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  1. Vietnam-Danish Government Sector Programmes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Policiesdeployment programs Program End 2012 Country Vietnam South-Eastern Asia References Denmark1 Promoting wind energy in...

  2. Forestry and Poverty Data in Vietnam: Status, Gaps, and Potential...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type: Dataset, Publications Website: recoftc.orgsitefileadmindocspublicationsTheGreyZone2009Forest Country: Vietnam UN Region: South-Eastern Asia Coordinates:...

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters of Alessandria District, South Eastern Piedmont (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trova, C.; Cossa, G.; Gandolfo, G.

    1992-10-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Because of the high toxicity of some polycyclic compounds, such as benzopyrenes, the determination of their levels in air, water, soil and aquatic organisms was the object of several papers. Anthropogenic pyrolitic and combustion processes, related to industrial plants, domestic heating, automobile traffic, are the major sources of these compounds; from these sources they enter atmospheric environment where their concentration is reduced by scavenging during precipitation events: rain, snow and fog in urban areas usually show high contents of PAHs. Dry and wet atmospheric polluted depositions effluents transport appreciable amounts of PAHs to aquatic environment, where they are rapidly taken up and accumulated by both fish and shellfish. Alessandria District, in South-Eastern Piedmont (Italy), lies in the middle of Torino-Milano-Genova industrial area: in addition to local sources, a relatively long range transport of polluted air masses may conduct to this region atmospheric contaminants, such as polynuclear compounds, that can enter fluvial environments through meteoric precipitation. The object of this work was to evaluate PAH content in surface waters flowing across the described territory. Samplings were carried on during winter season, when the concentration of these pollutants usually reaches the highest levels. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Vietnam National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vietnam National Coal-Mineral Industries Group (Vinacomin) Place: Vietnam Product: Vietnam-based...

  5. Thailand Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thailand Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Thailand Geothermal Region Details Areas (1) Power Plants (1) Projects (0) Techniques (0)...

  6. Vietnam-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  7. Thailand-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  8. Thailand-Programme for Developing and Implementing a Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thailand-Programme for Developing and Implementing a Climate Protection Policy Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand - Programme for developing and implementing a climate...

  9. Thailand: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Thailand Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TH 3-letter ISO code THA Numeric ISO code...

  10. Thailand | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Thailand | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home

  11. Eyes Witness Report on South Vietnam

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Mons. Nielson, conseiller des Etats Unis auprès de L'ONU, apporte son témoignage et exprime son opinion quand à la guerre du Vietnam (Sud)

  12. Vietnam-USAID Country Report | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: usaid.eco-asia.orgprogramscdcpreportsIdeas-to-ActionannexesAnnex Country: Vietnam UN...

  13. Thailand

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    improve the physical security of more than 10 medical, research and commercialindustrial buildings utilizing high activity radioactive materials.

    Follow NNSA News on our

  14. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2009-10-01

    Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

  15. U.S.-Vietnam Climate Change Working Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    -Vietnam Climate Change Working Group Jump to: navigation, search Name U.S.-Vietnam Climate Change Working Group AgencyCompany Organization United States Geological Survey,...

  16. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Vietnam-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change (cities, states, districts) Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states, districts) AgencyCompany...

  18. Vietnam-IISD NAMA Support | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Vietnam-IISDNAMA Support AgencyCompany Organization International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate Topics Background analysis, Low emission...

  19. Vietnam-Renewable Energy Action Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Action Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Renewable Energy Action Plan AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy...

  20. Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:recoftc.orgsitefilead Country Vietnam UN...

  1. Vietnam-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe...

  2. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in...

  3. Thailand-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name Thailand-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  4. Thailand-Key Results and Policy Recommendations for Future Bioenergy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessment, Policiesdeployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.fao.orgdocrep013 Country Thailand UN Region...

  5. Thailand-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe...

  6. Thailand-National Energy Policy and Development Plan | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy and Development Plan Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Thailand-National Energy Policy and Development Plan AgencyCompany Organization: Government...

  7. Thailand-Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels and Rural Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels and...

  8. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  9. Energy and Environment Partnership Programme for Mekong Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thailand UN Region South-Eastern Asia References EEP Mekong1 Overview "Energy and Environment Partnership (EEP) with Mekong region countries is a grant offering program to...

  10. Vietnam-Nordic Partnership Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can be matched with up-scaled host country mitigation action through two programs in Peru and Vietnam. The NPI program in Peru will focus on exploring possibilities to lower CO2...

  11. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  12. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  13. ASEAN-IEA Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policiesdeployment programs, Technology characterizations Resource Type Workshop, Training materials Country Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam,...

  14. Vietnam-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  15. Thailand-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  16. Thailand-National Energy Efficiency Plan and Evidence-based Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Energy Efficiency Plan and Evidence-based Mitigation Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name GIZ-Thailand-National energy efficiency plan as a core element for an...

  17. Attachment L-7b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official Use Only document please see Section NNS-L-2000 for instructions to Obtain. Section NNS-L-2000 (a) (8) Official Use Only (OUO) Document. The Government considers the Vietnam Design Requirements Document, Attachment L-7b an OUO Document and it cannot be made available to the public via any public webpages (e.g. FebBizOpps, FedConnect, DICCE2 acquisition webpage, Reading Room). The Vietnam Design Requirements Document (DRD) may assist Offerors

  18. Building on and spinning off: Sandia National Labs` creation of sensors for Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullrich, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses Sandia National Laboratories` development of new technologies for use in the Vietnam War - specifically the seismic sensors deployed to detect troop and vehicle movement - first along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and later in perimeter defense for American military encampments in South Vietnam. Although the sensor story is a small one, it is interesting because it dovetails nicely with our understanding of the war in Vietnam and its frustrations; of the creation of new technologies for war and American enthusiasm for that technology; and of a technological military and the organizational research and a m am development structure created to support it. Within the defense establishment, the sensors were proposed within the context of a larger concept - that of a barrier to prevent the infiltration of troops and supplies from North Vietnam to the South. All of the discussion of the best way to fight in Vietnam is couched in the perception that this was a different kind of war than America was used to fighting. The emphasis was on countering the problems posed by guerrilla/revolutionary warfare and eventually by the apparent constraints of being involved in a military action, not an outright war. The American response was to find the right technology to do the job - to control the war by applying a technological tincture to its wounds and to make the war familiar and fightable on American terms. And, when doubts were raised about the effectiveness of applying existing technologies (namely, the bombing of North Vietnam and Laos), the doubters turned to new technologies. The sensors that were developed for use in Vietnam were a direct product of this sort of thinking - on the part of the engineers at Sandia who created the sensors, the civilian scientific advisors who recommended them, and, ultimately, the soldiers in the field who had to use them.

  19. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand, 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas A.F.

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

  20. Emerging nuclear programs in Asia: The Phillipines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    This article is a review of the potential for nuclear energy development in the developing nations of Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. In each country, there is a substantial need for new generating capacity, and each is exploring the idea of having nuclear energy supply a meaningful portion of this new capacity. Of the four countries, only Pakistan is currently a nuclear operator, and one vintage CANDU plant in operation and the Chashma unit under construction. Thailand and Indonesia have ambitious plans to have 12 reactors in service by the year 2015.

  1. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnams Wind Sector

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector June 19, 2014 Daniel Bilello, Jessica Katz, Sean Esterly National Renewable Energy Laboratory Matthew Ogonowski U.S. Agency for International Development EC-LEDS is managed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Department of State with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and U.S. Forest Service. Printed with a

  2. Hydrologic responses of a tropical catchment in Thailand and two temperate/cold catchments in north America to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, T.Y.; Ahmad, Z.

    1997-12-31

    The hydrologic impact or sensitivities of three medium-sized catchments to global warming, one of tropical climate in Northern Thailand and two of temperate climate in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins of California, were investigated.

  3. Feasibility study of Northeast Thailand Gas Pipeline Project. Final report. Part 2. Compressed natural gas. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The volume is the second part of a three part study submitted to the Petroleum Authority of Thailand. Part II analyzes the potential use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a transportation fuel for high mileage vehicles traveling the highway system of Thailand. The study provides an initial estimate of buses and trucks that are potential candidates for converting to natural gas vehicles (NGV). CNG technology is briefly reviewed. The types of refueling stations that may be sited along the highway are discussed. The estimated capital investments and typical layouts are presented. The report also discusses the issues involved in implementing a CNG program in Thailand, such as safety, user acceptability and the government's role.

  4. Siting process for disposal site of low level radiactive waste in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamkate, P.; Sriyotha, P.; Thiengtrongjit, S.; Sriyotha, K. )

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive waste in Thailand is composed of low level waste from the application of radioisotopes in medical treatment and industry, the operation of the 2 MW TRIGA Mark III Research Reactor and the production of radioisotopes at OAEP. In addition, the high activity of sealed radiation sources i.e. Cs-137 Co-60 and Ra-226 are also accumulated. Since the volume of treated waste has been gradually increased, the general needs for a repository become apparent. The near surface disposal method has been chosen for this aspect. The feasibility study on the underground disposal site has been done since 1982. The site selection criteria have been established, consisting of the rejection criteria, the technical performance criteria and the economic criteria. About 50 locations have been picked for consideration and 5 candidate sites have been selected and subsequent investigated. After thoroughly investigation, a definite location in Ratchburi Province, about 180 kilometers southwest of Bangkok, has been selected as the most suitable place for the near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Thailand.

  5. Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam), to share practices on setting national greenhouse gas emissions baseline scenarios. The aim of the workstream is to...

  6. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  7. File:NREL-asia-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  8. File:NREL-asia-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  9. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of the Congo, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam...

  10. Analysis of Technology Transfer in CDM Projects | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam and significantly lower...

  11. Effect of supplementation on vitamin A and zinc nutriture of children in northeast (NE) Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Udomkesmalee, E.; Dhanamitta, S.; Charoenklatkul, S.; Tantipopipat, S.; Banjong, O.; Rojroongwasinkul, N.; Kramer, T.R.; Smith, J.C. Jr. USDA, Beltsville, MD )

    1991-03-11

    Previous surveys of the nutritional status of young children in NE Thailand suggested that they may benefit from vitamin A (VA) and/or zinc (Zn) supplementation. 140 children, with low plasma retinol concentrations were entered in a double-blind study. They were randomized and supplemented with either VA, Zn, VA + Zn or placebo each weekday for 6 mos. All subjects consumed their usual diet that provided adequate protein, less than recommended calories, fat, Zn and VA. Biochemical indices of VA and Zn status increased significantly. The children had adequate VA liver stores as assessed by relative dose response. Zn supplementation resulted in improvement of vision restoration time in dim light using rapid dark adaptometry. VA and Zn synergistically normalized conjunctival epithelium after a 6 mo supplementation. Data suggest that functional improvements of populations with suboptimal VA and Zn nutriture can be accomplished by supplementation with {lt}2 times of RDA of these nutrients.

  12. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Thailand serves as a case study of the potential to conserve electricity in the fast-growing commercial sectors of the tropical developing world. We performed a field study of over 1100 Thai office workers in which a questionnaire survey and simultaneous physical measurements were taken. Both air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buildings were included. We analyzed Thai subjective responses on the ASHRAE, McIntyre and other rating scales, relating them to Effective Temperature, demographics, and to rational indices of warmth such as PMV and TSENS. These results suggest that without sacrificing comfort, significant energy conservation opportunities exist through the relaxation of upper space temperature limits. To investigate the potential for conserving energy in a cost-effective manner, we performed a series of parametric simulations using the DOE-2.1D computer program on three commercial building prototypes based on actual buildings in Bangkok; an office, a hotel, and a shopping center. We investigated a wide range of energy conservation measures appropriate for each building type, from architectural measures to HVAC equipment and control solutions. The best measures applied in combination into high efficiency cases can generate energy savings in excess of 50%. Economic analyses performed for the high efficiency cases, resulted in costs of conserved energy of less than and internal rates of return in excess of 40%. Thermal cool storage, cogeneration, and gas cooling technology showed promise as cost-effective electric load management strategies.

  13. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  14. Conditioning of the 4 Curies Radium-226 Sealed Radiation Source in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punnachaiya, M.; Sawangsri, T.; Wanabongse, P.; Pruantonsai, P.; Nunjan, P.; Phattanasub, A.; Ya-Anant, N.; Thiangtrongjit, S.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the conditioning of the 4 curies Radium-226 (Ra-226) sealed radiation source using as a teletherapy unit for cancer treatment in Thailand. The conditioning was under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supervision and budgetary supports, comprised of 6 operational steps: the surface dose rate and actual dimension of radium unit measurements, the appropriate lead shielding design with IAEA approval, confirmation of radioactive contamination before conditioning (smear test and radon gas leakage test), transfer of radium source unit into the designed shielding, confirmation of radioactive contamination and dose rate measurement after conditioning, and transportation of Ra-226 conditioning waste package to OAP interim waste storage. The Ra-226 unit was taken out of OAP temporary waste storage for the surface dose rate and the actual dimension measurements behind the 12 inches thick heavy concrete shielding. The maximum measured surface dose rate was 70 R/hr. The special lead container was designed according to its surface dose rate along the source unit which the maximum permissible dose limit for surface dose rate of waste package after conditioning at 2 mSv/hr was applied. The IAEA approved container had total weight of 2.4 ton. After the confirmation of radioactive contamination, Ra-226 source unit was transferred and loaded in the designed lead shielding within 2 minutes. The results of smear test before and after conditioning including radon gas leakage test revealed that there was no radioactive contamination. After conditioning, the surface dose rate measured on the top, bottom were 15,10 mR/hr and varied from 6 - 50 mR/hr around lead container. The Ra-226 conditioning waste package was safely transported to store in OAP interim waste storage. Total working time including the time consumed for radon gas leakage test was 3.5 hours. The total radiation dose received by 16 operators, were ranged from 1 - 69.84 {mu}Sv and the operational team completed the conditioning safely within the effective dose limit for occupational exposure of 50 mSv/year (200 {mu}Sv/day). (authors)

  15. Enhanced T-lymphocyte blastogenic response to tuberculin (PPD) in children of northeast (NE) Thailand supplemented with vitamin A (VA) and zinc (Zn)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, T.R.; Udomkesmalee, E.; Dhanamitta, S.; Sirisinha, S.; Charoenkiatkul, S.; Tantipopipat, S.; Banjong, O.; Rojroongwasinkul, N.; Smith, J.C. Jr. Mahidol Univ., Nakhon Pathom )

    1991-03-15

    Beneficial effects of Va and/or Zn supplementation of children in NE Thailand are described in a companion abstract. In the same study, blastogenic response (BR) of T-lymphocytes to concanavalin-A (ConA) and PPD were assayed in cultures containing mononuclear cells (MNC) or whole blood (WB). Methods were previously described. Children were previously vaccinated with BCG. BR to ConA of MNC or WB from children supplemented with VA, Zn, VA + Zn or placebo were similar. BR to PPD of MNC was higher in children receiving VA + Zn than placebo, but not in children supplemented with VA or Zn alone. Data indicate that children with suboptimal VA and Zn nutriture supplemented with < 2 times RDA of these nutrients showed enhanced cellular immunity to PPD. This observation is relevant to BCG immunization program and thus may benefit public health.

  16. How do rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations behave under seasonal water stress in northeastern Thailand and central Cambodia?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan G.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Liu, Wen; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson M.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2015-11-01

    Plantation rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mll. Arg.) is a viable economic resource for Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, rubber plantations are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. Delineating the characteristics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations is therefore important to understanding the impacts of such land use change on environmental processes. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: (1) Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and (2) Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. Both sites have a distinct dry season. Measurements were made over a 3-year period. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing water and energy exchanges and tree water use characteristics. A main novelty in this analysis is that the rubber canopy conductance can be extracted from total surface conductance (including the canopy and the vegetation floor effects) and hence environmental and biological controls on rubber tree gs are explicitly compared at each site in different seasons and years. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in seasons when actual tree water use deficit (P ET) was negative (i.e., DJF and MAM), the deficit was compensated by soil water from the previous season stored within the soil layer at depths of 0-2 m at the Thailand site, and at depths of 0-3 m at CRRI. Two ecophysiological parameters, the reference value of gs (gsref) and the sensitivity of gs to atmospheric demand (m), as well as their proportionality (m/gsref), were derived from the logarithmic response curve of gs to vapor pressure deficit (D) for each season and each site. At both sites, gsref and m appeared to be smaller in DJF and MAM than those in the other seasons (i.e., JJA and SON). On average in a whole year, m/gsref was less than 0.6 at SS and almost 0.6 at the CRRI site, suggesting that there was less sufficient stomatal regulation at SS, where the risk of water stress-induced hydraulic failure is low because of its high annual rainfall amount. In comparison, at CRRI where annual P ET_POT was negative, there was stricter stomatal regulation that prevents excessive xylem cavitation. These tendencies imply that in the drier season, i.e., DJF and MAM, the rubber trees in SS and CRRI adopt the stomatal control strategy of changing gsref with reluctance and positive to change m, respectively.

  17. Soderberg_RecontresDeVietnam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. FIG. 2: The antineutrino mode (top) and neutrino QE MiniBooNE MiniBooNE MicroBooNE: Physics 16 * Prove effectiveness of electrongamma separation technique (e.g. - using dE...

  18. Vietnam: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWhyear 66 2008 NREL Coal Reserves 165.35 Million Short Tons 53 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 680,000,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 31 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  19. Thailand-IEA Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities IEA-MoEN oil & gas emergency preparedness IEA-MoEN Biofuels Workshop (2009) Emergency Response Review (ERR) to be held in 2010 References "IEA Bilateral...

  20. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  1. Vietnam-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  2. Vietnam-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program...

  3. Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  4. Vietnam-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity access will be improved by upgrading, and strengthening the 110 KV sub-transmission line, and substations, restoring five existing hydropower plants, and, by...

  5. Vietnam-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  6. Vietnam-Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Operation Financing AgencyCompany Organization France Agency of Development (AFD) Partner JICA, CIDA, WB, Korean Exim, AusAid Sector Climate Focus Area Non-renewable...

  7. Vietnam-Strengthening Public and Private Climate Finance in Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to support climate-resilient development in the developing world. Mitigation investment is substantial in parts of Asia, but lacking elsewhere; adaptation investment flows...

  8. Vietnam-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  9. Vietnam-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  10. Vietnam-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Development, Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Geothermal, Transportation Topics Background analysis,...

  11. Vietnam-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Industry Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market...

  12. Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings,...

  13. Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-09-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development resulted in the drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Because of the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. The downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design and downhole equipment installation was successfully achieved in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by the use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  14. Brief: Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-04-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development involved drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Owing to the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. Downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design, and downhole equipment was installed in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  15. Vietnam-Integrated Action Plan to Reduce Vehicle Emissions |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and reduce air pollution. Furthermore, they are required to ensure that Viet Nam's air quality meets the average standards set by the Association of Southeast Asian Nation...

  16. Vietnam-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    six to eight developing countries to strengthen their national low carbon development strategies and get a "quick start" on NAMAs. The focus will be on reducing emissions of...

  17. Vietnam Research Center for Energy and Environment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of renewable and clean energy development and energy efficiency. RCEE focuses on climate change issues too, like policies on clean development mechanism (CDM), and developing...

  18. Thailand-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  19. Thailand-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program...

  20. Femtosecond Electron and Photon Pulses Facility in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimjaem, S.; Thongbai, C.; Jinamoon, V.; Kangrang, N.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.; Vilaithong, T.; Rhodes, M. W.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.

    2007-01-19

    Femtosecond electron and photon pulses facility has been established as SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF). Femtosecond electron bunches can be generated from a system consisting of an RF gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha magnet as an magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. Femtosecond electron pulses can be used directly or used as a source to produce equally short electromagnetic (EM) radiation pulses via certain kind of radiation production processes. At SURIYA project, we are interested especially in production of radiation in Far-infrared (FIR) regime. At these wavelengths, the radiation from femtosecond electron pulses is emitted coherently resulting in high intensity radiation. Overview of the facility, the generation of femtosecond electron bunches, the theoretical background of coherent transition radiation and the recent experimental results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Thailand-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  2. Thailand-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  3. Thailand-Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emission development planning, -NAMA Resource Type Case studiesexamples, Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices, Training materials, Workshop Website http:www.wri.org...

  4. Thailand-Climate Technology Initiative Private Financing Advisory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (CTI), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) Partner International Centre for...

  5. Thailand-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  6. Thailand-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  7. Thailand-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Development, Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Geothermal, Transportation Topics Background analysis,...

  8. Thailand-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Industry Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market...

  9. Widget:AnalyticsVisitByLatLon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Europe Southern Europe America Northern America Caribbean Central America South America Asia Central Asia Eastern Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Western Asia Oceania...

  10. EPA-Integrated Environmental Strategies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia, Central America, South-Eastern Asia, Eastern Asia References EPA-Integrated Environmental Strategies1 EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2004. The Integrated...

  11. Implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism in Asia and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia, South-Eastern Asia, "Pacific" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean,...

  12. Positive Energy S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greece Zip: 115 27 Sector: Buildings, Efficiency, Solar Product: Developer of solar parks and implements energy efficiency measures for buildings in Greece and south-eastern...

  13. Colombia-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  14. India-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  15. Mexico-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  16. Panama-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  17. Costa Rica-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  18. Indonesia-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  19. Brazil-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  20. Philippines-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  1. China-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  2. Malaysia-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  3. Chile-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  4. Pakistan-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  5. Uruguay-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  6. Peru-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  7. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  8. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  9. Vietnam-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  10. Vietnam-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  11. Vietnam-GTZ RE Policy and Wind Power Development Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Partner Ministry of Industry and Trade (MoIT), The Electricity...

  12. Opportunities and Challenges to Scaling-up Wind Power in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Wind Topics Co-benefits assessment, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Background...

  13. D1 Oils Plc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    company with expertise in jatropha cultivation. Key areas of operation are in Southern Africa, India and South Eastern Asia. References: D1 Oils Plc1 This article is a stub....

  14. LEDS Toolkit and Framework | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    User Interface: Website, Desktop Application Website: en.openei.orgappsLEDS Cost: Free UN Region: Central Asia, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, "Pacific" is not in the list...

  15. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    This document contains Appendix A, B, and C. In Appendix A, we are working as part of a research project with King Monkut's Institute of Technology, Thonburi, and the University of California, Berkeley (USA) to determine how people respond to the thermal environment inside buildings. We have prepared a short questionnaire which will survey thermal comfort. Our plan is to survey each building during each of three seasons over this year (e.g. hot, rainy, and cool seasons). Appendix B contains supporting technical documentation on conservation potential and Appendix C contains documentation on utility impacts.

  16. Mercury contamination of terrestrial vegetation near a caustic soda factory in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suckcharoen, S.

    1980-03-01

    The present study is concerned with the fall-out of mercury on some terrestrial plants and one species of aquatic plant growing in the vicinity of the TACSCO factory.

  17. Thailand-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  18. Municipal solid waste to electricity recommendations for project in Bangkok, Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) is charged with the responsibility of public cleansing and waste disposal in the metropolitan area. BMA operates 600 trucks which collect the waste twice a day and dump it at its three sites located in the Huai Kwong, Bangkok Noi and Rataburana districts. Presently these trucks collect 3,000 metric tons of garbage per day. At the waste dump sites, which are rapidly overflowing, BMA presently operates four compost plants, three with input capacity of 320 tons per day each and a fourth which uses about 160 tons of garbage per day--thus utilizing about 1,120 tons of garbage per day. Creation of new sites would require going even farther away from the city, resulting in excessive transportation costs.

  19. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VietNam 2004 5th Rencontres du Vietnam Particle Physics and Astrophysics Conference D. Schmitz Status of MiniBooNE...

  20. Solar Power Company Limited SPC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Power Company Limited SPC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Power Company Limited (SPC) Place: Thailand Sector: Solar Product: Thailand-based company that designs,...

  1. Natural Energy Development Co Ltd NED | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Development Co Ltd (NED) Place: Bangkok, Thailand Zip: 10330 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Thailand-based JV developing wind and solar projects. Coordinates:...

  2. ORNL/TM-1999/264 Environmental Sciences Division

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    exploited. Used mostly for paper- making and construction. Dendrocalamus asper - thought to be native to Thailand. Thailand intends to propagate plantlets of this species...

  3. Thai Semcon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Semcon Co., Ltd Place: Bangkok, Thailand Zip: 10400 Sector: Solar Product: Thailand-based engineering company undertakes electrical projects, mechanical projects, sanitation...

  4. JSX Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thailand Zip: 10500 Product: Delaware-headquartered company, set up to explore for petroleum in Thailand, also considering PV project development. Coordinates: 13.75333,...

  5. Bibliography of information sources on East Asian energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salosis, J.

    1982-11-01

    The first section of this bibliography is a subject index by title to sources of information on East Asian energy. The countries considered were: Brunei, the PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Koreas, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. If the geographic coverage by any source is restricted to a particular country and was not indicated by the title, a country abbreviation in parentheses was added. Titles that include the term data base are computerized. The second section contains the Title Index which lists each printed publication alphabetically with frequency of publication and the US$ price for a yearly air mail subscription. The publisher or distribution office is listed below the title. The Data Base Index lists computerized sources with the author and the vendor providing either online access or tapes. No prices have been quoted in this section because of the wide range of methods in use and the impossibility of running benchmarks for this study. The Address Index lists the publishers, data base authors and vendors alphabetically.

  6. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  7. Regional nonprofits receive sizeable monetary boost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deserved as a result of that war's widespread unpopularity at the time. "A lot of New Mexicans served in Vietnam," Hopwood noted. "The very first soldier who fell in Vietnam, Turk...

  8. Red Sun Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Sun Energy Place: Long An Province, Vietnam Product: A Vietnam-based PV module manufacturer References: Red Sun Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  9. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  10. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Issuestrends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal, nuclear, and renewables expected to boost Vietnam's electricity capacity August 3, 2015 natural gaselectricityinternationalcoalrenewableenergy U.S. nuclear ...

  12. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econo References Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country...

  13. Nonproliferation | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise. Vietnam Removal Working in close...

  14. LEDSGP/about | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Democratic Republic of Congo Department of Science, Education, Natural Resources & Environment, Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam European Commission German Agency...

  15. Development of Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Development of Sea Level Rise...

  16. Viet Nam Rural Electrification | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rural Electrification Location of project Vietnam Energy Services Lighting, Cooking and water heating, Space heating, Cooling Year initiated 2009 Organization Asian Development...

  17. Office of Communication - Brochures Available

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tadjikistan Taiwan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks & Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United...

  18. Widget:ALPGallery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    jqueryjquery-galleryview-1.1* ALT Steering Committee ALP Steering Committee The Asia LEDS Partnership Steering Committee met on March, 2013 in Pattaya, Thailand following the...

  19. Geothermal Technologies Office: Download GETEM, August 2012 Beta

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia South Africa South Korea Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tanzania Thailand...

  20. Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on today's forecast." Del Valle and her team were able to successfully monitor influenza in the United States, Poland, Japan and Thailand, dengue fever in Brazil and...

  1. Using Wikipedia to forecast diseases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on today's forecast." Del Valle and her team were able to successfully monitor influenza in the United States, Poland, Japan and Thailand, dengue fever in Brazil and...

  2. Using Wikipedia to forecast disease

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to plan for future outbreaks. The LANL team was able to successfully monitor influenza in the United States, dengue fever in Brazil and Thailand, and tuberculosis in China...

  3. Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela UN Region: Northern America,...

  4. Bangkok Solar Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bangkok Solar Co Ltd Place: Chachoengsao, Thailand Zip: 24140 Product: Manufacturer of thin-film amorphous silicon modules, distributes in Europe through Reinecke + Pohl....

  5. Microsoft Word - Summit EA Final 8-17-15.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Act (NEPA), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the Procedural ... NRCAN, Esri Japan, METI, Esri China (Hong Kong), Esri (Thailand), ...

  6. National Science and Technology Development Agency | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Science and Technology Development Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Science and Technology Development Agency Place: Thailand Product: Thai national R&D agency....

  7. Channing Huntington

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    working and traveling from April to November. I've visited Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Panama, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore,...

  8. Lamar repowering project's creative modeling of old and new wins Marmaduke award

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-08-15

    Lamar Light and Power is a municipal utility that has been generating the south eastern Colorado city's electricity since 1920. Rising natural gas and oil costs pushed LL & P to retire its steam plant five years ago and begin hunting for more economic power sources. The answer: repower the existing plant with a state-of-the-art coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed combustor and cross-connect old and new steam turbines. The 120 million dollar project will stabilize the region's electricity rates for many years to come. 10 figs. 1 tab.

  9. NNSA Transitions Radiation Detection System at Port of Laem Chabang to

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Thailand | National Nuclear Security Administration Transitions Radiation Detection System at Port of Laem Chabang to Thailand | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional

  10. Design, Integration, Communication and Construction Engineering 2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1, 2016 QUESTIONS SUBMITTED BY DICCE2 INDUSTRY DAY ATTENDEES on 9/23/15 1. The sample task is Vietnam. Is either of the incumbent contractor's currently working there? Conflict? a. The Vietnam project is not a sample task, it is a real project that will be awarded as a Task Order. Neither incumbents are currently working in Vietnam under any NSDD contract. 2. If required to go to a High Risk site, will security and life support be a contractor responsibility? a. Each contractor makes a safety

  11. Design, Integration, Communication and Construction Engineering 2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8, 2016 QUESTIONS SUBMITTED AFTER DICCE2 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL RELEASE DATE OF 2/1/2016 1. Section L Attachment L-7a Vietnam Statement of Work. Does each lane already have adequate electric to power proposed RPM equipment? If not which building should power be routed from? a. Response: This information is contained in the Vietnam Design Requirements Document, specifically section 3.1.4. 2. Section L Attachment L-7a Vietnam Statement of Work. Does each lane where the RPM units are being installed

  12. Y-12s Training and Technology ? TAT and John Ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFB in North Carolina. He completed a tour of Vietnam during the war and a tour of Turkey, earning a bronze medal and the distinguished flying cross. During both tours we lived...

  13. armed forces

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    organization that takes World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War veterans to the U.S. capital to see the memorials built in their honor at zero cost to the veteran.

  14. veterans

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    organization that takes World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War veterans to the U.S. capital to see the memorials built in their honor at zero cost to the veteran.

  15. NREL: Technology Deployment - Success Stories from Developing Countries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstrate Impacts of Low Emission Development Strategies Success Stories from Developing Countries Demonstrate Impacts of Low Emission Development Strategies News EC-LEDS Highlights Renewable Energy Resource Data at COP21 Vietnam Makes Strides to Lower Emissions Thru Green Building Code, High-Performance Buildings Colombia Makes Major Strides in Low Emission Development Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam Preserves Forests, Engages Communities Presidential Engagement on

  16. Attachment L-7a U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AM52-08NAXXXXX Task Order No: DT000XXXX Statement of Work August 7, 2015 Task Order Title: Design, Integration, Construction, Communications, and Engineering (DICCE) Services for Port of Cat Lai, Vietnam. Scope: The Contractor shall design, construct, and integrate fully functional portal monitor and communications systems at designated sites in Vietnam.  Port of Cat Lai Requirements Documents: The following task order requirements describe key milestones and deliverables. For a more complete

  17. Attachment L-7c

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    c [Type here] VIETNAM MOBILIZATION PLAN DE-SOL-0008449 1.0 INTRODUCTION Based on the information presented below, the Statement of Work requirements relating to in- country deployments, and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) provided in Table 1, the Offeror shall develop a mobilization plan that describes its approach to a comprehensive Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) deployment involving Port of Cat Lai seaport in Vietnam. 2.0 REQUIREMENTS The Offeror shall provide a plan for

  18. DE-SOL-0008449 Attachment L-7c

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DE-SOL-0008449 Attachment L-7c [Type here] VIETNAM MOBILIZATION PLAN DE-SOL-0008449 1.0 INTRODUCTION Based on the information presented below, the Statement of Work requirements relating to in- country deployments, and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) provided in Table 1, the Offeror shall develop a mobilization plan that describes its approach to a comprehensive Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) deployment involving Port of Cat Lai seaport in Vietnam. 2.0 REQUIREMENTS The

  19. TASK ORDER

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NA0000XXX Task Order No: DE-DT000XXXX Statement of Work August 7, 2015 Task Order Title: Design, Integration, Construction, Communications, and Engineering (DICCE) Services for Port of Cat Lai, Vietnam. Scope: The Contractor shall design, construct, and integrate fully functional portal monitor and communications systems at designated sites in Vietnam. * Port of Cat Lai Requirements Documents: The following task order requirements describe key milestones and deliverables. For a more complete

  20. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the centerpoint of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SASTM access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  1. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the center-point of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  2. Design, Integration, Communication and Construction Engineering...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Bangkok, Thailand c. London, England d. Astana, Kazakhstan e. Sofia, Bulgaria f. Ispa, Italy g. Vienna, Austria h. Tblisi, Georgia i. Lyon, France 6. If each team must propose a ...

  3. Grenzone Pte Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Singapore-based system integrator for solar PV projects in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. References: Grenzone Pte Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  4. Fact #770: March 11, 2013 Changes to the Top Ten Vehicles Sold over the Last Five Years

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When reviewing the top ten vehicles sold in calendar years 2008 through 2012, the year 2011 stands out. Likely due to Japan's tsunami/earthquake and Thailand's flood, both of which disrupted the...

  5. Cellennium Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thailand Zip: 10400 Product: Cellennium Co Ltd is a Thai company that has been researching Vanadium fuel cells. Coordinates: 13.75333, 100.504822 Show Map Loading map......

  6. Mineralogical evaluation and industrial applications of the Triassic clay deposits, Southern Tunisia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccour, H. Medhioub, M.; Jamoussi, F.; Mhiri, T.; Daoud, A.

    2008-11-15

    This study deals with the mineralogical and thermal analysis of Triassic clays in the south-Eastern Tunisia (Medenine area) in order to use them in the faience ceramic. That is why the study had recourse to several quantitative and qualitative research instruments: chemical analysis, mineralogical study, thermal analyses and analyses of geotechnical traits. The data collected from these techniques show that illite and kaolinite are the major clay phases. The accessory minerals detected in powdered rock are; quartz, dolomite and hematite. Geotechnical characterization was carried out on the three representative mixtures of Triassic clay samples. Each mixture is fired at three different temperatures 850,900 and 950 deg. C. Firing characteristics (shrinkage, water absorption, and mechanical resistance to the inflection) were measured and the neomineralization processes were investigated principally by X-ray diffraction. At the end of this study, one can affirm that these clays have qualities necessary for the manufacture of faience ceramic and earthenware production.

  7. Sulfur isotope evidence for regional recharge of saline water during continental glaciation, north-central United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, D.I. )

    1990-11-01

    Sulfate concentrations in ground water from the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of south-eastern Wisconsin and northern Illinois increase up to hundreds of times where the aquifer is confined beneath the Maquoketa Shale. There is no sulfate source in the aquifer or overlying rocks except for minor amounts of finely disseminated pyrite. Coinciding with increasing sulfate concentrations, {delta}{sup 34}S of the dissolved sulfate increases from less than {minus}5{per thousand} in the unconfined part of the aquifer to a nearly constant value of +20{per thousand} where the aquifer is confined and where sulfate reduction is minimal. The most likely source for this isotopically heavy sulfate is ground water associated with Silurian evaporites under Lake Michigan. It is uncertain if the sulfate-rich water was emplaced in pulses or mostly during the last glaciation.

  8. Late Mesozoic crustal extension and rifting on the western edge of the Parana Basin, Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Geophysical and geological evidence indicates that the western edge of the Parana basin in Paraguay was a site of NE-SW directed crustal extension during late Mesozoic time. Major zones of normal faulting in south-eastern Paraguay trend northwesterly on average, and mafic dikes of probable late Mesozoic age have similar orientations. At least two NW-trending zones of tectonic subsidence, each over 200 km long, are now recognized in eastern Paraguay. Most alkalic rocks of south-eastern Paraguay are concentrated along this rift, and occur as simple to composite stocks and ring complexes composed of rocks ranging from foid-syenite to essexite. NW-trending, lamprophyric to phonolitic dikes are associated with some alkalic complexes. The southern zone, located about 125 km southwest, is a composite tectonic basin about 60 km wide and nearly devoid of alkalic rocks. The timing of crustal extension and rifting in eastern Paraguay is largely based on isotopic ages of associated alkalic rocks, which cluster between 150 and 100 Ma (latest Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous). Geologic evidence for the age of faulting and subsidence is consistent with this age range; tectonic depressions were being filled in late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic time. The age range of alkalic rocks in Paraguay contain that of the Serra Geral basalts and spans the time when South America Separated from Africa. This suggests that alkalic activity and crustal extension in eastern Paraguay are grossly related to the Serra Geral extrusive event, and were a manifestation of the breakup of South America and Africa far from the site of final separation.

  9. Europe

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7,900 Mongolia 3 - 3,400 Thailand 152 453 0 South Asia 396 5,802 12,900 8,211 26,913 India 361 5,476 3,800 Pakistan 23 248 9,100 Middle East and North Africa 10,986 867,463...

  10. Europe

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    124 1,115 Indonesia 3 108 46 Mongolia - - 4 Thailand 1 10 5 South Asia 4 86 201 183 470 India 2 44 96 Pakistan 1 24 105 Middle East and North Africa 26 3,117 1,003 1,651 5,772...

  11. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  12. Valuation of mountain glaciation response on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananicheva, M.D.; Davidovich, N.V.

    1997-12-31

    Quantitative estimates of main climatic parameters, influencing the glacier regime (summer air temperature and annual solid precipitation), and glaciologic characteristics (mass balance components, equilibrium line altitude and rate of air temperature at this height), received on the basis of the scenario for a climate development according to R. Wetherald and S. Manabe (1982) are submitted. The possible reaction of mountain glaciation on global warming is considered for two mountain countries: South-eastern Alaska and Pamir-Alay (Central Asia). In given paper we have tried to evaluate changes of the mountain glaciation regime for a time of CO{sub 2} doubling in the atmosphere, basing on the scenario of climate development and modern statistical relationships between climatic and glaciologic parameters. The GCM scenario of R. Wetherald and C. Manabe (GFDL model) which is made with respect of mountain territories is in the basis our calculations. As initial materials we used data of long-term observations and the maps of World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (WASIR).

  13. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  14. SREL Reprint #3149

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Nesting Behavior of the Red-necked Pond Turtle (Mauremys [Chinemys] nigricans) in Captivity Andrew M. Grosse, Kurt A. Buhlmann, and Cris Hagen University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Building 737-A, Drawer E, Aiken, South Carolina 29802 Abstract: The Red-necked Pond Turtle (Mauremys [Chinemys] nigricans) is a small, semi-aquatic turtle known to occur in southern China (Guangdong Province) and perhaps in extreme northern Vietnam (Bonin et al., 2006; Fig. 1). This species is

  15. Voluntary Self-Identification of Veterans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Voluntary Self-Identification of Veterans This employer is a Government contractor subject to the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974, as amended by the Jobs for Veterans Act of 2002, 38 U.S.C. 4212 (VEVRAA), which requires Government contractors to take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment: (1) disabled veterans; (2) recently separated veterans; (3) active duty wartime or campaign badge veterans; and (4) Armed Forces service medal veterans. These

  16. (Short-term assays for detecting environmental mutagens, carcinogens, and teratogens): Foreign trip report, February 4--28, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-03-08

    The traveler participated in the Second Southeast Asian Workshop on Short-term Assays for Detecting Environmental Mutagens, Carcinogens, and Teratogens, held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. He was a member of the International Advisory Committee of this Workshop, was a coordinator of the US delegation, and delivered two lectures. While in Bangkok, he participated in two round-table discussions on subjects of immediate significance to Thailand. He also traveled to The Philippines where he gave a lecture at the University of the Philippines in Quezon City. The contacts made by the traveler resulted in a US Environmental Protection Agency-initiated discussion of future funding for in vivo aneuploidy research at ORNL.

  17. Strategies of Asian oil-importing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.

    1997-04-01

    Various strategies are used by oil-importing countries to reduce their economic dependence on imported oil: national oil production, energy conservation, and the change of economic structures from high energy intensity sectors to low ones. In this article, the roles of these different strategies have been identified for 10 selected oil-importing countries in Asia: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, R.O Korea, and Taiwan. The results show that most of the selected countries (although Hong Kong and Taiwan are independent economic entities, for simplicity, the author refers to them as countries) have succeeded in reducing their national economy dependence on imported oil since 1973. Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India are among the most successful countries, with more than 40% reduction in their economic dependence on imported oil.

  18. Nuclear power programs in developing countries of the world: Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This article reviews the present and future status of the nuclear industry in the developing nations of China, North Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Each of the countries has a booming export-driven economy, which is turn requires considerable new generating capacity. The nuclear option is being considered as a provider of much of this additional capacity. China is committed to an extensive nuclear power program, and Indonesia has an ambitious plan to have seven to twelve reactors in service by the year 2015. North Korea will receive two LWRs to replace its current non-power nuclear units. The nuclear option is still under discussion in the Philippines and in Thailand.

  19. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources:

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thailand Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 September 2015 September 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of

  20. John Krummel | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John Krummel, Division Director John Krummel Division Director - Environmental Science John Krummel's research areas include landscape and ecosystem ecology, application of geographic information system (GIS) technology to environmental modeling, and energy-environment stewardship issues. Dr. Krummel has been the principal investigator on projects that evaluated the effect of slash-and-burn agriculture on tropical forest loss in Thailand, the use of GIS technology in visualizing complex

  1. The dog originated south of Yangtse river less than 16,000 years ago, from numerous wolves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, Thomas; Pang, Jun - Feng; Kluetsch, Cornelya

    2009-01-01

    We here present a detailed picture of the origins of the dog, giving strong and precise evidence for 'where and when', and thereby also a first tentative picture of 'how, why and by whom' the wolf was domesticated. Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have failed to definitely establish the time and place of origin because of lack in phylogenetic resolution for the so far studied 582 bp region, and inadequate sampling across the world. We therefore analysed 169 mtDNA genomes, selected from partial sequences (582 bp) from 1,576 dogs worldwide. This shows that dogs universally share a common gene pool, but the three earlier identified universally occurring phylogenetic clades ofhigh age consist often much younger subclades, which originated 5,000-16,000 ya from at least 48 wolf founders. The full range of genetic diversity, all 10 subclades, is found only in south-eastern Asia south of Yangtze River, and the diversity decreases gradually across Eurasia down to only four sub clades in Europe. This establishes that the dog has a single origin in time and space from a large number ofwolves, less than 16,000 ya, probably in China south of Y angtzeRiver. The place and time coincide with the origin of rice agriculture, suggesting an origin among sedentary hunter-gatherers or early rice farmers. The numerous founders indicate that wolf taming was an important cultural trait, and it is noticeable that in this region dogs are since ancient times used as food, offering a possible reason for the wolf domestication.

  2. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horttanainen, M. Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. The results were compared with earlier international studies. The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (5060%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  3. TTW 11-9-06

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2006 WIPP Quick Facts (As of 11-8-06) 5,235 Shipments received since opening 43,621 Cubic meters of waste disposed 84,477 Containers disposed in the underground Veterans' Day November 11, 2006 The following comments are from just a sample of veterans that are part of the WIPP family. I'm a Vietnam Veteran...served at DaNang (1971-72) with the U.S. Air Force. Assigned to 366th Tactical Fighter Wing "The Gunfighters" (F- 4s). When I returned to the USA in December of '72, I recall a

  4. Microsoft Word - Espanola Dec 15.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5, 2005 10 4:00 P.M. Senior Stroke Center 11 735 Vietnam Veterans Memorial Road Espanola, New Mexico 87532 12 13 14 15 16 FACILITATED BY: MARGO COVINGTON 17 18 19 20 REPORTED BY: Betty J. Lanphere, NM CCR #70 21 Betty J. Lanphere & Associates, Inc. Post Office Box 449 22 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504 23 24 25 Betty J. Lanphere & Associates, Inc. P. O. Box 449 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504 - (505) 983-7367 1 2 A P P E A R A N C E S 3 FOR DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY: 4 Lisa Cummings EIS Document

  5. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  6. Efficiency, equity and the environment: Institutional challenges in the restructuring of the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haeri, M.H.

    1998-07-01

    In the electric power industry, fundamental changes are underway in Europe, America, Australia, New Zealand and, more recently, in Asia. Rooted in increased deregulation and competition, these changes are likely to radically alter the structure of the industry. Liberalization of electric power markets in the United Kingdom is, for the most part, complete. The generation market in the United States began opening to competition following the 1987 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 set the stage for a much more dramatic change in the industry. The most far-reaching provision of the Act was its electricity title, which opened access to the electric transmission grid. With legal barriers now removed, the traditionally sheltered US electric utility market is becoming increasingly open to entry and competition. A number of important legislative, regulatory and governmental policy initiatives are underway in the Philippines that will have a profound effect on the electric power industry. In Thailand, the National Energy Planning Organization (NEPO) has undertaken a thorough investigation of industry restructuring. This paper summarizes recent international developments in the deregulation and liberalization of electricity markets in the U.K., U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. It focuses on the relevance of these experiences to development underway in the Philippines and Thailand, and presents alternative possible structures likely to emerge in these countries, drawing heavily on the authors' recent experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. The impact of these changes on the business environment for power generation and marketing will be discussed in detail, as will the opportunities these changes create for investment among private power producers.

  7. (Environmental toxicology)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-11-28

    The traveler attended an International Seminar on Environmental Toxicology sponsored by Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn of Thailand. The objective of the seminar was to provide technical knowledge in the area of environmental toxicology to participants from developing countries in Asia. Priorities identified at the workshop which would aid in the application of environmental toxicology principles in developing countries were: a data base on toxicological properties of chemicals, increased research support in all aspects of science and technology in developing countries, increased public awareness and participation in the risk management process, and an increased number of training courses held in third world countries to facilitate exchange of experience and techniques.

  8. ARM - Events Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 15, 2007 [Events] 7th Asian Lidar Conference to be Held in Bangkok July 31 Bookmark and Share The 7th Asian Lidar Conference will be held in Bangkok, Thailand, July 31 - August 3, 2007. This year, the conference will be held as a special session during the 4th Annual Meeting of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS). The AOGS is an international society founded in 2003 to promote cooperation and discussion among scientists in Asia on the Earth, its environment and oceania, and

  9. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  10. Asian success stories in promoting energy efficiency in industry and building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ming

    1996-12-31

    This article describes the program of the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC), which has offices in Washington, Bangkok, Santiago, and London, in addition to staff in a number of other countries. The mission of this private organization is to promote the efficient use of energy as a tool for sustainable development by supporting the development of policies, technologies, and practices. Its focus is on energy efficiency, transportation systems, and renewable energy sources. Examples of specific program activities in Thailand, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore are discussed.

  11. Soil gas survey in the geothermal area of Bolsena Lake (Vulsini Mts. , central Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corazza, E.; Magro, G.; Ceccarelli, A. ); Pieri, S.; Rossi, U. )

    1993-06-01

    A soil gas survey has been carried out in the Vulsini Mts. volcanic area, around Bolsena Lake, with the objective of testing the reliability of this geochemical method for geothermal exploration. The thermal gradients is high all over the area; the He/Ne ratio, and He, CO[sub 2], and H[sub 2] concentrations have been determined in 259 samples. Compared with its surroundings, this area exhibits an overall positive CO[sub 2] anomaly, but the distribution of diffusive gases (He and H[sub 2]) allows one to distinguish three different sectors around the lake: (1) a northern sector with high CO[sub 2], and H[sub 2]/CO[sub 2], He/CO[sub 2], and He/Ne ratios close to the background value; (2) a south-eastern sector, characterized by the presence of cold fumaroles, with high He, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2] and He/Ne, and generally low H[sub 2]/CO[sub 2] and He/CO[sub 2] spots. Permeability is assumed to the main factor controlling the differences between the above three sectors. In sector 1, the flysch (1 km thick) is intruded by a great number of sills and dikes, and the underlying limestones are completely metamorphosed into marbles; CO[sub 2] is the late stage of a heavy degassing process. Sector 2 includes several volcanic spatter cones along the tectonic trends; the high permeability allows the deep gases to be ducted with minor changes. Sector 3 is an elongated strip with an anti-Apennine trend; diffusion of H[sub 2] only is the result of the thick (>3 km) unaltered flysch cover. In sector 3 the underground outflow of the lake through shallow volcanics entrains large quantities of air and masks any deep gases; the few anomalous spots reproduce situations like that of sector 2. One of these spots is located near a producing well tapping the geothermal reservoir.

  12. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  13. Final Report. SFAA No. DEFC02-98CH10961. Technical assistance for joint implementation and other supporting mechanisms and measures for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Denise

    2001-10-15

    IIEC, a division of CERF, has developed an extensive base of experience implementing activities that support climate action by developing USIJI projects in transitional countries within Asia, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and southern Africa. IIEC has been able to provide a range of technical and policy assistance to governments and industry in support of sustainable energy use. IIEC continues to work in key countries with local partners to develop and implement energy efficiency policies and standards, develop site-specific projects, and assist governing bodies to establish national priorities and evaluation criteria for approving GHG-mitigation projects. As part of this project, IIEC focused on promoting a series of activities in Thailand and South Africa in order to identify GHG mitigation projects and work within the national approval process of those countries. The sections of this report outline the activities conducted in each country in order to achieve that goal.

  14. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is similar to Hong Kong in program design but has 5 efficiency grades; Japan's program is distinct in its adoption of the 'Top Runner' approach, in which, the future efficiency standards is set based on the efficiency levels of the most efficient product in the current domestic market. Although the standards are voluntary, penalties can still be evoked if the average efficiency target is not met. Both Hong Kong and South Korea's tests involve pouring water into the inner pot equal to 80% of its rated volume; however, white rice is used as a load for its tests in Hong Kong whereas no rice is used for tests in South Korea. In Japan's case, water level specified by the manufactures is used and milled rice is used as a load only partially in the tests. Moreover, Japan does not conduct heat efficiency test but its energy consumption measurements tests are much more complex, with 4 different tests are conducted to determine the annual average energy consumption. Hong Kong and Thailand both set Minimum Allowable Heat Efficiency for different rated wattages. The energy efficiency requirements are identical except that the minimum heat efficiency in Thailand is 1 percentage point higher for all rated power categories. In South Korea, MEPS and label's energy efficiency grades are determined by the rice cooker's Rated Energy Efficiency for induction, non-induction, pressure, nonpressure rice cookers. Japan's target standard values are set for electromagnetic induction heating products and non-electromagnetic induction heating products by different size of rice cookers. Specific formulas are used by type and size depending on the mass of water evaporation of the rice cookers. Japan has been the leading country in technology development of various types of rice cookers, and developed concrete energy efficiency standards for rice cookers. However, as consumers in Japan emphasize the deliciousness of cooked rice over other factors, many types of models were developed to improve the taste of cooked rice. Nonetheless, the efficiency of electromagnetic induction heating (IH) rice cook

  15. Generation of Femtosecond Electron Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jinamoon, V.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rimjaem, S.; Saisut, J.; Thongbai, C.; Vilaithong, T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Chumphongphan, S.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-09

    At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University (Thailand), the SURIYA project has been established aiming to produce femtosecond electron pulses utilizing a combination of an S-band thermionic rf gun and a magnetic bunch compressor ({alpha}-magnet). A specially designed rf-gun has been constructed to obtain optimum beam characteristics for the best bunch compression. Simulation results show that bunch lengths as short as about 50 fs rms can be expected at the experimental station. The electron bunch lengths will be determined using autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (TR) through a Michelson interferometer. The paper discusses beam dynamics studies, design, fabrication and cold tests of the rf-gun as well as presents the project current status and forth-coming experiments.

  16. Generation of Femtosecond Electron And Photon Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thongbai, C.; Jinamoon, V.; Kangrang, M.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rimjaem, S.; Saisut, J.; Vilaithong, T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC

    2006-03-17

    Femtosecond (fs) electron and photon pulses become a tool of increasing importance to study dynamics in ultrafast processes. Such short electron pulses can be generated from a system consisting of a thermionic-cathode RF-gun and a magnetic bunch compressor. The fs electron pulses can be used directly or used as a source to produce equally short electromagnetic radiation pulses via certain kind of radiation production processes. At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Thailand, we are especially interested in production of radiation in Farinfrared and X-ray regime. In the far-infrared wavelengths, the radiation emitted from fs electron pulses is emitted coherently resulting high intensity radiation. In the X-ray regime, development of fs X-ray sources is crucial for application in ultrafast sciene.

  17. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M.; Deying, Xu

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  18. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. . Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu . Research Inst. of Forestry)

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  19. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  20. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  1. Natural gas: Governments and oil companies in the Third World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, A.; Hurst, C.; Mabro, R.

    1988-01-01

    It is asserted that oil companies claim to be generally receptive to gas development proposals; however, the lack of potential markets for gas, problems of foreign exchange convertibility, and lack of a legal framework often hinders their engagement. Governments, on the other hand, need to secure domestic energy supply and, if possible, gain some export earnings or royalties. An extensive discussion on the principles of pricing and fiscal regimes, potential points of disagreement is provided. A course of action is outlined from the managerial point of view to circumvent the most common pitfalls in planning and financing a gas project. Eight very detailed case studies are presented for Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Thailand.

  2. Sustainable hydropower in Lower Mekong Countries: Technical assessment and training travel report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Witt, Adam M.

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through their partnership with the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), requested the support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide specialized technical assistance as part of the Smart Infrastructure for the Mekong (SIM) Program in Thailand. Introduced in July 2013 by U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, SIM is a U.S. Government Inter-Agency program that provides Lower Mekong partner countries with targeted, demand-driven technical and scientific assistance to support environmentally sound, climate conscious and socially equitable infrastructure, clean energy development, and water resources optimization. The U.S. Government is committed to supporting sustainable economic development within the region by providing tools, best practices, technical assistance, and lessons learned for the benefit of partner countries. In response to a request from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), a SIM project was developed with two main activities: 1) to promote hydropower sustainability and efficiency through technical assessment training at two existing hydropower assets in Thailand, and 2) the design and implementation of one national and two or three regional science and policy workshops, to be co-hosted with EGAT, to build common understanding of and commitment to environmental and social safeguards for Mekong Basin hydropower projects. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading the technical assessment (Activity 1), and has contracted ORNL to provide expert technical assistance focused on increasing efficiency at existing projects, with the goal of increasing renewable energy generation at little to no capital cost. ORNL is the leading national laboratory in hydropower analysis, with a nationally recognized and highly qualified team of scientists addressing small to large-scale systems (basin-, regional-, and national-scale) energy generation optimization analysis for DOE. The mission of the ORNL Water Power Program is to develop technologies, decision-support tools, and methods of analysis that enable holistic management of water-dependent energy infrastructure and natural resources in support of the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office (DOE-EERE), Federal hydropower agencies, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), energy producers, and other entities. In support of SIM, ORNL completed technical assessments of two hydropower plants owned and operated by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT): Vajiralongkorn (VRK), with an installed capacity of 300 MW, and Rajjaprabha (RPB), with an installed capacity of 240MW. Technical assessment is defined as the assessment of hydropower operation and performance, and the identification of potential opportunities for performance improvement through plant optimization. At each plant, the assessment included an initial analysis of hydropower operating and performance metrics, provided by dam owners. After this analysis, ORNL engaged with the plant management team in a skills exchange, where best practices, operational methods, and technical challenges were discussed. The technical assessment process was outlined to plant management followed by a presentation of preliminary results and analysis based on 50 days of operational data. EGAT has agreed to provide a full year of operational data so a complete and detailed assessment that captures seasonal variability can be completed. The results of these assessments and discussions will be used to develop a set of best practices, training, and procedure recommendations to improve the efficiency of the two assessed plants

  3. A polymorphism in metallothionein 1A (MT1A) is associated with cadmium-related excretion of urinary beta 2‐microglobulin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Lijian; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi ; Chang, Xiuli; Rentschler, Gerda; Tian, Liting; Zhu, Guoying; Chen, Xiao; Jin, Taiyi; Broberg, Karin

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) toxicity of the kidney varies between individuals despite similar exposure levels. In humans Cd is mainly bound to metallothioneins (MT), which scavenge its toxic effects. Here we analyzed whether polymorphisms in MT genes MT1A and MT2A influence Cd-related kidney damage. Methods: In a cross-sectional study N = 512 volunteers were selected from three areas in South-Eastern China, which to varying degree were Cd-polluted from a smelter (control area [median Cd in urine U-Cd = 2.67 μg/L], moderately [U-Cd = 4.23 μg/L] and highly [U-Cd = 9.13 μg/L] polluted areas). U-Cd and blood Cd (B-Cd) concentrations were measured by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. MT1A rs11076161 (G/A), MT2A rs10636 (G/C) and MT2A rs28366003 (A/G) were determined by Taqman assays; urinary N-Acetyl-beta-(D)-Glucosaminidase (UNAG) by spectrometry, and urinary β2-microglobulin (UB2M) by ELISA. Results: Higher B-Cd (natural log-transformed) with increasing number of MT1A rs11076161 A-alleles was found in the highly polluted group (p-value trend = 0.033; all p-values adjusted for age, sex, and smoking). In a linear model a significant interaction between rs11076161 genotype and B-Cd was found for UNAG (p = 0.001) and UB2M concentrations (p = 0.001). Carriers of the rs11076161 AA genotype showed steeper slopes for the associations between Cd in blood and natural log-transformed UB2M (β = 1.2, 95% CI 0.72–1.6) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.30, 95% CI 0.15–0.45). Also for UNAG (natural log-transformed) carriers of the AA genotype had steeper slopes (β = 0.55, 95% CI 0.27–0.84) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.018, 95% CI − 0.79–0.11). Conclusions: MT1A rs11076161 was associated with B-Cd concentrations and Cd-induced kidney toxicity at high exposure levels. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium is toxic to the kidney but the susceptibility differs between individuals. ► The toxic effect of cadmium is scavenged by metallothioneins. ► A common variant of metallothionein 1A was genotyped in 512 cadmium exposed humans. ► Variant carriers of this polymorphism showed more kidney damage from cadmium. ► The frequency of these variants needs to be taken into account in risk assessment.

  4. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  5. Nuclear energy: Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muslim, Dato’ Dr Noramly

    2015-04-29

    As Malaysia progresses towards 2020, the depleting resource of oil and gas has forced a re-look at alternatives to replace fossil fuels as energy sources. Among the viable options is nuclear energy, enabling us to meet energy needs and sustain national development in the twenty-first century. Three essential steps Malaysia must take to introduce nuclear power into its energy mix are: energy planning, infrastructure development, and deployment. Malaysia has to face a series of challenges, including public acceptance, waste management, minimizing proliferation risk, and ensuring the security of nuclear plants and materials. Timely development of qualified and competent manpower is a key limiting factor in the development and transfer of nuclear technologies — and education and training take time, effort and money. There is a need for political will. Within the Asian region, China, Korea and Japan are in the forefront in utilizing nuclear power to meet electricity demands. Countries such as UAE, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Turkey are moving ahead with the nuclear option for electricity generation and they have begun planning and construction of nuclear power plants. Against this backdrop, what are Malaysia’s moves? This paper discusses various options and challenges, obstacles and repercussions in meeting future energy demands.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnis Judzis

    2002-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting July 2002 through September 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments include the following: (1) Smith International agreed to participate in the DOE Mud Hammer program. (2) Smith International chromed collars for upcoming benchmark tests at TerraTek, now scheduled for 4Q 2002. (3) ConocoPhillips had a field trial of the Smith fluid hammer offshore Vietnam. The hammer functioned properly, though the well encountered hole conditions and reaming problems. ConocoPhillips plan another field trial as a result. (4) DOE/NETL extended the contract for the fluid hammer program to allow Novatek to ''optimize'' their much delayed tool to 2003 and to allow Smith International to add ''benchmarking'' tests in light of SDS Digger Tools' current financial inability to participate. (5) ConocoPhillips joined the Industry Advisors for the mud hammer program. (6) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to complete the optimizations.

  7. Why the Gulf War still matters: Foreign perspectives on the war and the future of international security. Report No. 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrity, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) project that examined how a number of nations other than the United States have reacted to the course and outcome of the Persian Gulf War of 1991. The project was built around studies of key countries on which the Gulf War might reasonably be expected to have had a significant impact: Argentina, the ASEAN states, Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Libya, North Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, and the states of the former Yugoslavia. These country studies were written by well-recognized independent experts following a common set of guidelines provided by CNSS. When the country studies were completed, they were reviewed and supplemented through a series of peer assessments and workshops. The report represents a synthesis of material generated through this process, and is intended to stimulate thought and further analysis on the critical topics discussed herein.

  8. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samotoin, N. D.

    2008-09-15

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  9. The SIAM Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pairsuwan, Weerapong

    2007-01-19

    A short history of the SIAM Photon Source in Thailand is described. The facility is based on the 1 GeV storage ring obtained from the SORTEC consortium in Japan. After a redesign to include insertion straight sections it produced the first light in December 2001 and the first beam line became operational in early 2002. Special difficulties appear when a synchrotron light facility is obtained by donation, which have mostly to do with the absence of human resource development that elsewhere is commonly accomplished during design and construction. Additional problems arise by the distance of a developing country like Thailand from the origin of technical parts of the donation. A donation does not provide time to generate local capabilities or include in the technical design locally obtainable parts. This makes future developments, repairs and maintenance more time consuming, difficult and expensive than it should be. In other cases, parts of components are proprietary or obsolete or both which requires redesign and engineering at a time when the replacement part should be available to prevent stoppage of operation.The build-up of a user community is very difficult, especially when the radiation spectrum is confined to the VUV regime. Most of scientific interest these days is focused on the x-ray regime. Due to its low beam energy, the SIAM storage ring did not produce useful x-ray intensities and we are therefore in the midst of an upgrade to produce harder radiation. The first step has been achieved with a 20% increase of energy to 1.2 GeV. This step shifts the critical photon energy of bending magnet radiation from 800 eV to 1.4 keV providing useful radiation up to 7 keV. A XAS-beam line has been completed in 2005 and experimentation is very active by now. The next step is to install a 6.4 T wavelength shifter by the end of 2006 resulting in a critical photon energy of 6.15 keV. Further upgrades are planed for the comming years.

  10. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-10-15

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} filmsanalyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniqueswill be discussed.

  11. Meteorological measurements in the vicinity of a coal burning power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crescenti, G.H.; Gaynor, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    High concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are commonly observed during the cool season in the vicinity of a 2.5 GW coal burning power plant located in the Mae Moh Valley of northern Thailand. The power plant is the source for nearly all of the observed SO2 since there are no other major industrial activities in this region. These high pollution fumigation events occur almost on a daily basis, usually lasting for several hours between late morning and early afternoon. One-hour average SO2 concentrations commonly exceed 1,000 micrograms/cu m. As a result, an increase in the number of respiratory type health complaints have been observed by local clinics during this time of the year. Meteorological data were acquired from a variety of observing platforms during an intensive field study from December 1993 to February 1994. The measurements included horizontal and vertical wind velocity, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation. In addition, turbulent flux measurements were acquired by a sonic anemometer. SO2 measurements were made at seven monitoring sites scattered throughout the valley. These data were used to examine the atmospheric processes which are responsible for these high pollution fumigation events.

  12. Case study of a solid-waste-scavenger community with respect to health and environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun.

    1991-01-01

    This study was an investigation of a solid waste scavenger community at the On-Nooch Dump Site in Bangkok, Thailand. The purpose was to identify the dimensions of the public health conditions of solid waste scavengers and their community. Cross-sectional field surveys and measurements were undertaken to characterize the distribution and magnitude of health-related problems and environmental conditions. Scavengers were found to be exposed to hazardous conditions due to the waste materials at the dump site. Cuts and punctures from sharp materials were the most common complaints among scavengers. Health symptoms like headache, diarrhea, respiratory illness, skin diseases and back pain were also reported. There was a high prevalence of childhood respiratory illness especially among those children of households where cigarette smoking was present. Children had poor nutritional status and were commonly infected by intestinal protozoa and helminths. An appreciable proportion of adult respondents was below the normal range for lung function performance. Seroprevalence of HBV infection was found to be high among male respondents in addition to six respondents that had possible HIV infections. The quality of the community water supply was low. Air pollution measurements showed acceptable ambient air levels except for particulate levels (TSP and RSP). Levels of indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure NO{sub 2} were found to be similar. Data for an inner-city project apartment community named Din-Dang were also collected for comparison. A priority rating index and recommendations for public health condition improvements were presented.

  13. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jillings, Chris; Collaboration: DEAP Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10{sup ?46}cm{sup 2} for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk {sup 210}Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 10{sup ?20}g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  14. Qatargas exporting LNG from Qatar`s new Ras Laffan Port

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-24

    When the 135,000 cu m LNG carrier Al Zubarah departed Ras Laffan Port in December, Qatar entered a new era of commerce that will both boost the emirate`s economic development and influence energy trade around the world. The event capped more than a decade of planning, design, and construction of Ras Laffan Port--the world`s newest and largest LNG exporting facility. During the 1980s, the focus in Qatar was on exploration and development of North field, which holds the world`s largest reserves of nonassociated natural gas. In the 1990s, efforts concentrated on establishing a direct production and export link between North field, the new multi-billion-dollar Qatar Liquefied Gas Co. (Qatargas) gas liquefaction plant at Ras Laffan, and LNG export facilities at the 8.5 sq km Ras Laffan Port. Markets of the Far East will be first to be served by LNG from Ras Laffan Port. Two 25-year LNG supply contracts have been signed with buyers in Japan and South Korea, and negotiations are under way with potential customers from China, Taiwan, and Thailand. The paper describes the port, its operations, and export projects.

  15. Combined heat and power systems that consist of biomass fired fluidised bed combustors and modern steam engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, S.D.; Errey, S.; Thomas, M.; Kruger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass energy is widely used in many processing industries in the ASEAN region. The residue produced by agricultural and wood processing plant is either inefficiently combusted in simple furnaces or in the open, or disposed of in land fill sites or in rivers. Many of these industries are paying high prices for electricity in rural areas and/or supply is unreliable. An ASEAN/Australian cooperation program has been under way for the last ten years to introduce clean burning biomass fired heat and/or combined heat and power equipment. It aims to transfer Australian know how in the design and manufacture of fluidised bed CHP technology to the ASEAN region. The main participants involved in the program include SIRIM and UKM in Malaysia, PCIERD, FPRI and Asia Ratan in the Philippines, King Monkutt Institute of Technology (KMITT) in Thailand, LIPI and ITB in Indonesia, and the University of Singapore. In this paper an outline of the program will be given including results of market research and development undertaken into fluidised bed combustion, the proposed plant design and costings, and research and development undertaken into modem steam engine technology. It will be shown that all of the projects to be undertaken are financially viable. In particular the use of simple low cost high efficient steam engines ensures that the smaller CHP plant (50-100 kWe) can be viable.

  16. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  17. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  18. Integrating spatial support tools into strategic planning-SEA of the GMS North-South Economic Corridor Strategy and Action Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramachandran, Pavit; Linde, Lothar

    2011-11-15

    The GMS countries, supported by the Asian Development Bank, have adopted a holistic, multidimensional approach to strengthen infrastructural linkages and facilitate cross border trade through (i) the establishment of a trans-boundary road connecting two economic nodes across marginalised areas, followed by 2) facilitation of environmentally and socially sound investments in these newly connected areas as a means to develop livelihoods. The North-South Economic Corridor is currently in its second phase of development, with investment opportunities to be laid out in the NSEC Strategy and Action Plan (SAP). It targets the ecologically and culturally sensitive border area between PR China's Yunnan Province, Northern Lao PDR, and Thailand. A trans-boundary, cross-sectoral Strategic Environmental Assessment was conducted to support the respective governments in assessing potential environmental and social impacts, developing alternatives and mitigation options, and feeding the findings back into the SAP writing process. Given the spatial dimension of corridor development-both with regard to opportunities and risks-particular emphasis was put in the application of spatial modelling tools to help geographically locate and quantify impacts as a means to guide interventions and set priorities.

  19. The institutional needs of joint implementation projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watt, E.; Sathaye, J.; Buen, O. de; Masera, O.; Gelil, I.A.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Zhou, D.; Li, J.; Intarapravich, D.

    1995-10-21

    In this paper, the authors discuss options for developing institutions for joint implementation (JI) projects. They focus on the tasks which are unique to JI projects or require additional institutional needs--accepting the project by the host and investor countries and assessing the project`s greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction or sequestration--and they suggest the types of institutions that would enhance their performance. The evaluation is based on four sets of governmental and international criteria for JI projects, the experiences of ten pilot JI projects, and the perspectives of seven collaborating authors from China, Egypt, India, Mexico, and Thailand, who interviewed relevant government and non-government staff involved in JI issue assessment in their countries. After examining the roles for potential JI institutions, they present early findings arguing for a decentralized national JI structure, which includes: (1) national governmental panels providing host country acceptance of proposed JI projects; (2) project parties providing the assessment data on the GHG reduction or sequestration for the projects; (3) technical experts calculating these GHG flows; (4) certified verification teams checking the GHG calculations; and (5) members of an international JI Secretariat training and certifying the assessors, as well as resolving challenges to the verifications. 86 refs.

  20. Southern Asia future plans feature long-distance lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that although pipe line mileage working, planned and under study has dipped slightly from 47,346 km (29,420 mi) to 44,853 km (27,871 mi), Southern Asia continues to hold a strong position for future projects with some of the most interesting programs in the international market. Two dramatic, long-distance natural gas transmission, gathering and lateral networks continue to hold the future pipe line construction spotlight in Southern Asia. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) continues to study a 7,830 km (4,865 mi) gas transmission system. With an estimated cost of $10 billion, the system includes some 6,276 km (3,900 mi) of transmission lines, with 1,094 km (680 mi) offshore. Group members include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The second project, the Trans-Asian Pipeline System, involves 3,380 km (2,100 mi) of transmission lines from the Iran's Bandar Abbas gas field across Pakistan to a terminal at Calcutta, India.

  1. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  2. Towards SEA for the developing nations of Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briffett, Clive; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Mackee, Jamie

    2003-03-01

    In the developing and transitional countries of Asia, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely practiced as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with developments and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigating measures. Not withstanding its extensive use in many Asian countries, certain limitations are now being increasingly recognised with regard to achieving sustainable development within the planning process. It is also noted that the natural environment in Asia has continued to be severely degraded despite the adoption of EIA. This research project was undertaken at the National University of Singapore to review the status on the implementation of EIA procedures and to investigate the status and potential of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. The research project generally investigated the existing physical attributes of six countries including Hong Kong and Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and discussed their prevailing environmental conditions. It more specifically reviewed policymaking and environmental planning, environmental legislation and the practice and procedures of environmental impact assessment. It also evaluated environmental assessment education and training activities. In some cases such as Hong Kong, an opportunity to analyse actual SEA practice was included. In other cases, the potential for possible take up of formal SEA was assessed. A comparative review assesses the degree to which EIA and SEA procedures have been utilized, considers how the use of SEA could overcome the deficiencies of the EIA project-based system and includes aspects of meeting sustainability criteria. Results show that the use and application of EIA is relatively strong across all countries with the possible exception of Singapore which relies more heavily on its planning and control system to address potential environmental impacts arising from development projects. Despite this, EIAs have been undertaken in every country due to aid and bank lending agencies requiring them and multinational companies and many local NGOs completing voluntary EIAs. Even though the mandatory introduction of EIA into some countries is fairly recent such as Hong Kong (1999) and Vietnam (1994), efforts to conduct such investigations may have started many years before. The country reviews highlight many common problems and adverse influences that give rise to inadequate EIA practice, and in some cases, recommendations for improvement are proposed. The potential for SEA is assessed on the basis of its present usage which is generally small except for Hong Kong and the environmental strategic decision-making that is being conducted in policy, plan and programme formulations. While the more comprehensive and well-refined westernized model of SEA is generally weakly implemented at present, there is evidence to suggest that Agenda 21, along with other international treaties such as the Biodiversity Charter and the Ramsar Convention, has motivated certain sustainability initiatives that are resulting in increased environmental considerations at a strategic level. In some cases, these may be reflected in National Plan policymaking or in the sector and area-based activities of various ministries and departments. It is concluded that SEA potential is generally strong in those countries with smaller centralized bureaucracies but that its successful implementation will be highly dependent on changing the mind-sets and motivations of top personnel at ministerial level.

  3. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  4. Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tundee, Sura; Terdtoon, Pradit; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut; Singh, Randeep; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m{sup 2} and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E). Heat was successfully extracted from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond by using a heat pipe heat exchanger made from 60 copper tubes with 21 mm inside diameter and 22 mm outside diameter. The length of the evaporator and condenser section was 800 mm and 200 mm respectively. R134a was used as the heat transfer fluid in the experiment. The theoretical model was formulated for the solar pond heat extraction on the basis of the energy conservation equations and by using the solar radiation data for the above location. Numerical methods were used to solve the modeling equations. In the analysis, the performance of heat exchanger is investigated by varying the velocity of inlet air used to extract heat from the condenser end of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE). Air velocity was found to have a significant influence on the effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger. In the present investigation, there was an increase in effectiveness by 43% as the air velocity was decreased from 5 m/s to 1 m/s. The results obtained from the theoretical model showed good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  5. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F.; Deringer, J.J.

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  6. Corotating solar wind structures and recurrent trains of enhanced diurnal variation in galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeeram, T.; Ruffolo, D.; Siz, A.; Kamyan, N.; Nutaro, T. E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th E-mail: p_chang24@hotmail.com

    2014-04-01

    Data from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with a vertical cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, were utilized to determine the diurnal anisotropy (DA) of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) near Earth during solar minimum conditions between 2007 November and 2010 November. We identified trains of enhanced DA over several days, which often recur after a solar rotation period (?27 days). By investigating solar coronal holes as identified from synoptic maps and solar wind parameters, we found that the intensity and anisotropy of cosmic rays are associated with the high-speed streams (HSSs) in the solar wind, which are in turn related to the structure and evolution of coronal holes. An enhanced DA was observed after the onset of some, but not all, HSSs. During time periods of recurrent trains, the DA was often enhanced or suppressed according to the sign of the interplanetary magnetic field B, which suggests a contribution from a mechanism involving a southward gradient in the GCR density, n, and a gradient anisotropy along B ?n. In one non-recurrent and one recurrent sequence, an HSS from an equatorial coronal hole was merged with that from a trailing mid-latitude extension of a polar coronal hole, and the slanted HSS structure in space with suppressed GCR density can account for the southward GCR gradient. We conclude that the gradient anisotropy is a source of temporary changes in the GCR DA under solar minimum conditions, and that the latitudinal GCR gradient can sometimes be explained by the coronal hole morphology.

  7. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  8. Transport growth in Bangkok: Energy, environment, and traffic congestion. Workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philpott, J.

    1995-07-01

    Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is a physically and economically complexcity with a complicated transport system. With daily traffic congestion averaging 16 hours, the air quality is such that to breathe street level pollution for 8 eight hours is roughly equivalent to smoking nine cigarettes per day. Estimates suggest idling traffic costs up to $1.6 billion annually. Energy use within the transport sector is on a steady rise with an estimated increase in 11 years of two and one half times. Severe health impacts have begun to effect many residents - young children and the elderly being particularly vulnerable. Bangkok`s air quality and congestion problems are far from hopeless. Great potential exists for Bangkok to remedy its transport-related problems. The city has many necessary characteristics that allow an efficient, economical system of transport. For example, its high density level makes the city a prime candidate for an efficient system of mass transit and the multitude and close proximity of shops, street vendors, restaurants, and residential areas is highly conducive to walking and cycling. Technical knowledge and capacity to devise and implement innovative policies and projects to address air quality and congestion problems is plentiful. There is also consensus among Bangkokians that something needs to be done immediately to clear the air and the roads. However, little has been done. This report proposes a new approach to transport planning for Bangkok that integrates consideration of ecological, social, and financial viability in the process of making decisions regarding managing existing infrastructure and investments in new infrastructure. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  10. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  11. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  12. International oil companies in the Far East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlotok, P.

    1984-10-01

    All of the major international oil companies have extensive operations in the Far East, and in most cases, these operations account for a significant part of their worldwide earnings. In the refining and marketing end of the business, near-term profitability could be hampered by problems in the Singapore refining center. An expansion of Indonesian refining capacity has reduced profits from processing arrangements, and new Saudi product exports will enter Singapore starting this year. Longer term, however, the strong economic growth in the region renders it a highly attractive area in which to operate. On the producing end, rising output will boost profits for the international oil companies in Indonesia and Malaysia. Caltex (a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Texaco) is one of the largest marketers in the Far East. It will not initially be affected greatly by the Singapore refinery problem, as its production from this area goes directly into its own marketing system rather than into the open market. Exxon is a medium-size marketer with especially strong positions in Japan, Malaysia and Thailand. However, the company could be vulnerable to near-term problems in Singapore. Mobil, another medium-size marketer, has a very strong position in Japan but problems in Australia. As those problems are corrected, earnings should grow over time. The Royal Dutch Shell Group is one of the largest marketers in the Far East, with good positions in Singapore, Malaysia and Australia. Shell will have difficulty adjusting to the changing conditions in Singapore, but once this is complete, downstream earnings growth should resume. British Petroleum (BP) has a smaller upstream and downstream presence than the other international oils. Estimated 1983 Far East earnings are tabulated for these five companies. 5 figures.

  13. Genomic variation Salmonella enterica core genes for epidemiological typing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, Fancois-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se Ran; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W; Wilson, Daniel J; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium DT104. Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole genome sequence (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rate of mutation and divergence time of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial-susceptible strains in ~1946 (95% credible interval 1931 - 1959) and later became multidrug-resistant (MDR) DT104 in ~1974 (95% CI 1966 1981) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb SGI1 MDR region into already SGI1-containing susceptible strains. This was followed by multiple transmission events initially from Central Europe and later between European countries. An independent transmission occurred to the United States and another to Japan and from here to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1986 (95% CI 1975 1990). Locally in Denmark, WGS was capable of confirming local epidemiology for transmission between animal herds. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the accomplishment of an eradication program across pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refuse several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and would suggest WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and making strategies for prevention

  14. Genomic variation Salmonella enterica core genes for epidemiological typing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, Fancois-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se Ran; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W; Wilson, Daniel J; et al

    2012-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium DT104. Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole genome sequence (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rate of mutation and divergence time of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial-susceptible strains in ~1946 (95% credible interval 1931 - 1959) and later became multidrug-resistant (MDR)more » DT104 in ~1974 (95% CI 1966 1981) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb SGI1 MDR region into already SGI1-containing susceptible strains. This was followed by multiple transmission events initially from Central Europe and later between European countries. An independent transmission occurred to the United States and another to Japan and from here to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1986 (95% CI 1975 1990). Locally in Denmark, WGS was capable of confirming local epidemiology for transmission between animal herds. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the accomplishment of an eradication program across pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refuse several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and would suggest WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and making strategies for prevention« less

  15. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  16. Using social network and stakeholder analysis to help evaluate infectious waste management: A step towards a holistic assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caniato, Marco; Vaccari, Mentore; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Zurbrgg, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: Assessment of infectious waste management in Bangkok, in particular incineration. Integration of social network and stakeholder analysis assessment methods. Assessment of stakeholder characteristics, role, interaction and communication. Interviewees self-evaluate their own characteristics and the system. Non-technical aspects are important for system acceptability, and sustainability. - Abstract: Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a solid waste management scheme requires an accurate analysis and integration of several determining features. In addition to the technical aspects, any such system shows a complex interaction of actors with varying stakes, decision-making power and influence, as well as a favourable or disabling environment. When capitalizing on the knowledge and experience from a specific case, it is also crucial that experts do not forget or underestimate the importance of such social determinants and that they are familiar with the methods and tools to assess them. Social network analysis (SNA) and stakeholder analysis (SA) methods can be successfully applied to better understand actors role and actions, analyse driving forces and existing coordination among stakeholders, as well as identify bottlenecks in communication which affect daily operations or strategic planning for the future way forward. SNA and SA, appropriately adjusted for a certain system, can provide a useful integration to methods by assessing other aspects to ensure a comprehensive picture of the situation. This paper describes how to integrate SNA and SA in order to survey a solid waste management system. This paper presents the results of an analysis of On-Nuch infectious waste incinerator in Bangkok, Thailand. Stakeholders were interviewed and asked to prioritize characteristics and relationships which they consider particularly important for system development and success of the scheme. In such a way, a large quantity of information about organization, communication between stakeholders and their perception about operation, environmental and health impact, and potential alternatives for the system was collected in a systematic way. The survey results suggest that stakeholders are generally satisfied with the system operation, though communication should be improved. Moreover, stakeholders should be strategically more involved in system development planning, according to their characteristics, to prevent negative reactions.

  17. QER- Comment of Brian West

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hello, Thanks for the invitation to the QER workshop. Here are a couple of comments that I was probably unable to fully articulate in the main session, although I did try to make some of these points in the breakout session: When considering alternatives and policy that drives alternative fuel use, it is important to learn from Policy successes and failures. Policy drivers put in place in Thailand, Brazil, and Sweden have been successful in transitions to greater alternative fuel use. US policy for Flex Fuel Vehicles has been largely unsuccessful at encouraging alternative fuel use. The fuel economy credit for the OEMs to build FFVs was generous but encouraged only modest production; nonetheless there are over 15M FFVs on the road. However, they use very little ethanol fuel due to cost ($/mile), range, etc. Natural Gas has a very real value proposition (lower $/gge) so fleet owners have good financial incentive to make the switch, even if investments are required. One participant commented that infrastructure costs are small compared to costs of imported oil. I agree with this statement. One presenter mentioned (a city?) with a law that requires infrastructure to support future EV charging be installed in any new parking garage. Great idea. (Better to have and not need than need and not have, especially when cost differential is small on the front end and very large on the back end). In the US we install about 20,000-40,000 new fuel dispensers per year (according to Gilbarco/Wayne). It would be a horrible missed opportunity to not put policy in place that encourages/requires E25 or E85-compatible dispensers. With a successful policy driver, in the next five years the nation could have over 100,000 ethanol-compatible dispensers in place, ready for a new High Octane Fuel (that could very likely contain more than 10 or 15% ethanol). Thanks Brian H. West Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory http://www.ornl.gov/ http://feerc.ornl.gov/ http://www.fueleconomy.gov/ From: Tillemann, Levi Sent: Thursday, July 03, 2014 3:52 PM To: West, Brian H. Subject: AMR/QER Technical Workshop Dear Brian: On behalf of the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA) I want to thank you for your participation at the June 20th AMR/QER Alternative Transportation Refueling Infrastructure technical workshop. Your contribution in the breakout sessions and general discussion sessions provided valuable insight that will help inform EPSA during the QER process going forward. During the course of the workshop, detailed notes were taken. These have been anonymized and will be made publically available to you and the general public in the coming weeks. Once they are posted, we will provide you with a link for accessing them online. We encourage you to submit additional comments regarding infrastructure for transmission, storage or distribution of alternative transportation fuels to qercomments@hq.doe.gov. For more information about the QER's stakeholder meeting locations, areas of analysis and public comments you can visit the QER website at: http://energy.gov/epsa/initiatives/quadrennial-energy-review-qer. Please feel free to contact me or Sallie Gilbert (sallie.gilbert@hq.doe.gov) if you have additional questions. I will be leaving the DOE August 1, thereafter you may contact Renee Picket (adonica.pickett@hq.doe.gov) or Carla Frisch (carla.frisch@hq.doe.gov) with questions or comments. Thank you again for making the workshop a great success. I look forward to working together with all of you on these issues in the future. Best regards, Levi Tillemann, Ph.D. Special Advisor, EPSA US Department of Energy