given. These tensors are usually called "super-energy" (s-e) tensors, they include the traditional energy-momentum, Bel and Bel-Robinson tensors, and satisfy the so-called Dominant Property, which is a straightforward generalization of the classical dominant energy condition satisfied by well-behaved energy-momentum tensors. We prove that, in fact, any tensor satisfying the dominant property can be decomposed as a finite sum of the s-e tensors. Some remarks about the conservation laws derivable from s-e tensors, with some explicit examples, are presented. Finally, we will show how our results can be used to provide adequate generalizations of the Rainich conditions in general dimension and for any physical field.
On the use of the singular value decomposition for text retrieval
Husbands, P.; Simon, H.D.; Ding, C.
2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z
The use of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) has been proposed for text retrieval in several recent works. This technique uses the SVD to project very high dimensional document and query vectors into a low dimensional space. In this new space it is hoped that the underlying structure of the collection is revealed thus enhancing retrieval performance. Theoretical results have provided some evidence for this claim and to some extent experiments have confirmed this. However, these studies have mostly used small test collections and simplified document models. In this work we investigate the use of the SVD on large document collections. We show that, if interpreted as a mechanism for representing the terms of the collection, this technique alone is insufficient for dealing with the variability in term occurrence. Section 2 introduces the text retrieval concepts necessary for our work. A short description of our experimental architecture is presented in Section 3. Section 4 describes how term occurrence variability affects the SVD and then shows how the decomposition influences retrieval performance. A possible way of improving SVD-based techniques is presented in Section 5 and concluded in Section 6.
HYBRID SULFUR FLOWSHEETS USING PEM ELECTROLYSIS AND A BAYONET DECOMPOSITION REACTOR
Gorensek, M; William Summers, W
2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
A conceptual design is presented for a Hybrid Sulfur process for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature nuclear heat source to split water. The process combines proton exchange membrane-based SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer technology being developed at Savannah River National Laboratory with silicon carbide bayonet decomposition reactor technology being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Both are part of the US DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The flowsheet otherwise uses only proven chemical process components. Electrolyzer product is concentrated from 50 wt% sulfuric acid to 75 wt% via recuperative vacuum distillation. Pinch analysis is used to predict the high-temperature heat requirement for sulfuric acid decomposition. An Aspen Plus{trademark} model of the flowsheet indicates 340.3 kJ high-temperature heat, 75.5 kJ low-temperature heat, 1.31 kJ low-pressure steam, and 120.9 kJ electric power are consumed per mole of H{sub 2} product, giving an LHV efficiency of 35.3% (41.7% HHV efficiency) if electric power is available at a conversion efficiency of 45%.
Effect of a fluorinated nickel surface on the decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane
Sreevidya, S.
1995-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) are a commercial class of lubricants widely used in computer and aerospace industries. This is a study of the degradation of a perfluorinated ether in the presence of a metal fluoride. Perfluorodiethoxymethane (PFDEM) is a PFPE analog. Temperature programmed desorption shows no contribution of PFDEM toward nickel fluoride on an NiF{sub 2} surface obtained by CF{sub 3}I adsorption. Higher coverages of nickel fluoride do not show any evidence of NiF{sub 2} contribution from PFDEM. The results do not agree with the idea that a fluorinated surface might induce decomposition of PFPEs, leading to addition fluoride formation on the surface. The metal fluoride bond strength is not a legitimate concern for decomposition of PFE lubricants. Impurity in PFPEs might be the cause of initial surface fluoridation leading to breakdown of PFPEs which could cause additional metal fluoride formation. It is clear that the reaction of PFPEs with metals does not involve a direct formation of a simple M-F bond; results do not show any C-F bond cleavage of the fluorinated ether and do not support a proposed autocatalytic mechanism.
Kik, Pieter
and Oxidation State on the Activity for Methanol Decomposition and Oxidation Jason R. Croya , S. Mostafaa,b , H-synthesized Pt nanoparticles supported on ZrO2 was studied for methanol decomposition and oxidation reactions. An O2-pretreatment is observed to be effective for producing clean, stable, and active nanoparticles
Haas, Yehuda
oligomerization occurring on the reactor walls. The multiple of the ArF laser induced photolytic products in the atmosphere is naturally of great interest, studies on their gas-phase thermal and photolytical decomposition radiation.4 We have recently studied the TEA CO2 laser-photosensitized (SF6) (homogeneous) decomposition
New Hampshire, University of
Purchasing Compost Compost, the end product of a controlled decomposition of plant and animal wastes, makes an excellent addition to lawn or garden soil. Adding compost to your soil helps improve both its drainage and waterholding properties. Compost stores plant nutrients and prevents them from
Bank, Randolph E.
Partial Di#11;erential Equations Randolph E. Bank #3; and Peter K. Jimack y Abstract We present a new domain decomposition algorithm for the parallel #12;nite element solution of elliptic partial di#11 to be utilized in a well load-balanced manner. Finally, numerical evidence is presented which suggests
Sageman, Brad
and Paleontology, New York State Museum, The State Education Department, Albany, NY 12230, USA e College of MarineA tale of shales: the relative roles of production, decomposition, and dilution in the accumulation Abstract A new consensus on the processes responsible for organic carbon burial in ancient epeiric seas has
Boyer, Edmond
-rich birnessite prepared from the thermal decomposition of KMnO4 at 1000Â°C in air has been refined by Rietveld, and rechargeable battery technology [25-42]. More recently, mesoporous hollow shells with birnessite walls have also been synthesized [43]. Besides, birnessites play a pivotal role in the fate of heavy metals
Glascoe, E A; Zaug, J M; Armstrong, M R; Crowhurst, J C; Grant, C D; Fried, L E
2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
The timescale and/or products of photo-induced decomposition of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) were investigated at ambient pressure and compared with products formed at elevated pressure (i.e. 8 GPa). Ultrafast time-resolved infrared and steady state Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopies were used to probe TATB and its products after photoexcitation with a 5 ns pulse of 532 nm light. At ambient pressure, transient spectra of TATB indicate that the molecule has significantly decomposed within 60 ns; transient spectra also indicate that formation of CO{sub 2}, an observed decomposition product, is complete within 30-40 s. Proof of principle time resolved experiments at elevated pressures were performed and are discussed briefly. Comparison of steady-state FTIR spectra obtained at ambient and elevated pressure (ca. 8 GPa) indicate that the decomposition products vary with pressure. We find evidence for water as a decomposition product only at elevated pressure.
Newcastle upon Tyne, University of
. They perform better, use less energy and emit less radiation than conventional synchronous circuits. A widely used formalism for their modelling are signal transition graphs (STGs), which are interpreted Petri are a faster synthesis and a reduced peak memory usage. In this paper, we deal with the decomposition method
Moorcroft, Paul R.
rights reserved. LETTERS High sensitivity of peat decomposition to climate change through water of the high water-holding capacity of peat and its low hydraulic conductivity, accumulation of soil organicbiogeochemical soil model with peat depths that are continuously updated from the dynamic balance of soil organic
Growth and stability of oxidation resistant Si nanocrystals formed by decomposition of alkyl silanes
Zaitseva, N; Hamel, S; Dai, Z R; Saw, C; Williamson, A J; Galli, G
2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
The synthesis and characterization of 1-10 nm Si nanocrystals highly resistant to oxidation is described. The nanocrystals were prepared by thermal decomposition of tetramethylsilane at 680 C, or in a gold- induced catalytic process at lower temperatures down to 400-450 C using trioctylamine as an initial solvent. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of samples obtained in the presence of gold show that the nanocrystals form via solid-phase epitaxial attachment of Si to the gold crystal lattice. The results of computational modeling performed using first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that the enhanced stability of nanocrystals to oxidation is due to the presence of N or N-containing groups on the surface of nanocrystals.
Rogers, C.J.; Kornel, A.; Sparks, H.L.
1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
There are vast amounts of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which have pervaded our environment during the past fifty years, leaving us with serious, crucial problems of remediation and disposal. The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ``dioxins`` and pesticides in soil sediments and living systems is a serious problem that is receiving considerable attention concerning the cancer-causing nature of these synthetic compounds.US EPA scientists developed in 1989 and 1990 two novel chemical Processes to effect the dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCP and other pollutants in soil, sludge, sediment and liquids. This improved technology employs hydrogen as a nucleophile to replace halogens on halogenated compounds. Hydrogen as nucleophile is not influenced by steric hinderance as with other nucleophile where complete dehalogenation of organohalogens can be achieved. This report discusses catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals.
Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.
Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Erickson, Kenneth L
2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation result is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.
Leung, Kevin; Foster, Michael E; Ma, Yuguang; del la Hoz, Julibeth M Martinez; Sai, Na; Balbuena, Perla B
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) shows promise as an electrolyte additive for improving passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films on silicon anodes used in lithium ion batteries (LIB). We apply density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), and quantum chemistry techniques to examine excess-electron-induced FEC molecular decomposition mechanisms that lead to FEC-modified SEI. We consider one- and two-electron reactions using cluster models and explicit interfaces between liquid electrolyte and model Li(x)Si(y) surfaces, respectively. FEC is found to exhibit more varied reaction pathways than unsubstituted ethylene carbonate. The initial bond-breaking events and products of one- and two-electron reactions are qualitatively similar, with a fluoride ion detached in both cases. However, most one-electron products are charge-neutral, not anionic, and may not coalesce to form effective Li+-conducting SEI unless they are further reduced or take part in other reactions. The implication...
Decomposition of a Nonlinear Multivariate Function using the Heaviside Step Function
Eisuke Chikayama
2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
Whereas the Dirac delta function introduced by P. A. M. Dirac in 1930 in his famous quantum mechanics text has been well studied, a not famous formula related to the delta function using the Heaviside step function in a single-variable form, also given in Dirac's text, has been poorly studied. We demonstrate the decomposition of a nonlinear multivariate function into a sum of integrals in which each integrand is composed of a derivative of the function and a direct product of Heaviside step functions. It is an extension of Dirac's single-variable form to that for multiple variables. Moreover, it remains mathematically equivalent to the definition of the Dirac delta function with multiple variables, and offers a mathematically unified expression.
Qian Zhao; Bao Yuan Sun; Wen Hui Long
2014-11-23T23:59:59.000Z
The isospin coupling-channel decomposition of the potential energy density functional is carried out within the covariant density functional theory, and their isospin and density dependence in particular the influence on the symmetry energy is studied. It is found that both isospin-singlet and isospin-triplet components of the potential energy play the dominant role in deciding the symmetry energy, especially when the Fock diagram is introduced. The results illustrate a quite different mechanism to the origin of the symmetry energy from the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory, and demonstrate the importance of the Fork diagram in the CDF theory, especially from the isoscalar mesons, in the isospin properties of the in-medium nuclear force at high density.
Internal friction study of decomposition kinetics of SAF 2507 type duplex stainless steel
Smuk, O.; Smuk, S.; Hanninen, H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Engineering Materials] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Engineering Materials; Jagodzinski, Yu.; Tarasenko, O. [National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. for Metal Physics] [National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. for Metal Physics
1999-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
During the last decade, super duplex stainless steels (DSSs) with increased nitrogen content have been an object of intensive studies. Present work is devoted to the study of the peculiarities of {delta}-ferrite decomposition in SAF 2507 type duplex steel, and redistribution of nitrogen between ferrite and austenite phases in a wide temperature range by means of internal fraction (IF). Unlike local methods of electron microscopy or engineering methods of hardness or impact toughness testing, which give basically information on the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, the internal friction technique allows to study the state of solid solution and kinetics of changes in the relative amounts of ferrite and austenite phases during thermal treatment.
Cédric Lorcé
2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z
In a set of two papers, we propose to study an old-standing problem, namely the electromagnetic interaction for particles of arbitrary spin. Based on the assumption that light-cone helicity at tree level and $Q^2=0$ should be conserved non-trivially by the electromagnetic interaction, we are able to derive \\emph{all} the natural electromagnetic moments for a pointlike particle of \\emph{any} spin. In this first paper, we propose a transparent decomposition of the electromagnetic current in terms of covariant vertex functions. We also define in a general way the electromagnetic multipole form factors, and show their relation with the electromagnetic moments. Finally, by considering the Breit frame, we relate the covariant vertex functions to multipole form factors.
Ball, D.W. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Although perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricants have found successful application in spacecraft mechanisms and computer hard drives, there eventual breakdown is irksome, and the mechanism of decomposition is the subject of much scrutiny. However, very little notice is taken of the monomer ethers on which the polymer lubricants are based. Recently, concerted studies of the Lewis base properties of various fluorinated ethers have been performed, both from an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. As an extension of the theoretical work, this study presents ab initio theoretical consideration of the multiple potential basic sites within perfluorodiethyl ether, (CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}){sub 2}O, by way of the proton affinity of the molecule at various possible protonation sites (i.e., oxygen and fluorine atoms). The results indicate that although protonation at the oxygen is more energetically favored, protonation at the fluorine is not much higher in energy and provides for formation of an excellent leaving group, HF.
Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.
1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
The invention comprises a method for the oxidation of alkanes to alcohols and for decomposition of hydroperoxides to alcohols utilizing new compositions of matter, which are metal complexes of porphyrins. Preferred complexes have hydrogen, haloalkyl or haloaryl groups in meso positions, two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloaryl, and two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloalkyl, but not all four of the meso atoms or groups being hydrogen. Other preferred complexes are ones in which all four of the meso positions are substituted with haloalkyl groups and the beta positions are substituted with halogen atoms. A new method of synthesizing porphyrinogens is also disclosed.
Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention comprises a method for the oxidation of alkanes to alcohols and for decomposition of hydroperoxides to alcohols utilizing new compositions of matter, which are metal complexes of porphyrins. Preferred complexes have hydrogen, haloalkyl or haloaryl groups in meso positions, two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloaryl, and two of the opposed meso atoms or groups being hydrogen or haloalkyl, but not all four of the meso atoms or groups being hydrogen. Other preferred complexes are ones in which all four of the meso positions are substituted with haloalkyl groups and the beta positions are substituted with halogen atoms. A new method of synthesizing porphyrinogens is also disclosed.
Fast singular value decomposition combined maximum entropy method for plasma tomography
Kim, Junghee; Choe, W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701(Korea, Republic of)
2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The maximum entropy method (MEM) is a widely used reconstruction algorithm in plasma physics. Drawbacks of the conventional MEM are its heavy time-consuming process and possible generation of noisy reconstruction results. In this article, a modified maximum entropy algorithm is described which speeds up the calculation and shows better noise handling capability. Similar to the rapid minimum Fisher information method, the modified maximum entropy algorithm uses simple matrix operations instead of treating a fully nonlinear problem. The preprocess for rapid tomographic calculation is based on the vector operations and the singular value decomposition (SVD). The initial guess of the sought-for emissivity is calculated by SVD and this helped reconstruction about ten times faster than the conventional MEM. Therefore, the developed fast MEM can be used for intershot tomographic analyses of fusion plasmas.
Kinetics of methyl radical-hydroxyl radical collisions and methanol decomposition.
Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The CH{sub 3} + OH bimolecular reaction and the dissociation of methanol are studied theoretically at conditions relevant to combustion chemistry. Kinetics for the CH{sub 3} + OH barrierless association reaction and for the H + CH{sub 2}OH and H + CH{sub 3}O product channels are determined in the high-pressure limit using variable reaction coordinate transition state theory and multireference electronic structure calculations to evaluate the fragment interaction energies. The CH{sub 3} + OH {yields} {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O abstraction reaction and the H{sub 2} + HCOH and H{sub 2} + H{sub 2}CO product channels feature localized dynamical bottlenecks and are treated using variational transition state theory and QCISD(T) energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The {sup 1}CH{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O product channel has two dynamical regimes, featuring both an inner saddle point and an outer barrierless region, and it is shown that a microcanonical two-state model is necessary to properly describe the association rate for this reaction over a broad temperature range. Experimental channel energies for the methanol system are reevaluated using the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach. Pressure dependent, phenomenological rate coefficients for the CH{sub 3} + OH bimolecular reaction and for methanol decomposition are determined via master equation simulations. The predicted results agree well with experimental results, including those from a companion high-temperature shock tube determination for the decomposition of methanol.
Brodie, Eoin [Berkeley Lab
2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Eoin Brodie of Berkeley Lab on "Succession of phylogeny and function during plant litter decomposition" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.
Donald Estep; Michael Holst; Simon Tavener
2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
This project was concerned with the accurate computational error estimation for numerical solutions of multiphysics, multiscale systems that couple different physical processes acting across a large range of scales relevant to the interests of the DOE. Multiscale, multiphysics models are characterized by intimate interactions between different physics across a wide range of scales. This poses significant computational challenges addressed by the proposal, including: (1) Accurate and efficient computation; (2) Complex stability; and (3) Linking different physics. The research in this project focused on Multiscale Operator Decomposition methods for solving multiphysics problems. The general approach is to decompose a multiphysics problem into components involving simpler physics over a relatively limited range of scales, and then to seek the solution of the entire system through some sort of iterative procedure involving solutions of the individual components. MOD is a very widely used technique for solving multiphysics, multiscale problems; it is heavily used throughout the DOE computational landscape. This project made a major advance in the analysis of the solution of multiscale, multiphysics problems.
Decomposition of the total momentum in a linear dielectric into field and matter components
Crenshaw, Michael E., E-mail: michael.crenshaw@us.army.mil
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The long-standing resolution of the Abraham–Minkowski electromagnetic momentum controversy is predicated on a decomposition of the total momentum of a closed continuum electrodynamic system into separate field and matter components. Using a microscopic model of a simple linear dielectric, we derive Lagrangian equations of motion for the electric dipoles and show that the dielectric can be treated as a collection of stationary simple harmonic oscillators that are driven by the electric field and produce a polarization field in response. The macroscopic energy and momentum are defined in terms of the electric, magnetic, and polarization fields that travel through the dielectric together as a pulse of electromagnetic radiation. We conclude that both the macroscopic total energy and the macroscopic total momentum are entirely electromagnetic in nature for a simple linear dielectric in the absence of significant reflections. -- Highlights: •The total momentum in a dielectric is identified by conservation principles. •The total momentum in a dielectric cannot be decomposed into field and matter parts. •A component of momentum in a dielectric is due to motion of the polarization field.
Radiation-Induced Decomposition of U(VI) Phase to Nanocrystals of UO2
S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing; L. Wang
2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
U{sup 6+}-phases are common alteration products, under oxidizing conditions, of uraninite and the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel. These U{sup 6+}-phases are subjected to a radiation field caused by the {alpha}-decay of U, or in the case of spent nuclear fuel, incorporated actinides, such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np. In order to evaluate the effects of {alpha}-decay events on the stability of the U{sup 6+}-phases, we report, for the first time, the results of ion beam irradiations (1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) of U{sup 6+}-phases. The heavy-particle irradiations are used to simulate the ballistic interactions of the recoil-nucleus of an {alpha}-decay event with the surrounding structure. The Kr{sup 2+}-irradiation decomposed the U{sup 6+}-phases to UO{sub 2} nanocrystals at doses as low as 0.006 displacements per atom (dpa). U{sup 6+}-phases accumulate substantial radiation doses ({approx}1.0 displacement per atom) within 100,000 years if the concentration of incorporated {sup 239}Pu is as high as 1 wt%. Similar nanocrystals of UO{sub 2} were observed in samples from the natural fission reactors at Oklo, Gabon. Multiple cycles of radiation-induced decomposition to UO{sub 2} followed by alteration to U{sup 6+}-phases provide a mechanism for the remobilization of incorporated radionuclides.
Fiber Optic Sensing Technology for Detecting Gas Hydrate Formation and Decomposition
Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Leeman, John R [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Ulrich, Shannon M [ORNL; Alford, Jonathan E [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Madden, Megan Elwood [University of Oklahoma, Norman
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A fiber optic-based distributed sensing system (DSS) has been integrated with a large volume (72 L) pressure vessel providing high spatial resolution, time resolved, 3-D measurement of hybrid temperature-strain (TS) values within experimental sediment gas hydrate systems. Areas of gas hydrate formation (exothermic) and decomposition (endothermic) can be characterized through this proxy by time series analysis of discrete data points collected along the length of optical fibers placed within a sediment system. Data is visualized as a 'movie' of TS values along the length of each fiber over time. Experiments conducted in the Seafloor Processing Simulator (SPS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory show clear indications of hydrate formation and dissociation events at expected P-T conditions given the thermodynamics of the CH4-H2O system. The high spatial resolution achieved with fiber optic technology makes the DSS a useful tool for visualizing time resolved formation and dissociation of gas hydrates in large-scale sediment experiments.
Kevin Leung; Susan B. Rempe; Michael E. Foster; Yuguang Ma; Julibeth M. Martinez del la Hoz; Na Sai; Perla B. Balbuena
2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) shows promise as an electrolyte additive for improving passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films on silicon anodes used in lithium ion batteries (LIB). We apply density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), and quantum chemistry techniques to examine excess-electron-induced FEC molecular decomposition mechanisms that lead to FEC-modified SEI. We consider one- and two-electron reactions using cluster models and explicit interfaces between liquid electrolyte and model Li(x)Si(y) surfaces, respectively. FEC is found to exhibit more varied reaction pathways than unsubstituted ethylene carbonate. The initial bond-breaking events and products of one- and two-electron reactions are qualitatively similar, with a fluoride ion detached in both cases. However, most one-electron products are charge-neutral, not anionic, and may not coalesce to form effective Li+-conducting SEI unless they are further reduced or take part in other reactions. The implications of these reactions to silicon-anode based LIB are discussed.
High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites
K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo
2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.
Schmidt, A.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Brown, M.D.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.N.; Wilcox, W.A.; Gano, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, B.C.; Gavaskar, A.R. [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)] [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)
1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) is a chemical dehalogenation process designed for treating soils and other substrate contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, dioxins, furans, and other hazardous organic substances. PCBs are heavy organic liquids once widely used in industry as lubricants, heat transfer oils, and transformer dielectric fluids. In 1976, production was banned when PCBs were recognized as carcinogenic substances. It was estimated that significant quantities (one billion tons) of U.S. soils, including areas on U.S. military bases outside the country, were contaminated by PCB leaks and spills, and cleanup activities began. The BCD technology was developed in response to these activities. This report details the evolution of the process, from inception to deployment in Guam, and describes the process and system components provided to the Navy to meet the remediation requirements. The report is divided into several sections to cover the range of development and demonstration activities. Section 2.0 gives an overview of the project history. Section 3.0 describes the process chemistry and remediation steps involved. Section 4.0 provides a detailed description of each component and specific development activities. Section 5.0 details the testing and deployment operations and provides the results of the individual demonstration campaigns. Section 6.0 gives an economic assessment of the process. Section 7.0 presents the conclusions and recommendations form this project. The appendices contain equipment and instrument lists, equipment drawings, and detailed run and analytical data.
Orthogonal decomposition as a design tool: With application to a mixing impeller
Sloan, Benjamin
2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Digital manufacturing eliminates the expense and time required to develop custom products. By utilizing this technology, designers can quickly create a customized product specifically for their performance needs. But the timescale and expense from the engineering design workflows used to develop these customized products have not been adapted from the workflows used in mass production. In many cases these customized designs build upon already successful mass-produced products that were developed using conventional engineering design workflows. Many times as part of this conventional design process significant time is spent creating and validating high fidelity models that accurately predict the performance of the final design. These existing validated high fidelity models used for the mass-produced design can be reused for analysis and design of unknown products. This thesis explores the integration of reduced order modeling and detailed analysis into the engineering design workflow developing a customized design using digital manufacturing. Specifically, detailed analysis is coupled with proper orthogonal decomposition to enable the exploration of the design space while simultaneously shaping the model representing the design. This revised workflow is examined using the design of a laboratory scale overhead mixer impeller. The case study presented here is compared with the design of the Kar Dynamic Mixer impeller developed by The Dow Chemical Company. The result of which is a customized design for a refined set of operating conditions with improved performance.
Pivovar, B. S.; Edson, J. B.; Macomber, C. S.; Long, H.; Boncella, J. M.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The mechanism of the thermal decomposition of a series of alkyl trimethyl ammonium hydroxides ([RMe{sub 3}N][OH], R = Et, n-Pr, i-Bu, PhCH{sub 2}, Me{sub 3}CCH{sub 2}) was studied using TGA, evolved gas analysis and NMR spectroscopy due to the importance of these and related ions in anion exchange fuel cell membranes. Isotopic labeling with deuterium showed that deprotonation of the methyl groups of the ammonium ions by deuteroxide establishes a rapid equilibrium between the tetraalkyl ammonium ions and the nitrogen ylide species and water that scrambles the deuterium with the proton on the methyl groups. The products of the thermal decomposition when R = Et, n-Pr, i-Bu are predominately olefins arising from Hoffmann elimination, while the neopentyl substituted ammonium ion gives only neopentyl trimethyl amine and methanol, the products of S{sub N}2 attack of hydroxide on the methyl groups. DFT studies of these reactions confirm the relative activation barriers that are observed in the experimental decomposition studies.
Veals, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Donald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)
2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
Density functional theory and ab initio methods are employed to investigate decomposition pathways of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine initiated by unimolecular loss of NO{sub 2} or HONO. Geometry optimizations are performed using M06/cc-pVTZ and coupled-cluster (CC) theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T), is used to calculate accurate single-point energies for those geometries. The CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ energies for NO{sub 2} elimination by N–N and C–N bond fission are, including zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections, 43.21 kcal/mol and 50.46 kcal/mol, respectively. The decomposition initiated by trans-HONO elimination can occur by a concerted H-atom and nitramine NO{sub 2} group elimination or by a concerted H-atom and nitroalkyl NO{sub 2} group elimination via barriers (at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level with ZPE corrections) of 47.00 kcal/mol and 48.27 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level, the ordering of these four decomposition steps from energetically most favored to least favored is: NO{sub 2} elimination by N–N bond fission, HONO elimination involving the nitramine NO{sub 2} group, HONO elimination involving a nitroalkyl NO{sub 2} group, and finally NO{sub 2} elimination by C–N bond fission.
Lin, Yuting [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Liu, Tian; Yang, Xiaofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Hospital, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wang, Yuenan [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland (United States); Khan, Mohammad K., E-mail: drkhurram2000@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Hospital, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)
2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: The objective of this work is to characterize and quantify the impact of respiratory-induced prostate motion. Methods and Materials: Real-time intrafraction motion is observed with the Calypso 4-dimensional nonradioactive electromagnetic tracking system (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc. Seattle, Washington). We report the results from a total of 1024 fractions from 31 prostate cancer patients. Wavelet transform was used to decompose the signal to extract and isolate the respiratory-induced prostate motion from the total prostate displacement. Results: Our results show that the average respiratory motion larger than 0.5 mm can be observed in 68% of the fractions. Fewer than 1% of the patients showed average respiratory motion of less than 0.2 mm, whereas 99% of the patients showed average respiratory-induced motion ranging between 0.2 and 2 mm. The maximum respiratory range of motion of 3 mm or greater was seen in only 25% of the fractions. In addition, about 2% patients showed anxiety, indicated by a breathing frequency above 24 times per minute. Conclusions: Prostate motion is influenced by respiration in most fractions. Real-time intrafraction data are sensitive enough to measure the impact of respiration by use of wavelet decomposition methods. Although the average respiratory amplitude observed in this study is small, this technique provides a tool that can be useful if one moves to smaller treatment margins (?5 mm). This also opens ups the possibility of being able to develop patient specific margins, knowing that prostate motion is not unpredictable.
Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.
2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.
Amirov, I.I.; Vinogradov, G.K.; Slovetskii, D.I.
1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Decomposition products from tetrafluoromethane mixed with oxygen react with WTi alloy in an HF glow discharge, the extent of reaction being dependent on the atomic fluorine concentration, temperature, and surface potential. The rates of reaction with the CF/sub 4/ products are proportional to the atomic fluorine concentrations. The effective activation energies have been determined for the atomic fluorine reacting with the alloy components in various gases. The metal removal rate increases when the specimen is negative with respect to the plasma potential, which is ascribed to the surface being bombarded by positive ions or to the electric field affecting the surface reaction rates.
RADIATION-INDUCED DECOMPOSITION OF U(VI) ALTERATION PHASES OF UO2
S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing
2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z
U{sup 6+}-phases are common alteration products of spent nuclear fuel under oxidizing conditions, and they may potentially incorporate actinides, such as long-lived {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np, delaying their transport to the biosphere. In order to evaluate the ballistic effects of {alpha}-decay events on the stability of the U{sup 6+}-phases, we report, for the first time, the results of ion beam irradiations (1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) for six different structures of U{sup 6+}-phases: uranophane, kasolite, boltwoodite, saleeite, carnotite, and liebigite. The target uranyl-minerals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and identification confirmed by SAED (selected area electron diffraction) in TEM (transmission electron microscopy). The TEM observation revealed no initial contamination of uraninite in these U{sup 6+} phases. All of the samples were irradiated with in situ TEM observation using 1.0 MeV Kr{sup 2+} in the IVEM (intermediate-voltage electron microscope) at the IVEM-Tandem Facility of Argonne National Laboratory. The ion flux was 6.3 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}/sec. The specimen temperatures during irradiation were 298 and 673 K, respectively. The Kr{sup 2+}-irradiation decomposed the U{sup 6+}-phases to nanocrystals of UO{sub 2} at doses as low as 0.006 dpa. The cumulative doses for the pure U{sup 6+}-phases, e.g., uranophane, at 0.1 and 1 million years (m.y.) are calculated to be 0.009 and 0.09 dpa using SRIM2003. However, with the incorporation of 1 wt.% {sup 239}Pu, the calculated doses reach 0.27 and {approx}1.00 dpa in ten thousand and one hundred thousand years, respectively. Under oxidizing conditions, multiple cycles of radiation-induced decomposition to UO{sub 2} followed by alteration to U{sup 6+}-phases should be further investigated to determine the fate of trace elements that may have been incorporated in the U{sup 6+}-phases.
Li Benwen [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, P.O. Box 314, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China)], E-mail: heatli@hotmail.com; Tian Shuai; Sun Yasong; Hu, Zhang-Mao [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, P.O. Box 314, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China)
2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z
The Schur-decomposition for three-dimensional matrix equations is developed and used to directly solve the radiative discrete ordinates equations which are discretized by Chebyshev collocation spectral method. Three methods, say, the spectral methods based on 2D and 3D matrix equation solvers individually, and the standard discrete ordinates method, are presented. The numerical results show the good accuracy of spectral method based on direct solvers. The CPU time cost comparisons against the resolutions between these three methods are made using MATLAB and FORTRAN 95 computer languages separately. The results show that the CPU time cost of Chebyshev collocation spectral method with 3D Schur-decomposition solver is the least, and almost only one thirtieth to one fiftieth CPU time is needed when using the spectral method with 3D Schur-decomposition solver compared with the standard discrete ordinates method.
Subber, Waad, E-mail: wsubber@connect.carleton.ca; Sarkar, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit_sarkar@carleton.ca
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Recent advances in high performance computing systems and sensing technologies motivate computational simulations with extremely high resolution models with capabilities to quantify uncertainties for credible numerical predictions. A two-level domain decomposition method is reported in this investigation to devise a linear solver for the large-scale system in the Galerkin spectral stochastic finite element method (SSFEM). In particular, a two-level scalable preconditioner is introduced in order to iteratively solve the large-scale linear system in the intrusive SSFEM using an iterative substructuring based domain decomposition solver. The implementation of the algorithm involves solving a local problem on each subdomain that constructs the local part of the preconditioner and a coarse problem that propagates information globally among the subdomains. The numerical and parallel scalabilities of the two-level preconditioner are contrasted with the previously developed one-level preconditioner for two-dimensional flow through porous media and elasticity problems with spatially varying non-Gaussian material properties. A distributed implementation of the parallel algorithm is carried out using MPI and PETSc parallel libraries. The scalabilities of the algorithm are investigated in a Linux cluster.
Menart, M. J.; Hensley, J. E.; Costelow, K. E.
2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
Cobalt molybdenum sulfide-type mixed alcohol catalysts were synthesized via calcination of precipitated bulk sulfides and studied with temperature programmed decomposition analysis. Precursors containing aqueous potassium were also considered. Precipitates thermally decomposed in unique events which released ammonia, carbon dioxide, and sulfur. Higher temperature treatments led to more crystalline and less active catalysts in general with ethanol productivity falling from 203 to 97 g (kg cat){sup -1} h{sup -1} when the calcination temperature was increased from 375 to 500 C. The addition of potassium to the precursor led to materials with crystalline potassium sulfides and good catalytic performance. In general, less potassium was required to promote alcohol selectivity when added before calcination. At calcination temperatures above 350 C, segregated cobalt sulfides were observed, suggesting that thermally decomposed sulfide precursors may contain a mixture of molybdenum and cobalt sulfides instead of a dispersed CoMoS type of material. When dimethyl disulfide was fed to the precursor during calcination, crystalline cobalt sulfides were not detected, suggesting an important role of free sulfur during decomposition.
Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III.; Hagaman, E.W.; Biggs, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))
1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In an effort to model the effects of restricted diffusion and cross-linking on the thermal decomposition of polymethylene units linking aromatic moieties in coal, a surface-attached, cross-linked 1,3-diphenylpropane has been synthesized through the condensation of p, p{prime}-HOPh(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PhOH with a silica surface. Thermolysis of DPP at 375 C has been studied at a variety of surface coverages in which the fraction of diattached DPP varies from ca. 24 to 86% with complete diattachment not yet achieved. The influence of cross-linking and free phenolic functionality (Ph(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PhOH) on the rate of decomposition and product distribution will be discussed and compared to the thermolysis of Ph(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}Ph as well as fluid phase DPP. Solid state CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR will be used to prove the chemical composition and motional behavior of the substrate on the surface and their potential mechanistic impact.
Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This work applies the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method to data on real quarterly oil price (West Texas Intermediate - WTI) and U.S. gross domestic product (GDP). This relatively new method is adaptive and capable of handling non-linear and non-stationary data. Correlation analysis of the decomposition results was performed and examined for insights into the oil-macroeconomy relationship. Several components of this relationship were identified. However, the principal one is that the medium-run cyclical component of the oil price exerts a negative and exogenous influence on the main cyclical component of the GDP. This can be interpreted as the supply-driven or supply-shock component of the oil price-GDP relationship. In addition, weak correlations suggesting a lagging demand-driven, an expectations-driven, and a long-run supply-driven component of the relationship were also identified. Comparisons of these findings with significant oil supply disruption and recession dates were supportive. The study identified a number of lessons applicable to recent oil market events, including the eventuality of persistent economic and price declines following a long oil price run-up. In addition, it was found that oil-market related exogenous events are associated with short- to medium-run price implications regardless of whether they lead to actual supply disruptions.
Xiaoyu Shi; Karen R. Polenske; Xiaoyu Shi; Karen R. Polenske
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Since the start of its economic reforms in 1978, China's energy prices relative to other prices have increased. At the same time, its energy intensity, i.e., energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has declined dramatically, by about 70%, in spite of increases in energy consumption. Is this just a coincidence? Or does a systematic relationship exist between energy prices and energy intensity? In this study, we examine whether and how China’s energy price changes affect its energy intensity trend during 1980-2002 at a macro level. We conduct the research by using two complementary economic models: the input-output-based structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and econometric regression models and by using a decomposition method of own-price elasticity of energy intensity. Findings include a negative own-price elasticity of energy intensity, a price-inducement effect on energyefficiency improvement, and a greater sensitivity (in terms of the reaction of energy intensity towards changes in energy prices) of the industry sector, compared to the overall economy. Analysts can use these results as a starting point for China's energy and carbon
Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Su, M.-C.; Michael, J. V.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)
2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
The thermal decomposition of propane has been studied using both shock tube experiments and ab initio transition state theory-based master equation calculations. Dissociation rate constants for propane have been measured at high temperatures behind reflected shock waves using high-sensitivity H-ARAS detection and CH{sub 3} optical absorption. The two major dissociation channels at high temperature are C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 5} (eq 1a) and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (eq 1b). Ultra high-sensitivity ARAS detection of H-atoms produced from the decomposition of the product, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, in (1a), allowed measurements of both the total decomposition rate constants, k{sub total}, and the branching to radical products, k{sub 1a}/k{sub total}. Theoretical analyses indicate that the molecular products are formed exclusively through the roaming radical mechanism and that radical products are formed exclusively through channel 1a. The experiments were performed over the temperature range 1417-1819 K and gave a minor contribution of (10 {+-} 8%) due to roaming. A multipass CH{sub 3} absorption diagnostic using a Zn resonance lamp was also developed and characterized in this work using the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}I as a reference reaction. The measured rate constants for CH{sub 3}I decomposition agreed with earlier determinations from this laboratory that were based on I-atom ARAS measurements. This CH{sub 3} diagnostic was then used to detect radicals from channel 1a allowing lower temperature (1202-1543 K) measurements of k1a to be determined. Variable reaction coordinate-transition state theory was used to predict the high pressure limits for channel (1a) and other bond fission reactions in C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. Conventional transition state theory calculations were also used to estimate rate constants for other tight transition state processes. These calculations predict a negligible contribution (<1%) from all other bond fission and tight transition state processes, indicating that the bond fission channel (1a) and the roaming channel (1b) are indeed the only active channels at the temperature and pressure ranges of the present experiments. The predicted reaction exo- and endothermicities are in excellent agreement with the current version of the Active Thermochemical Tables. Master equation calculations incorporating these transition state theory results yield predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the dissociation rate constants for channel 1a. The final theoretical results reliably reproduce the measured dissociation rate constants that are reported here and in the literature. The experimental data are well reproduced over the 500-2500 K and 1 x 10{sup -4} to 100 bar range (errors of {approx}15% or less) by the following Troe parameters for Ar as the bath gas: k{sub {infinity}} = 1.55 x 10{sup 24}T{sup -2.034} exp(-45490/T) s{sup -1}, k{sub 0} = 7.92 x 10{sup 53}T{sup -16.67} exp(-50380/T) cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, and F{sub c} = 0.190 exp(-T/3091) + 0.810 exp(-T/128) + exp(-8829/T).
Cai, C. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rodet, T.; Mohammad-Djafari, A. [CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CNRS, SUPELEC, UNIV PARIS SUD, L2S, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legoupil, S. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) makes it possible to get two fractions of basis materials without segmentation. One is the soft-tissue equivalent water fraction and the other is the hard-matter equivalent bone fraction. Practical DECT measurements are usually obtained with polychromatic x-ray beams. Existing reconstruction approaches based on linear forward models without counting the beam polychromaticity fail to estimate the correct decomposition fractions and result in beam-hardening artifacts (BHA). The existing BHA correction approaches either need to refer to calibration measurements or suffer from the noise amplification caused by the negative-log preprocessing and the ill-conditioned water and bone separation problem. To overcome these problems, statistical DECT reconstruction approaches based on nonlinear forward models counting the beam polychromaticity show great potential for giving accurate fraction images.Methods: This work proposes a full-spectral Bayesian reconstruction approach which allows the reconstruction of high quality fraction images from ordinary polychromatic measurements. This approach is based on a Gaussian noise model with unknown variance assigned directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Referring to Bayesian inferences, the decomposition fractions and observation variance are estimated by using the joint maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation method. Subject to an adaptive prior model assigned to the variance, the joint estimation problem is then simplified into a single estimation problem. It transforms the joint MAP estimation problem into a minimization problem with a nonquadratic cost function. To solve it, the use of a monotone conjugate gradient algorithm with suboptimal descent steps is proposed.Results: The performance of the proposed approach is analyzed with both simulated and experimental data. The results show that the proposed Bayesian approach is robust to noise and materials. It is also necessary to have the accurate spectrum information about the source-detector system. When dealing with experimental data, the spectrum can be predicted by a Monte Carlo simulator. For the materials between water and bone, less than 5% separation errors are observed on the estimated decomposition fractions.Conclusions: The proposed approach is a statistical reconstruction approach based on a nonlinear forward model counting the full beam polychromaticity and applied directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Compared to the approaches based on linear forward models and the BHA correction approaches, it has advantages in noise robustness and reconstruction accuracy.
Meshcheryakov, Oleg
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly s...
Boyer, Edmond
in the patient head. Yet, the skull anisotropy happens to be highly anisotropic, and must then be modeled.e. for the brain and the scalp). A domain decomposition (DD) framework allows to split the global system. This work presents such a coupling formulation of a 3-DD method solving iteratively a BEM for the brain
Hydrogen production from methanol decomposition over Pt/Al2O3 and ceria promoted Pt/Al2O3 catalysts
Gulari, Erdogan
rights reserved. Keywords: Methanol decomposition; Pt/alumina; Ceria; Hydrogen; PEM fuel cell 1 exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cell system. PEM fuel cells convert hydrogen gas into useful electric power is seen as an attractive means of providing the necessary hydrogen to the fuel cell. With the exception
Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A.
1989-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
Surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane (/approximately//approximately/Ph(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/Ph, or /approximately//approximately/DPP) has been prepared by the condensation of p-(3-phenylpropyl)phenol with the surface hydroxyl groups of an amorphous, fumed silica. Thermolysis studies of the covalently attached /approximately//approximately/DPP have been conducted to explore the effects of restricted radical and substrate diffusion on a free-radical chain induced decomposition reaction, which has been reported to underlie the thermal reactivity of fluid-phase DPP at /<=/400/degrees/C. Thermolysis of /approximately//approximately/DPP has been studied at 345-400/degrees/C as a function of /approximately//approximately/DPP conversion (0.3-23%) and initial surface coverage (0.132-0.586 mmol g/sup -1/; 0.43-1.97 DPP molecules nm/sup -2/). Decomposition of surface-immobilized /approximately//approximately/DPP occurs readily in this temperature range by parallel free-radical chain pathways, whose rates are quite sensitive to surface coverage, producing PhCH/sub 3/ + /approximately//approximately/PhCH/double bond/CH/sub 2/ and /approximately//approximately/PhCH/sub 3/ + PhCH/double bond/CH/sub 2/ as the major product pairs. An unusual regiospecific hydrogen transfer process is observed that favors formation of /approximately//approximately/PhCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/CHPh over /approximately//approximately/PhCHCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/Ph as the proximity of /approximately//approximately/DPP molecules and hydrogen abstracting radicals on the surface decreases. This phenomenon results in regioselective cracking of /approximately//approximately/DPP favoring the /approximately//approximately/PhCH/sub 3/ + PhCH/double bond/CH/sub 2/ product pair. Implications are discussed for the thermal degradation of related structural features in a diffusionally restricted, macromolecular network such as occurs in coal. 31 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.
Sklenak, Stepan
Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative species Steamed Fe-zeolites MÃ¶ssbauer spectroscopy UVÂVis FTIR H2-TPR N2O decomposition Propane oxidative of propane to propene with N2O. The evacuated non-steamed FeH-ZSM-5 contained high concentration of BrÃ¸nsted
Enríquez, Marco; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar, E-mail: orosas@fis.cinvestav.mx
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We review the properties of the Kronecker (direct, or tensor) product of square matrices A?B?C? in terms of Hubbard operators. In its simplest form, a Hubbard operator X{sub n}{sup i,j} can be expressed as the n-square matrix which has entry 1 in position (i,j) and zero in all other entries. The algebra and group properties of the observables that define a multipartite quantum system are notably straightforward in such a framework. In particular, we use the Kronecker product in Hubbard notation to get the Clebsch–Gordan decomposition of the product group SU(2)×SU(2). Finally, the n-dimensional irreducible representations so obtained are used to derive closed forms of the Clebsch–Gordan coefficients that rule the addition of angular momenta. Our results can be further developed in many different directions. -- Highlights: •The Kronecker product is studied in terms of Hubbard operators. •Complicated calculations involving large matrices are reduced to simple relations of subscripts. •The algebraic properties of the quantum observables of multipartite systems are studied. •The Clebsch–Gordan coefficients are given in terms of hypergeometric {sub 3}F{sub 2} functions. •The results can be further developed in many different directions.
Raupach, Marc
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the binding energy between two fragments (e.g. the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic and dispersion interaction, Pauli repulsion and orbital relaxation energies. The pEDA presented here for an AO-based implementation can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight th...
Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang, E-mail: qshi@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.
A study of the factors influencing the cooking of cottonseed meats
Howard, John
1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
are oonveyed fran the orushex' through a stean heated rotor lift to th? top ooolcor. The stosxL heated rotox lift is a vertioal sore?oonveyor into ?hioh live steaa is ingested. Tho puryose of the live stean in the xotor lift ie to begin tho seeking...~to suyorinyosed oas upon the other The temperature of each ee@yartnsnt is in4ioated by a reoording thersLcsseter, The heat for the seeking is taken frcsa stean gaskets, an4, by oontroliing the onount of stean in cash gasket, tho mal cook oan cxaintain tho...
Design of a nuclear reactor system for lunar base applications
Griffith, Richard Odell
2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
disadvantages. U02 and Pu02 fuels both have extremely poor ther mal conductivities, about 4 W/m K at 500 C, which would normally limit the maximum linear power in the reactor core to unacceptably low levels. For tunately, the ver y high melting temperatur es... conversion, however, high reactor exit temperatures are both necessary and desirable. The efficiency of the power conversion cycle is directly related to the difference between the high and low temperatur es in the system. Since the heat rejection...
Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee
2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
During the period 1973 to 1985, the U.S. economy saved energy in virtually every sector. Much of this period of energy saving was also marked by a significant drop in the ratio of energy use to GDP. However, since 1985 there has been a slowdown in the rate of energy saving, as key energy intensities (space heating, automobile driving, etc.) have declined less rapidly since 1985 than before. This paper examines delivered (or final) energy consumption trends from the early 1970s to 1994 and provides a framework for measuring key changes that affect U.S. energy use. Starting with estimates of outputs or activity levels for thirty major energy end uses, and energy intensities of each end use, we use the Adaptive Weighted Divisia decomposition to measure the impact of changes in the structure of the U.S. economy. In contrast to many similar decomposition studies, we define measures of structural changes for both households and branches of transportation. We find that between 1973 and 1985, lower energy intensities (corrected to average winter heating demand) reduced U.S. energy uses by about 1.7% per year, while structural changes reduced energy uses by 0.4% per year. After 1985, when oil prices declined markedly, intensities fell by only 0.8% per year and structural changes actually increased energy use by 0.4% per year. In the 1990s energy intensities in some industries have even edged upward. Changes in the ratio of energy to GDP (E/GDP) are affected both by intensities and the changes in the demand for energy services relative to GDP. During the first period, from 1973 to 1985, GDP increased faster than the growth in key structural and activity parameters that determine demand for energy services (such as home area, appliance ownership, and motor vehicle use) by 1.5% per year. From 1985 to 1994 the difference dropped to less than 0.3% per year, largely due to the reversal of structural trends. Thus, the sharp fall in the rate of decline in E/GDP from -3.1% to -1.1% per year was due almost as much to structural changes as it was to the slowdown in energy intensity reduction. The analysis presented here shows why the E/GDP is an increasingly unreliable yardstick for making measurements of how the energy-economy relationship is changing: effects not related to energy efficiency per se may have roughly the same impact on that ratio as energy saving itself. Since these effects have different causes, and potentially different impacts over the long run, looking at them in the aggregate by considering only the ratio of energy use to GDP is misleading.
Nguyen, Tu Quang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyun Young, E-mail: kypark@kongju.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Youl [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Baek [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new solid precursor for {alpha}-alumina was prepared at about 200 Degree-Sign C from aluminum tri-isopropoxide vapor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained precursor was calcined at 1200 Degree-Sign C to form {alpha}-alumina particles, 75 nm in surface area equivalent diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The weight loss of the precursor upon calcination was 24%, lower than that of Al(OH){sub 3}, a conventional alumina precursor. -- Abstract: A new solid precursor, hydrous aluminum oxide, for {alpha}-alumina nanoparticles was prepared by thermal decomposition of aluminum triisopropoxide (ATI) vapor in a 500 mL batch reactor at 170-250 Degree-Sign C with HCl as catalyst. The conversion of ATI increased with increasing temperature and catalyst content; it was nearly complete at 250 Degree-Sign C with the catalyst at 10 mol% of the ATI. The obtained precursor particles were amorphous, spherical and loosely agglomerated. The primary particle size is in the range 50-150 nm. The ignition loss of the precursor was 24%, considerably lower than 35% of Al(OH){sub 3}, the popular precursor for alumina particles. Upon calcination of the precursor at 1200 Degree-Sign C in the air with a heating rate of 10 Degree-Sign C/min and a holding time of 2 h, the phase was completely transformed into {alpha}. The spherical particles composing the precursor turned worm-like by the calcination probably due to sintering between neighboring particles. The surface area equivalent diameter of the resulting {alpha}-alumina was 75 nm.
Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.
2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.
Decomposition of Risk Functionals
Alois Pichler
2014-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
Page 1 ... relative to the new information is the main topic of this paper. Consider a random variable Y describing the financial loss associated with a certain ...
Oleg Meshcheryakov
2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z
Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly sensitive explosives can be also caused by intense charge-dipole attacks of surrounding water vapor molecules electrostatically attracted from ambient humid air and strongly accelerated towards charged sites on explosive surfaces. Emission of electrons, photons and heat from ionized hot spots randomly migrating on charged surface of highly sensitive explosive aerosol nanoparticles converts such particles into the form of short-circuited thermionic nanobatteries.
The effect of Ag on the decomposition pathway of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} in air
Margulies, L.; Dennis, K.W.; Kramer, M.J.; McCallum, R.W. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The decomposition pathway of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} (Bi2212) in .21 bar O{sub 2} with 0, 2, and 10 wt.% Ag added has been determined by performing SEM/EDS and microprobe analysis on oil quenched samples. A series of quaternary phase diagrams were constructed to describe the evolution of the phase assemblage with temperature. It was found that the first decomposition products are Bi{sub 9}Sr{sub 11}Ca{sub 5}O{sub x} (9{und 11}5), (Sr{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x})CuO{sub 2} (11), and liquid. The addition of Ag acted to depress the first peritectic temperature by 16--20 C and slightly modified the order in which some of the subliquidus solid phases nucleate and decompose. The effect of C on the peritectic melting temperature was examined through thermal analysis of powder samples.
J Canc Sci Ther Volume 1(2) : 062-071 (2009) -062 ISSN:1948-5956 JCST, an open access journal
Ahmad, Sajjad
on the human breast cancer cell lines, T-47D and MCF7, following transient transfec- tion with the full length, although viability was not affected. Differential effects on proliferation were ob- served in MCF7 cells or viability in MCF7 cells were ob- served. The phenotypic changes in T-47D and MCF7 cells were associated
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
de naphtaline ou de pétroles. Les pétroles ont été obtenus par distillation fractionnée, et l'on peut obtenir avec eux des températures varian t de 2620 à 2770 par fraction de degré. Les températures qui, tout d'abord, avaient été déterminées au moyen d'un thermomètre à air, ont été mesurées à l'aide d
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
of energy inside the soil, which is the only element with high thermal capacitance. Its specific part kinds of heating exchangers along each month of an entire cultivation period- hot air convector, aerial of the greenhouse (soil charicteristics, crop density, cover transparency). (*) Auteur auquel doit Atre adress4e la
-15, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Decomposition-Based Control for a Powered Knee and Ankle Transfemoral Prosthesis to energetically passive devices. The knee and ankle joints of the native limb, however, generate significant net, the authors have developed a prototype of a powered knee and ankle transfemoral prosthesis, as described
Johar, Jasmeet Singh
2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
) stream. The decomposition experiments were conducted with a number of oxygen (O2) compositions (0, 1, 10, and 15%) over the temperature range of 227oC to 477oC. The study showed ammonia (NH3), carbon-dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) as the major...
Boyer, Edmond
-phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition CÃ©dric Descamps, Gerard L. Vignoles , Olivier : A chemical kinetic model for gas-phase pyrolysis of propane has been set up, partially reduced, and validated the notion of "maturation" from propane to lighter hydrocarbons, then to aromatic compounds and PAHs. The gas
Mini Review Appl. Chem. Eng., Vol. 25, No. 2, April 2014, 134-141
(biochemical platform), (ther- mochemical platform), (Microorganism platform), (Combined Heat & Power
Rachid B. Slimane; Francis S. Lau; Javad Abbasian
2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this program is to develop an economical process for hydrogen production, with no additional carbon dioxide emission, through the thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in H{sub 2}S-rich waste streams to high-purity hydrogen and elemental sulfur. The novel feature of the process being developed is the superadiabatic combustion (SAC) of part of the H{sub 2}S in the waste stream to provide the thermal energy required for the decomposition reaction such that no additional energy is required. The program is divided into two phases. In Phase 1, detailed thermochemical and kinetic modeling of the SAC reactor with H{sub 2}S-rich fuel gas and air/enriched air feeds is undertaken to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on exit gas products and conversion efficiency, and to identify key process parameters. Preliminary modeling results are used as a basis to conduct a thorough evaluation of SAC process design options, including reactor configuration, operating conditions, and productivity-product separation schemes, with respect to potential product yields, thermal efficiency, capital and operating costs, and reliability, ultimately leading to the preparation of a design package and cost estimate for a bench-scale reactor testing system to be assembled and tested in Phase 2 of the program. A detailed parametric testing plan was also developed for process design optimization and model verification in Phase 2. During Phase 2 of this program, IGT, UIC, and industry advisors UOP and BP Amoco will validate the SAC concept through construction of the bench-scale unit and parametric testing. The computer model developed in Phase 1 will be updated with the experimental data and used in future scale-up efforts. The process design will be refined and the cost estimate updated. Market survey and assessment will continue so that a commercial demonstration project can be identified.
Repetto, P.; Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R., E-mail: prsatch6@gmail.com [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we extend the study on the mass distribution of the spiral galaxy NGC 5278, performing 1D and 2D (GALFIT) bulge-disk decomposition to determine which components constitute the baryonic mass in this galaxy. Our analysis does not detect any bulge; instead we find a bright source probably related to the central active galactic nucleus and an exponential disk. We fix the stellar disk contribution to the rotation curve (RC) with broadband photometric observations and population synthesis models, to obtain the 2D mass distribution of the stellar disk. In the particular case of NGC 5278, we find that the typical assumption of considering the mass-to-luminosity ratio (M/L) of the disk as constant along the galactocentric radius is not valid. We also extract a baryonic RC from the mass profile to determine the inability of this baryonic RC and also the baryonic RC with more than and less than 30% disk mass (in order to consider the disk mass errors) to fit the entire RC. We perform the RC decomposition of NGC 5278 by considering the baryonic RC and four types of dark matter (DM) halo: Hernquist, Burkert, Navarro, Frenk, and White, and Einasto. Our results determine that the Hernquist DM halo better models our observed RC in the case of disk mass M{sub d} = 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} and also with less than 30% disk mass. In the case of more than 30% disk mass, the cored Einasto (n < 4) DM halo is the best-fitting model.
mals in the Rocky Mountain regions of North America are particularly important.
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
genus and species is being proposed to accom modate them. 1. Anderson RC, Rasmussen MA, Allison, MJ concentrate diet. B Michalet-Doreau, D Morand, CB Michalet-Doreau, D Morand, C Martin (INRA, Station de
O professor do IST diz ser necessrio repensar o funcionamento das democracias Mal-estar europeu
Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica
torno de trÃªs vetores. O primeiro Ã© o questionamento da "sa- Ãda limpa". Como todos sabemos esta via serve interesses eleitoralistas. A saÃda limpa Ã© um salto no escuro e sem rede por- que o paÃs aumentou, as biotecnologias, as ciÃªncias da saÃºde, as tecnologias da informaÃ§Ã£o, a robÃ³tica, as nanotecnologias, as energias
Effect of Ag on the peritectic decomposition of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}
Margulies, L.; Dennis, K.W.; Kramer, M.J.; McCallum, R.W. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
During the melt processing of superconducting wires and tapes a number of partial liquid phase regions are entered, and the type and amount of second phases that exist in the melt before cooling are critical in determining the microstructure of the final material. Decomposition pathway of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}(Bi2212) with 0, 2, and 10 wt% Ag added was examined at 1 bar PO{sub 2} by performing SAME/EDS analysis on oil quenched samples. A variety of quaternary phase diagrams were constructed to describe the evolution of the phase assemblage with temperature. At all Ag contents, Bi2212 first undergoes a peritectic reaction producing (Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}){sub 14}Cu{sub 24}O{sub 41}(14,24), Bi{sub 2}(Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}){sub 4}O{sub x}(24x), and liquid.
Naoto Yokoyama; Masanori Takaoka
2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z
A single-wavenumber representation of nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., stretching energy spectrum is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the F\\"oppl-von K\\'arm\\'an (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wavenumber space, and analytical expressions of detailed energy budget in the nonlinear interactions are obtained for the first time in wave turbulence systems. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic and bending energies are comparable with each other at large wavenumbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, the stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wavenumbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode $a_{\\bm{k}}$ and its companion mode $a_{-\\bm{k}}$ is observed at the small wavenumbers. Energy transfer shows that the energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wavenumbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wavenumbers. A total-energy flux consistent with the energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.
Xie, G.; Li, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.
1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new 3D electromagnetic modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm is presented based on global integral and local differential equations decomposition (GILD). The GILD parallel nonlinear inversion algorithm consists of five parts: (1) the domain is decomposed into subdomain SI and subdomain SII; (2) a new global magnetic integral equation in SI and the local magnetic differential equations IN SII will be used together to obtain the magnetic field in the modeling step; (3) the new global magnetic integral Jacobian equation in SI and the local magnetic differential Jacobian equations in SII will be used together to update the electric conductivity and permittivity from the magnetic field data in the inversion step; (4) the subdomain SII can naturally and uniformly be decomposed into 2{sup n} smaller sub-cubic-domains; the sparse matrix in each sub-cubic-domain can be eliminated separately, in parallel; (5) a new parallel multiple hierarchy substructure algorithm will be used to solve the smaller full matrices in SI, in parallel. The applications of the new 3D parallel GILD EM modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm and software are: (1) to create high resolution controlled-source electric conductivity and permittivity imaging for interpreting electromagnetic field data acquired from cross hole, surface to borehole, surface to surface, single hole, and multiple holes; (2) to create the magnetotelluric high resolution imaging from the surface impedance and field data. The new GILD parallel nonlinear inversion will be a 3D/2.5D powerful imaging tool for the oil geophysical exploration and environmental remediation and monitoring.
ccsd00000419 Decomposition in bunches
-ordinary map E.R. Garc#19;#16;a Barroso, P.D. Gonz#19;alez P#19;erez Abstract. 1 A polar hypersurface P, Eggers, Garc#19;#16;a Barroso and Wall among others (see [K-L], [Eg], [GB] and [Wa]). They give correspond bijectively to the connected components of the permitted subset. Garc#19;#16;a Barroso has
AVALANCHES, SANDPILES AND TUTTE DECOMPOSITION
1910-00-40T23:59:59.000Z
ABSTRACT: Sandpile and avalanche models of failure were introduced recently ... of these models, Abelian sandpiles (Dhar, 1990) and Abelian avalanches.
Universitat Augsburg Combining Decomposition and
Newcastle upon Tyne, University of
circuits are a promising type of digital circuits. They have lower power consumption and electro such techniques, which are often restrictive (e.g., Pet- rify often fails to synthesise circuits with more that 25
Thermocatalytic decomposition of vulcanized rubber
Qin, Feng
2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
of the polymer at lower temperatures (non-pyrolysis conditions). Studies by Larsen et al. (41, 42) demonstrated that molten salt catalysts with Lewis acid properties, such as chloride, tin chloride, and antimony iodide, can decompose tire rubbers... of polymeric materials over molten mixtures of a basic salt (NaOH or KOH) and a Cu source, mainly metallic Cu and CuO. Processes using solid acid as catalysts have also been patented. Ac to Chen and Yan (47) preprocessed clean plastic and/or rubber wastes...
FINITELY CONVERGENT DECOMPOSITION ALGORITHMS FOR ...
2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
?This material is based upon work supported by the National Science .... propose a method to update the lift-and-project cuts [2] generated from one scenario to.
Numerical Irreducible Decomposition using PHCpack?
Sommese, Andrew J.
.verschelde@na-net.ornl.gov. URL: http://www.math.uic.edu/"jan. 3 General Motors Research Laboratories, Enterprise Systems algorithms to solve polynomial systems arising in science* * and engineering with tools from algebraic
Decomposition in Integer Linear Programming
2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z
vector of multipliers ˆu that yield the largest bound are called optimal (dual) multipliers. It is easy to see that ..... Let us now return to the TSP example to further explore the use of the price and cut method. ... This shows the additional power of price and cut over the ...... Plant location with minimum inventory. Mathematical.
Disentanglement in a two-qubit system subjected to dissipation environments RID A-4660-2010
Ikram, Manzoor; Li, Fu-li; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. In the interaction picture, the Hamiltonian of the atom- field coupled system has the form #1;#1;=1#2; H = #5; k #3;gk#1;1#2;ei#1;#2;?#3;k#2;t#6;a1#7;#8;b1#6;ak + H.c.#4; + #5; k #3;gk#1;2#2;ei#1;#2;?#3;k#2;t#6;a2#7;#8;b2#6;bk + H.c.#4; , #1;1#2; where #6;bi... matrix of the atoms interacting with their local ther- mal reservoirs of mean thermal photon numbers m and n: d#4; dt = ? 1 2 #5;1#1;m + 1#2;#3;#6;+1#6;?1#4; ? 2#6;?1#4;#6;+1 + #4;#6;+1#6;?1#4; ? 1 2 #5;1m#3;#6; ? 1#6;+ 1#4; ? 2#6;+ 1...
Deng, Yi
2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include: 1) the distinctly different roles played by atmospheric dynamical processes in establishing surface temperature response to ENSO at tropics and extratropics (i.e., atmospheric dynamics disperses energy out of tropics during ENSO warm events and modulate surface temperature at mid-, high-latitudes through controlling downward longwave radiation); 2) the representations of ENSO-related temperature response in climate models fail to converge at the process-level particularly over extratropics (i.e., models produce the right temperature responses to ENSO but with wrong reasons); 3) water vapor feedback contributes substantially to the temperature anomalies found over U.S. during different phases of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which adds new insight to the traditional picture that cold/warm advective processes are the main drivers of local temperature responses to the NAM; 4) the overall land surface temperature biases in the latest NCAR model (CESM1) are caused by biases in surface albedo while the surface temperature biases over ocean are related to multiple factors including biases in model albedo, cloud and oceanic dynamics, and the temperature biases over different ocean basins are also induced by different process biases. These results provide a detailed guidance for process-level model turning and improvement, and thus contribute directly to the overall goal of reducing model uncertainty in projecting future changes in the Earth’s climate system, especially in the ENSO and AM variability.
Bieber, Michael
manager in America for INEoS, a united Kingdom chemical giant that bought uCB. he lives in Medford, New
0022.3565/86/2362.0350S02.oo/0 THE JOURN"L or PH..R COLO<:Y..,..D EXPF.H'''ENT''L THER"PEl'TIC~
Wurtman, Richard
. EVONIUK,2REID W. VON BORSTEL and RICHARD J. WURTMAN Laboratory of Neuroendocrine Regulation, Department
Boyer, Edmond
version anglaise sera publiÃ©e dans Metrologia gnÃ©es par le symbole T T 6 . au dÃ©but de 1979. Article
Near Real-Time Push Middleware
Mal, Siddhartha Byron
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
June 15, 2011. 83. Mal, S. , Chattopadhyay, A. , Yang, A. ,June 15, 2011. Mal, S. , Chattopadhyay, A. , Yang, A. ,
Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Chemistry
2007-09-06T23:59:59.000Z
Direct variable reaction coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) rate coefficients are reported for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH, {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} barrierless association reactions. The predicted rate coefficient for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH reaction ({approx} 1.2 x 10{sup -10} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} for 300-2500 K) is 4-5 times larger than previous estimates, indicating that this reaction may be an important sink for OH in many combustion systems. The predicted rate coefficients for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2} reactions are found to be in good agreement with the range of available experimental measurements. Product branching in the self-reaction of methylene is discussed, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} + 2H and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} + H{sub 2} products are predicted in a ratio of 4:1. The effect of the present set of rate coefficients on modeling the secondary kinetics of methanol decomposition is briefly considered. Finally, the present set of rate coefficients, along with previous VRC-TST determinations of the rate coefficients for the self-reactions of CH{sub 3} and OH and for the CH{sub 3} + OH reaction, are used to test the geometric mean rule for the CH{sub 3}, {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and OH fragments. The geometric mean rule is found to predict the cross-combination rate coefficients for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reactions to better than 20%, with a larger (up to 50%) error for the CH{sub 3} + OH reaction.
Mills, Stuart J., E-mail: smills@museum.vic.gov.au [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Mineral Sciences Department, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90007 (United States); Petricek, Vaclav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha (Czech Republic); Kampf, Anthony R. [Mineral Sciences Department, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90007 (United States); Herbst-Imer, Regine [Department of Structural Chemistry, University of Goettingen, Tammannstrasse 4, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Raudsepp, Mati [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada)
2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O, synthesised by hydrothermal methods at 220(2) deg. C, has been investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O crystallises in space group Cmc2{sub 1} and is isostructural with Lu{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O. The crystal structure has been refined to R{sub 1}=0.0145 for 3412 reflections [F{sub o}>3{sigma}(F)], and 0.0150 for all 3472 reflections. The structure of Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O is a complex framework of YbO{sub 6} octahedra, YbO{sub 8} and YbO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} polyhedra and SO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Thermal data shows that Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O decomposes between 120 and 190 deg. C to form {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The structure of a twinned crystal of {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} was solved and refined using an amplimode refinement in R3c with an R{sub 1}=0.0755 for 8944 reflections [F{sub o}>3{sigma}(F)], and 0.1483 for all 16,361 reflections. {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} has a unique structural topology based on a 3D network of pinwheels. - Graphical abstract: Octahedral-tetrahedral linkages found in Y{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} [and Er{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}] and ss-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Highlights: > The crystal structure and decomposition reactions of Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O. > The crystal structure of a twinned crystal of {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. > Comparison of the structures of {beta}-Yb{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Y{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.
Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
Â· Flows between which tanks in which time periods Â· Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period for many applications 4 Â· Gasoline and crude oil blending Â· Raw material feed scheduling Â· Storage. "no bounds" on concentration total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component
Decomposition method for the Multiperiod Blending Problem
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
problem is a general model for many applications, and it is difficult to solve Â· Gasoline and crude oil tanks in which time periods Â· Inventories/concentrations for tanks in each period Â· Maximum total profit total inventory mass balance in tanks inventory mass balance by component in blending tanks
Approximate Uni-directional Benders Decomposition
C N Burt, N Lipovetzky, A R Pearce, P J Stuckey
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
tention of visiting as many markets as is necessary to meet demand for a set of ... K. The markets may have lim- ited quantities of each product (capacity C).
Distributed mode estimation through constraint decomposition
Badaro, Henri
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Large-scale autonomous systems such as modern ships or spacecrafts require reliable monitoring capabilities. One of the main challenges in large-scale system monitoring is the difficulty of reliably and efficiently ...
Distributed Estimation via Dual Decomposition Sikandar Samar
Siemens Corporate Research Princeton, NJ 08540 sikandar.samar@siemens.com Stephen Boyd Information Systems
Rank-Sparsity Incoherence for Matrix Decomposition
Chandrasekaran, Venkat
Suppose we are given a matrix that is formed by adding an unknown sparse matrix to an unknown low-rank matrix. Our goal is to decompose the given matrix into its sparse and low-rank components. Such a problem arises in a ...
A model introducing SOAs quality attributes decomposition
--Recently, service oriented architecture (SOA) has been popularized with the emergence of standards like Web services. These are chronologically, object oriented architectures (OOA), component based architectures (CBA) and service oriented of improving the dynamism. Service oriented architecture is a popular architectural paradigm aiming to model
Robust Critical Node Selection by Benders Decomposition
2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z
critical node selection problem, we define the following decision variables ..... method to generate Pareto-optimal cuts thus achieving very good speed-ups compared to ... Barabási-Albert graphs generated using the Barabási graph generator (Dreier, 2006). ...... Computers & Operations Research, 38(12):1766 – 1774, 2011.
DECOMPOSITION OF LARGE-SCALE STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL ...
2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
management where subsystems are, for instance, power units, and one has to supply a ...... Consider a power producer who owns two types of power plants: ... difficulty, the thermal unit strategy is chosen in the simulation so as to ensure.
RANK-SPARSITY INCOHERENCE FOR MATRIX DECOMPOSITION ...
2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
Jun 11, 2009 ... uncertainty principle between the sparsity pattern of a matrix and its row and column spaces, and use it to ..... to some graph). ...... [31] YALMIP: A Toolbox for Modeling and Optimization in MATLAB, Proceedings of the. CACSD ...
Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways
Cleveland, Cory
exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate than at any time in the past 60 years (USDA 2009), and the continued demand for productive agricultural that enhance ecosystem services including water, nutrient, and organic matter retention (Lal et al. 2004
Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways
Cleveland, Cory
in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall), and the continued demand for productive agricultural land is rapidly driving expansion of crop production matter retention (Lal et al. 2004). However, while there are currently *13.3 million hectares in the CRP
Fairness and Aggregation: A Primal Decomposition Study
Rosenberg, Catherine P.
for this capacity is very time consuming and there will be a scalabil- ity issue if we want to design a fast, low-overhead on the signalling overhead and time available to transmit and process information, it is not possible to solve that is gaining wide interest both in wire-line networks, such as ABR services in ATM [1, 2], non- QoS constrained
Optimization Online - A PARALLEL interior point decomposition ...
Kartik Krishnan Sivaramakrishnan
2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z
Dec 4, 2006 ... ... and decomposed and distributed subproblems (smaller SDPs) in a parallel and distributed high performance computing environment.
Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition
Melek, Zeki
2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
. We demonstrate a wide range of flame conditions, including ignition, self sustaining flames, various combustion reactions resulting in wider or narrower reaction zones, and self-extinguishing flames (Fig. 4). Note that we have published parts...
Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition
Melek, Zeki
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
. We demonstrate a wide range of flame conditions, including ignition, self sustaining flames, various combustion reactions resulting in wider or narrower reaction zones, and self-extinguishing flames (Fig. 4). Note that we have published parts...
Hamilton Decompositions of Graphs with Primitive Complements .
OZKAN, SIBEL
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
??A graph G is a pair (V, E) where V is the set of vertices(or nodes) and E is the set of edges connecting the… (more)
Penalty Decomposition Methods for Rank Minimization ?
2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
Nov 22, 2010 ... In this paper we consider general rank minimization problems with rank appearing in either objective ...... a M. The similar phenomenon as above can be observed in Table 3 for FPCA. We also ..... tion to system identification.
Sparse Approximation via Penalty Decomposition Methods
2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
the BCD method is a saddle point of the penalty subproblem. Moreover, when ...... The codes of all the methods implemented in this section are written in. Matlab ...
22 November 2012 ISE Department's Index Decomposition
Chaudhuri, Sanjay
edition of the "World Energy Outlook". These are some recent high-level publications in which an Index in energy consumption and to track economy-wide energy efficiency trends. It is also a technique developed developed the LMDI which has become a standard tool for tracking sectoral and economy-wide energy efficiency
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for Flow Calculations
with the energy and the species equaÂ tions. In addition, we also examined the feasibility and efficiency of POD that POD can be used to efficiently approximate solutions to the compressible viscous flows coupled a chemical reaction in the gas phase above the surface of the film to deposit desired materials onto
A Lagrangean Decomposition Approach for Robust Combinatorial ...
2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
knapsack, shortest path, and minimum spanning tree problems. The re- sults show that .... Moreover, she notes that the minimum spanning tree problem with uncorrelated ellipsoidal uncertainty ...... using stochastic objective functions. Potential ...
Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate
Paddleford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Institute of Technology, GA (United States)
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ``red oil`` explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material.
Nonserial dynamic programming and local decomposition ...
2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
Eco- nomics and Math. Methods, 1965, 1, N 2, p.262–270 (Russian). [8] C.A. Floudas, Nonlinear and mixed-integer optimization: fundamentals and applications.
Spherical Harmonic Decomposition on a Cubic Grid
Charles W. Misner
1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
A method is described by which a function defined on a cubic grid (as from a finite difference solution of a partial differential equation) can be resolved into spherical harmonic components at some fixed radius. This has applications to the treatment of boundary conditions imposed at radii larger than the size of the grid, following Abrahams, Rezzola, Rupright et al.(gr-qc/9709082}. In the method described here, the interpolation of the grid data to the integration 2-sphere is combined in the same step as the integrations to extract the spherical harmonic amplitudes, which become sums over grid points. Coordinates adapted to the integration sphere are not needed.
Decomposition of Amino Diazeniumdiolates (NONOates): Molecular Mechanisms .
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData Files Data Files 1B&W Y-12 TymesPathway of Ammonia Borane|
Ess, Daniel H; Goddard, William A; Periana, Roy A
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The potential energy and interaction energy profiles for metal- and metal?ligand-mediated alkane C?H bond activation were explored using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA). The set of complexes explored range from late transition metal group 10 (Pt and Pd) and group 11 (Au) metal centers to group 7?9 (Ir, Rh, Ru, and W) metal centers as well as a group 3 Sc complex. The coordination geometries, electron metal count (d{sup 8}, d{sup 6}, d{sup 4}, and d{sup 0}), and ligands (N-heterocycles, O-donor, phosphine, and Cp*) are also diverse. Quantitative analysis using ALMO-EDA of both directions of charge-transfer stabilization (occupied to unoccupied orbital stabilization) energies between the metal?ligand fragment and the coordinated C?H bond in the transition state for cleavage of the C?H bond allows classification of C?H activation reactions as electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic on the basis of the net direction of charge-transfer energy stabilization. This bonding pattern transcends any specific mechanistic or bonding paradigm, such as oxidative addition, ?-bond metathesis, or substitution. Late transition metals such as Au(III), Pt(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) metal centers with N-heterocycle, halide, or O-donor ligands show electrophilically dominated reaction profiles with forward charge-transfer from the C?H bond to the metal, leading to more stabilization than reverse charge transfer from the metal to the C?H bond. Transition states and reaction profiles for d{sup 6} Ru(II) and Ir(III) metals with Tp and acac ligands were found to have nearly equal forward and reverse charge-transfer energy stabilization. This ambiphilic region also includes the classically labeled electrophilic cationic species Cp*(PMe{sub 3})Ir(Me). Nucleophilic character, where the metal to C?H bond charge-transfer interaction is most stabilizing, was found in metathesis reactions with W(II) and Sc(III) metal center complexes in reactions as well as late transition metal Ir(I) and Rh(I) pincer complexes that undergo C?H bond insertion. Comparison of pincer ligands shows that the PCP ligand imparts more nucleophilic character to an Ir metal center than a deprotonated PNP ligand. The PCP and POCOP ligands do not show a substantial difference in the electronics of C?H activation. It was also found that Rh(I) is substantially more nucleophilic than Ir(I). Lastly, as a qualitative approximation, investigation of transition-state fragment orbital energies showed that relative frontier orbital energy gaps correctly reflect electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic charge-transfer stabilization patterns.
`Itinraire d'un enfant mou', `Le mal court' ou `L'chec sied au hros' : tude pour un sous-titre au
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
statut de hÃ©ros Ã©trangers au monde comme certains personnages de Steinbeck ou de l'Ã©tranger de Camus, par some of Steinbeck's characters or Camus' outsider, for example. B
Pilot-Darier-Baziere, Laurence
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
?? During the seventeenth century, Pascal explored the causality and effect of evil upon humanity. In The Pensées, he correlates the role of both lightness… (more)
An overview of the US DCLL ITER-TBM program
Wong, Clement; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Dagher, Mohamad; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Malang, S.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Messadek, Karim; Morley, Neil; Sawan, M.; Sharafat, Shahran; Smolentsev, S.; Sze, Dai Kai; Willms, Scott; Ying, A. Y.; Youssef, M.
2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology program, we selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) concept as our primary Test Blanket Module (TBM) for testing in ITER. The DCLL blanket concept has the potential to be a high-performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal ef?ciency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the ?rst wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled Pb-17Li breeder is circulated for power conversion and for tritium extraction. A SiC-based ?ow channel insert (FCI) is used as an electrical insulator for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating Pb-17Li and as a ther- mal insulator to separate the high-temperature Pb-17Li (?650–700 ? C) from the RAF/M structure, which has a corrosion temperature limit of ?480 ? C. The RAF/M material must also operate at temperatures above 350 ? C but less than 550 ? C. We are continuing the development of the mechanical design and per- forming neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. Prototypical FCI structures were fabricated and further attention was paid to MHD effects and the design of the inboard blanket for DEMO. We are also making progress on related R&D needs to address key areas. This paper is a summary report on the progress and results of recent DCLL TBM development activities.
Serrano, Oracio; Hoppe, Elke; Power, Philip P.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
6 H 3 -2,6-(C 6 H 3 -2,6-iPr 2 ) 2 ) and [Ni(CO) 3 (GaL)] (LC(CH 3 )N(C 6 H 3 -2,6-iPr 2 )] 2 ): Thermal DecompositionC 6 H 3 -2,6-(C 6 H 3 -2,6-iPr 2 ) 2 ) and GaL (L = HC[C(Me)
Multifunctional composites : healing, heating and electromagnetic integration
Plaisted, Thomas Anthony John
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Dam, K. Ono, A. Mal, S. Hongbin, S. R. Nutt, K. Sheran andX. , F. Wudl, A. Mal, S. Hongbin and S. R. Nutt (2003). "New
Optimizing Sequential Cycles through Shannon Decomposition and Retiming
Tardieu, Olivier
sequential cycles. Designers usually attack such cycles by manually combining Shannonde- composition the number of registers on a sequential cycle--a loop that passes through combinational logic and one or more the combinational delay around the cycle to the delay of only the mux: dmux. This transformation makes it possible
Decomposition Algorithm for Optimizing Multi-server Appointment ...
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
We schedule appointments with random service durations on multiple servers with oper- ... ?Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of
Flavor decomposition of the elastic nucleon electromagnetic form factors
C.D. Cates, C.W. Jager, S. Riordan, B. Wojtsekhowski
2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The u- and d-quark contributions to the elastic nucleon electromagnetic form factors have been determined using experimental data on GEn , GMn , GpE , and GpM . Such a flavor separation of the form factors became possible up to 3.4 GeV2 with recent data on GEn from Hall A at JLab. At a negative four-momentum transfer squared Q2 above 1 GeV2, for both the u- and d-quark components, the ratio of the Pauli form factor to the Dirac form factor, F2/F1, was found to be almost constant, and for each of F2 and F1 individually, the d-quark component drops continuously with increasing Q2.
On full Jacobian decomposition of the augmented Lagrangian ...
2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z
Mar 21, 2014 ... The augmented Lagrangian method (ALM) is a benchmark for ... novel analysis is presented to illustrate how to choose refined step sizes for ... derive the worst-
Two-Stage Decomposition Algorithms for Single Product Maritime ...
2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
natural gas (LNG) [14, 16, 25], and vacuum gas oil (VGO) [13], have been studied ...... Shipment planning at oil refineries using column generation and valid.
Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition
Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)
2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.
Decomposition Methods for Large Scale LP Decoding - Optimization ...
2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z
We set up the general formulation of ADMM problems in Section 3 and specialize the formulation ...... IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., 24:1603–1613, Aug. 2006.
Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water
Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Stiegel, Gary J. (Library, PA); Lee, Tae-Hyun (Naperville, IL)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.
A Decomposition of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning LOUISE C. SIME*
Matthews, Adrian
means of calculating MOC and heat transport in the Atlantic (e.g., Bryan 1962). The basin has zero net;throughflow and surface freshwater fluxes. This makes such calculations easier in the Atlantic as compared
Decomposition of the Height Function of Scherk's First Surface
Randall D. Kamien
2000-08-30T23:59:59.000Z
We show that Scherk's first surface, a one-parameter family of solutions to the minimal surface equation, may be written as a linear superposition of other solutions with specific parametric values.
Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process
Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Based Control of Transverse Beam Vibrations
Computation Box 8205, North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695Â8205 Abstract LQG compensator control time step at which the realÂtime processor runs. For complex structural systems such as shells [16, 17 of thin cylinÂ drical shells perturbed by a periodic external force. This investigation provides the next
Decomposition Algorithms for Two-Stage Chance-Constrained ...
2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
Mar 1, 2014 ... power system operator wishes to have a plan in which all energy supply needs are met with ...... we can take advantage of the special structure of this class of ...... program for unit commitment with uncertain wind power output.
Mixed-Integer Rounding Enhanced Benders Decomposition for ...
2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
Nov 13, 2014 ... ... aspect of service system operations, and becomes particularly ... A common practice in service system management is to conduct the staffing ...
Biomedical Paper Task Decomposition of Laparoscopic Surgery for
tasks in MIS education is to teach the optimal application of instrument F/T necessary to conduct an operation. Although the acquisition of laparoscopic technical skill and the assessment of performance
A Branch-and-Cut Decomposition Algorithm for Solving Chance ...
2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z
remediation [10], and reliable network design [11, 12]. CCMPs have a ..... In addition, the set of possible inequalities that can be produced by the procedure SepCuts pro- cedure is finite ...... Water Resources Research 29, 551–561. (1993
The Latent Process Decomposition of cDNA Microarray Datasets
Rogers, S.; Girolami, M.
Rogers,S. Girolami,M. Campbell,C. Breitling,R. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Volume 2, Number 2. pp 143-156 IEEE Computer Society Press
CS decomposition based Bayesian subspace estimation Olivier Besson
Dobigeon, Nicolas
, Department Electronics Optronics Signal, Toulouse (e- mail: olivier.besson@isae.fr). The work of O. Besson
BAYESIAN SUBSPACE ESTIMATION USING CS DECOMPOSITION Olivier Besson
Dobigeon, Nicolas
-Yves Tourneret University of Toulouse, ISAE, Department Electronics Optronics Signal, Toulouse, France
DECOMPOSITION BASED AND BRANCH AND BOUND GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION APPROACHES
Neumaier, Arnold
the liquid phase can be modeled using either the NonRandom TwoLiquid (NRTL) equation, or the UNIversal of the respective problems. For the NRTL equation, it is shown that the formulation can be converted into a biconvex
Generalized Spectral Decomposition for Stochastic Non Linear Problems 1
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
.nouy@univ-nantes.fr (Anthony Nouy), olm@limsi.fr (Olivier P. Le MaÃ®tre). URLs: http://www.univ-nantes.fr/nouy-a (Anthony Nouy), http://www.limsi.fr/Individu/olm (Olivier P. Le MaÃ®tre). 1 This work is supported by the French
Forest Floor Decomposition Following Hurricane Litter Inputs in
Ostertag, Rebecca
into nutrient cycles and may be one reason for the extraordinary resilience of these forests to wind to branches and stems, and elevated mortality above background levels (Foster and Boose 1992; Lugo and Waide
An interior-point Lagrangian decomposition method for separable ...
2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
EF/05/006, OT/03/12, PhD/postdoc & fellow grants; Flemish Government: FWO PhD/postdoc grants, FWO projects G.0499.04, G.0211.05, G.0226.06, G.0302.07;
PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY SUPERADIABATIC DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE
in a cylindrical vessel packed with a porous ceramic medium with a high thermal capacity. The intensive heat experimental and numerical studies analyzed chemical and thermal structures of the H2S-containing gases
DETECTION AND DECOMPOSITION: TREATMENT-INDUCED CYCLIC GENE EXPRESSION
Qin, Wensheng
*,, , WENSHENG QIN,,|||| and JIN CHEN*,Â§,Â§Â§,|||| *MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory Michigan State University-induced disruption of the core set of cyclic genes (which control many downstream pathways) occurs in almost all the disruptions of two core circadian clock genes due to cold treatment in Arabidopsis.9 When a stress treatment
Spectral decomposition of entangled photons with an arbitrary pump
Alison M. Yao
2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the bi-photon state generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion in a thin crystal and under collinear phase matching conditions using a pump consisting of any superposition of Laguerre-Gauss modes. The result has no restrictions on the angular or radial momenta or, in particular, on the width of the pump, signal and idler modes. We demonstrate the strong effect of the pump to signal/idler width ratio on the composition of the down-converted entangled fields. Knowledge of the pump to signal/idler width ratio is shown to be essential when calculating the maximally entangled states that can be produced using pumps with a complex spatial profile.
Identifying Decomposition Products in Extracts of Cellular Metabolites
Rabinowitz, Joshua D.
with methanol:water, cold temperature and a high methanol fraction minimizes artifacts due to metabolite the efficiency of extracting E. coli with boiling ethanol:water, cold versus hot methanol:water, and perchloric Escherichia coli with different methanol:water mixtures, we observed that 50% water gave increased yield
Real Time Dynamic Fracture with Volumetric Approximate Convex Decompositions
MÃ¼ller-Fischer, Matthias
Â¨uller Nuttapong Chentanez Tae-Yong Kim NVIDIA Figure 1: Destruction of a Roman arena with 1m vertices and 500k and complex objects in real time. The common method for fracture simulation in computer games is to pre-fracture models and replace objects by their pre-computed parts at run-time. This popular method
SPARSE AND LOW-RANK MATRIX DECOMPOSITION VIA ...
2009-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
The MATLAB scripts for generating matrix C are as follows: ..... [41] L. G. Valiant, Graph-theoretic arguments in low-level complexity, 6th Symposium on Mathe-.
An Energy Reference Bus Independent LMP Decomposition Algorithm
through the use of locational-based marginal pricing (LMP) [2]. The LMP at a location is defined, Thomas J. Overbye, Fellow, IEEE Abstract-- The volatility of the price of electricity in a Locational Marginal Price (LMP) market makes it necessary to introduce financial price risk hedging instruments
A scenario decomposition algorithm for 0-1 stochastic programs
2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
Jun 26, 2013 ... ... and impose a time limit of 5000 seconds. All computations are done using the boyle cluster in the ISyE High Performance Computing Facility.
An improved Benders decomposition applied to a multi-layer ...
2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
Require: A starting cut pool P. Initialize the tree: T = {o} where o has no branching ..... work design and routing, Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Technology,. Linköpings ...
Expected Future Value Decomposition Based Bid Price Generation ...
2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Each root-to-leaf path in the tree represents one specific scenario and ..... In terms of the input data used by each model, in simulation period ts, PH uses the.
Benders decomposition for the hop-constrainted survivable network ...
2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
Later on, in the context of a directed spanning tree problem (which can be seen as ...... Ph.D. thesis, Université Blaise Pascal - Clermond-Ferrand II. Dolan, E. D. ...
DOUBLE COSET DECOMPOSITIONS AND COMPUTATIONAL HARMONIC ANALYSIS ON GROUPS
Rockmore, Dan
theoretic indexing scheme to derive algorithms that generalize the CooleyÂTukey FFT to arbitrary finite and Tukey [17], and their many variants (see e.g. [26]). Our results may be considered a generalization of the CooleyÂTukey algorithm to nonabelian finite groups. The computation of Fourier transforms on nonabelian
Sparse and Low-Rank Matrix Decomposition Via Alternating
Xiaoming Yuan
2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nov 1, 2009 ... This exact recovery is achieved via solving a convex relaxation problem where the L1 norm and the nuclear norm are utilized for being ...
Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio wavefunctions
Calvin W. Johnson
2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum $j$, leading to $j$-$j$ coupling, phenomenological models suggested decades ago that for $0p$-shell nuclides a simpler picture can be realized via coupling of total spin $S$ and total orbital angular momentum $L$. I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell model (NCSM) calculations using modern \\textit{ab initio} two-body interactions, and dissect the resulting wavefunctions into their component $L$- and $S$-components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly fifty years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest $L$-$S$ may be a useful tool for analyzing \\textit{ab initio} wavefunctions of light nuclei, for example in the case of rotational bands.
Intermediate Products in the Bacterial Decomposition of Hexadecanol and Octadecanol
Langley, W. D.
, an excess of water has been naturally provided which has allowed the development of large population and industrial centers. But the long term and recently accelerated return of water-borne wastes from these centers to water bodies has caused a critical...
Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts
Landoll, Michael 1984-
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...
Masas and Bimodule Decompositions of II_1 Factors
Mukherjee, Kunal K.
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
examples of non unitary conjugate masas. Finally, it is shown that for k greater than/equal to 2 and for each subset S \\subseteq N, there exist uncountably many non conjugate singular masas in L(Fk) whose Pukanszky invariant is S u {1}....
Ruin probabilities and decompositions for general perturbed risk processes
VondraÃ¨ek, Zoran
of Croatia. The research of this author is supported in part by MZT grant 0037118 of the Republic of Croatia. Â§ The research of this author is supported in part by MZT grant 0037107 of the Republic of Croatia. 1 #12
Quantifier Elimination via Triangular Decomposition Changbo Chen, Marc Moreno Maza
Moreno Maza, Marc
.220 9939 12.060 39801 Barry 7.320 1087 Fail Fail blood-coagulation-2 1438.769 96093 Fail Fail cdc2-cyclin
Parallel decomposition of the logical link control protocol
Bajpai, Dhruv Haribanshnath
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
INTRODUCTION II PROTOCOLS AND FINITE STATE MACHINES A. PROTOCOLS B. FINITE STATE MACHINES III LOGICAL LINK CONTROL PROTOCOL 1V LLC STATE TABLE DESCRIPTION A. LLC STATES V THE PS I ARCHITECTURE VI RESULTS A. LINK INITIALIZATION SUBMACHINES . . B... expressions that govern the transition are given below Bin I (A) SET ABME+ SET ABME (Ts=Vc=O, Vi=0) + SET ABME (Ts=Vc&, Vi =RIp). (B) DEACTIVATE LS. (G) ENTER LCL Busy + EXIT LCL Busy + LPDU Invalid + SEND XID + SET ADM+ Ti Expired+ Tl Expired+ TEST LINK...
Characterizing Heterogeneous Computing Environments using Singular Value Decomposition
Maciejewski, Anthony A.
measures. These measures relate to the aggregate machine performance (relative to the given task types of machines able to perform task types at different speeds. Different task types may be better suited. Al-Qawasmeh 1 , Anthony A. Maciejewski 1 , and Howard Jay Siegel 1,2 1 Department of Electrical
Experiments with a Generic Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition for ...
2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
and-cut algorithms are essentially “blind.” While both ..... 2009. 6. G. Gamrath, Generic branch-cut-and-price, Master's thesis, Institut für Mathe- matik, Technische ...
In uence-Based Model Decomposition Christopher Bailey-Kellogg
Bailey-Kellogg, Chris
building temperature (smart buildings) to ve- hicle on-board diagnostic and control systems that in- cessing technology have enabled a new generation of AI robotic systems | so-called Smart Matter systems of these Smart Matter systems is to synthesize optimal control policies using data rich models for the systems
Decomposition Algorithms with Parametric Gomory Cuts for Two ...
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
210 Baker Systems, 1971 Neil Avenue .... problems by introducing artificial variables and penalizing the artificial .... Carøe and Tind [11] use lift-and-project.
Gallego Arrubla, Julian Andres
2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z
, but it may not be done almost surely. Consider the wild re initial response planning problem for example. This problem involves making e ective strategic resource deployment plans so that the total deployment, relocation, re damage, and dispatch cost... is minimized. Dispatch of resources to all res during a re season may be too expensive, or it may just not be possible, depending on the number of available resources to provide initial response. Thus, strategic deployment decisions should be made while...
Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process
Wilson, M.W.
1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.
Logic Decomposition of Asynchronous Circuits Using STG Victor Khomenko
Newcastle upon Tyne, University of
FOlding and partial order techniques (UFO'07) and Workshop on BALSA Re-Synthesis (RESYN'09). From September 2005
A new and fast approach towards sEMG decomposition
and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 3 of Clinical Neurophysiology, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 5 Neuroscience Lab, Department entire text from title page to figure legends: 6500 The number of words of the abstract: 207 The number
Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Cubic Ammonium Perchlorate
Utah, University of
. Wight* Center for Thermal Analysis, Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S., 1400 E., Salt to dissociative sublimation of AP. A new computational technique (advanced isoconversional method) has been used respectively rises to 110 and 130 kJ mol-1, which are assigned to the activation energy of sublimation
Matrix probing, skeleton decompositions, and sparse Fourier transform
Chiu, Jiawei
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, we present three different randomized algorithms that help to solve matrices, compute low rank approximations and perform the Fast Fourier Transform. Matrix probing and its conditioning When a matrix A with ...
Fenchel Decomposition for Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programming
2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Texas A&M University, .... Algorithms for SMIP is still an active area of research probably due to the ...... applications as electric power management, internet services, and telecommunications.
DECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUM SULFATE: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FY 2012JDABench-Scale8TBD
Solid Double-Layered Hydroxide Catalysts for Lignin Decomposition - Energy
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite CulturalDepartment2) 1/8 5/15/11Solicitingcontinuted) A
Urea Decomposition and SCR Performance at Low Temperature | Department of
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage Â»of EnergyTheTwo New12.'6/0.2 ......Uranium Lease Tracts LocationFact
Methane Decomposition: Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Filaments
Goodman, Wayne
for hydrogen is to power fuel cells. Major automobile manufac- turers are currently working towards developing ppm in the preferential oxidation reactor (PROX). The hydrogen can be introduced in the fuel cell only for the performance of PEM fuel cells.6 Other conventional process of hydrogen production such as partial oxidation
Ecient and Practical Algorithms for Sequential Modular Decomposition
McConnell, Ross
-time solutions have been given, see Corneil et al. (1985), Valdes et al. (1982). O(n+m log n), bounds Gustedt y Ross M. McConnell z Abstract A module of an undirected graph G = (V; E) is a set X of vertices of the vertices into nested modules. We give a practical algorithm with an O(n + m#11;(m;n)) time bound
Cytron, Ron K.
oe oe f m chai yim to vim A vi nu mal 21 chai yim to vim A vi nu mal chai yim to vim A vi nu mal 21 chai yim to vim A vi nu mal J oe .oe J oe oe oe oe oe Db Gb kei nu cha deish a b kei nu cha
Mills, Andrew D.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells. ” Center for theR. Margolis. 2004. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLepley. 1993. “Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by
Mills, Andrew
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells. ” Center for theR. Margolis. 2004. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLepley. 1993. “Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by
Building Technologies Program - 1995 Annual Report
Selkowitz, S.E.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
WI. Also ide Films for Electrochromic Devices," published as1) (1995). posited Electrochromic Coatings," nology: 1973-37747, July 1995. Use of Electrochromic Windows," Ther- LBL
Anderson, Robert M; Bianchi, Stephen W; Goldberg, Lisa R
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2013. Ralph Goldsticker. Volatility Targeting May Miss theR. Shah. Understanding Low Volatility Strategies: Minimumfor the expected return and volatility of the fully-invested
Metzer, Robert B.; Lindsay, Kenneth E.; Pratt, J. Neal; Novosad, Albert C.
1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
................................................... .... Diseases ................................................. .... AIfalEa Cultivation ............................. .... Alfalfa as an Annual Crop ................................. 0 ther Uses... ............................................................ .................... Economics of Alfalfa Procluction Soil Adaptation ......................................................... S . . Varletles ...................................................................... S Establishment...
E-Print Network 3.0 - antihypertensive drug treatment Sample...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
the medical treatment of vascular risk factors. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2005 Dec... , Stricker BHC, Leufkens HGM, de Boer A. Methods to assess intended effects of ... Source:...
E-Print Network 3.0 - amodiaquine combination therapy Sample...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
combination ther- apy (ACT) trials that took place in sub-Saharan African regions... , Uganda, Malawi and Kenya. The drugs tested in these trials were amodiaquine, sulphadoxine...
E-Print Network 3.0 - acute venous thrombosis Sample Search Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
venous thromboembolic complications... %), nausea (12%), vom- iting (5%), acute gout flare (74-81% within the first three months of ther- apy... .health.umt.eduDIS...
E-Print Network 3.0 - acute venous thromboembolism Sample Search...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
venous thromboembolic complications... %), nausea (12%), vom- iting (5%), acute gout flare (74-81% within the first three months of ther- apy... to evaluate the efficacy...
E-Print Network 3.0 - acute pulmonary thromboembolism Sample...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
(Polypill') on Cardiovascular Risk Summary: %), nausea (12%), vom- iting (5%), acute gout flare (74-81% within the first three months of ther- apy... with isolated...
E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic gammaproteobacterium congregibacter...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
behavior may be supported by ei- ther aerobic or anaerobic metabolism. Aerobic... demand and aerobic energy supply. In addition, each functional system in- volved in oxygen...
E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic reactions abbau Sample Search Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
supported by ei- ther aerobic or anaerobic metabolism. Aerobic... demand and aerobic energy supply. In addition, each functional system in- volved in oxygen ... Source: Bennett,...
E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute zero temperature Sample Search...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
zero signal on the ther- mocouples. A power generator... . In this case the absolute thermometer must have zero or negligeable magnetic effect. As in the standard method... and...
E-Print Network 3.0 - aspectos dos efeitos Sample Search Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Mathematics 8 Einstein apaixonado: A cincia mal-contada de um mito bem-traado Carlos Alberto dos Santos Summary: Einstein apaixonado: A cincia mal-contada de um mito...
A Formal Software Requirements Specification Method for Digital Plants Protection Systems
was proposed by AECL(Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) and was used for the for- mal software requirements
G E O M A T I C A TOWARD BETTER SUPPORT FOR SPATIAL
of the information may be mini- mal" [Sinton 1978]. The importance of the temporal dimension for decision making
CAPTEUR CAPACITIF DE PETITS DPLACEMENTS APPLICATION A LA RALISATION D'UNE BALANCE
Boyer, Edmond
sensibles, mais se prêtant mal à l'enre- gistrement, les capteurs potentiométriques, très simples et peu
Lawrence, Rick L.
,500. Olga S. Walsh, Mal Westcott, Chengci Chen. 2012. Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat Advisory Committee. Funded: $20,944. Olga S. Walsh, Mal Westcott. 2012. Comparison of Foliar Applied,838. Olga S. Walsh, Mal Westcott. 2012. Evaluation of Sensor-Based Technologies and Nitrogen Sources
A Flow-Channel Analysis for the Mars Hopper
W. Spencer Cooley
2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Mars Hopper is an exploratory vehicle designed to fly on Mars using carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere as a rocket propellant. The propellent gasses are thermally heated while traversing a radioisotope ther- mal rocket (RTR) engine’s core. This core is comprised of a radioisotope surrounded by a heat capacitive material interspersed with tubes for the propellant to travel through. These tubes, or flow channels, can be manu- factured in various cross-sectional shapes such as a special four-point star or the traditional circle. Analytical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) anal- yses were performed using flow channels with either a circle or a star cross- sectional shape. The nominal total inlet pressure was specified at 2,805,000 Pa; and the outlet pressure was set to 2,785,000 Pa. The CO2 inlet tem- perature was 300 K; and the channel wall was 1200 K. The steady-state CFD simulations computed the smooth-walled star shape’s outlet temper- ature to be 959 K on the finest mesh. The smooth-walled circle’s outlet temperature was 902 K. A circle with a surface roughness specification at 0.01 mm gave 946 K and at 0.1 mm yielded 989 K. The The effects of a slightly varied inlet pressure were also examined. The analytical calculations were based on the mass flow rates computed in the CFD simulations and provided significantly higher outlet temperature results while displaying the same comparison trends. Research relating to the flow channel heat transfer studies was also done. Mathematical methods to geometrically match the cross-sectional areas of the circle and star, along with a square and equilateral triangle, were derived. A Wolfram Mathematica 8 module was programmed to analyze CFD results using Richardson Extrapolation and calculate the grid convergence index (GCI). A Mathematica notebook, also composed, computes and graphs the bulk mean temperature along a flow channel’s length while the user dynam- ically provides the input variables, allowing their effects on the temperature to be more easily observed.
Xi, Zhou
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
tional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model specification ? t+1to the where ? ˆ t+1 GARCH (1,1) model using the fittedzero mean µ t = 0, and GARCH. Model 1-HM is another
Une approche parall`ele cooperative exploitant la decomposition arborescente dans VNS
Boyer, Edmond
Ouali1 , Samir Loudni2 , Lakhdar Loukil1 , Yahia Lebbah1 1 UniversitÂ´e d'Oran, Laboratoire LITIO, BP
DECOMPOSITION OF LIGNIN AND CELLOBIOSE IN RELATION TO THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE
Yamanaka, Y.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
culture of the fungus in a composting mode suggest thatresults were obtained in composting culture of ground woodfeasibility of the composting method remains in doubt. II.
Vallino, Joseph J.
favorable energy source. Labile soil organic matter is sugar, starch, and carbohydrates. An alternative energy source is recalcitrant carbon, which is harder to decompose soil organic matter such as lignin energy source (Nabu, 2009). With increasing global temperatures, it is important to understand how soil
Strain of alcaligenes latus bacteria used for the decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls
Dyadischev, Nikolai Romanovich (Moscow Region, RU); Zharikov, Gennady Alekseevich (Moscow Region, RU); Kapranov, Vladimir Vladimirovich (Moscow Region, RU)
2001-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
Alcaligenes latus bacterial strain TXD-13 VKPM B 75-05 is capable of degrading polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The strain may be employed to detoxicate environment media and PCB-containing industrial waste. To produce biomass, the strain is incubated on media which contain carbon sources, nitrogen sources and mineral salts. The strain is cultivated by a subsurface method up to a titer from 6.0.multidot.10.sup.8 to 2.0.times.10.sup.9 cells per cu cm. The produced biomass is used for degrading PCBs in concentrations from 10.sup.7 to 10.sup.8 cells per cu cm. The strain ensures from 35 to 50% reduction in PCB content in soil and water.
An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea
Park, Yong Hun
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
]................................................................................... 22 17 The removal of NOx as a function of reactor temperature for seven levels of oxygen for 100 ppm carbon monoxide and a heated residence time of 2.11 secs. [42] ............................................................................. 23 18... The removal of NOx as a function of oxygen concentration for three levels of carbon monoxide (100, 600 and 900 ppm) for a reactor temperature of 1150 K and a heated residence time of 2.11 secs. [42]... 24 19 Influence of CO/NO ratio in the feed...
Amghouz, Zakariae; Roces, Laura; Garcia-Granda, Santiago [Departamentos de Quimica Fisica y Analitica y Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, Jose R., E-mail: jrgm@uniovi.e [Departamentos de Quimica Fisica y Analitica y Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Souhail, Badredine [Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, 93002 Tetouan, Maroc (Morocco); Mafra, Luis; Shi, Fa-nian; Rocha, Joao [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)
2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
New polymeric yttrium-succinates, Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}.6H{sub 2}O and Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, have been synthesized, and their structures (solved by single crystal XRD) are compared with that of Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O. Three compounds were obtained as single phases, and their thermal behaviour is described. - Graphical abstract: In the field of coordination polymers or MOF's, few studies report on the polymorphs of Ln(III)-succinic acid. Here, we describe the hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of two novel yttrium-succinates coordination polymers, respectively 2D and 3D, Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}.6H{sub 2}O and Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.
Warming accelerates decomposition of decades-old carbon in forest soils
). Although there are no global estimates of decadal-aged C, it makes up the majority of C in mineral soils, CA 94720; and d Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Edited (received for review January 10, 2012) Global climate carbon-cycle models predict acceleration of soil
Adaptive mesh refinement for a finite difference scheme using a quadtree decomposition approach
Auviur Srinivasa, Nandagopalan
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Some numerical simulations of multi-scale physical phenomena consume a significant amount of computational resources, since their domains are discretized on high resolution meshes. An enormous wastage of these resources occurs in refinement...
Easwaran, Gopalakrishnan
2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
.1. Solution Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 viii CHAPTER Page IV.2.2. Objective Function Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . 61 IV.2.3. Construction Heuristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 IV.2.4. Neighborhood Functions.... For the sake of clarity in model development and analysis, we refer to the parts as products in the remainder of this document. Also, a supply location that provides new products is referred to as a new product plant (NPP), a supply location where...
"Stable Prime Decompositions of Four-Manifolds" Matthias Kreck, Wolfgang Luck
LÃ¼ck, Wolfgang
Mi with i = 1(Mi). Stably means that one allows additional connected sums with some copies of S2 Ã? S2 de- composition. Namely, M is oriented diffeomorphic to a connected sum n i=1Mi of oriented manifolds Mi which are prime, i.e. if Mi is diffeomorphic to Mi Mi , then Mi or Mi is oriented diffeomorphic
"Stable Prime Decompositions of Four-Manifolds" Matthias Kreck, Wolfgang Luck
Teichner, Peter
Mi with i = 1(Mi). Stably means that one allows additional connected sums with some copies of S2 Ã? S2 is oriented diffeomorphic to a connected sum n i=1Mi of oriented manifolds Mi which are prime, i.e. if Mi is diffeomorphic to Mi Mi then Mi or Mi is oriented diffeomorphic to S3 . The manifolds Mi are unique up to order
Heimsath, Arjun M.
- tribution of geochemical tracers from weapons fallout, air pollution, and a direct 207 Pb application at one by the recent suggestion that metals are mined from deeper horizons and brought into the O horizon via
Analyzing Transient Turbulence in a Stenosed Carotid Artery by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition
Yakhot, Alexander
rate, a transitional and intermittent flow between laminar and turbulent states was established. Time in the clinical setting--was also investigated. Keywords--CFD, Transitional flow, Windowed-POD. INTRODUCTION We. The stenosis may trigger transition to turbu- lence, and onset of turbulence downstream of severe occlusions
Vlad, Gregorio
for High Performance Computing. Bus-based shared memory multiprocessor systems (SMPs) are rapidly spreading-bandwidth interconnection network, are increasingly established and used to provide high performance computing at a low cost
Oliveira, Joseph S. (Richland, WA); Jones-Oliveira, Janet B. (Richland, WA); Bailey, Colin G. (Wellington, NZ); Gull, Dean W. (Seattle, WA)
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
One embodiment of the present invention includes a computer operable to represent a physical system with a graphical data structure corresponding to a matroid. The graphical data structure corresponds to a number of vertices and a number of edges that each correspond to two of the vertices. The computer is further operable to define a closed pathway arrangement with the graphical data structure and identify each different one of a number of fundamental cycles by evaluating a different respective one of the edges with a spanning tree representation. The fundamental cycles each include three or more of the vertices.
Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Dedecek, J.
1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
During this quarter, four additional samples of Co(II) ion exchanged erionite were prepared and shown to contain 0.002, 0.12, 0.30, and 1.3 wt% Co(II). These samples, as well as the five previously prepared and studied, were investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) studies to probe the state of the Co(II) cation in erionite zeolites and whether the zeolites were completely dehydrated at 350{degrees}C and 525{degrees}C. By comparing spectra as a function of Co(II) content and temperature of dehydration and by using second derivative mode analysis, it was shown that the Co(II) cations occupy three different sites in the erionite structure. DRS studies are underway to determine if Co(II) cations in all of these sites are accessible to ligands such as CO and ethylene.
Xi, Zhou
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
92 3.2 The ANN Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .for Neglected Nonlinearity Using ANN . . . . . . . . . .138 4.3 Regularizing the ANN
1 Copyright 2004 by ASME DECOMPOSITION-BASED ASSEMBLY SYNTHESIS FOR
Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"
author ABSTRACT A method for optimally synthesizing multi-component structural assemblies of an aluminum Many modern mechanical products, such as ships hulls, airplanes and automotive bodies, are fairly by decomposing the entire product geometry. In the automotive industry, for example, a handful of basic
Six-group decomposition of composite delayed neutron spectra from sup 235 U fission
Villani, M.F.; Couchell, G.P.; Haghighi, M.H.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.; Sharfuddin, Q. (Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell, Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics, Lowell, MA (US))
1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, a constrained least-squares method is developed for deducing six-group delayed neutron energy spectra from composite spectra measured at six or more delay time intervals following fission. The constraining condition is chosen to yield stable solutions that also provide good fits to the measured spectra. The method is applied to previously measured composite spectra of {sup 235}U to obtain six-group delayed neutron energy spectra. The solutions are unique for a large range of constraint spectra. The dependence of the solutions on the choice of six-group parameters {beta} {lambda} is also examined.