National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thai tibetan tigre

  1. Tigres

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel:February 25, 2015 |7 D I SDepartment ofTigres

  2. A Study of Quantifier Phrases in Thai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deephuengton, Phawadee

    1992-01-01

    The structures of quantifier phrases in Thai are studied in the X -Syntax framework (Jackendoff 1977). Syntactic and Semantic arguments are provided to prove that this model remedies the deficiency of traditional and early ...

  3. On Bhutanese and Tibetan Dzongs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amundsen, Ingun Bruskeland

    2001-01-01

    Gyaltsen of the Phagmo Drupa, and according to Fernand Meyer his entourage stressed "the necessity for the reunified territories to have a `navel´ in the ancient Tibetan tradition of fortresses."50 Tucci relates that the "cradle of Tibet´s political... the construction of the Red Palace was: "It drew some 7,000 labourers - subjects who, owing to taxes and labour, had to work for the government - and more than 1,500 craftsmen, many likewise tied to the government by labour obligations. Emperor Kangxi (r.1662...

  4. The Tibetan Literature and Its Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Suniti Kumar

    1996-01-01

    important materials on the popular sci­ ences like astronomy, mathematics, mensuration, calculas, accountancy, chemi­ cal knowledge of the organic and inorganic matters. animal husbandry and agri­ cultural know-how etc. Moreover, the exellence of the Tibetan... administration in exile and the tradi­ tionally learned Tibetans outside Tibet endeavour to maintain the standard liter­ ary trend by adapting some reformed style in compostion as far as practicable. in their writings by compromise with the modernism. Obviously...

  5. Thai Semcon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |Information 5th congressional district:View New PagesThai

  6. Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    RESEARCH PAPER Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau during the 20th tundra to evergreen tropics. Its soils are dominated by permafrost and are rich in organic carbon. Its, the carbon dynamics of the Tibetan Plateau have not been well quantified under changes of climate and per

  7. IMPROVING WORD SEGMENTATION FOR THAI SPEECH TRANSLATION Paisarn Charoenpornsawat and Tanja Schultz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, Tanja

    IMPROVING WORD SEGMENTATION FOR THAI SPEECH TRANSLATION Paisarn Charoenpornsawat and Tanja Schultz, Japanese, or Thai which provide no word segmentation, i.e. the text has no word boundary delimiter. For Thai word segmentation, Maximal Matching, a lexicon-based approach, is one of the popular methods

  8. Minority within a minority: being Bonpo in the Tibetan community in exile 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yu-Shan

    2012-06-29

    This thesis presents a study of the Bonpo in Dolanji, a Tibetan refugee settlement in North India. The Bonpo are a distinctive religious minority within the Tibetan refugee population. In the 1950s, Chinese Communist ...

  9. Technology Transfer David Basin and Thai Son Hoang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basin, David

    Technology Transfer David Basin and Thai Son Hoang Institute of Information Security, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Abstract. This paper presents our experience of knowledge and technology transfer within the lessons learned and what we would do differently in future technology transfer projects. Keywords

  10. Graphene Enhanced Wireless Sensors Taoran Le, Trang Thai, Vasileios Lakafosis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Graphene Enhanced Wireless Sensors Taoran Le, Trang Thai, Vasileios Lakafosis, Manos Tentzeris utilizing both analog and digital principles. The sensors will utilize Graphene-based thin films integrated. Our thin films are produced from water-based, inkjet printed graphene oxide (GO) on paper

  11. Past, Present and Future Life in Tibetan Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinpoche, Trogawa

    1993-01-01

    , PRESENT AND FUTURE LIFE IN TIBETAN MEDICINE ENGLISH TRANSLITERATION OF TIBETAN fi as in . onions' n as in 'ring' c as in 'church' ts as in 'rats' tsh as in 'cats' home' ch as in 'church hall' j as in 'jungle' dz as in 'lads' z as in 'rose' bul... that he is in the process of dying. These may 42 normally occur during the disease, but in some cases may occur before he falls i' c. There are six types or categories of dream in this context. The third presage of dying is the change in the aspect...

  12. Gray Tuttle, Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagou, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    to the political status of Tibet before the founding of the Chinese republic and are very few. Thus “Qi hou Xizang wu tongyi zhi guowang” became “Qi hou Xizang wu tongyi zhi wang” (“guo,” which designates a country, has been erased). Later in the text, “Sajia... zhi zhengquan” (the Sa skya political power) was erased, and “Xizang zhi fojiao” (Tibetan Buddhism) became “fojiao” (Buddhism). Into the second part, which begins with the sentence “After the founding of the Republic” (Minguo chengli yihou...

  13. Sustaining tradition : design for a contemporary Thai house in northern Bangkok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanisthakhon, Bundit, 1971-

    1998-01-01

    This thesis explores and documents the evolution of a Thai house, which has transformed drastically over the years to meet changes in social aspiration. The result of this investigation had generated the design principles ...

  14. Reinventing flexibility : a hybrid paradigm for Thai markets in Bangkok, Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pattamasattayasonthi, Ekachai

    2011-01-01

    This thesis asserts that the current form of the proliferating modernization of Thai markets in terms of economic growth and the incorporation of building technology to improve goods storage, attractive envelope, and ...

  15. Tibetan Medicine Compared with Ancient and Mediaeval Western Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winder, Marianne

    In the Indo-Tibetan humoral system diseases are divided in to hot aod cold ones, and diseases are cured by a contrary remedy, that is, hot diseases by cold remedies and vice versa. For instance, Vagbhata says in his Ashtanghrdayasamhita : J 8) According... . : 'An these people of Libya from Egypt to Lake Tritonis are nomads who live on meat and milk. Cow's flesh they will not tast~, for the same reason as the Egyptians, nor will they keep pigs. Even the women of Cyrene think it wrong to eat cows, because...

  16. Fast Food, Slow Death and the Propaganda of Health: Jewel Thais-Williams’ Radical Battle for Black Survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hope, Analena

    2011-01-01

    Black, health, fast, food, justice, survival, Jewel Thais-characteristics associated with the location of food storesand food service places”. American Journal of Preventive

  17. AHP15: Rgyal rong Tibetan Life, Language, and Folklore in Rgyas bzang Village

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G.yu 'brug; Stuart, C K

    Middle School CONCLUSION NON-ENGLISH TERMS RGYAS BZANG TIBETAN DIALECT-ENGLISH WORD LIST ENGLISH-RGYAS BZANG TIBETAN DIALECT WORD LIST REFERENCES •5•   MAPS ? Map One. Rong brag (Danba) County... /                                                                                                                           3 Ceremonial scarf offered to show respect. •12•   PHOTOGRAPHS4 Photograph Three. Bya khyung khyung.5 Photograph Four. Tsa ri spun gsum6 Mountain Deities. Photograph Nine. The wall of the ma Ni pile and a prayer wheel at the gate of Rgyas...

  18. Velocity and Attenuation Structure of the Tibetan Lithosphere Under the Hi-CLIMB Array From the Modeling of Pn Attributes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowack, Robert L.

    Velocity and Attenuation Structure of the Tibetan Lithosphere Under the Hi-CLIMB Array From earthquakes in Tibet recorded by the Hi-CLIMB experiment, Pn attributes are used to constrain the velocity gradient and attenuation structure of the Tibetan lithosphere under the Hi-CLIMB array. Numerical modeling

  19. Elucidating cadmium speciation and bioavailability in Thai paddy soils Saengdao Khaokaew1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Elucidating cadmium speciation and bioavailability in Thai paddy soils GEOC 55 Saengdao Khaokaew1 Sparks, dlsparks@udel.edu1 . (1) Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and the Center for Critical Zone Research, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, (2) Department of Soil Science, Kasetsart University

  20. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  1. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

    2015-03-10

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of P/PET (precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) as an aridity index to indicate changes in dryness and wetness in a given area, P/PET was calculated using observed records at 83 stations in the TP, with PET calculated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) algorithm. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979-2011 are analyzed.more »Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter and stations in the semi-humid southeastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range changes at confidence level of 99.9% from two-tail t-test. Temporal correlations also confirm the significant correlation between aridity changes with the three variables, with precipitation being the most dominant driver of P/PET changes at interannual time scale. PET changes are insignificant but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, correlation between PET changes and P/PET changes are significant at confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere melts near the surface. Significant correlation between wind speed changes and aridity changes occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.« less

  2. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Haowei; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiping; Gilbert, Jack A.; Sun, Xin; Wu, Linwei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Hu, Yigang; Li, Xiangzhen; He, Zhili; et al

    2015-02-17

    Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition that offsets increased grass productivity. Yet, a multi-decadal survey indicated that the surface soil C stock in Tibetan alpine grasslands remained relatively stable. To investigate this inconsistency, we analyzed the feedback responses of soil microbial communities to simulated warming by soil transplant in Tibetan grasslands. Microbial functional diversity decreased in response to warming, whereas microbial community structure did not correlate with changes in temperature. The relative abundance of catabolic genes associated with nitrogen (N) and C cycling decreased with warming, most notablymore »in genes encoding enzymes associated with more recalcitrant C substrates. By contrast, genes associated with C fixation increased in relative abundance. The relative abundance of genes associated with urease, glutamate dehydrogenase and ammonia monoxygenase (ureC, gdh and amoA) were significantly correlated with N2O efflux. These results suggest that unlike arid/semiarid grasslands, Tibetan grasslands maintain negative feedback mechanisms that preserve terrestrial C and N pools. To examine whether these trends were applicable to the whole plateau, we included these measurements in a model and verified that topsoil C stocks remained relatively stable. Thus, by establishing linkages between microbial metabolic potential and soil biogeochemical processes, we conclude that long-term C loss in Tibetan grasslands is ameliorated by a reduction in microbial decomposition of recalcitrant C substrates.« less

  3. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Haowei; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiping; Gilbert, Jack A.; Sun, Xin; Wu, Linwei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Hu, Yigang; Li, Xiangzhen; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-02-17

    Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition that offsets increased grass productivity. Yet, a multi-decadal survey indicated that the surface soil C stock in Tibetan alpine grasslands remained relatively stable. To investigate this inconsistency, we analyzed the feedback responses of soil microbial communities to simulated warming by soil transplant in Tibetan grasslands. Microbial functional diversity decreased in response to warming, whereas microbial community structure did not correlate with changes in temperature. The relative abundance of catabolic genes associated with nitrogen (N) and C cycling decreased with warming, most notably in genes encoding enzymes associated with more recalcitrant C substrates. By contrast, genes associated with C fixation increased in relative abundance. The relative abundance of genes associated with urease, glutamate dehydrogenase and ammonia monoxygenase (ureC, gdh and amoA) were significantly correlated with N2O efflux. These results suggest that unlike arid/semiarid grasslands, Tibetan grasslands maintain negative feedback mechanisms that preserve terrestrial C and N pools. To examine whether these trends were applicable to the whole plateau, we included these measurements in a model and verified that topsoil C stocks remained relatively stable. Thus, by establishing linkages between microbial metabolic potential and soil biogeochemical processes, we conclude that long-term C loss in Tibetan grasslands is ameliorated by a reduction in microbial decomposition of recalcitrant C substrates.

  4. The relationship between tibetan snow depth, ENSO, river discharge and the monsoons of Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Alexey

    The relationship between tibetan snow depth, ENSO, river discharge and the monsoons of Bangladesh, we examine the interannual variability of the monsoon rains of Bangladesh, an area greatly affected of Bengal storm surge. For the twentieth century, we found Bangladesh monsoon rainfall (BMR

  5. Dissecting the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau : a study of landslides, erosion and river incision in a transient landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouimet, William Burke

    2007-01-01

    The eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau is characterized by large rivers dissecting regional topography that has been uplifted in association with the continued convergence of the Indian subcontinent and Eurasia. In this ...

  6. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 32 Number 2 Number 2 : Full issue; Special Volume on Tibetan Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    1996-07-19

    , mathematics, mensuration, calculas, accountancy, chemi­ cal knowledge of the organic and inorganic matters. animal husbandry and agri­ cultural know-how etc. Moreover, the exellence of the Tibetan workmanship in masonic technique is unique. In the field... endeavour to maintain the standard liter­ ary trend by adapting some reformed style in compostion as far as practicable. in their writings by compromise with the modernism. Obviously, that makes them aware how to adjust the literary style in the changed...

  7. Spelling Mistakes, Philology, and Feminist Criticism: Women and Boys in Tibetan Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gyatso, Janet

    2008-01-01

    syllables and patent misspellings. On the other hand it displays certain old orthographical features, such as the use of 'i instead of yi for the genitive particle, and some of its “misspellings” might betray its age, such as ‘khal for mkhal, and ‘khris... skyes pa yin no. 19 See n. 25 below. Women and Boys in Tibetan Medicine 87 the woman (za ma bud med).20 All versions spell that the same way. It continues with the rather convoluted point that since she merely holds his seed, and since females...

  8. Effect of mesoscale topography over the Tibetan Plateau on summer precipitation in China: A regional model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Effect of mesoscale topography over the Tibetan Plateau on summer precipitation in China 2008; accepted 27 August 2008; published 8 October 2008. [1] The effect of mesoscale topography over and topography. In the sensitivity simulation, the mesoscale feature in topography over the TP was smoothed out

  9. Received 6 Aug 2012 | Accepted 5 Apr 2013 | Published 14 May 2013 Draft genome sequence of the Tibetan antelope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Bob

    with energy metabolism and oxygen transmission. Both the highland American pika, and the Tibetan antelope have signals of positive selection for genes involved in DNA repair and the production of ATPase. Genes, Denmark. 18 King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. * These authors contributed equally

  10. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chu, Houjuan; Wang, Shiping; Yue, Haowei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Hu, Yigang; Li, Xiangzhen; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-07-07

    The grassland and shrubland are two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow, a region very sensitive to the impact of global warming and anthropogenic perturbation. Herein, we report a study showing that a majority of differences in soil microbial community functional structures, measured by a functional gene array named GeoChip 4.0, in two adjacent shrubland and grassland areas, were explainable by environmental properties, suggesting that the harsh environments in the alpine grassland rendered niche adaptation important. Furthermore, genes involved in labile carbon degradation were more abundant in the shrubland than those of the grassland but genes involved in recalcitrantmore »carbon degradation were less abundant, which was conducive to long-term carbon storage and sequestration in the shrubland despite low soil organic carbon content. In addition, genes of anerobic nitrogen cycling processes such as denitrification and dissimilatory nitrogen reduction were more abundant, shifting soil nitrogen cycling toward ammonium biosynthesis and consequently leading to higher soil ammonium contents. We also noted higher abundances of stress genes responsive to nitrogen limitation and oxygen limitation, which might be attributed to low total nitrogen and higher water contents in the shrubland. Together, these results provide mechanistic knowledge about microbial linkages to soil carbon and nitrogen storage and potential consequences of vegetation shifts in the Tibetan alpine meadow.« less

  11. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Houjuan; Wang, Shiping; Yue, Haowei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Hu, Yigang; Li, Xiangzhen; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-07-07

    The grassland and shrubland are two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow, a region very sensitive to the impact of global warming and anthropogenic perturbation. Herein, we report a study showing that a majority of differences in soil microbial community functional structures, measured by a functional gene array named GeoChip 4.0, in two adjacent shrubland and grassland areas, were explainable by environmental properties, suggesting that the harsh environments in the alpine grassland rendered niche adaptation important. Furthermore, genes involved in labile carbon degradation were more abundant in the shrubland than those of the grassland but genes involved in recalcitrant carbon degradation were less abundant, which was conducive to long-term carbon storage and sequestration in the shrubland despite low soil organic carbon content. In addition, genes of anerobic nitrogen cycling processes such as denitrification and dissimilatory nitrogen reduction were more abundant, shifting soil nitrogen cycling toward ammonium biosynthesis and consequently leading to higher soil ammonium contents. We also noted higher abundances of stress genes responsive to nitrogen limitation and oxygen limitation, which might be attributed to low total nitrogen and higher water contents in the shrubland. Together, these results provide mechanistic knowledge about microbial linkages to soil carbon and nitrogen storage and potential consequences of vegetation shifts in the Tibetan alpine meadow.

  12. Modeling of Non-Homogeneous Containment Atmosphere in the ThAI Experimental Facility Using a CFD Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babic, Miroslav; Kljenak, Ivo; Mavko, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The CFD code CFX4.4 was used to simulate an experiment in the ThAI facility, which was designed for investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes during a severe accident inside a Light Water Reactor containment. In the considered experiment, air was initially present in the vessel, and helium and steam were injected during different phases of the experiment at various mass flow rates and at different locations. The main purpose of the simulation was to reproduce the non-homogeneous temperature and species concentration distributions in the ThAI experimental facility. A three-dimensional model of the ThAI vessel for the CFX4.4 code was developed. The flow in the simulation domain was modeled as single-phase. Steam condensation on vessel walls was modeled as a sink of mass and energy using a correlation that was originally developed for an integral approach. A simple model of bulk phase change was also introduced. The calculated time-dependent variables together with temperature and concentration distributions at the end of experiment phases are compared to experimental results. (authors)

  13. Joint inversion of surface waves and teleseismic body waves across the Tibetan collision zone: the fate of subducted Indian lithosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunn, Ceri; Roecker, Steven W.; Priestley, Keith F.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Gilligan, Amy

    2014-09-01

    for traveltimes at shallow depths. 2 GEOTECTONIC SETT ING At the surface, the Tibetan plateau is a relatively uniform area of ?5 km elevation. Its formation involved numerous collisions, and several major sutures formed during the closure of the Tethys ocean (Fig... . Therefore, material accumulating above the transi- tion zone could be left behind and now be observed southwards of any present subduction. The model is not deep enough to determine whether or not a slab has penetrated through the transition zone. However...

  14. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to changes in the local emissions. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect-0.3 W m-2)at the surface over the HTP, although the mean BC-in- snow forcing is likely overestimated. We find strong seasonal and sub -region variation with a peak value of 5W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. The annual mean dust-in-snow forcing is comparable to that of BC over the entire HTP but significantly larger than BC over the North east Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat

  15. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. -L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-01-07

    Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source–receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fatemore »of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source–receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% to BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.« less

  16. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. -L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-06-08

    Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source–receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source-tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate ofmore »BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation in the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source–receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on season and location in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer, when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in the Himalayas and central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to the northeast plateau in all seasons and southeast plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching the northwest plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over the northwest plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.« less

  17. Impact of land use change on the local climate over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, J.; Lu, S.; Li, S.; Miller, N.L.

    2010-04-01

    Observational data show that the remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) has a significant downward trend over the east Tibetan Plateau (TP), while a warming trend is found in the same area. Further analysis indicates that this warming trend mainly results from the nighttime warming. The Single-Column Atmosphere Model (SCAM) version 3.1 developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is used to investigate the role of land use change in the TP local climate system and isolate the contribution of land use change to the warming. Two sets of SCAM simulations were performed at the Xinghai station that is located near the center of the TP Sanjiang (three rivers) Nature Reserve where the downward LAI trend is largest. These simulations were forced with the high and low LAIs. The modeling results indicate that, when the LAI changes from high to low, the daytime temperature has a slight decrease, while the nighttime temperature increases significantly, which is consistent with the observations. The modeling results further show that the lower surface roughness length plays a significant role in affecting the nighttime temperature increase.

  18. Simulation of Containment Atmosphere Mixing and Stratification Experiment in the ThAI Facility with a CFD Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babic, Miroslav; Kljenak, Ivo; Mavko, Borut [Reactor Engineering Division, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The CFD code CFX4.4 was used to simulate an experiment in the ThAI facility, which was designed for investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes during a severe accident inside a Light Water Reactor containment. In the considered experiment, air was initially present in the vessel, and helium and steam were injected during different phases of the experiment at various mass flow rates and at different locations. The main purpose of the proposed work was to assess the capabilities of the CFD code to reproduce the atmosphere structure with a three-dimensional model, coupled with condensation models proposed by the authors. A three-dimensional model of the ThAI vessel for the CFX4.4 code was developed. The flow in the simulation domain was modeled as single-phase. Steam condensation on vessel walls was modeled as a sink of mass and energy using a correlation that was originally developed for an integral approach. A simple model of bulk phase change was also included. Calculated time-dependent variables together with temperature and volume fraction distributions at the end of different experiment phases are compared to experimental results. (authors)

  19. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; et al

    2015-02-02

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia hasmore »the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.« less

  20. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; Zhao, Huabiao; Joswiak, Daniel R.; Li, Jiule; Xie, Ying

    2015-01-01

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia has the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.

  1. Geochemistry of crustally derived leucocratic igneous rocks from the Ulugh Muztagh Area, Northern Tibet and their implications for the formation of the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenna, L. W.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1990-12-10

    Igneous rocks collected from the Ulugh Muztagh, 200 km south of the northern rim of the Tibetan Plateau (36°28?N, 87°29?E), form intrusive and extrusive bodies whose magmas were produced by partial melting of upper-crustal, primarily pelitic, source...

  2. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  3. Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Flanner, M. G.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Weiguo

    2011-03-02

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau in the world, has long been identified to be critical in regulating the Asian monsoon climate and hydrological cycle. The snowpack and glaciers over the TP provide fresh water to billions of people in Asian countries, but the TP glaciers have been retreating extensively at a speed faster than any other part of the world. In this study a series of experiments with a global climate model are designed to simulate black carbon (BC) and dust in snow and their radiative forcing and to assess the relative impacts of anthropogenic CO2 and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere and snow, respectively, on the snowpack over the TP, as well as their subsequent impacts on the Asian monsoon climate and hydrological cycle. Results show a large BC content in snow over the TP, especially the southern slope, with concentration larger than 100 µk/kg. Because of the high aerosol content in snow and large incident solar radiation in the low latitude and high elevation, the TP exhibits the largest surface radiative forcing induced by aerosols (e.g. BC, Dust) in snow compared to other snow-covered regions in the world. The aerosol-induced snow albedo perturbations generate surface radiative forcing of 5-25 W m-2 during spring, with a maximum in April or May. BC-in-snow increases the surface air temperature by around 1.0oC averaged over the TP and reduces snowpack over the TP more than that induced by pre-industrial to present CO2 increase and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere during spring. As a result, runoff increases during late winter and early spring but decreases during late spring and early summer (i.e. a trend toward earlier melt dates). The snowmelt efficacy, defined as the snowpack reduction per unit degree of warming induced by the forcing agent, is 1-4 times larger for BC-in-snow than CO2 increase during April-July, indicating that BC-in-snow more efficiently accelerates snowmelt because the increased net solar radiation induced by reduced albedo melts the snow more efficiently than snow melt due to warming in the air. The TP also influences the South (SAM) and East (EAM) Asian monsoon through its dynamical and thermal forcing. During boreal spring, aerosols are transported by the southwesterly and reach the higher altitude and/or deposited in the snowpack over the TP. While BC and OM in the atmosphere directly absorb sunlight and warm the air, the darkened snow surface polluted by BC absorbs more solar radiation and increases the skin temperature, which warms the air above by the increased sensible heat flux over the TP. Both effects enhance the upward motion of air and spur deep convection along the TP during pre-monsoon season, resulting in earlier onset of the SAM and increase of moisture, cloudiness and convective precipitation over northern India. BC-in-snow has a more significant impact on the EAM in July than CO2 increase and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. Contributed by the significant increase of both sensible heat flux associated with the warm skin temperature and latent heat flux associated with increased soil moisture with long memory, the role of the TP as a heat pump is elevated from spring through summer as the land-sea thermal contrast increases to strengthen the EAM. As a result, both southern China and northern China become wetter, but central China (i.e. Yangtze River Basin) becomes drier - a near zonal anomaly pattern that is consistent with the dominant mode of precipitation variability in East Asia. ?

  4. Associated Media Holdings Inc formerly EL Tigre Development Corp | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to: navigation,SummariesAshmanlaCommercialEnergy

  5. Sociolinguistic Aspects of Thai Politeness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilmes, Leela

    2001-01-01

    e n resp o n d in g to d irec t q u e stio n s (Black refersp article na m akes th e d irec tiv e m ild er. Distributionr. B oth are used w ith d irec tiv e s to m ake th em less

  6. Mealtime at a Tibetan Monastery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rath, Eric C.

    2010-03-01

    in one of the caldrons; potatoes, rice noodles, and vegetables simmer in another. Rice is cooked in a third. Another holds breakfast leftovers: more milk tea and boiled droma, the wild, deep-red sweet potatoes harvested in spring and autumn when...

  7. Pasang Temba 3, Tibetan Refugees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loomis, Molly

    last updated on Monday, 4 April 2011 Accession Form for Individual Recordings: Collection / Collector Name Molly Loomis Tape No. / Track / Item No. Length of track :46 seconds Title of track PTTibetan Refugees.wav Translation of title...

  8. Compton Recoil Electron Tracking With the TIGRE Gamma-Ray Balloon Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamiya, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    AGNs), pulsars, gamma-ray bursts, cosmic ray interactionssensitive to cosmic gamma-ray bursts in the energy range ofGalactic center, a single gamma-ray burst which occurred 10

  9. Steven R. Thai | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutory Authority for an SPR DrawdownStentMore EfficientSteven R.

  10. The Origin of the Tibetan Kingdom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Hugh

    1989-01-01

    ­ gzigs did not survive whatever incident may have occur­ red. An obscure tail-piece in the Chronicle story after refe­ rring to the death of Stag-bu-snya-gzigs seems to suggest t~~t the conspiracy was somehow disclosed by one Spug (,Ylm-tang rmang... against Zing-po-rje. here described as Dgu-gri a title probably annexed from Dgu-gri Zing-po­ rje of Ngas-po whom he had conquered. is recorded very briefly. Its climax was the capture of the castle of Yu­ sna by damming a river in Klum so...

  11. The Old Tibetan Chronicle - Chapter I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Nathan W

    2006-01-01

    (1985), the word von itself can be a concessiveconjunction, a verb meaning ‘be/go deaf,’ or an archaic verb meaning ston ‘show’or len ‘take.’ None of these possibilities seems satisfactory, and I do not see howHaarh and Bacot et al. arrive at ‘on... 'sremark « statt na-bun ['fog'] findet sich in einer alten Ausgabe des Milaraspa naun[i.e. navun ] » (1898/9, part II: 106-107; 1976: 91-92). Such a citation isunfortunately unverifiable.43 phub is the past tense of vbubs 'to cover up, cover over.' Haarh translates...

  12. Great Himalayan earthquakes and the Tibetan plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilham, Roger

    of elastic strain energy is drained in proportion to Himalayan rupture length, and that the consequent growth to infer a ,500-year renewal time for these events. The elastic models also illuminate two puzzling. Approximately one-half of India's 36­40 mm yr21 northward motion is absorbed by convergence of the Himalaya, one

  13. The Consonant System of Middle-Old Tibetan and the Tonogenesis of Tibetan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lian

    1987-01-01

    2 . , & L V8° f t , V8em JL vgi vgu V8U £ t From the abovevgem vgen vgen vgen vgen vgen vgevi vgevi vgevi vgevu vgivgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi vgi

  14. Improving Building Design and Operation of a Thai Buddhist Temple 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreshthaputra, A.; Haberl, J.S.; Andrews, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    -building calculations. Prior to calculating the airflow with CFD, a network airflow model was used in conjunction with ESP-r to calculate the inlet air velocity and temperature, includ- ing the surface heat flux. CFD then used these boundary conditions to calculate... the results are passed on to CFD. This is why the network airflow model was added into the thermal simulation pro- cess. However, it is not necessary for this study because the case-study temple only has one ventilated zone and there is no HVAC system...

  15. Programmed emptiness : research infrastructure on the Tibetan plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunbar, Sarah (Sarah Ford)

    2008-01-01

    The recent completion of a rail line running from central China to Lhasa in the Tibet Autonomous Region has brought attention not only to China's Architecture and Urbanism questionable occupation of Tibet, but also to the ...

  16. A case study of cost overruns in a Thai condominium project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roachanakanan, Kwanchai

    2005-08-29

    Construction managers confront many problems. Still, this industry plays a vital role in the healthy growth of the economy of many countries throughout the developed and developing world. Effective management of construction projects has been a...

  17. Brain Imaging and Neurodevelopment in HIV-uninfected Thai Children Born to HIV-infected Mothers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    to HIV- Infected Mothers D Neda Jahanshad, PhD 1* , Marie-C EP Corresponding author: Neda Jahanshad PhD, Assistant

  18. Mitochondrial DNA variant associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and high-altitude Tibetans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    perturb mitochondrial bioenergetics, are continuously beingvariants that alter bioenergetics, which most com- monly

  19. Black soot and the survival of Tibetan glaciers Baiqing Xua,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and other river systems, providing fresh water to more than 1 billion people (1, 2). Glacial melt provides (3). One-quarter of the population of China is in western regions where glacial melt provides as a water storage tower for South and East Asia, releasing melt water to the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra

  20. Preliminary notes on Gyalsumdo, an undocumented Tibetan variety in Manang District, Nepal.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrandt, Kristine Ann; Perry, J. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    the names of which he notates as Tshä-me (Nep. C?me,now the Manang district headquarters), Tshap (Nep.Bagarch?p), and Thang-jet (Nep. Thonce), as well as a mixed

  1. Numerical Analysis of Modern and Fossil Pollen Data from the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kam-biu

    polen moderno y f´osil con el prop´osito de la reconstrucci´on de la paleovegetaci´on en la meseta tibetana. El espectro de polen moderno de 227 sitios de muestreo en la meseta tibetana se clasific´o en polen moderno se clasific´o en cinco grupos de vegetaci´on importantes: matorrales, bosques, praderas

  2. Climate effect of black carbon aerosol in a Tibetan Plateau glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, S; Xu, B; Cao, J; Zender, CS; Wang, M

    2015-01-01

    during conditions of melt. Water Resour. Res. 32, 1713e1718.on radiation balance. Adv. Water Resour. 55, 80e87. Nolin,and dust concentrations. Water Resour. Res. 48. Qian, Y. ,

  3. Socioeconomic Status and Maternal and Child Health in Rural Tibetan Villages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gyaltsen, Kunchok; Gewa, Constance; Greenlee, Heather; Ravetz, Jessica; Aikman, Meredith; Pebley, Anne R.

    2007-01-01

    diarrhea, respiratory/ chest, cough, skin, abdomen, back,As shown in Table 9, cough, respiratory/chest, diarrhea andDiarrhea Respiratory/ Chest Cough Skin Abdomen Back Feet

  4. Climate effect of black carbon aerosol in a Tibetan Plateau glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, S; Xu, B; Cao, J; Zender, CS; Wang, M

    2015-01-01

    Environment 111 (2015) 71e78 stratigraphy and sites. ConwayR 2 ¼ 0.979). The stratigraphy of other snow properties wasWe extracted the stratigraphy at 5150 m on 15 September,

  5. Paleogene clockwise tectonic rotation of the Xining-Lanzhou region, northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    make testable pre- dictions for the kinematic evolution of the orogen. Using geodetic analysis [e analysis presented in the companion paper by Horton et al. [2004]. Analysis of paleomagnetic declination with Asia. When compared to rotational paleomagnetic results from adjacent regions, several mechanisms can

  6. A Rule-based Part-of-speech Tagger for Classical Tibetan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Edward; Hill, Nathan W.; Zadoks, Abel

    2014-01-01

    > [v.invar] ~ [n.v.past] 80a. BACKGROUND : According to theba ? dri ? ‘be disloyal’. 80a. RULE : Replace ri ? s-pa [

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Maternal and Child Health in Rural Tibetan Villages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gyaltsen, Kunchok; Gewa, Constance; Greenlee, Heather; Ravetz, Jessica; Aikman, Meredith; Pebley, Anne R.

    2007-01-01

    near house Disposal of food waste: Feed to animals Dump nearwaste near the house. Food waste was predominantly fed tobefore handling food Disposal of household waste: Burn Bury

  8. Methane emissions from an alpine wetland on the Tibetan Plateau: Neglected but vital contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    ,4 , and Jin-Sheng He1,2 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, and Key fluxes was observed, with a small peak in the spring thawing period and a large one in the peak growing of biological (e.g., plant phenology and production, microbial activities) and physical (e.g., temperature, wind

  9. Climate effect of black carbon aerosol in a Tibetan Plateau glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, S; Xu, B; Cao, J; Zender, CS; Wang, M

    2015-01-01

    position (1950e2050). Sol. Energy 40, 227e235. Ming, J. ,Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, andbehavior, effects on snowpack energy budgets and climate.

  10. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow Prev Next Title: Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine...

  11. Combined State-Parameter Estimation for Shallow Water Equations Mohammad Rafiee Andrew Tinka Jerome Thai Alexandre M. Bayen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from an experiment performed at the USDA-ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit (HERU) in Stillwater- space model is obtained. Lagrangian measurements of the flow velocity field are used as observations or measurements. These measurements may be obtained from a group of drifters equipped with GPS receivers

  12. THE EFFECTS OF TEACHER VS STUDENT CENTERED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES ON THE VOCABULARY LEARNING OF SIXTH GRADE THAI STUDENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khuvasanond, Kirati

    2013-05-31

    This study focused on three different techniques used for teaching vocabulary to English as Foreign Language (EFL) students in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to find the "best" possible match of instructional technique with selected...

  13. Effectiveness of Adult Day Care Programs on Health Outcomes of Thai Family Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noimuenwai, Premruetai

    2012-12-31

    of Psychiatry and Chiangmai Neurological Hospital. Caregiver outcomes were measured with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), the Short form 12-item health survey (SF-12v2), the Sarason's Social Support...

  14. Ethnohistoric Notes on the Ancient Tibetan Kingdom of sPo bo and its influence on the Eastern Himalayas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazcano, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    ON THE ANCIENT TIBETANKINGDOM OF sPO BO AND ITS INFLUENCE ONTHE EASTERN HIMALAYAS1 Santiago Lazcano Translated from Spanish by Rita Granda …In late 1910 the Pome people killed a senior Chinese official. The Chinese replied with a punitiveexpedition which provoked... in the great gTsang po River5. Unlike most of Tibet,this area is humid and fertile and it is covered in dense forests and steepgorges. Wheat, barley, peaches and nuts grow in abundance. sPo yul is alsoknown for its production of honey, spices, bamboo...

  15. Essays in experimental and development economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three essays on economic development and experimental economics. In Chapter 1, I present experimental evidence about how Thais treat information from domestic and foreign sources. Thai students ...

  16. Reflections on the modularity of business process models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado

    Departamento de Informa´tica, PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Thais Batista and Ana Luisa Medeiros Computer

  17. Adapted by George Gollin from "Thai Home Cooking from Kamolmal's Kitchen," William Crawford and Kamolmal Pootaraksa, ISBN 0-453-00494-6, New American

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollin, George

    /4 cup fish sauce 1/4 cup + 2 T sugar 1/4 cup + 2 T white (unflavored) vinegar 1 T ketchup 4 scallions 3 ten minutes to soften them. Drain. 2. Combine the fish sauce, sugar, vinegar, and ketchup, stir

  18. Evaluation of a surgical service in the chronic phase of a refugee camp: an example from the Thai-Myanmar border

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weerasuriya, Chathika K.; Tan, Saw O.; Alexakis, Lykourgos C.; Set, Aung K.; Rijken, Marcus J.; Martyn, Paul; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-08-06

    performed on 847 patients between May, 2005 and April, 2007 at SMRU; 8.6% (73/847) of these patients were sent by AMI and the re- mainder self presented to SMRU. There was a variable case mix (Table 1) dominated by sterilisation (60.1% ofThe age distribution... (USD) Sterilisation Tubal ligation 477 55.8 2,500.00 1,192,500.00 39,750.00 Vasectomy 37 4.3 2,000.00 74,000.00 2,466.67 General Surgery Hernia repair 51 6.0 5,000.00 255,000.00 8,500.00 Hydrocele repair 21 2.5 Male Circumcision 21 2.5 Haemorrhoidectomy...

  19. In Thai Binh province, intensification of pig farming is accelerating, due to the policy of liberalization and an increase in living standards, which also

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    remain the implementation of biogas, moving farms and implementing regulations, they could nevertheless priority on the growth of production. Two main measures are pro- moted: the development of biogas systems

  20. Structural Geology of a Central Segment of the Qilian Shan-Nan Shan Thrust Belt: Implications for the Magnitude of Cenozoic Shortening in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reith, Robin

    2013-01-01

    characterization of the Gangcha complex in the West Qinling terrane, central China: Journal of the Geological

  1. Structural Geology of a Central Segment of the Qilian Shan-Nan Shan Thrust Belt: Implications for the Magnitude of Cenozoic Shortening in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reith, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Dong from the Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy ofmethods at the Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of

  2. The Myths of Maternity: A Comparative Study of the Medical and Mythological Practices of Highland Tibetan Populations to Prove Cultural Adaptations to High-Altitude Hypoxia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shively, Stephanie Lynne

    2009-09-30

    oxygen levels on biological processes as microscopic as the thickness of the pulmonary wall (Saldana and Aria-Stella 1963) and as broad as an individual?s inability to reach full aerobic capacity (Wu and Kayser 2006). The data is abundant...

  3. Structural Geology of a Central Segment of the Qilian Shan-Nan Shan Thrust Belt: Implications for the Magnitude of Cenozoic Shortening in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reith, Robin

    2013-01-01

    continental deformation: Geology, Burchfiel, B.C. , Zhang,by lower crustal flow: Geology, 28: 703-706. Cowgill, E. ,in north Qilian: Gansu Geology, 20: 40-44 (in Chinese with

  4. Volume I: The Musical Nexus between Medieval Christianity and Tibetan Buddhism: The Analysis of Christopher Theofanidis's Rainbow Body Volume II: Inner Voices for Orchestra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Lurking behind the medieval drones and a series of non-static, with an incessant drone and no harmonic movement,ways: through the use of drones and through tonal ambiguity.

  5. Structural Geology of a Central Segment of the Qilian Shan-Nan Shan Thrust Belt: Implications for the Magnitude of Cenozoic Shortening in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reith, Robin

    2013-01-01

    2011. Detrital zircon geochronology of pre-Tertiary strata2003a. Detrital-zircon geochronology of the northeasternC.Y. , 2007. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of the zircons from

  6. Stuck in Traffic: Sexual Politics and Criminal Injustice in Social Movements Against Human Trafficking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Edith Celine Marie

    2011-01-01

    Union, Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai announced a nationalon child prostitution. 720 Chuan pledged to get “concretemaking use of child or forced labor, Chuan explained to Thai

  7. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Lingbo

    2014-01-01

    and cost assessment of energy efficiency improvement andin Thai cement industry". Energy Efficiency 4 (1): 93-113.2012a. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO 2

  8. Molecular surveillance for drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in clinical and subclinical populations from three border regions of Burma/Myanmar: cross-sectional data and a systematic review of resistance studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    gene is associated with in vitro quinine sensitivity in ThaiChina- Myanmar border area to quinine and association withborder to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine and artesunate.

  9. Restaurants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restaurants: * West Lafayette, close to Campus: Basil Thai ($), 135 S. Chauncey Avenue, 743-3330. Boiler Market (Pizza and Sandwiches, $), 320 West Main ...

  10. Soon after joining the University of Hawai`i (UH), a Thai colleague (Dr. Woraphat Arthayukti) asked Professor Antal to deliver a lecture in Bangkok on improving the yields of charcoal from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), and synthetic materials (e.g., shredded automobile tires). Our early work employed a lab-scale reactor initiated studies of the pyrolysis of biomass in pure oxygen at elevated pressure in sealed vessels. Some & Applied Pyrolysis in Birmingham, UK

  11. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow Prev Next Title: Contrasting soil microbial community...

  12. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition...

  13. Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achard, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    to 1 This paper has been presented at the Xth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, St Hugh’s College, University of Oxford, 6-12 September 2003. I would like to thank the Tibetans I met in Oxford who knew stories about Liu... This paper will focus on the politics of travel, i.e., the role of Liu Manqing in Sino-Tibetan relations and the significance of her mission as part of a revival of a Tibetan international policy. Neither the literary value of her account, nor questions...

  14. BioMed Central Page 1 of 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    model. To validate the efficacy of GST mapping criteria and design rules, the predicted independent Arabidopsis nuclear genome annotation efforts, TIGR5 and PSB-EuGène, to consolidate a list of genes that were targeted by previously designed CATMA tags. A total of 9,027 gene models were not tagged

  15. Instructional Programs Class Schedule Summer II 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    :00pm-7:00pm $60.00 Success Meditation (Katalin) 2 Tuesday 3:00pm-4:00pm $60.00 MARTIAL ARTS Muay Thai (Beg. sect.1 SquashBusters) Wednesday 6:00pm-7:00pm $60.00 Muay Thai (Beg. sect. 2 Squash

  16. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into The Use of Glue Laminated Wood in Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Into The Use of Glue Laminated Wood in Construction Regina Lok Yun So James Wilkie Thai Nguyen Szymon Brykajlo Investigation Into The Use of Glue Laminated Wood in Construction by Regina Lok Yun So James Wilkie Thai Nguyen is a triple bottom line assessment off use of glued laminated wood (glulam) in construction. Its purpose

  17. Collaborative Editor Environments for Player Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tools for editing player programs. These tools are a combination of frontend and backend features1 Collaborative Editor Environments for Player Programs Sonny Thai, Dr. Alvar Saenz-Otero May 2012 SSL #11-12 #12;2 #12;3 Collaborative Editor Environments for Player Programs Sonny Thai, Dr. Alvar

  18. INTERPOL Tsunami Evaluation Working The DVI Response to the South East Asian Tsunami between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spirtes, Peter

    1 INTERPOL Tsunami Evaluation Working Group The DVI Response to the South East Asian Tsunami The Geographic Event 25 Regional Impact of the Tsunami 28 Initial Thai response 36 International response 42 DVI Register DVI Disaster Victim Identification DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid TTVI Thai Tsunami Victim

  19. ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 25, NO. 5, 2008, 709722 Sensitivity of East Asian Climate to the Progressive Uplift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drange, Helge

    to the Progressive Uplift and Expansion of the Tibetan Plateau Under the Mid-Pliocene Boundary Conditions JIANG of East Asian climate to the uplift and expansion of the Tibetan Plateau under the reconstructed boundary conditions for the mid-Pliocene about 3 Ma ago. When the plateau is progressively uplifted, global annual

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2014WR015493

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    of evapotranspiration in the alpine steppe of the Tibetan Plateau Ning Ma1,2, Yinsheng Zhang1,3, Jozsef Szilagyi4,5, Yanhong Guo1,2, Jianqing Zhai6, and Haifeng Gao1 1 Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land The complementary relationship (CR) of evapotranspiration allows the estimation of the actual evapotranspiration

  1. Fuel Chemistry Division Preprints 2001, 46(1), 215 CO DESORPTION FROM CARBONYL SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    IN THE GASIFICATION OF COAL Alejandro Montoya, Thai-T Truong,* Fanor Mondragón, and Thanh N. Truong* Department of gasification and combustion reactions. Studies using transient kinetic have shown that in the char-CO2 and char

  2. Some Thoughts on a Teacher, Father Figure, and Mentor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achebe, Nwando

    2002-01-01

    Ans 10 Hislory and as many limes as I have been asked thaiBoniface Obichere. From lhe lime Ihall was a liule girl. IthaI I was al vari- ous limes a member of my primary school

  3. Cultural Voices and Representations in EFL Materials Design, Pedagogy, and Research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boriboon, Phaisit

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a multi-faceted analysis of EFL learners’ voices in a Thai context, aimed at testing a hypothesis that the discourse of foreign, western-compiled textbooks project identities disconnected from EFL ...

  4. Perpetuating the Party and Producing Propagandists: The Politics of Poetics in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, Charles

    2011-01-01

    largely inaudible over the drone of the ceiling fans in theKhamlah remain huddled around a downed Thai drone aircraft.label perched atop the drone read: “Do not touch. ” Students

  5. Real Estate and the Asian Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigley, John M.

    2002-01-01

    et al. (1998). How the Thai Real Estate Boom Undid Financialet al. , 1998, p. 32). REAL ESTATE AND THE ASIAN CRISIS FIG.various years 1994–1998. REAL ESTATE AND THE ASIAN CRISIS

  6. WHAT CAN YOU DO? As a Bishop's or Champlain student, you

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volunteer Project to assist Burmese refugee and migrant children on the Thai-Burmese border and hardship or political repression in Burma (Myanmar) to relocate to towns and refugee camps in Thailand

  7. Sex in the City: Prostitution in the Age of Global Migrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Lillian S.

    2012-01-01

    Robinson. 1998. Night Market: Sex- ual Cultures and the ThaiNight Mar- ket: Tourism, Sex, and Commerce in ContemporaryJo Doezma (eds. ), Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resis- tance,

  8. The effectiveness of jobs-housing balance as a strategy for reducing traffic congestion: a study of metropolitan Bangkok 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobyaem, Sonchai

    2006-10-30

    Bangkok is widely known for its severe traffic congestion. The Thai government advocates the concept of jobs and housing balance (JHB) as a strategy for reducing traffic congestion in Metropolitan Bangkok. The basic idea is to decentralize the jobs...

  9. Village Economic Accounts: Real and Financial Intertwined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, Robert

    We propose a framework to create village economic and balance of payments accounts from a micro-level household survey. Using the Townsend Thai data, we create the accounts for villages in rural and semi-urban areas of ...

  10. Kinship and Financial Networks, Formal Financial Access, and Risk Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinnan, Cynthia

    Kinship networks are beneficial for smoothing consumption and investment, but the channels are not well understood. We study the financing devices used for consumption and investment by Thai households. Households that are ...

  11. An assessment of the validity of cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide gallium removal studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolman, D.G.; Park, Y.; Stan, M.; Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Butt, D.P.

    1999-03-01

    Methods for purifying plutonium metal have long been established. These methods use acid solutions to dissolve and concentrate the metal. However, these methods can produce significant mixed waste, that is, waste containing both radioactive and chemical hazards. The volume of waste produced from the aqueous purification of thousands of weapons would be expensive to treat and dispose. Therefore, a dry method of purification is highly desirable. Recently, a dry gallium removal research program commenced. Based on initial calculations, it appeared that a particular form of gallium (gallium suboxide, Ga{sub 2}O) could be evaporated from plutonium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent, such as small amounts of hydrogen dry gas within an inert environment. Initial tests using ceria-based material (as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2}) showed that thermally-induced gallium removal (TIGR) from small samples (on the order of one gram) was indeed viable. Because of the expense and difficulty of optimizing TIGR from plutonium dioxide, TIGR optimization tests using ceria have continued. This document details the relationship between the ceria surrogate tests and those conducted using plutonia.

  12. EXTENDED-RANGE PROBABILISTIC FORECASTS OF GANGES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Peter J.

    of the largest rivers on the planet emanate from the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas (Fig. 1a), fed by glacial and snow melting and monsoon rainfall. Nearly 25% of the global popu- lation reside in the vast agrarian

  13. The development of orogenic plateaus : Plateaus: case studies examining relationships between tectonics, crustal strength, surface deformation, and plateau morphology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Kristen Lee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses processes associated with the uplift, deformation, and erosion of orogenic plateaus. The timing and mechanisms of uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the Altiplano are the subject of ongoing debate. ...

  14. Adapting the Buddha's Biographies: A Cultural History of the Wish-Fulfilling Vine in Tibet, Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Nancy Grace

    2011-01-01

    his statement in the autobiography that most Tibetans were616. Si tu Pa? chen, Autobiography, 365.3; Jackson, Patronk? la’i gos bza?: The Autobiography of the Great Fifth Dalai

  15. Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Aggregate Stability in an Arid Mountain Range, White Mountains, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frisbie, Juanita Aapris

    2014-01-01

    D.L. 1989. Responses of Mountain Big Sagebrush to inducedgradient in the Gongga Mountain on the Tibetan plateau. J.relationships in an arid mountain range, Mojave Desert,

  16. Late Cenozoic uplift of southeastern Tibet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Marin Kristen, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Recent field work and DEM analysis show that remnant, local areas of a low-relief land scape (or "erosion surface") are geographically continuous across the southeastern Tibetan Plateau margin and can be correlated in order ...

  17. 2004 Geological Society of America. For permission to copy, contact Copyright Permissions, GSA, or editing@geosociety.org. Geology; July 2004; v. 32; no. 7; p. 601604; doi: 10.1130/G20367.1; 4 figures; Data Repository item 2004096. 601

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    . Solon--ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas 77060, USA. Bock: Deceased 6 November 2002. Nelson; Data Repository item 2004096. 601 Precise temperature estimation in the Tibetan crust from seismic

  18. Geophys. J. Int. (2008) 172, 779797 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03640.x GJITectonicsandgeodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bird, Peter

    2008-01-01

    in the CMT catalogue (1977­2002), except that the Himalayan front, High Zagros and Altyn Tagh zones have been, resulting in fold/thrust belts in the Zagros Mountains and the margins of the Tibetan plateau. Abundant

  19. Aspects of the History of the Prayer Wheel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winder, Marianne

    1992-01-01

    paintings onwards. H.1. Horwitz and Berthold Laufer 19) have described Tibetan prayer drums with curved wind-vanes preserved in Western museums. Nowadays, the Savonius S-rotor which provides air conditioning in the form of the twirling ventilators...

  20. Folk Song 2, Sun, Moon, and Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol dkar skyid

    Literature Project staff on Wednesday, Tuesday, June 8, 2010 Accession Form for Individual Recordings: Collection / Collector Name Sitaigou Village Tibetan Collection/ Sgrol dkar skyid ?????????/??? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????????? Tape... No. / Track / Item No. Sitaigou Tibetan Folk Song 2.WAV Length of track 00:02:40 Related tracks (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track Sun?Moon, and Star ???????? ???????????? Translation of title Description (to be used...

  1. TIGRFAMS: The TIGRFAMs database of protein families

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    TIGRFAMs are protein families based on Hidden Markov Models or HMMs. Use this page to see the curated seed alignmet for each TIGRFam, the full alignment of all family members and the cutoff scores for inclusion in each of the TIGRFAMs. Also use this page to search through the TIGRFAMs and HMMs for text in the TIGRFAMs Text Search or search for specific sequences in the TIGRFAMs Sequence Search.[Copied from the Overview at http://www.jcvi.org/cms/research/projects/tigrfams/overview/] See also TIGRFAMs ordered by the roles they play at http://cmr.jcvi.org/tigr-scripts/CMR/shared/EvidenceList.cgi?ev_type=TIGRFAM&order_type=role.

  2. Tides Of Time Issue 8 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1992-01-01

    , typesetting, design: ...... Julian Mander Proof-reading: . Julian Mander & David Vaughan Special Thanks 10: .... Birmingham Railway Publica/jons Trin ity 1992 , TidesofTune: #8 } lJo{ution to flLL (jour pro6{~mlJ ... Dear Aunty Ainley. When alone... at vaOOlri I mug "'"'" "'" ha~j.., 6nfibxI rune; Oucibk I _ of u..;,. "'" thaI keep; popping up for no appam1l reason, buikIings thai goo...

  3. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 37 Number 3 Rules for submission, publications (backcover)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    2001-01-01

    Teachings. Vol. Ka to nga (4 volumes), Vol. No: 22-25. Price per volume: Rs. 725/- DISCOUNT: 1. Monasteries 40% 2. Institutions/ Libraries: 30% 3. Agencies etc. 20% The complete set of the Collected works ofVth Dalai Lama are available at the Namgyal... , Iconography and Cultural aspects of Tibetan and adjacent countries, comparative religion etc., Sanskrit-Tibetan Text and vice-versa. 2. The articles should be neatly typed with double space. 3. The articles and papers should be substantiated with reference...

  4. Darwin College hall and formal weekly menus 6TH July 2015 Monday lunch Tuesday lunch Wednesday lunch Thursday lunch Friday lunch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    spinach potatoes, Roasted new potatoes Green beans Sugar snaps Medley of vegetables New potatoes with herb Main and street food dishes Main and street food dishes Main and street food dishes High tea Darwin with Thai green prawn curry and noodles Wild mushroom and truffle oil risotto with market herbs Southern

  5. ENTREES Prawn and Mango Vermicelli Salad DF Cheese Balls with Rosemary and Salmon GF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    -Saucing Chocolate Pudding VEG Microwave Baked Apples for Two VEG GF Schiacciata con l'uva VEG V DF Green Tea and Red Curry VEG GF Cheap as Chips Vegetarian Pizza VEG Ultimate Tuna Pasta GF Fresh Thai Green Chicken Stir Tea VEG GF Hot Buble Chocolate VEG Mumma Dhawan's Masala Chai VEG GF 56 57 58 59 MEET THE COOKBOOK

  6. Alcoholic beverages Nuts and seeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    oregano shallot orange fruit green tea balm pumpkin eel roasted almond coffee carnation pecan artemisia whiskey jasmine tea barleycilantro cod cocoa nut parmesan cheese black mustard seed oil grape brandy thai lavender salmon roe cream palm black tea carob asparagus veal cardamom jamaican rum turmeric mushroom

  7. Lemonade $3.00 Traditional or Strawberry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hampton, Randy

    Tazo Iced Tea $4.00 Zen Green or Peach Black Izze Sparkling Juices $4.00 Clementine, Blackberry, Pink Soft Drinks $3.00 Coke, Diet Coke, Sprite or Coke Zero Tazo Iced Tea $4.00 Zen Green or Peach Black $6.00 Vegetarian Thai Noodle Salad $8.00 Noodles Marinated in Sesame Dressing, Mixed Greens, Crisp

  8. Structural and rheological aspect of mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 synthesized via solgel process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    ­gel process N. Phonthammachai a , T. Chairassameewong a , E. Gulari b , A.M. Jamieson c , S. Wongkasemjit a,* a The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Phya Thai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand b glycolate; Titania; Rheology; Sol­gel process and viscoelastic properties 1. Introduction Titanium dioxide

  9. Points of Pride UMass Amherst is recognized as one of the nation's top public research universities. In

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullin, William J.

    Thayumanavan's design of a hydrogen fuel cell that could make technology more efficient by improving proton's development of the Q microbe to turn biomass into ethanol; polymer scientist Thomas Russell's work to make less expensive and more efficient solar power cells out of thin polymer films, and chemist Thai

  10. Released upon receipt but intended f o r use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the upper surface of the snow thaiTine; under the midday sun and freezing again in the night, gradually s t is of the highest importance f o r the conditions of spring hunting of the so-called meat-bringing character. l y

  11. Impactos del Huracn Isaac en la calidad del agua en Luisiana con MODIS 250m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 Impactos del Huracán Isaac en la calidad del agua en Luisiana con MODIS 250m Thais J. Alicea lluvias. Por tal razón se quiere estudiar la calidad del agua en el delta del río Mississippi antes imágenes en ENVI. Palabras clave: Calidad del agua, ENVI, Isaac, Luisiana, MODIS

  12. The Use of English Colour Terms in Big Data Dimitris MYLONAS,1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purver, Matthew

    Colour plays a central role in visual perception and can be a powerful tool to differentiate emotions, Korean, Danish, Lithuanian, Thai and Portuguese. The server also gathered the response time for each/software components and viewing conditions of the participants (Mylonas & MacDonald, 2010). The Munsell system

  13. BAT RESEARCH NEWS Volume 37: Number 4 Winter 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , BAT RESEARCH NEWS Volume 37: Number 4 Winter 1996 Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines colliding with a lighthouse at LODg POlDL. OnWlo. Bat collisions with wind turbines used to produce e \\IIRA IS a 25·megawau faciluy and conSISts cf 73 KVS-33 wind turbines thaI were grouped InlO 10 Stnngs

  14. Neutron activation analysis applied to perspiration electrolytes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAndrew, Robert Gavin

    1969-01-01

    steel "foil punch" about 7 /8-inch in diameter, which was cleaned thoroughly wit h alcohol and distilled water prior to usc. The disl s were stored in sealed polyethylene vials until used. It vtas recognized thai evaporation losses from the filter...

  15. ELI Student Voices 1 ELI STUDENT VOICESVolume 10, Issue 2 Summer, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    of light pollution on firefly population here and in Thailand. I think not many people are concerned source of light pollution affecting the Thai firefly population. On the other hand, the incandescent bulb that the light will destroy fireflies. The stronger and brighter lights disturb the flashing behavior or sexual

  16. Estuaries and Coasts Vol. 30, No. 3, p. 451-458 June 2007 Detrital Subsidy to the Supratidal Zone Provides Feeding Habitat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    amphipods had a reduced lisk of pl~edation by H. nut/us when buried in the sand, foraging tmdemeath wrack the vcrack. We conclude thai beach-cast vcrack a~ as a spatial subsidy by virtue of providing a valuable food into supratidal wrack patches to reduce the risk of passing bare sand on their way to a feeding habitat rich

  17. November 2, 2009 Khon Kaen University. Number Theory Days in KKU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldschmidt, Michel

    /thai/ History of irrational and transcendental numbers Michel Waldschmidt Institut de Math´ematiques de Jussieu are essentially all based on the seminal work by Ch. Hermite : his proof of the transcendence of the number e series, auxiliary functions. #12;Numbers : rational, irrational Numbers = real or complex numbers R, C

  18. Public Management as Citizen Compliance: A Case Study of Income Tax Compliance Behavior in Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandarasorn, Maneekwan

    2012-08-31

    countries including Thailand, where a personal income tax gap is at least 200 billion Baht ($6.7 billion) or 10% of the total revenue. The two major purposes of this study are 1) to explore citizens' perceptions of the Thai personal income tax system...

  19. Diversity of Low Chill Peaches (Prunus persica) from Asia, Brazil, Europe and the USA 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Natalie A.

    2011-08-08

    , Arithmetic Mean) method. A wide range of diversity was detected, from 0.33 coefficient of similarity amongst the Thai peaches to 0.97 between two Brazilian peaches. The most distant clusters were the low chill peaches from Thailand and Taiwan and the local...

  20. Start | Author Index 581-9 The Effect of Organic Acids from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) on Cadmium and Zinc Bioavailability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Start | Author Index 581-9 The Effect of Organic Acids from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) on Cadmium-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) from roots can operate by multiple mechanisms in response to various environmental the predominant organic acids secreted in the root exudates of two Thai rice cultivars in response to Cd and Zn

  1. GENDER AND CULTURE HER_10.indd 231HER_10.indd 231 11/29/2006 5:55:43 PM11/29/2006 5:55:43 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herring, Susan

    flirtatious conversations with females than vice versa (Bruckman, 1993). We find that females participate more with how appropriate it is for women to speak and be heard in public, as well as attitudes toward AND CULTURE Q1 dominance reproduced from offline Thai culture--in which women are socialized to be docile

  2. FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT NATURE OF Pn IN WESTERN CHINA: GAUSSIAN BEAM MODELING OF DATA FROM THE HI-CLIMB EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowack, Robert L.

    -Tibetan Continental Lithosphere during Mountain Building). This experiment is one of the largest broadband seismic wave-trains, including arrival times, amplitudes of signal-envelopes, and instantaneous pulse results should advance efforts in isolating effects of frequency-dependent propagation from those of pure

  3. Central Eurasian Studies (CEUS) Uzbek Coffee & Conversation Hour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robeson, Scott M.

    (314 E. Kirkwood Avenue) Finnish Coffee & Conversation Hour WEDNESDAYS, 5:30-6:30 pm, IMU Starbucks, IMU Starbucks Tibetan Tea & Conversation Hour THURSDAYS, 6:00-7:00 pm, Anyetsang's Little Tibet Restaurant (415 E. 4th Street) Turkish Coffee & Conversation Hour FRIDAYS, 1:00-2:00 pm, IMU Starbucks Uyghur

  4. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qi-Bin

    tree-ring data and sunspot numbers indicated that the cross power around the 11-year solar cycle's personal copy Evidence of solar signals in tree rings of Smith fir from Sygera Mountain in southeast Tibet: Solar activity Tree rings Schwabe cycle Wavelet analysis Tibetan Plateau a b s t r a c t Solar activity

  5. CHINESE JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICS Vol.49, No.4, 2006, pp: 1 CONDUCTIVITY STRUCTURE OF CRUST AND UPPER MANTLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    -resistivity bodies with intercalated low-resistivity anomalies. And the electric structure of the upper crust in NS, implying existence of a low-resistivity conduit between crust and mantle. Based on the observed electric to gradual uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. It involves an extremely complicated tectonic history of collision

  6. Taylor, M.H. CV 1 MICHAEL H. TAYLOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Neotectonics of the Western Nepal Fault System: Implications for Himalayan strain-partitioning, revisions: 10.1130/B31168.1. 2. *Styron, R., Taylor, M., *Sundell, K., 2015, Accelerated extension of the Tibetan plateau driven by northward underthrusting of Indian crust, Nature Geoscience. Feb 1, doi:10

  7. Wednesday May 21 & Wednesday May 28 from 5:30pm to 6:30pm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    will briefly explain each of the Eight Verses, and the group will meditate on each for a couple minutes events for the whole UCI community. ARC Parking $1 per hour May 21 - Eight Verses Meditation Almost a thousand years ago, the Tibetan Buddhist, Master Geshe Langri Tangpa wrote the "Eight Verses of Training

  8. COMPARISONS OF THE KINEMATICS AND DEEP STRUCTURES OF THE ZAGROS AND HIMALAYA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzfeld, Denis

    Click Here for Full Article COMPARISONS OF THE KINEMATICS AND DEEP STRUCTURES OF THE ZAGROS of deformation of the Hima- laya and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau with those of the Zagros and Iranian Plateau not yet developed in the Zagros, where collision is more recent and Arabia penetrates into Eurasia more

  9. Ya ri a bsod Collection 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sha bo don 'grub rdo rje; Skal dbang skyid

    ????????????????????????? Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Persuade Song ??? ??????????????? Name of recorder (if different from collector) Date of recording February 2007 ????? ?????????????????????????? Place of recording A skyid Village, A skyid Township... of performer(s) E kho, 72, female, A skyid Township, Mdzo dge County, Rnga ba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. ??,?????????????????????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??????????????????????????????????...

  10. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2014) DOI:10.1002/qj.2316 The roles of diurnal forcing and large-scale moisture transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakob, Christian

    2014-01-01

    in future climate projections in regions where precipitation has a strong diurnal cycle. In this study we to the local solar time, rainfall maxima tend to occur in the late afternoon over land and in the early hours such as the A¨ir Mountains in North Africa (Mohr, 2004), the Himalaya in India (Basu, 2007), the Tibetan Plateau

  11. 2005 Nature Publishing Group Crustal rheology of the Himalaya and Southern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    ,8 . Magnetotelluric data can be used to image subsurface electrical resistivity, a parameter sensitive to the presence from the Tibetan­Himalayan orogen from 778 E to 928 E, which show that low resistivity, interpreted in Southern Tibet. The geology of southern Tibet clearly records the collision of India with Asia. The Indus

  12. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 20 Number 1 : Full issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    . 2. Alphabetum Tibetanum of Giorgi. 3. Bible in English; New Testament in Samkrit; St. Matthew's Gospel in Bengali; Gpamphlets. 5. Journal Asiatic SocietY,.9 volumes... ; Asiatic Researcht:s, tW('ntieth volume, Part I; foreign books, 6 volumes. Tibetan Grammar; Mahabharata, 4 volumes; Raja Tarallgini; Susrita; Naishada Charita; four Bengali pamphlets. I . Grammars and dictionaries - English Grammar and Exercises...

  13. Crustal structures in the area of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from seismologic and gravimetric data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas, Chamot-Rooke

    Supérieure, CNRS-UMR 8538, Paris, France b Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China c Institut de the Sichuan Basin and the Tibetan plateau and a horizontal discontinuity at 15 km depth, which may connect on the western margin of the Sichuan Basin is arguably the largest intracontinental earthquake in western China

  14. Crustal structures in the area of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake from seismologic and gravimetric data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattin, Rodolphe

    Supérieure, CNRS-UMR 8538, Paris, France b Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China c Institut de between the Sichuan Basin and the Tibetan plateau and a horizontal discontinuity at 15 km depth, which may.9 the Wenchuan earthquake on the western margin of the Sichuan Basin is arguably the largest intracontinental

  15. An analysis of egg marketing practices of first buyers of Texas eggs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaarder, Raymond Olaf

    1950-01-01

    I?a, Tbe 4s?1~ eso awagel ?e ia Tshle 5. The ~ ~ ?f th? ?sseegs dsahse sa ekase a?L4 te eeasswsas s?toi1 etseee, %8 6 ~ Vggg@S Of SQXSO M8 CI~CCRl Cf ~ + ?gg haah~ ~, X9g local prodaee ~, oeetnal tdoleaalara ead ~ ia eheaa. SA all the 4eaLeaa of each... tbaae dealer? net eayeatiad oagkete W~m aa their opeeatiena ~ of ~ ?Lae he thais type of teaineaa, aa4 handled thais ogive in the aaae faahlea ao tbe ~ ~ of thole type, TdNe V 1iata the enbnwa ead aweek ef egga peeknae4 in 1%0 by' the 48 4salora...

  16. There, there.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngyeun, Anna

    2014-05-31

    and mocked my racial identity and a Thai-Chinese heritage that I felt estranged from. My chubby body size further alienated me from both spaces. In retrospect, I can essentialize these childhood issues into a singular experience: The first time I saw porn... mother and a jovial yet distant father. As their 20 child, I am an embodiment of affective dualisms: a juncture of debilitating pessimism and liberating joviality. It is important for me to note here that conversations surrounding contrasting...

  17. Operational characteristics of the three-level diamond interchange 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCann, Charles Howard Wesley

    1963-01-01

    uels ~ a4 their staffs foc chair essieteeeo ia tba eolleecioa of 4sts that uas uss4 ia chio cbeeist 1. cooper Nsgeeborae Rireatore Reyerceeac of Traffia sa4 Tcsasportsti, oa Cicy of Nouscoa, R. R. Cooper, Riceetor& Truffle Sivisioa, gtate... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 1 4 3 1 1o Stoky Prooo4oro Thai Artor iol Ss?P ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o LOCOtisaa ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ Staa4ios ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 111. Oa?alts of Cha Oaaoorah Stoky...

  18. Journal of Luminescence 102103 (2003) 737743 Infrared to visible up-conversion in thulium and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Douglas S.

    2003-01-01

    and holmium doped lutetium aluminum garnet Ki-Soo Lima, *, P. Babua,1 , Sun-Kyun Leea , Van-Thai Phama , D on the up-converted emissions at 367, 458 and 483 nm in thulium doped lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG) under; Ho:LuAG; Up-conversion; Energy transfer 1. Introduction Rare earth ion doped lutetium garnets, Lu3Al5

  19. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2009-10-01

    Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

  20. Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achard, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    . ? Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines numéro quatorze — Octobre 2008 Tibetan Studies in Honor of Samten Karmay Part I — Historical, Cultural and Linguistic Studies Edited by Françoise Pommaret and Jean-Luc Achard ? Préface Par Françoise Pommaret... the name high" by Françoise Pommaret am very pleased to write this preface to the Volume of Homage to Samten Gyeltshen Karmay, a great scholar and a close friend. I just hope that I can do justice to his achievements which are well known to all...

  1. European Bulletin of Himalayan Research (EBHR) Volume 23, Autumn 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University, Germany; (CNRS) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France; (SOAS) School of Oriental and African Studies, UK

    2002-01-01

    299 7, rue Guy Môquet 94801 Villejuif cedex France e-mail: mlecomte@pop.vjf.cnrs.fr Great Britain: Michael Hutt, David Gellner, Ben Campbell School of Oriental and African Studies Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square London WC1H 0XG... during the People's War Sharon Hepburn 92 Comparative Dictionary of Tibetan Dialects (CDTD): A research report Roland Bielmeier 97 BOOK REVIEWS Medicine and the Emergency Re-reading Vincanne Adams' Doctors for Democracy: Health...

  2. Two Proposals for Critically Editing the Texts of the rNying ma'i rGyud 'bum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cathy Cantwell; Mayer, Rob

    2006-01-01

    the rNying ma'i rGyud 'bum1 Cathy Cantwell & Rob Mayer,University of Oxford Abstract: We propose two new methods for criticallyediting Tibetan texts that take advantage of contemporaryelectronic developments in presentation of data, and incollaborative... at the outset that our proposal isaimed at complementing TEI, not at displacing it).7 Many of these electronic 1 Funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council of the UK madepossible the research on which...

  3. Galactic Discourse Issue 5 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1987-01-01

    on inside front cover, 14, 16, 79, 114, 128, 209, 212. Vel Jaeger: 43, 158, inside bacover. Jean Kluge: 28, 33. Andrea Kunz: 21. Signe Landon: front cover, 128. Dorothy Laoang: 115, 156. Suzan Lovett: 12, 122, flo facing 176, 223. Mary Stacy...'t happen and. age. mean/.) wiM..om eouid i:.h..vt..e. .B...e a woll.-ld oui. ~ thai know/.) not dehof.a1.i...on no~ ~p~? then le.t me go away /Aom h~ to i.h.vte --Joan fYI. S~ ~ Only ({joice Cinde Deren c;& Diane Miskiewicz Leonard McCoy had...

  4. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 1 Number 2 : Full issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    1964-10-27

    best energies to protect his disciples from evil forces by mantras ans mandalas and to train them up in the rituals and forms of worship. in which he is proficient. He is to watch his diSCiples closely so that they may not slip away from the right... Prajnadevi (yum-chan-mo). An alternative name of this goddess was Tara. thai is. she who rescues beings from the ocean of misery. Thus Prajna which makes a being a Buddha became the goddess Tara and was regarded as the mother of Buddhas. In consequence...

  5. A nineteenth-century Bonpo pilgrim in Western Tibet and Nepal: Episodes from the life of dKar ru grub dbang bsTan 'dzin rin chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramble, Charles

    2008-01-01

    of prefabricated attitudes set up for demolition by his exemplary discourse. Contrary to what we might have expected from the author of the Gangs ti se dkar chag, Bonpos in the narrative receive no special favours above Buddhists; some of his sharpest barbs... the tutelage of a certain lDang lnga Kun dga’. It was on the third day of the Sa ga zla ba in a Fire Tiger year (1806) that Karu began to learn the Tibetan alphabet (36- 39). Two years later, in 1808, he moved into A tsho shes tshus house in Nor gling...

  6. Perceptions of Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ura, Karma

    2001-01-01

    , in the first two decades of the 20th century, sought a peaceful Tibetan status as a buffer between three powers: China, Russia and Britain. But its view of Tibet vacillated and shifted several times from one of recognizing special relationship between China... 7.8 billion. Bhutan's export to India including electricity in the same year was Nu 4.7 billion. Thus, for Bhutan, revenue earning and balancing of trade is staked on hydro-power export to India. Hydropower has come to play an epic role...

  7. Thermochronologic constraints on the late Cenozoic exhumation history of the Gurla Mandhata metamorphic core complex, Southwestern Tibet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCallister, Andrew T.; Taylor, Michael Halford; Murphy, M. A.; Styron, Richard H.; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2014-02-01

    300 Kilometers Indus -Yalu Suture Bangong -Nujiang Suture Jinsha Su t ure MFT ATF Tarim basin Qaidam basin Qiangtang terrane Lhasa terrane Himalaya Songpan-Ganzi terrane KF JF YGR HF GMD NLR SLR TKG TYC KCF CR PQX ADM LPD NQT GLR Lhasa LC LNG GCF... RPF BCFZB LK Normal Fault Strike-Slip Fault Thrust Fault Suture Zone 1:7,000,000 scale 80° E 85° E 90° E 95° E 30° N 35° N Figure 1. Shaded relief map of the Tibetan plateau showing the distribution of active faults. Thrust faults are red, normal...

  8. Alexander Csoma de Koros: the Hungarian Bodhisattva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hetenyi, Ernest

    1972-02-15

    . As he ought to have served in the army he did not dare to ask for a passport. Instead he managed to pass the Rumanian frontier with a temporary certificate used by merchants travelling to Mold ,viano Travelling on to Greece, he embarked on a small... was destined to go only as far as Darjeeling, a British hill resort near the Tibetan border. For on his way, crossing the Terai swamps, he contracted malarial fever. Dr. Campbell, the British medical officer at Darjeleling who attended to him, could...

  9. A Unique Parallel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wangyal, Sonam B

    2007-01-01

    , as they are one nation.”12 When it comes to the Tibetan involvement even the Royal family is careful with their words and they commence the sentence with a hesitant "It is said that…" leaving a hint that it could be just a rumour, a bluff or simply a good... piece of propaganda. It therefore is absolutely patent that the various reasons given for the Bhutanese departure cannot be trusted upon but what is also equally manifest is that the Bhutanese troops did withdraw to the east bank of Tista river...

  10. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 29 Volume 29 : Full issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    1993-01-01

    GERMAN If church c C c .. church hall ch th ch if rats IS c t ~ cat.~ home ISh ch ch • jungle j J j • lads dz j j .. leisure 2: Z 2: "" shade S <; S MARIANNE WINDER GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION After a few biographical notes... ................................. 27 Summary ......•......•....•.•.....•.... 33 Notes ................................... 34 17 GERMAN TRANSLITERATION OF TIBETAN fi as in 'onions' n as in 'ring' c as in 'chulXh' (; as in 'cats' th as in 'cat~' home' ch as in 'church hall' j...

  11. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 6 Number 1 : Full issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    1969-02-17

    transmissions of the slaves and that its origin can be found in the Tibetan prayer cylin­ ders rotating on a vertical axle and powered by an anemometer like wind turbine. The earliest appearance of this in Tibet is unlikely to have preceded the introduction... emitted is thus directed onto the flame and the hot air carried with it blows the fire up. as I haye observed in experiments with myownmodel. Ata high altitude this is particularly useful. Needham suggests (8) that Alexander the Great's soldiers may...

  12. Father Estevao Cacella's Report on Bhutan in 1627

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baillie, Luiza Maria

    1999-01-01

    where the terrain allowed this, and soon we saw through the trees a great number of people waiting to welcome us and we heard the sound of (Fol. 8) cornets and trumpets similar to the instruments used in their festivals. Here there were a hundred... 3 journey through Bhutan, which would eventually take them to Tibet where they founded a mission in Shigatse, the seat of the Panchen Lama and of the great Tibetan monastery of Tashilhunpo. Cacella arrived in Shigatse in November 1627 and Cabral...

  13. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 11 Number 2 : Full issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    1974-07-23

    and public collections. Tibet is a country of strong, luminous colours and clear outlines. The mystic art of Tibet, therefore, does not favour vagueness of any kind, but demands clear definition of design and colour. The backbone of Tibetan pictorial art... by the knowledge of the Three Worlds, and the Three Times, symboUzed by a flaming trident (triml). The staff itself represents the sushumna or the ecentral current of psychic energy, which combines the solar and lunar forces (piagaJa & ida, res­ pectively...

  14. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand—2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

  15. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Thailand serves as a case study of the potential to conserve electricity in the fast-growing commercial sectors of the tropical developing world. We performed a field study of over 1100 Thai office workers in which a questionnaire survey and simultaneous physical measurements were taken. Both air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buildings were included. We analyzed Thai subjective responses on the ASHRAE, McIntyre and other rating scales, relating them to Effective Temperature, demographics, and to rational indices of warmth such as PMV and TSENS. These results suggest that without sacrificing comfort, significant energy conservation opportunities exist through the relaxation of upper space temperature limits. To investigate the potential for conserving energy in a cost-effective manner, we performed a series of parametric simulations using the DOE-2.1D computer program on three commercial building prototypes based on actual buildings in Bangkok; an office, a hotel, and a shopping center. We investigated a wide range of energy conservation measures appropriate for each building type, from architectural measures to HVAC equipment and control solutions. The best measures applied in combination into high efficiency cases can generate energy savings in excess of 50%. Economic analyses performed for the high efficiency cases, resulted in costs of conserved energy of less than and internal rates of return in excess of 40%. Thermal cool storage, cogeneration, and gas cooling technology showed promise as cost-effective electric load management strategies.

  16. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  17. Observed high-altitude warming and snow cover retreat over Tibet and the Himalayas enhanced by black carbon aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Y.; Ramanathan, V.; Washington, W. M.

    2015-07-10

    Himalayan mountain glaciers and the snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau provide the headwater of several major rivers in Asia. In-situ observations of snow cover fraction since the 1960s suggest that the snow pack in the region have retreated significantly, accompanied by a surface warming of 2–2.5 °C observed over the peak altitudes (5000 m). Using a high-resolution ocean–atmosphere global climate model and an observationally constrained black carbon (BC) aerosol forcing, we attribute the observed altitude dependence of the warming trends as well as the spatial pattern of reductions in snow depths and snow cover fraction to various anthropogenic factors. Atmore »the Tibetan Plateau altitudes, the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration exerted a warming of 1.7 °C, BC 1.3 °C where as cooling aerosols cause about 0.7 °C cooling, bringing the net simulated warming consistent with the anomalously large observed warming. We therefore conclude that BC together with CO2 has contributed to the snow retreat trends. Especially, BC increase is the major factor in the strong elevation dependence of the observed surface warming. The atmospheric warming by BC as well as its surface darkening of snow are coupled with the positive snow albedo feedbacks to account for the disproportionately large role of BC in high-elevation regions. These findings reveal that BC impact needs to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, in particular on high-altitude cryosphere.« less

  18. Biochemical studies concerning the relationship of various blood and urine constituents to rate of gain in young beef animals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ware, James Harold

    1951-01-01

    of gain in beef animals~ it seeesg XogLoal thai the Xoeele af aortain nutrient blocaL ocaayoneccte shouM be ~sureiL in tbe Xabesatory in this search for a gsoeth incLm, eLnoe these bloog eaterials sores as tbe buUcLing stones fcn groeth anc...LNaLLeae NLe14eLLeal eeelyreLe eae ayykh4 Le eD data ebLaLee4 La %a abeea 4eLeeaLIaaLeae La aa aeLeeLA ee ~L? aey et 4h~ btee4 eeaeLL|eeaLe eLLb eaLe et NsLa et ebe ~i StcaKes bass been oocduotcd oonoercdng possible correlations between rate of gain in bsof...

  19. Port Sullivan, Texas: Ghost town / a thesis by John Martin Brockman 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brockman, John Martin

    1968-01-01

    341 milo. above tl e mouth of -'1!e Bra-os and approximatcl y six miles above the present to!!n c 1iearne, grew to a pop. !1atior! of' 1, 4F3 by 1870. Around 18 r0 Fort Sul 3 ivan begzr! a rapid dec line a?nc! soon di appear:-' corn; lately.... This is a?tudy of the town of Fort Su" 11van f om i" s rise to its pass!-c!e from history. lt is the story of he Dc'opia ?rho 1i!ad there; thai? economic, po- lite cal, rel3. gious, and soci al ir. st' l utio? s. Th stud& includes a thorough...

  20. Toward an Integrated BAC Library Resource for Genome Sequencing and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, M. I.; Kim, U.-J.

    2002-02-26

    We developed a great deal of expertise in building large BAC libraries from a variety of DNA sources including humans, mice, corn, microorganisms, worms, and Arabidopsis. We greatly improved the technology for screening these libraries rapidly and for selecting appropriate BACs and mapping BACs to develop large overlapping contigs. We became involved in supplying BACs and BAC contigs to a variety of sequencing and mapping projects and we began to collaborate with Drs. Adams and Venter at TIGR and with Dr. Leroy Hood and his group at University of Washington to provide BACs for end sequencing and for mapping and sequencing of large fragments of chromosome 16. Together with Dr. Ian Dunham and his co-workers at the Sanger Center we completed the mapping and they completed the sequencing of the first human chromosome, chromosome 22. This was published in Nature in 1999 and our BAC contigs made a major contribution to this sequencing effort. Drs. Shizuya and Ding invented an automated highly accurate BAC mapping technique. We also developed long-term collaborations with Dr. Uli Weier at UCSF in the design of BAC probes for characterization of human tumors and specific chromosome deletions and breakpoints. Finally the contribution of our work to the human genome project has been recognized in the publication both by the international consortium and the NIH of a draft sequence of the human genome in Nature last year. Dr. Shizuya was acknowledged in the authorship of that landmark paper. Dr. Simon was also an author on the Venter/Adams Celera project sequencing the human genome that was published in Science last year.

  1. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  2. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  3. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jillings, Chris; Collaboration: DEAP Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10{sup ?46}cm{sup 2} for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk {sup 210}Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 × 10{sup ?20}g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  4. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  5. Application of DNA hybridization techniques in the assessment of diarrheal disease among refugess in Thailand. [Shigella; Escherichia coli; Campylobacter; Cryptosporidium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, D.N.; Echeverria, P.; Pitarangsi, C.; Seriwatana, J.; Sethabutr, O.; Bodhidatta, L.; Brown, C.; Herrmann, J.E.; Blacklow, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    The epidemiology and etiology of acute diarrheal disease were determined in a Hmong refugee camp on the Thai-Laotian border from April 11 to May 14, 1985. DNA hybridization techniques were used to detect Shigella species, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli. A monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect rotavirus, and standard microbiology was used to detect other enteropathogens. The age-specific diarrheal disease rates were 47 episodes per month per 1000 children less than five years old and 113 episodes per month per 1000 children less than one year old. Rotavirus, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium were the predominant pathogens in children less than two years old. The DNA probe hybridized with 94% of 31 specimens identified as enterotoxigenic E. coli by the standard assays and with none of the specimens in which the standard assays were negative. The probe for Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli hybridized in eight of 10 stools that contained Shigella and four of 314 stools from which Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli were not isolated. The use of DNA probes allows specimens to be collected in remote areas with a minimum amount of equipment and technical expertise so that they can be easily transported to a central laboratory for further processing.

  6. Light-absorbing Particles in Snow and Ice: Measurement and Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Flanner, M. G.; Lau, William K.; Ming, J.; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Mo; Warren, Stephen G.; Zhang, Rudong

    2015-01-01

    Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, andclimatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.

  7. Gulf Coast-East Coast magnetic anomaly I: Root of the main crustal decollement for the Appalachian-Ouachita orogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D.J. (Total Minatome Corporation, Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The Gulf Coast-East Coast magnetic anomaly extends for at least 4000 km from south-central Texas to offshore Newfoundland as one of the longest continuous tectonic features in North America and a major crustal element of the entire North Atlantic-Gulf Coast region. Analysis of 28 profiles spaced at 100km intervals and four computed models demonstrate that the anomaly may be explained by a thick zone of mafic and ultramafic rocks averaging 13-15 km in depth. The trend of the anomaly closely follows the trend of main Appalachian features: in the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, the anomaly is as far south of the Ouachita front as it is east of the western limit of deformation through the central Appalachians. Because the anomaly continues across well-known continental crust in northern Florida and onshore Texas, it cannot plausibly be ascribed to an edge effect at the boundary of oceanic with continental crustal compositions. The northwest-verging, deep-crustal events discovered in COCORP data from the Ouachitas and Appalachians suggest an analogy with the main suture of the Himalayan orogen in the Tibetan Plateau. In this paper the anomaly is identified with the late Paleozoic Alleghenian megasuture, in which the northwest-verging crustal-detachment surfaces ultimately root.

  8. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schantz, Susan L., E-mail: schantz@illinois.edu [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Gardiner, Joseph C. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Aguiar, Andrea [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)] [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Sweeney, Anne M. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center USA (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center USA (United States); Peck, Jennifer D. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (United States); Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, University at Buffalo (United States)] [Toxicology Research Center, University at Buffalo (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in this region.