National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for testing pretreatment options

  1. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field

  2. Pretreatment options for waste-to-energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, L.F.; Savage, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes various options available for processing MSW before the material is introduced to waste-to-energy facilities. Specifically, the paper reviews the type of equipment currently available for the recovery of resources from the waste stream. In addition, the paper discusses other matters which in many cases are ignored but are extremely important for the design of the processes. Some of these matters include the use of reliable waste characterization data during conceptual design and definition of the properties and specifications of the recovered materials and/or energy forms (e.g., RDF). Finally, the paper discusses other factors that have a critical impact on the facility such as potential environmental consequences of pretreatment of the waste prior to its combustion in waste-to-energy facilities.

  3. Underground storage tank integrated demonstration: Evaluation of pretreatment options for Hanford tank wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Colton, N.G.; Jones, E.O.

    1993-06-01

    Separation science plays a central role inn the pretreatment and disposal of nuclear wastes. The potential benefits of applying chemical separations in the pretreatment of the radioactive wastes stored at the various US Department of Energy sites cover both economic and environmental incentives. This is especially true at the Hanford Site, where the huge volume (>60 Mgal) of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks could be partitioned into a very small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW). The cost associated with vitrifying and disposing of just the HLW fraction in a geologic repository would be much less than those associated with vitrifying and disposing of all the wastes directly. Futhermore, the quality of the LLW form (e.g., grout) would be improved due to the lower inventory of radionuclides present in the LLW stream. In this report, we present the results of an evaluation of the pretreatment options for sludge taken from two different single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site-Tanks 241-B-110 and 241-U-110 (referred to as B-110 and U-110, respectively). The pretreatment options examined for these wastes included (1) leaching of transuranic (TRU) elements from the sludge, and (2) dissolution of the sludge followed by extraction of TRUs and {sup 90}Sr. In addition, the TRU leaching approach was examined for a third tank waste type, neutralized cladding removal waste.

  4. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen BK; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John GH; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S. K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-12-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.( ) Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

  5. Report Title: PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will probably drive drillers toward discovery and use of non-toxic alternatives for fracking chemicals whenever possible. Fear of liability will impel this shift probably as much...

  6. NSO Explores Closure Options for Historic Nuclear Testing Locations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NSO Explores Closure Options for Historic Nuclear Testing Locations Recent environmental restoration work at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) focuses on a number of ...

  7. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-17

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste.

  8. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40

  9. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  10. Technology Options for a Fast Spectrum Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Wachs; R. W. King; I. Y. Glagolenko; Y. Shatilla

    2006-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory has evaluated technology options for a new fast spectrum reactor to meet the fast-spectrum irradiation requirements for the USDOE Generation IV (Gen IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. The US currently has no capability for irradiation testing of large volumes of fuels or materials in a fast-spectrum reactor required to support the development of Gen IV fast reactor systems or to demonstrate actinide burning, a key element of the AFCI program. The technologies evaluated and the process used to select options for a fast irradiation test reactor (FITR) for further evaluation to support these programmatic objectives are outlined in this paper.

  11. USED FUEL RAIL SHOCK AND VIBRATION TESTING OPTIONS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Maheras, Steven J.

    2014-09-29

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  12. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  13. Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2009-11-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

  14. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  15. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Options Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, James William; Bayless, Paul David

    2015-08-01

    Preliminary scoping calculations are being performed for a 100 MWt gas-cooled test reactor. The initial design uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to identify some reactor design features to investigate further. Current status of the effort is described.

  16. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten

  17. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the

  18. Biomass pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  19. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  20. Final Report - Assessment of Testing Options for the NTR at the INL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, Steven D; McLing, Travis L; McCurry, Michael; Plummer, Mitchell A

    2013-02-01

    non-nuclear , sub-scale test using gas injection to validate the computational models; 4) Produce a preliminary cost estimate to build a nuclear furnace equivalent facility to test NTR fuel on a green field location on the INL site. The results show that the INL geology is substantially better suited to the SAFE testing method than the NTS site. The existence of impermeable interbeds just above the sub-surface aquifer ensure that no material from the test, radioactive or not, can enter the water table. Similar beds located just below the surface will prevent any gaseous products from reaching the surface for dispersion. The extremely high permeability of the strata between the interbeds allows rapid dispersion of the rocket exhaust. In addition, the high permeability suggests that a lower back-pressure may develop in the hole against the rocket thrust, which increases safety of operations. Finally, the cost of performing a sub-scale, non-nuclear verification experiment was determined to be $3M. The third method was assessed through discussions with INL staff resident at the site. In essence, any new Category I facility on any DOE site will cost in excess of $250M. Based on the results of this study, a cost estimate for testing a nuclear rocket at the INL site appears to be warranted. Given the fact that a new nuclear fuel may be possible that does not release any fission products, the SAFE testing option appears to be the most affordable.

  1. Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2009-12-10

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  2. Vitrification and Product Testing of AW-101 and AN-107 Pretreated Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Gary L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Smith, Harry D.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, Jerome J.

    2000-10-31

    The primary objective for vitrifying the LAW samples is to generate glass products for subsequent product testing. The work presented in this report is divided into 6 work elements: 1) Glass Fabrication, 2) Chemical Composition, 3) Radiochemical Composition, 4) Crystalline and Non-crystalline Phase Determination, and 5) Release Rate (Modified PCT). These work elements will help demonstrate the RPP-WTP projects ability to satisfy the product requirements concerning, chemical and radionuclide reporting, waste loading, identification and quantification of crystalline and non-crystalline phases, and waste form leachability. VOA, SVOA, dioxins, furans, PCBs, and total cyanide analyses will be reported in as separate document (WTP-RPT-005).

  3. Methods for pretreating biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2015-03-03

    A method of alkaline pretreatment of biomass, in particular, pretreating biomass with gaseous ammonia.

  4. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  5. Baseline and optional bench-scale testing of a chemical candle filter safeguard device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, J.P.; Swanson, M.L.

    2000-11-01

    This project was undertaken by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and test the feasibility of a hot-gas filter safeguard device (SGD) to prevent the release of dust in the event of candle filter failure under both pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) (oxidizing) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (reducing) operating conditions. The SGD must use existing filter system seals, gaskets, fixtures, and assemblies as much as possible. It must also activate quickly when a candle filter has failed, preferably preventing dust concentrations downstream of the SGD from exceeding 1 ppmw. In addition, the SGD must be able to operate in an inactive mode with minimal pressure drop, and its operation cannot be affected by repeated backpulse cleaning events of up to 3 psia and 1/2 second in duration.

  6. An informal expert judgment assessment of subsidence mitigation options for low-level radioactive waste management sites on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, B.M. |; Leary, K.; Jacobson, R.; Bensinger, H.; Dolenc, M.

    1999-03-01

    An assessment of options to mitigate the effects of subsidence at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Nevada Test Site was conducted using an informal method of expert judgment. Mitigation options for existing waste cells and future waste cells were identified by a committee composed of knowledgeable personnel from the DOE and DOE-contractors. Eight ranking factors were developed to assess the mitigation options and these factors were scored through elicitation of consensus views from the committee. Different subsets of the factors were applied respectively, to existing waste cells and future waste cells, and the resulting scores were ranked using weighted and unweighted scores. These scores show that there is a large number of viable mitigation options and considerable flexibility in assessing the subsidence issue with a greater range of options for future waste cells compared to existing waste cells. A highly ranked option for both existing and future waste cells is covering the waste cells with a thick closure cap of native alluvium.

  7. Vitrification and Product Testing of C-104 and AZ-102 Pretreated Sludge Mixed with Flowsheet Quantities of Secondary Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Gary L.; Bates, Derrick J.; Goles, Ronald W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Lettau, Ralph C.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Smith, Harry D.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, Jerome J.

    2001-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) has acquired Hanford tank waste treatment services at a demonstration scale. The River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) team is responsible for producing an immobilized (vitrified) high-level waste (IHLW) waste form. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, hereafter referred to as PNNL, has been contracted to produce and test a vitrified IHLW waste form from two Envelope D high-level waste (HLW) samples previously supplied to the RPP-WTP project by DOE.

  8. Fuel Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Fuel Options HomeCapabilitiesFuel ...

  9. Career Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Career Options Explore the multiple dimensions of a career at Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in...

  10. Financing Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A growing variety of options are available for financing an LED street lighting replacement program. One or another approach may be preferable based on the system ownership and maintenance model in...

  11. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  12. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  13. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  14. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  15. SU-E-J-97: Pretreatment Test and Post-Treatment Evaluation for Iso-NTCP Dose Guided Adapive Radiotherapy (DGART), Experience with Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Rectal Balloons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, J; Hardcastle, N; Bender, E; Jeong, K; Tome', M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of pretreatment test for iso-NTCP DGART and to compare the pretreatment test results with post-treatment evaluations. Methods: NTCP here refers to late rectal wall toxicity only and is calculated with the ring rectal wall DVH. Simulation for one time iso- NTCP DGART starts after half of the total dose was done for 10 patients to investigate if TCP gains could be achieved. Six patients were treated using a 12-fraction 4.3Gy technique and four using 16-fraction 3.63Gy technique. For each of the 12-fraction cases a VMAT plan was generated in Pinnacle3 using the daily CT obtained prior to the 6th fraction. A pretreatment simulation was performed using only the first 6 daily CTs. The idea is to add the 6 original plan delivered doses with 6 DGART plan delivered doses by deformable dose accumulation (DDA) on each of the first 6 CTs, resulting in 6 rectal wall doses (RWDs) and NTCPs. The 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the 6 NTCPs were computed.The posttreatment evaluation was done by: a) copy the DGART plan to 6 CTs for fraction 712 and calculate the 6 actual DGART delivered fractional doses; b) sum the 6 actual DGART doses with the 6 original plan delivered doses by DDA on each of the 12 CTs resulting in 12 post-treatment RWDs and NTCPs; c) boxplot the 12 post-treatment NTCPs. Results: Target dose gain is 0.761.93 Gy. The 95%CI widths of the pretreatment tests NTCPs were 1.12.7%. For 5 patients, the planned NTCP fell within the 95%CI. For 4 patients, the planned NTCP was lower than the 95%CI lines. Post-treatment results show that for 7 patients, the upper quartile was within the 95%CI; for 2 patients, the upper quartile were higher than the 95%CI. Conclusion: The pretreatment test yields conservative prediction of the actual delivered NTCP.

  16. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  17. TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS The Pittsburgh Airport Marriott provides complimentary shuttle service. The hotel asks all guests arriving at the Pittsburgh International Airport to collect luggage in the baggage claim area of the airport and then call for the shuttle at 412-788- 8800. Let the Hotel Operator know that you have collected your luggage and have a reservation at the Marriott and need transportation from the airport. The Hotel Operator will instruct the guest which door to exit, which curb to

  18. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  19. Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

  20. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  1. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  2. Fuel Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy

  3. Impact of Sequential Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) Pretreatment and Pelletization on the Moisture Sorption Properties of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonner, Ian J.; Thompson, David N.; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Campbell, Timothy; Bals, Bryan; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2015-05-01

    Combining ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment with a depot processing facility is a promising option for delivering high-value densified biomass to the emerging bioenergy industry. However, because the pretreatment process results in a high moisture material unsuitable for pelleting or storage (40% wet basis), the biomass must be immediately dried. If AFEX pretreatment results in a material that is difficult to dry, the economics of this already costly operation would be at risk. This work tests the nature of moisture sorption isotherms and thin-layer drying behavior of corn (Zea mays L.) stover at 20°C to 60°C before and after sequential AFEX pretreatment and pelletization to determine whether any negative impacts to material drying or storage may result from the AFEX process. The equilibrium moisture content to equilibrium relative humidity relationship for each of the materials was determined using dynamic vapor sorption isotherms and modeled with modified Chung-Pfost, modified Halsey, and modified Henderson temperature-dependent models as well as the Double Log Polynomial (DLP), Peleg, and Guggenheim Anderson de Boer (GAB) temperature-independent models. Drying kinetics were quantified under thin-layer laboratory testing and modeled using the Modified Page's equation. Water activity isotherms for non-pelleted biomass were best modeled with the Peleg temperature-independent equation while isotherms for the pelleted biomass were best modeled with the Double Log Polynomial equation. Thin-layer drying results were accurately modeled with the Modified Page's equation. The results of this work indicate that AFEX pretreatment results in drying properties more favorable than or equal to that of raw corn stover, and pellets of superior physical stability in storage.

  4. Programming Tuning Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning Options Programming Tuning Options Using Huge Pages Hugepages are virtual memory pages which are bigger than the default base page size of 4KB. Some applications may...

  5. Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    IBRF poster developed for the IBRF showcase. Describes the two-vessel system for primary and secondary pretreatment of biomass solids at different temperatures.

  6. Maryland Efficiency Program Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Maryland Efficiency Program Options, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  7. STEP Participant Financing Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    STEP Participant Financing Options, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  8. Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia - Energy Innovation Portal Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia Inventors: Shishir Chundawat, Leonardo Sousa, Albert Cheh, Venkatesh Balan, Bruce Dale Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIn the continuing push to develop alternative fuels, bioethanol is clearly a viable option. However, if it is to become a truly economical

  9. Step 2: Project Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Project Options 2 2 Design 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 2 Options 5 Operations & Maintenance 1/28/2016 2 Presentation Agenda * Step 2: Project Options * Project members and roles * Activity * Project ownership options - Interconnection, net metering, permitting, and considerations * Tools * Case in Point 3 Potential Options Refinement Implementation Operations & Maintenance 4 Step 2: Roles, Business Structures, & Regulatory Considerations Purpose: Determine ownership

  10. Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Pretreatment Facility Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download Waste Treatment and Immobilation ...

  11. 401(k) Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    401(k) Options 401(k) Options Tax-deferred and after-tax savings and retirement plans. Contact Fidelity Investments 401(k) savings and retirement plans Fidelity Investments is the...

  12. Employee Benefit Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benefit Options Employee Benefit Options A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. December 14, 2012 TA-3 in the winter Contact Benefits Office 667-1806 Email Employee Benefit Options On behalf of the LANS Benefits Team, welcome to the Los Alamos National Laboratory! Our employees are our greatest asset, which is why we provide a comprehensive benefits package that offers health coverage for you and your

  13. Hanford tank waste pretreatment overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasper, K.A.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. Pretreatment is one of the major program elements of the TWRS. The scope of the TWRS Tank Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste to separate it into high- and low-level waste fractions and to provide additional treatment as required to feed low-level and high-level waste immobilization processes. The Pretreatment Program activities include technology development, design, fabrication, construction, and operation of facilities to support the pretreatment of radioactive mixed waste retrieved from 28 large underground double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks.

  14. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  15. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  16. Optional Residential Program Benchmarking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call Series: Optional Residential Program Benchmarking, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, January 23, 2014.

  17. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  18. Moving granular-bed filter development program, Option III: Development of moving granular-bed filter technology for multi-contaminant control. Task 14: Test plan; Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, J.C.; Olivo, C.A.; Wilson, K.B.

    1994-04-01

    An experimental test plan has been prepared for DOE/METC review and approval to develop a filter media suitable for multi-contaminant control in granular-bed filter (GBF) applications. The plan includes identification, development, and demonstration of methods for enhanced media morphology, chemical reactivity, and mechanical strength. The test plan includes media preparation methods, physical and chemical characterization methods for fresh and reacted media, media evaluation criteria, details of test and analytical equipment, and test matrix of the proposed media testing. A filter media composed of agglomerated limestone and clay was determined to be the best candidate for multi-contaminate control in GBF operation. The combined limestone/clay agglomerate has the potential to remove sulfur and alkali species, in addition to particulate, and possibly halogens and trace heavy metals from coal process streams.

  19. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  20. Can Delignification Decrease Cellulose Digestibility in Acid Pretreated Corn Stover?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishizawa, C. I.; Jeoh, T.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.; Davis, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the improved digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover is at least partially due to the removal of xylan and the consequent increase in accessibility of the cellulose to cellobiohydrolase enzymes. We now report on the impact that lignin removal has on the accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Samples of corn stover were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with and without simultaneous (partial) lignin removal. In addition, some samples were completely delignified after the pretreatment step using acidified sodium chlorite. The accessibility and digestibility of the samples were tested using a fluorescence-labeled cellobiohydrolase (Trichoderma reesei Cel7A) purified from a commercial cellulase preparation. Partial delignification of corn stover during dilute acid pretreatment was shown to improve cellulose digestibility by T. reesei Cel7A; however, decreasing the lignin content below 5% (g g{sup -1}) by treatment with acidified sodium chlorite resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellulose digestibility. Importantly, this effect was found to be enhanced in samples with lower xylan contents suggesting that the near complete removal of xylan and lignin may cause aggregation of the cellulose microfibrils resulting in decreased cellulase accessibility.

  1. Anaerobic fermentation of woody biomass pretreated with supercritical ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, P.J.; Chou, Y.C.T.

    1986-10-01

    The degradability of ground hardwood by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium thermocellum with or without Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A) was greatly enhanced by pretreatment of the substrate with supercritical ammonia. Relative to C. thermocellum monocultures, cocultures of C. thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A degraded 1.5-fold more pretreated soft maple but produced 2- 5-fold more fermentation end products because Thermoanaerobacter sp. removed reducing sugars produced by C. thermocellum during the fermentation. Dry weight losses were not totally accounted for in end products, due to formation of partially degraded material (<0.4 ..mu..m diameter wood particles) during the fermentation. One pretreated hardwood, Southern red oak, was fermented poorly because it released soluble inhibitors at the 60/sup 0/C incubation temperature. Considerable (6- to 11-fold) increases in substrate degradability were also noted for supercritical ammonia-pretreated wood materials fermented in an in vitro rumen digestibility assay. Degradation of pretreated softwoods by either thermophilic or mesophilic fermentation was not measurable under the conditions tested.

  2. Assessing Renewable Energy Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies should assess renewable energy options for each specific project when integrating renewable energy in new building construction or major renovations. This section covers the preliminary screening, screening, feasibility study, and sizing and designing systems phases.

  3. PowerOptions RFP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PowerOptions seeks proposals from qualified and experienced renewable energy project developers interested in providing renewable energy and Renewable Energy Credit (RECs) generated from renewable energy projects located in or deliverable to the ISO-NE.

  4. Lending Program Administration Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lending program options and brief profiles of different approaches to clean energy lending are presented here. Each profile describes a different way to structure the various elements of a lending...

  5. Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

    2008-07-10

    The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  6. Runtime Tuning Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Runtime Tuning Options Runtime Tuning Options Cray MPI Environment Variables Cray and NERSC attempt to set MPI environment variable to the best defaults for the majority of applications; however, adjusting the environment variables may in some cases improve application performance or may be necessary to enable an application to run. Environment Variable Name Description Default Range Recommendations MPICH_GNI_MAX_EAGER_MSG_SIZE Controls the threshold for switching from eager to rendezvous

  7. 2016 Plan Options for Retirees

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Options 2016 Plan Options for Retirees Information for LANS retirees Contacts Retiree Insurance Providers Non-Medicare retirees HDHP plan highlights (pdf) HDHP summary of benefits...

  8. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  9. Runtime Tuning Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Runtime Tuning Options Runtime Tuning Options MPI Task Distribution on Nodes The distribution of MPI tasks on the nodes can be written to the standard output file by setting environment variable MPICH_RANK_REORDER_DISPLAY to 1. Users can control the distribution of MPI tasks on the nodes using the environment variable MPICH_RANK_REORDER_METHOD. The default task distribution in quad core mode is SMP-style placement, when the environment variable MPICH_RANK_REORDER_METHOD is set to 1. For example,

  10. Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foody, P.

    1980-04-01

    Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

  11. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  12. Idaho's Energy Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  13. BOXED LUNCH OPTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BOXED LUNCH OPTIONS Price: $12 - Sandwich Boxed Lunches (includes sandwich, pickle, kettle-cooked chips, and cookie) 1. The Cheat Lake Ham, Turkey, Bacon and Pepper Jack cheese piled high on artisan bread 2. The Suncrest Oven roasted Turkey Breast on artisan bread with smoked Gouda cheese 3. The Pierpont Bacon, Gouda Cheese, Lettuce, Tomato, Roasted Red Pepper Mayo 4. The Mylan Park Natural hickory smoked Ham, Swiss cheese on artisan bread 5. The Star City Ham, Turkey, Salami, Provolone cheese

  14. Fuel Cell Financing Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UTC Power Corporation 195 Governor's Highway South Windsor, CT Fuel Cell Financing Options (CESA/DOE Webinar - August 30, 2011) Paul J. Rescsanski, Manager, Business Finance Paul J. Rescsanski, Manager, Business Finance The UTC Power Advantage Strained Utility Grid, unreliable power * Significant Energy savings through: - 80 - 90% system efficiency - Combined heat and power * Payback in 3-5 years Sustainability and carbon reduction Rising energy costs * Assured power generated on-site: -

  15. The safeguards options study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  16. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that larger biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger wood

  17. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that largermore » biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger

  18. Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies These slides were used as a presentation by Dr. Blake Simmons on June 24, 2013, for the bimonthly BETO webinar. june2013_snl_webinar.pdf (4.32 MB) More Documents & Publications 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion

  19. Attachment C: Optional AIP Provisions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This attachment contains sample language for a number of optional provisions that sites may choose to include or not to include in their AIPs. Optional AIP provisions are not mandatory and the...

  20. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  1. Helping Policymakers Evaluate Distributed Wind Options | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Helping Policymakers Evaluate Distributed Wind Options Helping Policymakers Evaluate Distributed Wind Options April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis With EERE support, eFormative Options...

  2. Fast pyrolysis of tropical biomass species and influence of water pretreatment on product distributions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe; Gupta, Vijai

    2016-03-15

    Here, the fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amountmore » of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.« less

  3. Total Estimated Contract Price: Contract Option Periods: Performance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Price: Contract Option Periods: Performance Period Fee Earned Base Period "A" $0 Base Period "B" Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Cumulative Fee $0 EM Contractor Fee June 2015 Site: Office of River Protection, Richland, WA Contract Name: Hanford 222-S Laboratory Analysis and Testing Services Contractor: Wastren Advantage, Inc Contract Number: DE-EM0003722 Contract Type: Hybrid Contract with Award Fee Fee Available $44,562,457 Base Contract Period: November 21, 2016 to September 20,

  4. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  5. Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System Two-vessel system for primary and secondary ... moves by gravity from top to bottom of reactor in plug-fl ow fashion * Residence time is ...

  6. Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Facility L. Holton D. Alexander M. Johnson H. Sutter August 2007 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Richland, Washington, 99352 07-DESIGN-047 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Facilities L. Holton D. Alexander M. Johnson H. Sutter August 2007 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of

  7. the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System Summary The Hanford Advisory Board (HAB or Board), following lengthy discussions and reviews conducted by the Board's Tank Waste Committee with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), completed a review of the proposed Direct Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) process and the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS). Specifically, the committee's discussions centered on the proposed management and potential disposal

  8. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog ...

  9. AFCI Options Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  10. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1998-01-01

    A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

  11. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1998-07-28

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

  12. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  13. Anaerobic pretreatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. The pharmaceutical industry generates considerable amounts of wastewater that require extensive treatment before they are released. A common method of disposal is aerobic biological treatment, but this method is energy intensive and expensive. An alternative process--anaerobic digestion--costs less, saves energy, generates less sludge requiring disposal, and produces a usable fuel--methane. OIT and HydroQual, Inc., with Merck Co. recently completed a joint project that demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceutical industry. The objectives of the project were to demonstrate how the anaerobic biological process and the resulting energy savings can apply to the pharmaceutical industry and how effective and beneficial the process is to sludge management operations at pharmaceutical plants. This technical case study provides an overview of the DOE-HydroQual-Merck R D project and highlights the field tests done on pilot-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment units at a pharmaceutical plant. This document makes field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status; summarizes field-test efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of commercial applications, benefits, and full-scale system economics. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mandatory Utility Green Power Option

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2015, H.B. 2941 expanded this requirement to include a rate option with a specific renewable energy resource, such as solar photovoltaics, if the Public Utilities Commission finds there is...

  15. Mandatory Utility Green Power Option

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning January 1, 2002, each electric utility must inform its customers on a quarterly basis of the voluntary option to purchase green power. The details of each utility's program must be...

  16. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report, by the Nexant team, documents an in-depth analysis of seven hydrogen delivery options to identify the most cost-effective hydrogen infrastructure for the transition and long term. The pro

  17. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenz, Tracy R.

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  18. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis Option Analysis DOE and FreedomCAR & Fuel Partnership Hydrogen Delivery and On-Board Storage Analysis Workshop January 25, 2005 Washington DC This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Tan-Ping Chen Nexant Jim Campbell Bhadra Grover Air Liquide Stefan Unnasch TIAX Glyn Hazelden GTI Graham Moore Chevron Matt Ringer NREL Ray Hobbs Pinnacle West 2 Presentation Outline Project Background Knowledge Collected and

  19. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Atomic Testing Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Atomic Testing Museum NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office NATIONAL ATOMIC TESTING MUSEUM Photograph of Atomic Testing Museum The Nevada Test Site ...

  20. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Pretreatment Facility | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Pretreatment Facility Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Pretreatment Facility Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Pretreatment Facility (1.68 MB) Summary - WTP Pretreatment Facility (109.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility Compilation of TRA Summaries Hanford ETR Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Hanford Tank Waste

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Equipment Options to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel

  2. Final Report - Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis Final Report - Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis This report, by the Nexant team, documents an in-depth analysis ...

  3. Energy Options Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Options & Solutions Place: Ann Arbor, Michigan Zip: 48103 Product: Michigan-based alternative energy consultant. References: Energy Options & Solutions1 This article is a...

  4. Payment Options - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Payment Options Payment Options Payment by Check: Pay To: The Trustees of Princeton University Mail Checks To: Princeton University Attn: Abhishek Saha EQUAD D334 Olden Street ...

  5. IAAP. However, Pantex Plant Option 2

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    relocation to IAAP. However, Pantex Plant Option 2 provided a greater degree of ... attained for all facilities at the Pantex Plant by implementation of Option 2. Therefore, ...

  6. Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June 30, 2009 Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June 30, 2009 June 30, 2009 On March 31, 2009 , the...

  7. Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

    2011-06-21

    Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils’ physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

  8. Selection of Pretreatment Processes for Removal of Radionuclides from Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CARREON, R.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Office of River Protection (ORP) located at Hanford Washington has established a contract (1) to design, construct, and commission a new Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that will treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes for ultimate disposal. The WTP is comprised of four major elements, pretreatment, LAW immobilization, HLW immobilization, and balance of plant facilities. This paper describes the technologies selected for pretreatment of the LAW and HLW tank wastes, how these technologies were selected, and identifies the major technology testing activities being conducted to finalize the design of the WTP.

  9. Selection of Pretreatment Processes for Removal of Radionuclides from Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreon, R.; Mauss, B. M.; Johnson, M. E.; Holton, L. K.; Wright, G. T.; Peterson, R. A.; Rueter, K. J.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Office of River Protection (ORP) located at Hanford Washington has established a contract (1) to design, construct, and commission a new Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that will treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes for ultimate disposal. The WTP is comprised of four major elements, pretreatment, LAW immobilization, HLW immobilization, and balance of plant facilities. This paper describes the technologies selected for pretreatment of the LAW and HLW tank wastes, how these technologies were selected, and identifies the major technology testing activities being conducted to finalize the design of the WTP.

  10. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities.

  11. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  12. Hydrogen production: Overview of technology options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-15

    Overview of technology options for hydrogen production, its challenges and research needs and next steps

  13. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.

  14. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion,more » and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.« less

  15. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  16. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  17. Forecourt Storage and Compression Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forecourt Storage and Compression Options DOE and FreedomCAR & Fuel Partnership Hydrogen Delivery and On-Board Storage Analysis Workshop DOE Headquarters 25 January 2006 Mark E. Richards Gas Technology Institute 2 Overview > Project objectives > Gaseous delivery configurations > Analysis tool: CASCADE H2 Pro > Station demand profiles > Operational analysis results - Compressor-storage relationships - Vehicle fueling times - Temperature effects > Cost profiles >

  18. Pawnee Nation - Energy Options Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE First Steps Project DOE Tribal Program Review November 8, 2007 Kevin Cooney Summit Blue Consulting, LLC kcooney@summitblue.com 720-564-1130 Kelton Kersey Pawnee Nation kkersey@pawneenation.org (918) 762-3621 Carolyn Stewart Red Mountain Tribal Energy cstewart@redmtntribalenergy.com (602) 516-7540 1 Overview of Presentation * Background * Project Objectives * Activities Performed * Renewable Energy Resource Development Opportunities * Electric Utility Options * Energy Efficiency

  19. Pawnee Nation - Energy Options Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Oklahoma DOE First Steps Project DOE Tribal Program Review November 20, 2008 Overview of Presentation  Background  Project Objectives  Activities Performed  Renewable Energy Resource Development Opportunities  Electric Utility Options  Energy Efficiency Opportunities  Key Findings and Recommendations Background  Land:  Tribe-owned lands checker-board within the boundaries  Existing Buildings:  Limited housing exists on tribal lands. Housing was built in 1950s.

  20. CO.sub.2 Pretreatment prevents calcium carbonate formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neavel, Richard C. (Baytown, TX); Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL); Chaback, Joseph J. (Worthington, OH)

    1980-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 14 to about 68 atmospheres and a carbon dioxide partial pressure within the range from about 14 to about 34 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 100.degree. to about 200.degree. C.

  1. Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pretreatment process used in the production of biofuel can be executed at a larger scale than ever achieved before. Before biofuel can be generated from lignocellulosic feedstocks ...

  2. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash ... Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal ...

  3. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...cofiring of Biomass and Coal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasificationcofiring of Biomass and Coal Utilization of biomass as a ...

  4. Chapter 1: Feedstock Engineering and Biomass Pretreatments: New...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering and Biomass Pretreatments: New Views for a Greener Biofuels Process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chapter 1: Feedstock Engineering and Biomass ...

  5. Cementitious waste option scoping study report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This study investigates the nonseparations Cementitious Waste Option (CWO) as a means to achieve this goal. Under this option all liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and existing HLW calcine would be recalcined with sucrose, grouted, canisterized, and interim stored as a mixed-HLW for eventual preparation and shipment off-Site for disposal. The CWO waste would be transported to a Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF) located in the southwestern desert of the US on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All transport preparation, shipment, and disposal facility activities are beyond the scope of this study. CWO waste processing, packaging, and interim storage would occur over a 5-year period between 2013 and 2017. Waste transport and disposal would occur during the same time period.

  6. Climate Financing Options | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidemanual, Training materials Website: www.climatefinanceoptions.orgcfo Language: English References: Climate Finance Options1 New climate finance tool for...

  7. Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A Screening Method for Guiding R&D Decisions: Pilot Application to Screen Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

  8. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  9. Cation exchange pretreatment studies for high recovery - Yuma desalting plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaakinen, J.W.; Laverty, P.E.

    1983-10-01

    The main purpose of the High Recovery Test Program was to obtain feasibility design data for cation exchange softening to allow a greater fractional recovery of desalted product water at the YDP(Yuma Desalting Plant). Compared to the original YDP design with 70-percent desalting recovery, additional removal of calcium in the desalting feed would allow recoveries over 90 percent. Pilot plant equipment to test this process was operated at the YDTF(Yuma Desalting Test Facility) and consisted of an IX unit and an electrodialyzer to supply reject-brine regenerant for the IX experiments. Gypsum scale buildup in the resin bed could be avoided by regeneration with a high upward flow rate causing a fluidized bed. Reuse of regenerant was also beneficial. Results show that the ion exchange high recovery pretreatment process is highly feasible, and that it is technically possible to achieve high recovery in the YDP. Numerous recommendations for a plant design are given and future studies are noted.

  10. Hydrogen Delivery Options and Issues

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Options and Issues Mark Paster DOE August, 2006 Scope * From the end point of central or distributed production (300 psi H2) to and including the dispenser at a refueling station or stationary power site - GH2 Pipelines and Trucks, LH2 Trucks, Carriers <$1.00/kg of Hydrogen by 2017 Hydrogen Delivery H2 Delivery Current Status * Technology - GH2 Tube Trailers: ~340 kg, ~2600 psi - LH2 Trucks: ~3900 kg - Pipelines: up to 1500 psi (~630 miles in the U.S.) - Refueling Site Operations

  11. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang; Zou Luquan; Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping; Qian Guangren

    2011-02-15

    This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

  12. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  13. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

  14. A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric Analysis of Starch Solutions (1 Activity) A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

  15. Breakdown of hierarchical architecture in cellulose during dilute acid pretreatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yan; Inouye, Hideyo; Yang, Lin; Himmel, Michael E.; Tucker, Melvin; Makowski, Lee

    2015-02-28

    Cellulose is an attractive candidate as a feedstock for sustainable bioenergy because of its global abundance. Pretreatment of biomass has significant influence on the chemical availability of cellulose locked in recalcitrant microfibrils. Optimizing pretreatment depends on an understanding of its impact on the microscale and nanoscale molecular architecture. X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on native and pre-treated maize stover and models of cellulose architecture have been derived from these data. Ultra small-angle, very small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS, VSAXS and SAXS) probe three different levels of architectural scale. USAXS and SAXS have been used to study cellulose at two distinct length scales, modeling the fibrils as ~30 Å diameter rods packed into ~0.14 μm diameter bundles. VSAXS is sensitive to structural features at length scales between these two extremes. Detailed analysis of diffraction patterns from untreated and pretreated maize using cylindrical Guinier plots and the derivatives of these plots reveals the presence of substructures within the ~0.14 μm diameter bundles that correspond to grouping of cellulose approximately 30 nm in diameter. These sub-structures are resilient to dilute acid pretreatments but are sensitive to pretreatment when iron sulfate is added. Lastly, these results provide evidence of the hierarchical arrangement of cellulose at three length scales and the evolution of these arrangements during pre-treatments.

  16. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centikol, Ozgul; Dibble, Dean; Cheng, Gang; Kent, Michael S; Knierim, Manfred; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  17. STEP Participant Financing Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon E5 STEP Participant Financing Options.pdf More Documents & Publications Family Moderate Income Homeowners In New York State Austin's Home Performance with Energy Star ...

  18. Using Backup Generators: Alternative Backup Power Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Using Backup Generators: In preparing for emergencies, in addition to electric generators powered by fuel, homeowners and business owners may consider alternative backup power options

  19. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting ...

  20. Workplace Charging: Comparison of Sustainable Commuting Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Workplace Charging: Comparison of Sustainable Commuting Options November 18, 2014 Austin Brown National Renewable Energy Laboratory vehicles.energy.gov Relevance of ROI ...

  1. Final Report- Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report provides in-depth analysis of various hydrogen delivery options to determine the most cost effective infrastructure and R&D efforts for the long term.

  2. Climate Finance Options Platform | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    comprehensive guidance on financial options available for climate action in developing countries. Here you can find information on where to access the wide range of funds...

  3. Maryland Efficiency Program Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small Town University Energy Program (STEP). E6a Maryland Efficiency Program Options.pdf (206.31 KB) More Documents & Publications STEP Financial Incentives Summary STEP ...

  4. Characterization and Pre-treatment of LLW in Turkey - 12572

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2012-07-01

    Pre-treatment of radioactive waste is the first step in waste management program that occurs after waste generation from various applications in Turkey. Pre-treatment and characterization practices are carried out in Radioactive Waste Management Unit (RWMU) at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNRTC) in Istanbul. This facility has been assigned to take all low-level radioactive wastes generated by nuclear applications in Turkey. The wastes are generated from research and nuclear applications mainly in medicine, biology, agriculture, quality control in metal processing and construction industries. These wastes are classified as low- level radioactive wastes. Pre-treatment practices cover several steps. In this paper, main steps of pre-treatment and characterization are presented. Basically these are; collection, segregation, chemical adjustment, size reduction and decontamination operations. (author)

  5. Horizontal Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diff erent pretreatment chemistry/ residence time combinations are possible using these multiple horizontal-tube reactors * Each tube is indirectly and directly steam heated to temperatures of 150 0 C to 210 0 C * Residence time is varied by changing the speed of the auger that moves the biomass through each tube reactor * Tubes are used individually or in combination to achieve diff erent pretreatment residence times * Smaller tubes made from Hastelloy, an acid-resistant material, are used with

  6. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  7. Breakdown of hierarchical architecture in cellulose during dilute acid pretreatments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yan; Inouye, Hideyo; Yang, Lin; Himmel, Michael E.; Tucker, Melvin; Makowski, Lee

    2015-02-28

    Cellulose is an attractive candidate as a feedstock for sustainable bioenergy because of its global abundance. Pretreatment of biomass has significant influence on the chemical availability of cellulose locked in recalcitrant microfibrils. Optimizing pretreatment depends on an understanding of its impact on the microscale and nanoscale molecular architecture. X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on native and pre-treated maize stover and models of cellulose architecture have been derived from these data. Ultra small-angle, very small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS, VSAXS and SAXS) probe three different levels of architectural scale. USAXS and SAXS have been used to study cellulose atmore » two distinct length scales, modeling the fibrils as ~30 Å diameter rods packed into ~0.14 μm diameter bundles. VSAXS is sensitive to structural features at length scales between these two extremes. Detailed analysis of diffraction patterns from untreated and pretreated maize using cylindrical Guinier plots and the derivatives of these plots reveals the presence of substructures within the ~0.14 μm diameter bundles that correspond to grouping of cellulose approximately 30 nm in diameter. These sub-structures are resilient to dilute acid pretreatments but are sensitive to pretreatment when iron sulfate is added. Lastly, these results provide evidence of the hierarchical arrangement of cellulose at three length scales and the evolution of these arrangements during pre-treatments.« less

  8. Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) Model (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Objectives Estimate the petroleum use impacts of alternative technologies and policies. Estimate future vehicle market share based on infrastructure constraints, consumer preferences, and vehicle attributes. Analyze policy options by considering factors such as vehicle incentives and energy prices. Key Attributes & Strengths The model validates in many relevant dimensions with historical vehicle

  9. Zinc Bromide Waste Solution Treatment Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langston, C.A.

    2001-01-16

    The objective of this effort was to identify treatment options for 20,000 gallons of low-level radioactively contaminated zinc bromide solution currently stored in C-Area. These options will be relevant when the solutions are declared waste.

  10. Method and apparatus for gasifying with a fluidized bed gasifier having integrated pretreating facilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Louis F.

    1981-01-01

    An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahriari, Haleh; Warith, Mostafa; Hamoda, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin J.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP

  12. Policy Option for Hydrogen Vehicles and Infrastructure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stefan Unnasch (408) 517-1563 Unnasch.stefan@tiaxllc.com Daniel Rutherford, Ph.D. (408) 517-1555 Rutherford.daniel@tiaxllc.com Policy Options for Hydrogen Vehicles and Infrastructure January 31, 2007 TIAX, LLC 15 Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140-2390 TIAXLLC.com © 2006 TIAX LLC Posted with permission from TIAX Summary based on NREL Task Order NO. KACX-4-44452-02 Policy Options for Hydrogen Vehicles Presentation Outline 1 1 Background 2 Study methodology 3 Policy options for early

  13. Solar Financing Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Financing Options Solar Financing Options Addthis Description Below is the text version for the "Solar Financing Options" video. The video pans over an image of a neighborhood, before focusing on a home with solar panels on its roof. Text appears: Going solar? Great! Now... how do you pay for it? Dr. Elaine Ulrich Soft Costs Program Manager, SunShot Initiative Typically when someone is interested in going solar, they go online, they try and do a little background research, and

  14. Suppression of alkylating agent induced cell transformation and gastric ulceration by low-dose alkylating agent pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onodera, Akira; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobegakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 ; Kawai, Yuichi; Kashimura, Asako; Ogita, Fumiya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Itoh, Norio

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: Low-dose MNNG pretreatment suppresses high-dose MNNG induced in vitro transformation. Gastric ulcers induced by high-dose MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Efficacy of low-dose MNNG related to resistance of mutation and oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Exposure to mild stress by chemicals and radiation causes DNA damage and leads to acquired stress resistance. Although the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of safety assessment assumes risk from any dose, evidence from radiological research demonstrates a conflicting hormetic phenomenon known as the hormesis effect. However, the mechanisms underlying radiation hormesis have not yet been clarified, and little is known about the effects of low doses of chemical carcinogens. We analyzed the efficacy of pretreatment with low doses of the alkylating agent N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on the subsequent induction of cell transformation and gastric ulceration by high-dose MNNG. We used an in vitro Balb/3T3 A31-1-1 cell transformation test and monitored the formation of gastric ulcers in 5-week-old male ICR mice that were administered MNNG in drinking water. The treatment concentrations of MNNG were determined by the cell survival rate and past reports. For low-dose in vitro and in vivo experiments, MNNG was used at 0.028 ?M, and 2.8 ?g/mL, respectively. The frequency of cell transformation induced by 10 ?m MNNG was decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment to levels similar to that of spontaneous transformation. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutation frequencies induced by 10 ?m MNNG were decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Importantly, low-dose MNNG pretreatment had no effect on cell proliferation. In vivo studies showed that the number of gastric ulcers induced by 1 mg/mL MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. These data indicate that low-dose pretreatment with carcinogens may play a beneficial role in the prevention of chemical toxicity under

  15. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ? The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ? Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ? Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 1021%. ? Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied to

  16. The Five-Step Development Process Step 2: Project Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Project Options 2 2 Design 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 2 Options 5 Operations & Maintenance Presentation Agenda * Step 2: Project Options * Project members and roles * Activity * Project ownership options - Interconnection, net metering, permitting, and considerations * Tools * Case in Point 3 Potential Options Refinement Implementation Operations & Maintenance 4 Step 2: Roles, Business Structures, & Regulatory Considerations Purpose: Determine ownership structure

  17. Green Energy Options Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Energy Options Ltd Place: Cambridge, England, United Kingdom Zip: CB23 7QS Product: Cambridge, UK-based developer of in-home displays...

  18. EVALUATION OF TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS FOR INTERMEDIATE NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, Susan; Hoggard, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.”

  19. Remote Access Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remote Access Options Remote Access Options A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a private connection between two resources that uses the public telecommunication infrastructure. It maintains privacy through the use of a tunneling protocol and security procedures and provides the following abilities. * Messaging via Outlook Web Access (OWA) * Remote desktop and application access via VDI and Citrix(tm) Workplace * Secure access to DOE Headquarters mission-specific internal network resources

  20. Integrating water supply and efficient use options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendy, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses a new planning process that includes water use efficiency measures, new technologies, and traditional supply options. As water agencies gain experience in influencing customer water use amounts and patterns, the agencies need to incorporate these changes into their planning process. Here is a description of process used successfully by electric and natural gas utilities to compare and select among both supply-side and demand-side resource options.

  1. Public Bonding Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bonding Options Public Bonding Options Traditionally, state and local governments (as well as certain other nonprofit organizations such as universities and hospitals) have had the ability to issue debt, in the form of bonds, to finance construction and/or improvements to public infrastructure. Bonds issued by state and local governments-often referred to as municipal or public bonds-can also be used, under certain circumstances for private activities. Public bonds vary by tax liability, as well

  2. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  3. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  4. Automatic Deployment Options Projection Tool (ADOPT) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Options Projection Tool (ADOPT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Automotive Deployment Options Projection Tool (ADOPT) AgencyCompany Organization: National...

  5. Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy Options for Africa...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Options for Africa Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy Options for Africa AgencyCompany Organization:...

  6. Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Varies (local option) Program Info Sector Name State State Alaska Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Varies (local option) Summary Alaska enacted legislation in...

  7. Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options Agency...

  8. Brochure HI Standards Subscription Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HI Standards Subscription Options Brochure HI Standards Subscription Options HI's Web-based Standards "packages" will provide you with all of the Standards appropriate for a...

  9. Sept. 24 Webinar to Introduce Two Options for Financing Tribal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sept. 24 Webinar to Introduce Two Options for Financing Tribal Energy Projects Sept. 24 Webinar to Introduce Two Options for Financing Tribal Energy Projects September 22, 2014 -...

  10. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation ...

  11. DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate WIPP DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate WIPP January 18, 2005 - ...

  12. Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation ...

  13. FERC Order No. 2003 Appendix 5 - Optional Interconnection Study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 - Optional Interconnection Study Agreement Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: FERC Order No. 2003 Appendix 5 - Optional Interconnection...

  14. Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study (Redirected from ESMAP-Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study) Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-ESMAP Low Carbon...

  15. Primer on Clean Energy Lending: The Major Components and Options...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Primer on Clean Energy Lending: The Major Components and Options Primer on Clean Energy Lending: The Major Components and Options PDF icon Chapter 1: Primer on Clean Energy...

  16. Brochure HI Standards Subscription Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HI Standards Subscription Options Brochure HI Standards Subscription Options HI's Web-based Standards "packages" will provide you with all of the Standards appropriate for a ...

  17. Separations/pretreatment considerations for Hanford privatization phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Tank Focus Area is funded to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies that will assist in the treatment and closure of its nuclear waste tanks. Pretreatment technologies developed to support the privatization effort by the Department of Energy are reviewed. Advancements in evaporation, solid-liquid separation, sludge treatment, solids controls, sodium management, and radionuclide removal are considered.

  18. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

  19. Lattice Design for ERL Options at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nosochkov, Yuri; Cai, Yunhai; Huang, Xiaobiao; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    SLAC is investigating long-range options for building a high performance light source machine while reusing the existing linac and PEP-II tunnels. One previously studied option is the PEP-X low emittance storage ring. The alternative option is based on a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and the PEP-X design. The ERL advantages are the low beam emittance, short bunch length and small energy spread leading to better qualities of the X-ray beams. Two ERL configurations differed by the location of the linac have been studied. Details of the lattice design and the results of beam transport simulations with the coherent synchrotron radiation effects are presented.

  20. High-Power Options for LANSCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garnett, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The LANSCE linear accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long history of successful beam operations at 800 kW. We have recently studied options for restoration of high-power operations including approaches for increasing the performance to multi-MW levels. In this paper we will discuss the results of this study including the present limitations of the existing accelerating structures at LANSCE, and the high-voltage and RF systems that drive them. Several options will be discussed and a preferred option will be presented that will enable the first in a new generation of scientific facilities for the materials community. The emphasis of this new facility is 'Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes' (MaRIE) which will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges.

  1. Chemical, mechanical treatment options reduce hydroprocessor fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groce, B.C.

    1996-01-29

    The processing of opportunity crudes and the need to meet stricter environmental regulations in the production of distillates and finished fuels have increased the benefit of the hydroprocessing unit to the refiner. With this potential for increased margins and more environmentally friendly fuel products comes increased risk of fouling in hydroprocessing units. Increased fouling can reduce unit reliability and increase maintenance and operating costs. The refiner has several options available to help minimize the fouling and maximize the unit`s profitability and flexibility. One of the two commonly selected options is to allocate capital for a mechanical solution to address a specific cause of fouling. The other option is the use of a chemical treatment program. This paper reviews the efficiency and implementation procedures for these two processes.

  2. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Nuclear Testing Archive Fee Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Testing Archive > Fee Schedule NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Nuclear Testing Archive (NTA) Fee Schedule The U.S. Department of Energy ...

  3. EIS-0123: Direct Service Industry Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BPA proposes to implement one or more options to reduce load fluctuations and revenue uncertainty resulting from its electrical service to 10 aluminum smelters and its other direct service industrial customers. BPA believes these options will give BPA greater ability to plan for power needs and help to maintain its relatively strong financial position during the current period of power surplus. They also are expected to enhance BPA's ability to repay the U.S. Treasury. In turn, BPA rates to other customers would stabilize.

  4. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, John B.; Floyd, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

  5. NREL Breaks New Ground in Plant Pretreatment for Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    NREL researchers use imaging technologies to broaden knowledge of plant cell wall structures and identify ideal pretreatment of plant material.

  6. Comparative Study of Corn Stover Pretreated by Dilute Acid and Cellulose Solvent-Based Lignocellulose Fractionation: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Supramolecular Structure, and Substrate Accessibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Z.; Sathitsuksanoh, N.; Vinzant, T.; Schell, D. J.; McMillian, J. D.; Zhang, Y. H. P.

    2009-07-01

    Liberation of fermentable sugars from recalcitrant biomass is among the most costly steps for emerging cellulosic ethanol production. Here we compared two pretreatment methods (dilute acid, DA, and cellulose solvent and organic solvent lignocellulose fractionation, COSLIF) for corn stover. At a high cellulase loading [15 filter paper units (FPUs) or 12.3 mg cellulase per gram of glucan], glucan digestibilities of the corn stover pretreated by DA and COSLIF were 84% at hour 72 and 97% at hour 24, respectively. At a low cellulase loading (5 FPUs per gram of glucan), digestibility remained as high as 93% at hour 24 for the COSLIF-pretreated corn stover but reached only {approx}60% for the DA-pretreated biomass. Quantitative determinations of total substrate accessibility to cellulase (TSAC), cellulose accessibility to cellulase (CAC), and non-cellulose accessibility to cellulase (NCAC) based on adsorption of a non-hydrolytic recombinant protein TGC were measured for the first time. The COSLIF-pretreated corn stover had a CAC of 11.57 m{sup 2}/g, nearly twice that of the DA-pretreated biomass (5.89 m{sup 2}/g). These results, along with scanning electron microscopy images showing dramatic structural differences between the DA- and COSLIF-pretreated samples, suggest that COSLIF treatment disrupts microfibrillar structures within biomass while DA treatment mainly removes hemicellulose. Under the tested conditions COSLIF treatment breaks down lignocellulose structure more extensively than DA treatment, producing a more enzymatically reactive material with a higher CAC accompanied by faster hydrolysis rates and higher enzymatic digestibility.

  7. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Option Analysis Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis Presentation on hydrogen delivery infrastructure option analysis prepared for DOE. wkshp_storage_chen.pdf (1.13 MB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Delivery Options and Issues H2A Delivery Models and Results Potential Carriers and Approaches for Hydrogen Delivery

  8. Hydrogen Production: Overview of Technology Options, January 2009

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Overview of technology options for hydrogen production, its challenges and research needs and next steps

  9. Forecourt Storage and Compression Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage and Compression Options Forecourt Storage and Compression Options Presentation by Mark Richards on forecourt storage and compression options. wkshp_storage_richards.pdf (832.74 KB) More Documents & Publications H2A Delivery: Forecourt Compression & Storage Optimization (Part II) H2A Delivery Models and Results Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis

  10. WPN 93-6- Fifth Quarter Option for Weatherization Funding

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To establish procedures for optional fifth quarter application and funding for states in Program Year 1993.

  11. RTGs Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    A small spacecraft design for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) Mission is under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for a possible launch as early as 1998. JPL's 1992 baseline design calls for a power source able to furnish an energy output of 3963 kWh and a power output of 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. Satisfying those demands is made difficult because NASA management has set a goal of reducing the spacecraft mass from a baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for the power source. To support the ongoing NASA/JPL studies, the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) commissioned Fairchild Space to prepare and analyze conceptual designs of radioisotope power systems for the PFF mission. Thus far, a total of eight options employing essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules were designed and subjected to thermal, electrical, structural, and mass analyses by Fairchild. Five of these - employing thermoelectric converters - are described in the present paper, and three - employing free-piston Stirling converters - are described in the companion paper presented next. The system masses of the thermoelectric options ranged from 19.3 kg to 10.2 kg. In general, the options requiring least development are the heaviest, and the lighter options require more development with greater programmatic risk. There are four duplicate copies

  12. Finding the cheapest Clean power options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casten, Thomas R.; Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2009-12-15

    Speculation about why policies favor high-cost low-carbon generation options could fill a book. Vested interests? Lack of knowledge? Industry lobbying? Cost-plus regulatory mentality? Regardless of reasons, the data show that efficient generation that uses energy twice is largely ignored. While all other generation, both clean and dirty, receives large subsidies, energy recycling is ignored. (author)

  13. NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

    2010-10-19

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  14. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Patton, Bruce W; Howard, Rob L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  15. Pretreatment of solid carbonaceous material with dicarboxylic aromatic acids to prevent scale formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a pretreating agent selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic acid and pyromellitic anhydride. The pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding phthalate and/or pyromellitate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1 to about 2 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 5.degree. to about 80.degree. C.

  16. Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G J; Swanson, J L

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the status of process development for pretreating Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge, of which [approximately] 3.3 [times] 10[sup 6] L is stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW at the Hanford Site. The initial baseline process chosen for pretreating NCRW sludge is to dissolve the sludge in nitric acid and extract the -transuranic (MU) elements from the dissolved sludge solution with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CNWO). This process converts the NCRW sludge into a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW) to be disposed of as grout, leaving only a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) requiring vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP).

  17. In-tank pretreatment of high-level tank wastes: The SIPS system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Barletta, R.

    1996-03-01

    A new approach, termed SIPS (Small In-Tank Processing System), that enables the in-tank processing and separation of high-level tank wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) streams that are suitable for vitrification, is described. Presently proposed pretreatment systems, such as enhanced sludge washing (ESW) and TRUEX, require that the high-level tank wastes be retrieved and pumped to a large, centralized processing facility, where the various waste components are separated into a relatively small, radioactively concentrated stream (HLW), and a relatively large, predominantly non-radioactive stream (LLW). In SIPS, a small process module, typically on the order of 1 meter in diameter and 4 meters in length, is inserted into a tank. During a period of approximately six months, it processes the solid/liquid materials in the tank, separating them into liquid HLW and liquid LLW output streams that are pumped away in two small diameter (typically 3 cm o.d.) pipes. The SIPS concept appears attractive for pretreating high level wastes, since it would: (1) process waste in-situ in the tanks, (2) be cheaper and more reliable than a larger centralized facility, (3) be quickly demonstrable at full scale, (4) have less technical risk, (5) avoid having to transfer unstable slurries for long distances, and (6) be simple to decommission and dispose of. Further investigation of the SIPS concept appears desirable, including experimental testing and development of subscale demonstration units.

  18. Nanoporous Membranes for Pretreatment of Lignocellulose and Other

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanoporous Membranes for Pretreatment of Lignocellulose and Other Applications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Final 12-G00208_2406.pdf (1,333 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at ORNL have developed an

  19. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.N.

    1986-10-14

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

  20. Pretreatment Methods for Biomass Conversion into Biofuels and Biopolymers -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Pretreatment Methods for Biomass Conversion into Biofuels and Biopolymers National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryHydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using an acid catalyst to produce sugars has been known for decades but can be costly and requires special equipment. The hydrolyzed sugars themselves are somewhat labile to the

  1. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  2. MCNP6 Cosmic-Source Option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, Gregg W; Armstrong, Hirotatsu; James, Michael R; Clem, John; Goldhagen, Paul

    2012-06-19

    MCNP is a Monte Carlo radiation transport code that has been under development for over half a century. Over the last decade, the development team of a high-energy offshoot of MCNP, called MCNPX, has implemented several physics and algorithm improvements important for modeling galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) interactions with matter. In this presentation, we discuss the latest of these improvements, a new Cosmic-Source option, that has been implemented in MCNP6.

  3. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  4. DOE Announces $11 Million for Seven New Projects to Test New...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for Seven New Projects to Test New Options for Optimal Efficiency of the U.S. Electric Grid DOE Announces 11 Million for Seven New Projects to Test New Options for Optimal ...

  5. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion

  6. Seawater magnetohydrodynamic test apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, J.

    1993-02-11

    Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a hydrodynamic test facility suitable for low turbulence and low radiated noise experiments. It is another object to provide a hydrodynamic test facility having no moving parts in the water flow path. It is yet another to provide a hydrodynamic test facility having a water flow powered by a magnetohydrodynamic pump. Accordingly, the invention is a hydrodynamic test facility using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) drive unit to provide the force necessary to circulate water in the test loop section. The test loop is fed by water from a pretreatment section which mixes seawater and tapwater to provide the desired salinity. A post-treatment section neutralizes emitted chlorine gases.

  7. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  8. Local Option- Property Tax Credit for High Performance Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Similar to Maryland's Local Option Property Tax Credit for Renewable Energy, Title 9 of Maryland's property tax code creates an optional property tax credit for high performance buildings. This...

  9. Tool to Compare Solar Energy Program Financing Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This model is intended to be used for internal discussion purposes and should be used only as a guideline for evaluating the options. The costs for the three options are automatically updated when changes are made to the Key Assumptions.

  10. Rapid Cycling Synchrotron Option for Project X (Conference) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotron Option for Project X Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Cycling Synchrotron Option for Project X This paper presents an 8 GeV Rapid Cycling ...

  11. DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Options for Community Living by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Options for Community Living by United Way of Long Island DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Options for Community Living by United Way of Long Island DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: ...

  12. Security is Not an Option | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Security is Not an Option A 10-year roadmap for achieving control system cyber security in ... Security is Not an Option (2.95 MB) More Documents & Publications Roadmap to Secure ...

  13. SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

    2009-10-01

    Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

  14. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  15. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems (August 20, 2009) (494.7 KB) More

  16. Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Objectives: Identify business opportunities and valuation of strategic options for the natural gas industry as hydrogen energy systems evolve.

  17. Recommendation 186: Option Periods in Prime Contract Language

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The inclusion of option periods in the language of all future DOE Request for Proposals for prime contracts when appropriate.

  18. Cost comparison of materials options for hydroprocessing effluent equipment and piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shargay, C.A.; Lewis, K.R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper reviews and compares various materials options for hydroprocessing reactor effluent air coolers and piping. Cost data on piping, fittings and tube materials, and total installed costs for fabrication are included. The economic impact of special materials and design requirements are discussed along with details on welding and nondestructive testing specifications.

  19. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murto, Marika; Björnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Håkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ► Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ► Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ► Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ► We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  20. State Policy Options for Renewable Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Options for Renewable Energy State Policy Options for Renewable Energy Matthew H. Brown Energy Program Director National Conference of State Legislatures. September 2003 State Policy Options for Renewable Energy (1.52 MB) More Documents & Publications 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report The RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARD RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARD

  1. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter Citation Details ... measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter This newsletter ...

  2. OPTIONAL I-""... ..o SD

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    OPTIONAL I-""... ..o SD , * ' y)IP-lW ' a * UNITED S T A T E S COVEKNMENT TO : Files DATE: September 25, 1962 M o m 4' Materials Branch; Division of Licensing & Regulation SUBJECT: PRE-LICENSING VISIT TO THE CONTEMPORARY METALS CORPORATION PROPOSED FACILITY AT HAZELWOOD, M ISSOURI, AND RESIDUE STOCKPILES AT ROBERTSON, M ISSOURI, DOCKET NO, 40-6811 The Contemporary Metals Corporation was awarded a contract by the AEC for the removal of uranium -bearing residues from stock- pile

  3. Options to Decarbonize our Energy System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Options to Decarbonize our Energy System Arun Majumdar Stanford University Global Per Capita GDP Coal Oil Gas Biomass Global Atmospheric CO 2 Concentration Global Energy Use Global Exponentials Global Population 2015 7B 10B 16B 6B 2100 How can we decarbonize our energy system and continue economic growth? Energy Dense Fuel With CO 2 Capture Carbon-Free Electricity 20 40 60 80 100 120 2008 2010 2012 2014 '15 $20/MWh US Natural Gas & China Coal US Coal & Nuclear Contract Price $/MWh

  4. POLICY OPTIONS FOR FCV MARKET INTRODUCTION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    K.G. Duleep Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. www.eea-inc.com POLICY OPTIONS FOR FCV MARKET INTRODUCTION Prepared for: Hydrogen 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis Meeting Introduction Phases Phase 1 - sales of few hundred FCVs per year. Cost of vehicles will be 5 x over average vehicle and refueling infrastructure will be in an urban area. Phase 2 - ten to twenty thousand FCVs per model and one/two models per major manufacturer. Cost of vehicles will be 2 x over average vehicle, and urban and

  5. Distillation: Still towering over other options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunesh, J.G.; Kister, H.Z.; Lockett, M.J.; Fair, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

  6. Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyman, Charles; Balan, Venkatech; Dale, Bruce E.; Elander, Richard; Falls, Matthew; Hames, Bonnie; Holtzapple, Mark; Ladisch, Michael R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mosier, Nathan; Pallapolu, Venkata R.; Shi, Jian; Warner, Ryan E.

    2011-06-16

    Dilute sulfuric acid (DA), sulfur dioxide (SO2), liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments were applied to Alamo, Dacotah, and Shawnee switchgrass. Application of the same analytical methods and material balance approaches facil-itated meaningful comparisons of glucose and xylose yields from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Use of a common supply of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase also eased comparisons. All pretreatments enhanced sugar recovery from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis substantially compared to untreated switchgrass. Adding beta-glucosidase was effective early in enzy-matic hydrolysis while cellobiose levels were high but had limited effect on longer term yields at the enzyme loadings applied. Adding xylanase improved yields most for higher pH pretreatments where more xylan was left in the solids. Harvest time had more impact on performance than switchgrass variety, and microscopy showed changes in different features could impact performance by different pretreatments.

  7. Progress with the COGENT Edge Kinetic Code: Collision operator options

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dorf, M. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Compton, J. C.; Dorr, M.; Rognlien, T. D.; Angus, J.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Colella, P.; Martin, D.; McCorquodale, P.

    2012-06-27

    In this study, COGENT is a continuum gyrokinetic code for edge plasmas being developed by the Edge Simulation Laboratory collaboration. The code is distinguished by application of the fourth order conservative discretization, and mapped multiblock grid technology to handle the geometric complexity of the tokamak edge. It is written in v∥-μ (parallel velocity – magnetic moment) velocity coordinates, and making use of the gyrokinetic Poisson equation for the calculation of a self-consistent electric potential. In the present manuscript we report on the implementation and initial testing of a succession of increasingly detailed collision operator options, including a simple drag-diffusion operatormore » in the parallel velocity space, Lorentz collisions, and a linearized model Fokker-Planck collision operator conserving momentum and energy (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)« less

  8. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  9. EERE Success Story-Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale | Department of Energy Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale EERE Success Story-Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale June 3, 2014 - 10:50am Addthis DOE-funded researchers have shown that a new, highly effective pretreatment process used in the production of biofuel can be executed at a larger scale than ever achieved before. Before biofuel can be

  10. Energy storage options for space power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Martin, J.F.; Olszewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    Including energy storage in a space power supply enhances the feasibility of using thermal power cycles (Rankine or Brayton) and providing high-power pulses. Review of storage options (superconducting magnets, capacitors, electrochemical batteries, thermal phase-change materials (PCM), and flywheels) suggests that flywheels and phase-change devices hold the most promise. Latent heat storage using inorganic salts and metallic eutectics offers thermal energy storage densities of 1500 to 2000 kJ/kg at temperatures to 1675/sup 0/K. Innovative techniques allow these media to operate in direct contact with the heat engine working fluid. Enhancing thermal conductivity and/or modifying PCM crystallization habit provide other options. Flywheels of low-strain graphite and Kevlar fibers have achieved mechanical energy storage densities of 300 kJ/kg. With high-strain graphite fibers, storage densities appropriate to space power needs (approx. 550 kJ/kg) seem feasible. Coupling advanced flywheels with emerging high power density homopolar generators and compulsators could result in electric pulse-power storage modules of significantly higher energy density.

  11. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  12. Integration of Leading Biomass Pretreatment Technologies with Enzymatic Digestion and Hydrolyzate Fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    The goal of this project is to develop comprehensive performance information on a common basis on integrated biomass pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation systems.

  13. High Throughput Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis of Biomass: Screening Recalcitrance in Large Sample Populations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, S. R.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on the execution of the first high-throughput thermochemical pretreatment/enzyme digestion pipeline for screening biomass for recalcitrance.

  14. EVALUATION OF AP-FARM SIMULANT COMPOSITION FOR ROTARY MICROFILTER TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUBER HJ

    2011-09-19

    This document identifies the feed composition of a Hanford AP tank farm simulant for rotary microfiltration testing. The composition is based on an Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model run in combination with Tank Waste Information Network (TWINS) data and mineralogical studies of actual waste solids. The feed simulant is intended to be used in test runs at SRNL. The simulant will be prepared in two parts: (1) A supernate, composed of water-soluble salts and (2) The undissolved (actually, undissolvable) solids. Test slurries with distinct solids concentrations (e.g., 0.5, 5 and 10 wt%) are then prepared as needed. The base for the composition of supernate and solids is the modeled feed sequence for a deployment scenario of the Supplemental Pretreatment units within AP-farm. These units comprise a filtration part, the RMF, and a Cesium-removal part, a Small Column Ion Exchange. The primary use of this simulant is for filtration testing - however, in case that it is also used for ion-exchange tests, the amount of Cs-137 that would need to be added is available in Table 1 and Attachment 3. A modified model run (MMR-049) of the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) system plan 6 case 3 was performed to identify the feed sequence. Case 3 assumed supplemental treatment besides the low activity waste (LAW) melter with supplemental pretreatment supporting the pretreatment facility. The MMR did not cap the duration of supplemental pretreatment to 15 months, but rather used it throughout the entire treatment mission as an add-on option to the pretreatment facility at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tank 241-AP-105 (AP-105) was chosen as the feed tank to the filtration unit. Other parameters included a fixed minimum of 0.5 wt% solids in the feed and a maximum Na-concentration of 5M in the supernate. The solids rejection from the filtration unit was set to 99.99% and the maximum allowed amount of solids within tank AP-105 was set

  15. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous salt concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.

  16. Online residence time distribution measurement of thermochemical biomass pretreatment reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sievers, David A.; Kuhn, Erik M.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    Residence time is a critical parameter that strongly affects the product profile and overall yield achieved from thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass during production of liquid transportation fuels. The residence time distribution (RTD) is one important measure of reactor performance and provides a metric to use when evaluating changes in reactor design and operating parameters. An inexpensive and rapid RTD measurement technique was developed to measure the residence time characteristics in biomass pretreatment reactors and similar equipment processing wet-granular slurries. Sodium chloride was pulsed into the feed entering a 600 kg/d pilot-scale reactor operated at various conditions, and aqueous saltmore » concentration was measured in the discharge using specially fabricated electrical conductivity instrumentation. This online conductivity method was superior in both measurement accuracy and resource requirements compared to offline analysis. Experimentally measured mean residence time values were longer than estimated by simple calculation and screw speed and throughput rate were investigated as contributing factors. In conclusion, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the mean residence time as a function of operating parameters and enabled improved agreement.« less

  17. EVALUATION OF SUPPLEMENTAL PRE-TREATMENT DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS TO MEET TRL 6 ROTARY MICROFILTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUBER HJ

    2011-10-03

    In spring 2011, the Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) for the Supplemental Treatment Project (RPP-PLAN-49827, Rev. 0), Technology Maturation Plan for the Treatment Project (T4S01) was developed. This plan contains all identified actions required to reach technical maturity for a field-deployable waste feed pretreatment system. The supplemental pretreatment system has a filtration and a Cs-removal component. Subsequent to issuance of the TMP, rotary microfiltration (RMF) has been identified as the prime filtration technology for this application. The prime Cs-removal technology is small column ion exchange (ScIX) using spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) as the exchange resin. During fiscal year 2011 (FY2011) some of the tasks identified in the TMP have been completed. As of September 2011, the conceptual design package has been submitted to DOE as part of the critical decision (CD-1) process. This document describes the remaining tasks identified in the TMP to reach technical maturity and evaluates the validity of the proposed tests to fill the gaps as previously identified in the TMP. The potential vulnerabilities are presented and the completed list of criteria for the DOE guide DOE G 413.3-4 different technology readiness levels are added in an attachment. This evaluation has been conducted from a technology development perspective - all programmatic and manufacturing aspects were excluded from this exercise. Compliance with the DOE G 413.3-4 programmatic and manufacturing requirements will be addressed directly by the Treatment Project during the course of engineering design. The results of this evaluation show that completion of the proposed development tasks in the TMP are sufficient to reach TRL 6 from a technological point of view. The tasks involve actual waste tests using the current baseline configuration (2nd generation disks, 40 psi differential pressure, 30 C feed temperature) and three different simulants - the PEP, an AP-Farm and an S

  18. Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of contamination from heavy metals. The Berkeley Pit, a large, inactive, open pit copper mine located in Butte, Montana, along with its associated groundwater system, has been selected by the RRP for use as a feedstock for a test bed facility located there. The test bed facility provides the infrastructure needed to evaluate promising technologies at the pilot plant scale. Data obtained from testing these technologies was used to assess their applicability for similar mine drainage water applications throughout the western states and at DOE. The objective of the Clean Option project is to develop strategies that provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to resource recovery using the Berkeley Pit water as a feedstock. The strategies not only consider the immediate problem of resource recovery from the contaminated water, but also manage the subsequent treatment of all resulting process streams. The strategies also employ the philosophy of waste minimization to optimize reduction of the waste volume requiring disposal, and the recovery and reuse of processing materials.

  19. JAPAN: Refining options and liberalization plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Totto, L.; Isaak, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    The reformulation of Japan's petroleum import policy is important to Japan and to the international energy community. The technical and economic factors involved in opening the Japanese market is unknown. Assuming that foreign refiners have the technical capability to meet Japanese product specifications, the prices and volumes that will prove economical to both parties are also little known. Japanese refiners have been investigating the possibility of exporting gasoline and processing crude for China and Malaysia. The study demonstrates that under certain trade policies, Japan could become a significant product exporter. This study's purpose is to investigate the economic efficiency of alternative petroleum supply options, i.e., combining Japan's refining and product imports. An evaluation of the current import program and the technically feasible alternatives will play a major role in a new import policy. For this evaluation, a linear programming (LP) model of Japan's domestic refinery capacity and the petroleum import system was constructed. 3 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  1. Least cost options for life extension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, F.; Bradaric, M.

    1995-12-01

    Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

  2. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-08-12

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  3. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation. Volume 2, Detailed description of first example flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Disposal of high-level tank wastes at the Hanford Site is currently envisioned to divide the waste between two principal waste forms: glass for the high-level waste (HLW) and grout for the low-level waste (LLW). The draft flow diagram shown in Figure 1.1 was developed as part of the current planning process for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), which is evaluating options for tank cleanup. The TWRS has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage the Hanford tank wastes. It includes tank safety and waste disposal issues, as well as the waste pretreatment and waste minimization issues that are involved in the ``clean option`` discussed in this report. This report describes the results of a study led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine if a more aggressive separations scheme could be devised which could mitigate concerns over the quantity of the HLW and the toxicity of the LLW produced by the reference system. This aggressive scheme, which would meet NRC Class A restrictions (10 CFR 61), would fit within the overall concept depicted in Figure 1.1; it would perform additional and/or modified operations in the areas identified as interim storage, pretreatment, and LLW concentration. Additional benefits of this scheme might result from using HLW and LLW disposal forms other than glass and grout, but such departures from the reference case are not included at this time. The evaluation of this aggressive separations scheme addressed institutional issues such as: radioactivity remaining in the Hanford Site LLW grout, volume of HLW glass that must be shipped offsite, and disposition of appropriate waste constituents to nonwaste forms.

  4. NREL: Climate Neutral Research Campuses - Analyze Technology Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analyze Technology Options An effective climate action plan follows a portfolio approach and addresses each energy sector on campus. This section outlines how various technology options would fit into a campus climate action plan and provides examples of how others have used these technologies. Links to definitions, technology basics, and references are also provided. Use the Climate Action Planning Tool to identify which options will lead to the most significant reductions in consumption of

  5. TOLEDO BETTERS BUILDINGS WITH FINANCING OPTIONS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TOLEDO BETTERS BUILDINGS WITH FINANCING OPTIONS TOLEDO BETTERS BUILDINGS WITH FINANCING OPTIONS TOLEDO BETTERS BUILDINGS WITH FINANCING OPTIONS In June 2010, northwestern Ohio was recovering from a period of both high unemployment and a substantial drop in business activity associated with the nationwide recession. With utility prices for electricity and natural gas at record lows, building energy efficiency improvements were a tough sell. Using $15 million in seed funding from the U.S.

  6. Expanding Options for Nuclear Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Expanding Options for Nuclear Power Expanding Options for Nuclear Power April 15, 2013 - 10:12am Addthis The development of clean, affordable nuclear power options is a key element of the Energy Department's Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. As a part of this strategy, a high priority of the Department has been to help accelerate the timelines for the commercialization and deployment of small modular reactor (SMR) technologies through the SMR Licensing Technical Support program. |

  7. EERE Success Story-Helping Policymakers Evaluate Distributed Wind Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Helping Policymakers Evaluate Distributed Wind Options EERE Success Story-Helping Policymakers Evaluate Distributed Wind Options April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis With EERE support, eFormative Options is helping policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers evaluate the effectiveness of policies that promote distributed wind-wind turbines installed at homes, farms, and busi-nesses. Distributed wind allows Americans to generate their own clean electricity and cut

  8. Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting Document details lighting technologies that provide low-maintenance alternatives to high-pressure sodium lighting. Download the document detailing effective white light options for parking area lighting. (189.54 KB) More Documents & Publications LED Provides Effective and Efficient Parking Area Lighting at the NAVFAC Engineering Service Center Demonstration Assessment of

  9. Introduction to off grid energy options for RE systems | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Phase: Evaluate Options Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access Resource Type: Guidemanual User Interface: Website...

  10. Technical Options for Processing Additional Light Tight Oil Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Technical Options for Processing Additional Light Tight Oil Volumes within the United ... for Processing Additional Light Tight Oil Volumes within the United States i This ...

  11. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity ...

  12. Mandatory Utility Green Power Option | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    those not rate-regulated by the Iowa Utilities Board (IUB), are required to offer green power options to their customers. These programs allow customers to make voluntary...

  13. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Option Catalog SAND2015-2174 W

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    benefits and challenges of nuclear fuel cycle options (i.e., the complete nuclear ... of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. ...

  14. Measurement and Verification Options for Federal Energy- and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Energy Management Program measurement and ... engineering analysis of measurements of the most critical parameter. Option B: Retrofit Isolation or System-Level ...

  15. Directory of Standard, Optional and Other Agency Forms

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1989-12-12

    The directive lists the Directory of Standard, Optional and Other Agency Forms and includes a list of Departmental reports and forms managers. Cancels DOE 1322.4A.

  16. Mandatory Utility Green Power Option | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mandatory Utility Green Power Option New Mexico Utility Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Fuel Cells Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy Hydrogen Landfill Gas Photovoltaics...

  17. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POWDERED ACTIVATED...

  18. How to implement renewable energy and energy efficiency options...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    implement renewable energy and energy efficiency options Support for South African local government Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: How to implement...

  19. Winnebago Tribe - Wind Feasibility Project and Energy Options...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Leah Hunter, Energy Committee Member, Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Tracey LeBeau, Red ... Management Facilities Project Consultant: Red Mountain Energy Partners Energy Options ...

  20. Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and their...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on ... What's New? * Additional Alternative Transportation Vehicles ... is in competing demand for fuel * Still an internal ...

  1. UNDP-Climate Finance Options Platform | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Topics: Finance Website: www.climatefinanceoptions.orgcfo Cost: Free UNDP-Climate Finance Options Platform Screenshot References: UNDP-Climate Finance...

  2. Mandatory Utility Green Power Option | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Digestion Program Info Sector Name State State Virginia Program Type Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Summary Virginia passed legislation (S.B. 1416) in April 2007 that...

  3. Energy Efficiency Policy Rules: Options and Alternatives for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Policy Rules: Options and Alternatives for Illinois Chuck Goldman (LBNL) & Rich Sedano (RAP). ICC Staff Workshop. Chicago, Illinois. November 6, 2006 PDF icon ...

  4. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity ... This research explores the effectiveness of the historical and current body of policies in ...

  5. Lease Option Increases Rooftop Solar's Appeal, Study Says - News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lease Option Increases Rooftop Solar's Appeal, Study Says Low Down Payment, Immediate Savings, Lure a New, Less Affluent Demographic January 20, 2012 Rooftop solar panels are ...

  6. Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-ESMAP Low Carbon Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector...

  7. Memorandum, Protective Force Career Options Committee- July 23, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On March 31,2009, this office commissioned a study to examine career opportunities and retirement options for the Department of Energy (DOE) protective force members.

  8. COX-2 verexpression in pretreatment biopsies predicts response of rectal cancers to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Fraser M.; Reynolds, John V. . E-mail: reynoldsjv@stjames.ie; Kay, Elaine W.; Crotty, Paul; Murphy, James O.; Hollywood, Donal; Gaffney, Eoin F.; Stephens, Richard B.; Kennedy, M. John

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the utility of COX-2 expression as a response predictor for patients with rectal cancer who are undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment biopsies (PTB) from 49 patients who underwent RCT were included. COX-2 and proliferation in PTB were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL stain. Response to treatment was assessed by a 5-point tumor-regression grade (TRG) based on the ratio of residual tumor to fibrosis. Results: Good response (TRG 1 + 2), moderate response (TRG 3), and poor response (TRG 4 + 5) were seen in 21 patients (42%), 11 patients (22%), and 17 patients (34%), respectively. Patients with COX-2 overexpression in PTB were more likely to demonstrate moderate or poor response (TRG 3 + 4) to treatment than were those with normal COX-2 expression (p = 0.026, chi-square test). Similarly, poor response was more likely if patients had low levels of spontaneous apoptosis in PTBs (p = 0.0007, chi-square test). Conclusions: COX-2 overexpression and reduced apoptosis in PTB can predict poor response of rectal cancer to RCT. As COX-2 inhibitors are commercially available, their administration to patients who overexpress COX-2 warrants assessment in clinical trials in an attempt to increase overall response rates.

  9. Evaluation of passive solar retrofit options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-David, S.; Kirchemen, C.; Martin, S.; Noll, S.; Roach, F.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation framework has been developed which allows for the assessment of the role of passive solar retrofit in the nationwide reduction of conventional fuel use. Three types of analysis are proposed within this framework: the physical/technical capability of the present housing stock to incorporate passive solar retrofit; the economic feasibility of the application of retrofit designs; and the actual market potential or acceptance of these alternative retrofit options. Each type of analysis has specific data requirements and a series of evaluation procedures to help establish estimates of the potential for passive solar retrofit in the present housing stock. The data requirements with their respective sources and evaluation procedures for the first two types of analysis-physical/technical setting and economic feasibility, are examined. A distinction is drawn between community specific case studies and more generalized national assessments. Information derived from these three types of analysis, whether case specific or national in scope, can then be used in an evaluation of potential economic impacts. The establishment of regional economic benefits and costs werve as a measure of the merit or attractiveness of the implementation of a passive solar retrofit program.

  10. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected.

  11. Simulation test of aerosol generation from vessels in the pre-treatment system of fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujine, Sachio; Kitamura, Koichiro; Kihara, Takehiro

    1997-08-01

    Aerosol concentration and droplet size are measured in off-gas of vessel under various conditions by changing off-gas flow rate, stirring air flow rate, salts concentration and temperature of nitrate solution. Aerosols are also measured under evaporation and air-lift operation. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  12. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  13. A NOVEL APPROACH TO MINERAL CARBONATION: ENHANCING CARBONATION WHILE AVOIDING MINERAL PRETREATMENT PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamadallah Bearat

    2005-10-01

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our first year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the

  14. Elucidating the Role of Ferrous Ion Cocatalyst in Enhancing Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, H.; Donohoe, B. S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Ciesielski, P. N.; Wang, W.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Zeng, Y.; Johnson, D. K.; Ding, S. Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Tucker, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble) biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe{sup 2+} ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1) acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2) this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allender, J; Edwin Moore, E; Scott Davies, S

    2008-07-15

    The United States (U.S.) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Except for materials that remain in use for programs outside of national defense, including programs for nuclear-energy development, the surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. Some items will be disposed as transuranic waste, low-level waste, or spent fuel. The remaining surplus plutonium will be managed through: (1) the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (FFF), to be constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), where the plutonium will be converted to fuel that will be irradiated in civilian power reactors and later disposed to a high-level waste (HLW) repository as spent fuel; (2) the SRS H-Area facilities, by dissolving and transfer to HLW systems, also for disposal to the repository; or (3) alternative immobilization techniques that would provide durable and secure disposal. From the beginning of the U.S. program for surplus plutonium disposition, DOE has sponsored research to characterize the surplus materials and to judge their suitability for planned disposition options. Because many of the items are stored without extensive analyses of their current chemical content, the characterization involves three interacting components: laboratory sample analysis, if available; non-destructive assay data; and rigorous evaluation of records for the processing history for items and inventory groups. This information is collected from subject-matter experts at inventory sites and from materials stabilization and surveillance programs, in cooperation with the design agencies for the disposition facilities. This report describes the operation and status of the characterization program.

  16. Hanford 300 Area steam transition preliminary utility options study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, N.J.; Weakley, S.A.; Berman, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    The cost of steam in the Hanford 300 Area is approaching $60 per million Btu; the cost in industry is {approx} $10 per million Btu. The cost of steam in the 300 Area is expected to continue to increase because of the age of the central steam system, load decreases, safety requirements, and environmental regulations. The intent of this report is to evaluate options that would more cost-effectively met the future heating needs of the buildings in the 300 Area. In general, the options fall into two categories: central systems and distributed systems. A representative option from each category was analyzed using the life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) techniques mandated by the federal government. The central plant option chosen for evaluation was the existing central steam plant modified to allow continued operation. The distributed option chosen was a dedicated heating system for each building.

  17. Influence of mechanical-biological waste pre-treatment methods on the gas formation in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockreis, A. . E-mail: a.bockreis@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Steinberg, I.

    2005-07-01

    In order to minimise emissions and environmental impacts, only pre-treated waste should be disposed of. For the last six years, a series of continuous experiments has been conducted at the Institute WAR, TU Darmstadt, in order to determine the emissions from pre-treated waste. Different kinds of pre-treated waste were incubated in several reactors and various data, including production and composition of the gas and the leachate, were collected. In this paper, the interim results of gas production and the gas composition from different types of waste after a running time of six years are presented and discussed.

  18. Evaluation of critical pathways, radionuclides, and remedial measures for reducing the radiological dose to returning populations at a former nuclear test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W. L., LLNL

    1997-11-01

    Bikini Island, the major residence island at Bikini Atoll, was contaminated with radioactive fallout as a result of the BRAVO test conducted on March 1, 1954. We have identified the critical radionuclides and supplied radiological data needed to develop dose estimates for all possible exposure pathways. These estimates show that the major dose to returning populations would result from ingestion of cesium-137 (137 Cs) in locally grown terrestrial foods where the predicted population average effective dose exceeds current federal guidelines. Consequently, we designed several long-term field experiments to develop and evaluate methods to reduce the 137 Cs content in locally grown foods.This paper gives a general outline of the remediation experiments with a more detailed description of a preferred combined option. Our comparative evaluation on various remedial methods show that the combined option--potassium treatment of the entire islands with limited excavation of soil in village an d housing areas--will be effective in reducing the dose to about 10% of pretreatment levels, and offers very significant benefits with respect to adverse environmental impacts as well as savings in overall costs, time, and required expert resources.

  19. Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick Wingerson

    2004-12-15

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

  20. Pretreatment of Tc-Containing Waste and Its Effect on Tc-99 Leaching From Grouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, Albert; Kovarskaya, Elena N.; Harbour, John R.; Langton, Christine A.; Holtzscheiter, E. William

    2007-07-01

    A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10{sup -12} (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix. (authors)

  1. Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE-funded researchers have shown that a new, highly effective pretreatment process used in the production of biofuel can be executed at a larger scale than ever achieved before.

  2. A Pre-treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Pre-treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric Analysis of Starch Solutions AUTHORS: Eric Benson and Chris Ederer E-mail Addresses: eric.benson@theloganschool.o...

  3. Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.

    2012-05-30

    Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p < 0.05). For all fractions, xylan and glucan degradation followed a pattern similar to lignin degradation, with leaves having a significantly higher percentage of degradation (p < 0.05). Hydrolytic enzyme activity also revealed that the fungus was more active in the degradation of carbohydrates in leaves. As a result of fungal pretreatment, the highest sugar yield, however, was obtained with corn cobs.

  4. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Quarterly technical progress report, June--August 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  5. Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Waste Pretreatment Program strategy and issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasper, K.A.

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage an dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. Pretreatment is one of the major program elements of the TWRS. The scope of the TWRS Tank Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste to separate it into high- and low-level waste fractions and to provide additional treatment as required to feed low-level waste fractions and to provide additional treatment as required to feed low-level and high-level waste immobilization processes. The Pretreatment Program activities include technology development, design, fabrication, construction, and operation of facilities to support the pretreatment of radioactive mixed waste retrieved from 28 large underground double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks.

  6. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during

  7. Characterization of Lignin Derived from Water-only and Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment of Poplar Wood at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Background: Flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. Results: In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. Conclusions: Elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  8. Pretreated Slurries; Issue Date: August 2010; Revision Date: July 2011 (Version 07-08-2011)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summative Mass Closure Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Review and Integration: Pretreated Slurries Issue Date: August 2010 Revision Date: July 2011 (Version 07-08-2011) J. Sluiter and A. Sluiter Technical Report NREL/TP-510-48825 Revised July 2011 Technical Report Summative Mass Closure NREL/TP-510-48825 Revised July 2011 Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Review and Integration: Pretreated Slurries Issue Date: August 2010 Revision Date: July 2011 (Version 07-08-2011) J. Sluiter and A.

  9. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transition and Long-term | Department of Energy Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Presentation on Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory 07_chen_nexant.pdf (506.49 KB) More Documents

  10. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  11. TMACS test procedure TP012: Panalarm software bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washburn, S.J.

    1994-08-25

    This Test Procedure addresses the testing of the functionality of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS) Panalarm bridge software. The features to be tested are: Bridge Initialization Options; Bridge Communication; Bridge Performance; Testing Checksum Errors; and Testing Command Reject Errors. Only the first three could be tested; the last two have been deferred to a later date.

  12. Study Compares Floating-Platform Options for Offshore Vertical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... deep-water vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs). This analysis uses a 5 MW VAWT topside design envelope created by Sandia to compare floating platform options for each turbine in ...

  13. Local Option- Renewable Energy Machinery and Tools Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    HB 1297 enacted in March 2015 provides option for local governing body of any county, city, or town to impose a different property tax on renewable energy generating machinery and tools than other...

  14. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  15. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  16. Energy Efficiency Tax Credits, Rebates and Financing: What Options...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Efficiency Tax Credits, Rebates and Financing: What Options Are Available for You? March 23, 2015 - 3:03pm Addthis Residential solar energy systems such as these in a ...

  17. Female Scientists, Engineers Open Students' Eyes to Career Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than six dozen middle school girls visited INL to learn about career options in science and engineering at the annual My Amazing Future event organized by Idaho Women in Nuclear.

  18. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu; David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  19. NREL Releases Report on Policy Options to Advance Geothermal Exploration |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy NREL Releases Report on Policy Options to Advance Geothermal Exploration NREL Releases Report on Policy Options to Advance Geothermal Exploration July 9, 2014 - 12:13pm Addthis A new DOE report, Geothermal Exploration Policy Mechanisms, was recently released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory | photo courtesy of Geothermal Resources Council. A new DOE report, Geothermal Exploration Policy Mechanisms, was recently released by the National Renewable Energy

  20. Workshop Explores Energy Project Financing Options for Southwest Alaska |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Workshop Explores Energy Project Financing Options for Southwest Alaska Workshop Explores Energy Project Financing Options for Southwest Alaska March 10, 2016 - 2:07pm Addthis Kodiak Island, Alaska. Photo by Andrew Petersen. Kodiak Island, Alaska. Photo by Andrew Petersen. Last week, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy hosted a Project Development and Finance workshop in conjunction with the Southwest Alaska Municipal Conference (SWAMC) Annual Economic

  1. Energy Efficiency Tax Credits, Rebates and Financing: What Options Are

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Available for You? | Department of Energy Tax Credits, Rebates and Financing: What Options Are Available for You? Energy Efficiency Tax Credits, Rebates and Financing: What Options Are Available for You? March 23, 2015 - 3:03pm Addthis Residential solar energy systems such as these in a Boulder, Colorado neighborhood are eligible for tax credits through 2016. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Residential solar energy systems such as these in a Boulder,

  2. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report. 48073.pdf (3.62 MB) More Documents & Publications

  3. Integrating Solar PV into Energy Services Performance Contracts: Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Local Governments Nationwide | Department of Energy Integrating Solar PV into Energy Services Performance Contracts: Options for Local Governments Nationwide Integrating Solar PV into Energy Services Performance Contracts: Options for Local Governments Nationwide The guide contains several helpful resources, including a comprehensive list of the economic, operational, resilience, and sustainability-related benefits of entering into a performance contract and using that contract to invest

  4. Prognostic Value and Reproducibility of Pretreatment CT Texture Features in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fried, David V.; Tucker, Susan L.; Zhou, Shouhao; Liao, Zhongxing; Mawlawi, Osama; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether pretreatment CT texture features can improve patient risk stratification beyond conventional prognostic factors (CPFs) in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 91 cases with stage III NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy. All patients underwent pretreatment diagnostic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) followed by 4-dimensional CT (4D-CT) for treatment simulation. We used the average-CT and expiratory (T50-CT) images from the 4D-CT along with the CE-CT for texture extraction. Histogram, gradient, co-occurrence, gray tone difference, and filtration-based techniques were used for texture feature extraction. Penalized Cox regression implementing cross-validation was used for covariate selection and modeling. Models incorporating texture features from the 33 image types and CPFs were compared to those with models incorporating CPFs alone for overall survival (OS), local-regional control (LRC), and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM). Predictive Kaplan-Meier curves were generated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Patients were stratified based on whether their predicted outcome was above or below the median. Reproducibility of texture features was evaluated using test-retest scans from independent patients and quantified using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). We compared models incorporating the reproducibility seen on test-retest scans to our original models and determined the classification reproducibility. Results: Models incorporating both texture features and CPFs demonstrated a significant improvement in risk stratification compared to models using CPFs alone for OS (P=.046), LRC (P=.01), and FFDM (P=.005). The average CCCs were 0.89, 0.91, and 0.67 for texture features extracted from the average-CT, T50-CT, and CE-CT, respectively. Incorporating reproducibility within our models yielded 80.4% (±3.7% SD), 78.3% (±4.0% SD), and 78

  5. Testing and development strategy for the tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddick, G.W.

    1995-05-10

    This document provides a strategy for performing radioactive (hot) and nonradioactive testing to support processing tank waste. It evaluates the need for hot pilot plant(s) to support pretreatment and other processing functions and presents a strategy for performing hot test work. A strategy also is provided for nonradioactive process and equipment testing. The testing strategy supports design, construction, startup, and operation of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) facilities.

  6. Testing and development strategy for the tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddick, G.W.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides a strategy for performing radioactive (hot) and nonradioactive testing to support processing tank waste. It evaluates the need for hot pilot plant(s) to support pretreatment and other processing functions and presents a strategy for performing hot test work. A strategy also is provided for nonradioactive process and equipment testing. The testing strategy supports design, construction, startup, and operation of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) facilities.

  7. Impacts of microwave pretreatments on the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uma Rani, R.; Adish Kumar, S.; Kaliappan, S.; Yeom, IckTae; Rajesh Banu, J.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Microwave pretreatment of dairy WAS was studied. ► MW pretreatment at 70% intensity for 12 min, COD solubilization was 18.6%. ► Biogas production and SS reduction was 35% and 14% higher than control. ► In digester at 15 days SRT with medium OLR, SS and VS reduction was 67% and 64%. ► Biogas and methane production was 57% and 49% higher than control, in digesters. - Abstract: Microwave (MW) irradiation is one of the new and possible methods used for pretreating the sludge. Following its use in different fields, this MW irradiation method has proved to be more appropriate in the field of environmental research. In this paper, we focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different intensities on solubilization, biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the dairy sludge. The changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas were used as control parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the MW pretreatment. Additionally, the energetic efficiency was also examined. In terms of an energetic aspect, the most economical pretreatment of sludge was at 70% intensity for 12 min irradiation time. At this, COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production were found to be 18.6%, 14% and 35% higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein and carbohydrate hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this microwave pretreatment even at low irradiation energy input. Also, experiments were carried out in semi continuous anaerobic digesters, with 3.5 L working volume. Combining microwave pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 67%, 64% and 57% of SS reduction, VS reduction and biogas production higher than the control, respectively.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85

  9. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  10. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  11. Synchrotron Light Options at Super-B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittmer, Walter

    2012-04-27

    Super-B is a planned asymmetric high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance as PEP-II and KEKB, to be built in Italy. The Super-B High (HER, 7 GeV) and Low (LER, 4 GeV) Energy beams characteristics are comparable to NSLS-II and other state of the art synchrotron light sources. This suggests the use of this facility, either parasitically or in dedicated runs, as light source. In this paper we compare the characteristics of the synchrotron light generated at Super-B with existing, in construction and proposed facilities. We investigate different schemes to incorporate the generation of synchrotron radiation in the collider lattice design and look at different beam line layouts for users. In the past high energy particle colliders were designed to collide as many particle as possible. This was done by maximizing the beam current, using relative large emittances and squeezing the beam at the interaction point. During the operation of PEP II the limits of both raising the beam currents and squeezing the beam were experienced. Therefore the optics was modified to lower emittance. The successful test of the 'large Piwinski angle' and crab waist scheme, with extremely low design emittances, at the DAPHNE collider at Frascati made it the design choice for Super-B. Both HER and LER have been designed to meet these requirements and the design parameters relevant to our study, are shown in Table 1. As comparison the design parameters from NSLS II and other state of the art synchrotron light sources have been added to this table. From these parameters it is obvious that synchrotron radiation generated from both HER and LER is comparable to this last generation sources.

  12. Hybrid options for light-duty vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, F., Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.

    1999-07-19

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) offer great promise in improving fuel economy. In this paper, we analyze why, how, and by how much vehicle hybridization can reduce energy consumption and improve fuel economy. Our analysis focuses on efficiency gains associated solely with vehicle hybridization. We do not consider such other measures as vehicle weight reduction or air- and tire-resistance reduction, because such measures would also benefit conventional technology vehicles. The analysis starts with understanding the energy inefficiencies of light-duty vehicles associated with different operation modes in US and Japanese urban and highway driving cycles, with the corresponding energy-saving potentials. The potential for fuel economy gains due to vehicle hybridization can be estimated almost exclusively on the basis of three elements: the reducibility of engine idling operation, the recoverability of braking energy losses, and the capability of improving engine load profiles to gain efficiency associated with specific HEV configurations and control strategies. Specifically, we evaluate the energy efficiencies and fuel economies of a baseline MY97 Corolla-like conventional vehicle (CV), a hypothetical Corolla-based minimal hybrid vehicle (MHV), and a MY98 Prius-like full hybrid vehicle (FHV). We then estimate energy benefits of both MHVs and FHVs over CVs on a performance-equivalent basis. We conclude that the energy benefits of hybridization vary not only with test cycles, but also with performance requirements. The hybrid benefits are greater for ''Corolla (high) performance-equivalent'' vehicles than for ''Prius (low) performance-equivalent'' vehicles. An increasing acceleration requirement would result in larger fuel economy benefits from vehicle hybridization.

  13. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FOR TANK WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE DOE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-03

    Radioactive wastes from one hundred seventy-seven underground storage tanks in the 200 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State will be retrieved, treated and stored either on site or at an approved off-site repository. DOE is currently planning to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which would be treated and permanently disposed in separate facilities. A significant volume of the wastes in the Hanford tanks is currently classified as medium Curie waste, which will require separation and treatment at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Because of the specific challenges associated with treating this waste stream, DOE EM-21 funded a project to investigate the feasibility of using fractional crystallization as a supplemental pretreatment technology. The two process requirements for fractional crystallization to be successfully applied to Hanford waste include: (1) evaporation of water from the aqueous solution to enrich the activity of soluble {sup 137}Cs, resulting in a higher activity stream to be sent to the WTP, and (2) separation of the crystalline salts that are enriched in sodium, carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate and sufficiently depleted in {sup 137}Cs, to produce a second stream to be sent to Bulk Vitrification. Phase I of this project has just been completed by COGEMA/Georgia Institute of Technology. The purpose of this report is to document an independent expert review of the Phase I results with recommendations for future testing. A team of experts with significant experience at both the Hanford and Savannah River Sites was convened to conduct the review at Richland, Washington the week of November 14, 2005.

  14. IMPACT OF NOBLE METALS AND MERCURY ON HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING HIGH LEVEL WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, M; Tommy Edwards, T; David Koopman, D

    2009-03-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The pretreatment process in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) consists of two process tanks, the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as a melter feed tank. During SRAT processing, nitric and formic acids are added to the sludge to lower pH, destroy nitrite and carbonate ions, and reduce mercury and manganese. During the SME cycle, glass formers are added, and the batch is concentrated to the final solids target prior to vitrification. During these processes, hydrogen can be produced by catalytic decomposition of excess formic acid. The waste contains silver, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury, but silver and palladium have been shown to be insignificant factors in catalytic hydrogen generation during the DWPF process. A full factorial experimental design was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%, as shown in Table 1. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), three duplicate midpoint runs, and one additional replicate run to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing was used to identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge

  15. PROJECT W-551 SUMMARY INFORMATION FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AR, TEDESCHI

    2008-08-11

    This report provides summary data for use by the decision board to assess and select the final technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-fonnaldebyde resin. This document provides a summary of comparative data against prior weighted criteria to support technology selection. Supporting details and background for this summary are documented in the separate report, RPP-RPT-37741.

  16. Statement of work for architect-engineer services, initial pretreatment module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowa, K.B.

    1994-09-15

    This Statement of Work describes the Architect-Engineer services to be provided by Raytheon/BNFL in providing a conceptual design (Contract TGW-SVV-063869) for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), Project W-236B, at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. The IPM Project, a radiochemical process facility, will be designed and constructed for an initial phase of waste pretreatment, which will be for the removal of cesium from supernatant wastes to produce a Low-level waste (LLW) stream to a vitrification facility. The design shall also accommodate side streams of High-Level Waste (HLW) fractions that will be directed to suitable, existing storage tanks where they will be recombined with an additional high-activity waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-activity waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository.

  17. PROJECT W-551 DETERMINATION DATA FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-08-11

    This report provides the detailed assessment forms and data for selection of the solids separation and cesium separation technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. This data was used to prepare a cross-cutting technology summary, reported in RPP-RPT-37740.

  18. Real-Time Pretreatment Review Limits Unacceptable Deviations on a Cooperative Group Radiation Therapy Technique Trial: Quality Assurance Results of RTOG 0933

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondi, Vinai; Cui, Yunfeng; Mehta, Minesh P.; Manfredi, Denise; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James M.; Rowley, Howard; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: RTOG 0933 was a phase II trial of hippocampal avoidance during whole brain radiation therapy for patients with brain metastases. The results demonstrated improvement in short-term memory decline, as compared with historical control individuals, and preservation of quality of life. Integral to the conduct of this trial were quality assurance processes inclusive of pre-enrollment credentialing and pretreatment centralized review of enrolled patients. Methods and Materials: Before enrolling patients, all treating physicians and sites were required to successfully complete a “dry-run” credentialing test. The treating physicians were credentialed based on accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging–computed tomography image fusion and hippocampal and normal tissue contouring, and the sites were credentialed based on protocol-specified dosimetric criteria. Using the same criteria, pretreatment centralized review of enrolled patients was conducted. Physicians enrolling 3 consecutive patients without unacceptable deviations were permitted to enroll further patients without pretreatment review, although their cases were reviewed after treatment. Results: In all, 113 physicians and 84 sites were credentialed. Eight physicians (6.8%) failed hippocampal contouring on the first attempt; 3 were approved on the second attempt. Eight sites (9.5%) failed intensity modulated radiation therapy planning on the first attempt; all were approved on the second attempt. One hundred thirteen patients were enrolled in RTOG 0933; 100 were analyzable. Eighty-seven cases were reviewed before treatment; 5 (5.7%) violated the eligibility criteria, and 21 (24%) had unacceptable deviations. With feedback, 18 cases were approved on the second attempt and 2 cases on the third attempt. One patient was treated off protocol. Twenty-two cases were reviewed after treatment; 1 (4.5%) violated the eligibility criteria, and 5 (23%) had unacceptable deviations. Conclusions: Although >95% of the

  19. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  20. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  1. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  2. SU-E-T-65: Characterization of a 2D Array for QA and Pretreatment Plan Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anvari, A; Aghamiri, S; Mahdavi, S; Alaei, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The OCTAVIUS detector729 is a 2D array of 729 air vented cubic plane parallel ion chambers used for pretreatment verification and QA. In this study we investigated dosimetric characteristics of this system for clinical photon beam dosimetry. Methods: Detector performance evaluation included determination of the location of the effective point of measurement (EPM), sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility of detector response, as well as output factor, dose rate, and source to surface distance (SSD) dependence. Finally, assessment of wedge modulated fields was carried out. All the evaluations were performed five times for low and high photon energies. For reference measurements, a 0.6 cc ionization chamber was used. Data analysis and comparison of the OCTAVIUS detector with reference ion chamber data was performed using the VeriSoft patient plan verification software. Results: The reproducibility and stability of the measurements are excellent, the detector showed same signal with a maximum deviation of less than 0.5% in short and long term. Results of sensitivity test showed same signal with a maximum deviation of approximately 0.1%. As the detector 729 response is linear with dose and dose rate, it can be used for the measurement at regions of high dose gradient effectively. The detector agrees with the ionization chamber measurement to within 1% for SSD range of 75 to 125 cm. Also, its measured wedge modulated profiles matched very well with ion chamber dose profiles acquired in a water tank. Conclusions: As the response of the detector 729 is linear with dose and dose rate, it can be used for the measurements in the areas of dose gradients effectively. Based on the measurements and comparisons performed, this system is a reliable and accurate dosimeter for QA and pretreatment plan verification in radiotherapy.

  3. Automated Surface Observing System: Standby Power Options | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Automated Surface Observing System: Standby Power Options Automated Surface Observing System: Standby Power Options This presentation by Anthony Leonardo of the National Weather Service was given at the Fuel Cell Meeting in April 2007. fuel_cell_mtng_leonardo.pdf (323.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP - FE Dkt. No 11-128-LNG Order 3331-A: Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP - Dk. No. 11-128-LNG Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation)

  4. SRF cavities for CW option of Project X Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyak, N.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Lunin, A.; Perunov, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    Alternative option of Project X is based on the CW SC 2GeV Linac with the average current 1mA. Possible option of the CW Linac considered in the paper includes low energy part consisted of a few families SC Spoke cavities (from 2.5 MeV to 466 MeV) and high energy part consisted of 2 types of elliptical cavities (v/c=0.81 and v/c=1). Requirements and designed parameters of cavities are considered.

  5. DOE Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Includes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    30-mile Natural Gas Pipeline from Pasco to Hanford | Department of Energy Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Includes 30-mile Natural Gas Pipeline from Pasco to Hanford DOE Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Includes 30-mile Natural Gas Pipeline from Pasco to Hanford January 23, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Hardy, DOE , (509) 376-5365, Cameron.Hardy@rl.doe.gov RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering

  6. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, B.W.; Piet, S.J.

    2004-10-03

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository. There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected.

  7. Determination of Insoluble Solids in Pretreated Biomass Material: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Report Determination of Insoluble NREL/TP-510-42627 Solids in Pretreated Biomass March 2008 Material Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 03/21/2008 A. Sluiter, D. Hyman, C. Payne, and J. Wolfe NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Technical Report Determination of Insoluble NREL/TP-510-42627 Solids in Pretreated Biomass March 2008 Material Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 03/21/2008 A. Sluiter, D.

  8. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Z.; Brewer, M.; Brown, I.; Komvopoulos, K.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment. 6 figures.

  9. Pre-treatment for molybdenum or molybdenum-rich alloy articles to be plated

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Ralph R.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a method for etching a molybdenum or molybdenum-rich alloy surface to promote the formation of an adherent bond with a subsequently deposited metallic plating. In a typical application, the method is used as a pre-treatment for surfaces to be electrolessly plated with nickel. The pre-treatment comprises exposing the crystal boundaries of the surface by (a) anodizing the surface in acidic solution to form a continuous film of gray molybdenum oxide thereon and (b) removing the film.

  10. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhu; Brewer, Marilee; Brown, Ian; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

  11. Assessment for advanced fuel cycle options in CANDU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morreale, A.C.; Luxat, J.C.; Friedlander, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The actinide burning TRUMOX approach uses a mixed oxide fuel of reprocessed transuranic actinides from PWR spent fuel blended with natural uranium in the CANDU-900 reactor. This system reduced actinide content by 35% and decreased natural uranium consumption by 24% over a PWR once through cycle. The thorium cycles evaluated used two CANDU-900 units, a generator and a burner unit along with a driver fuel feedstock. The driver fuels included plutonium reprocessed from PWR, from CANDU and low enriched uranium (LEU). All three cycles were effective options and reduced natural uranium consumption over a PWR once through cycle. The LEU driven system saw the largest reduction with a 94% savings while the plutonium driven cycles achieved 75% savings for PWR and 87% for CANDU. The high neutron economy, online fuelling and flexible compact fuel make the CANDU system an ideal reactor platform for many advanced fuel cycles.

  12. Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options- June 30, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On March 31, 2009 , the Department of Energy (DOE) Chief Health, Safety and Security Officxer commissioned a study to examine "realistic and reasponable options for improving the career opportunities and retirement prospects of protective force members while maintaining, within current and anticipated budgetary constraints, a robust and effective security posture.

  13. Radium Disposition Options for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, D. L.; Thiel, E. C.; Seidel, B. R.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed plans to disposition its excess nuclear materials, including radium-containing materials. Within DOE, there is no significant demand for radium at this time. However, DOE is exploring reuse options, including uses that may not exist at this time. The Nonactinide Isotopes and Sealed Sources Management Group (NISSMG) has identified 654 radium-containing items, and concluded that there are no remaining radium items that do not have a pathway to disposition. Unfortunately, most of these pathways end with disposal, whereas reuse would be preferable. DOE has a number of closure sites that must remove the radium at their sites as part of their closure activities. NISSMG suggests preserving the larger radium sources that can easily be manufactured into targets for future reuse, and disposing the other items. As alternatives to disposal, there exist reuse options for radium, especially in nuclear medicine. These options were identified by NISSMG. The NISSMG recommends that DOE set up receiver sites to store these radium materials until reuse options become available. The NISSMG recommends two pathways for dispositioning radium sources, depending on the activity and volume of material. Low activity radium sources can be managed as low level radioactive waste per DOE Order 5820.2A. Higher activity radium sources are more appropriate for reuse in nuclear medicine applications and other applications.

  14. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  15. DISPOSITION PATHS FOR ROCKY FLATS GLOVEBOXES: EVALUATING OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobdell, D.; Geimer, R.; Larsen, P.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC has the responsibility for closure activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). One of the challenges faced for closure is the disposition of radiologically contaminated gloveboxes. Evaluation of the disposition options for gloveboxes included a detailed analysis of available treatment capabilities, disposal facilities, and lifecycle costs. The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC followed several processes in determining how the gloveboxes would be managed for disposition. Currently, multiple disposition paths have been chosen to accommodate the needs of the varying styles and conditions of the gloveboxes, meet the needs of the decommissioning team, and to best manage lifecycle costs. Several challenges associated with developing a disposition path that addresses both the radiological and RCRA concerns as well as offering the most cost-effective solution were encountered. These challenges included meeting the radiological waste acceptance criteria of available disposal facilities, making a RCRA determination, evaluating treatment options and costs, addressing void requirements associated with disposal, and identifying packaging and transportation options. The varying disposal facility requirements affected disposition choices. Facility conditions that impacted decisions included radiological and chemical waste acceptance criteria, physical requirements, and measurement for payment options. The facility requirements also impacted onsite activities including management strategies, decontamination activities, and life-cycle cost.

  16. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study

  17. Measurement and Verification Options for Federal Energy- and Water-Saving

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects | Department of Energy Options for Federal Energy- and Water-Saving Projects Measurement and Verification Options for Federal Energy- and Water-Saving Projects Federal Energy Management Program measurement and verification (M&V) guidelines and International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol M&V methodologies are broken into four options. These options offer generic M&V approaches for energy- and water-saving projects. Option A: Retrofit Isolation

  18. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL),more » recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  19. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  20. Decommissioning strategy options for MR reactor at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, M.T.; Harman, N.F.; Charles, D.; Harper, A.; Bylkin, B.K.; Gorlinsky, Yu.E.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Kutkov, V.A.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Sivintsev, Yu.V.; Lobach, Yu.N.

    2007-07-01

    The principal decommissioning goal for the nuclear installations of the Kurchatov Institute is the removal of spent fuel, reactor facilities and radioactive waste from the Institute's site. As the result of decommissioning, the buildings, constructions and areas should be cleaned to residual contamination levels acceptable to the stakeholders. These levels are determined in view of possible options for the rehabilitation of the Institute's areas under conditions of compliance with acting legislation for safety provisions for staff, population noting the proximity of the site to the local urban environment. Research reactor MR was commissioned in 1963 for reactor materials testing and finally shutdown in 1993. The reactor power with the experimental loops was 50 MW,. Several features were identified for the development of a decommissioning strategy for this reactor, namely: the strategy should consider many factors in a broad approach with international, inter-industry and long-term perspectives; the current situation for decommissioning is uncertain and must account for the views of a variety of stakeholders on possible final conditions and further use of the site and the route to achieve these; and a lack of sufficiency in the national legislation base for execution of the work and the possible options for its completion. On the basis of worldwide experience, the strategy for decommissioning of reactor MR was determined as follows: - determination of the options for the final rehabilitation of the Institute's areas; - determination of the stakeholders and their priority concerns; - determination of the strategy options for achievement of the final status; - determination of the main factors influencing the selection of the decommissioning strategy; - selection of the most acceptable strategies on the basis of a multi-attribute analysis; - determination of the main stages and principles of implementation of the selected strategy; and - development of the

  1. Review: Waste-Pretreatment Technologies for Remediation of Legacy Defense Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmarth, William R.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Johnson, Michael E.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Thompson, Major C.; Suggs, Patricia C.; Machara, N.

    2011-01-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for retrieving, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive waste that has been generated during the production of nuclear weapons in the United States. The vast bulk of this waste material is stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina and the Hanford Site in Washington State. The general strategy for treating the radioactive tank waste consists of first separating the waste into high-level and low-activity fractions. This initial partitioning of the waste is referred to as pretreatment. Following pretreatment, the high-level fraction will be immobilized in a glass form suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The low-activity waste will be immobilized in a waste form suitable for disposal at the respective site. This paper provides a review of recent developments in the application of pretreatment technologies to the processing of the Hanford and Savannah River radioactive tank wastes. Included in the review are discussions of 1) solid/liquid separations methods, 2) cesium separation technologies, and 3) other separations critical to the success of the DOE tank waste remediation effort. Also included is a brief discussion of the different requirements and circumstances at the two DOE sites that have in some cases led to different choices in pretreatment technologies.

  2. Structural Transformation of Isolated Poplar and Switchgrass Lignins from Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-27

    A key step in conversion of cellulosic biomass into sustainable fuels and chemicals is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance. Obtaining an improved understanding of the fundamental chemistry of lignin, the most recalcitrant component of biomass, during pretreatment is critical to the continued development of renewable biofuel production. To examine the intrinsic chemistry of lignin during dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), lignin was isolated from poplar and switchgrass using a cellulolytic enzyme system and then treated under DAP conditions. These results highlight that lignin is subjected to depolymerization reactions within the first 2 min of dilute acid pretreatment andmore » these changes are accompanied by increased generation of aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin. This is followed by a competing set of depolymerization and repolymerization reactions that lead to a decrease in the content of guaiacyl lignin units and an increase in condensed lignin units as the reaction residence time is extended beyond 5 min. Finally, we showed that a detailed comparison of changes in functional groups and molecular weights of cellulolytic enzyme lignins with different structural parameters, related to the recalcitrant properties of lignin, could be successfully altered during DAP conditions.« less

  3. In vacuo substrate pretreatments for enhancing nanodiamond formation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teii, Kungen; Kouzuma, Yutaka; Uchino, Kiichiro

    2006-09-15

    Substrate pretreatment conditions at low pressures have been examined for enhancing nanocrystalline diamond formation on silicon in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Three kinds of pretreatments (I) exposure to an ECR H{sub 2} plasma with application of a substrate bias from -100 to +30 V (II) hot-filament heating in H{sub 2} gas, and (III) hot-filament heating in vacuum, were used alone or followed by carburization prior to a two-step process of ion-enhanced nucleation in an ECR plasma and subsequent growth in a hot-filament system. The number density of diamond particles after the final growth step was greatly increased up to the order of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} when applying pretreatment (I) at the bias of 0 V corresponding to the ion-bombardment energy of around 10 eV. In this treatment, a clean and smooth surface with minimal damage was made by the dominance of anisotropic etching by hydrogen ions over isotropic etching by hydrogen atoms. The number density of diamond particles was still more increased when applying pretreatment (II), but the treated surface was unfavorably contaminated and roughened.

  4. Methods of hydrolyzing pretreated densified biomass particulates and systems related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bals, Bryan; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Campbell, Tim; Dale, Bruce

    2015-02-03

    A method is provided in which pretreated and densified cellulosic biomass particulates can be hydrolyzed at a high solids loading rate as compared with the solids loading rate of loose hydrolysable cellulosic biomass fibers. The resulting high concentration sugar-containing stream can be easily converted to biofuels or an entire suite of other useful bioproducts.

  5. Consolidated pretreatment and hydrolysis of plant biomass expressing cell wall degrading enzymes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raab, R. Michael; Zhang, Dongcheng; Bougri, Oleg

    2016-02-02

    Methods for consolidated pretreatment and hydrolysis of genetically engineered plants expressing cell wall degrading enzymes are provided. Expression cassettes and vectors for making transgenic plants are described. Plants engineered to express one or more cell wall degrading enzymes using expression cassettes and vectors of the invention are also provided.

  6. Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-06-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

  7. Chemical cleaning of coal by molten caustic leaching after pretreatment by low-temperature devolatilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chriswell, Colin D.; Kaushik, Surender M.; Shah, Navin D.; Markuszewski, Richard

    1989-08-22

    Pretreatment of coal by devolatization at temperatures ranging from about 420.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. for from about 10 minutes to about 30 minutes before leaching with molten caustic leads to a significant reduction in carbonate formation, greatly reducing the cost of cleaning coal on a per ton basis.

  8. Structural Transformation of Isolated Poplar and Switchgrass Lignins from Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-27

    A key step in conversion of cellulosic biomass into sustainable fuels and chemicals is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance. Obtaining an improved understanding of the fundamental chemistry of lignin, the most recalcitrant component of biomass, during pretreatment is critical to the continued development of renewable biofuel production. To examine the intrinsic chemistry of lignin during dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), lignin was isolated from poplar and switchgrass using a cellulolytic enzyme system and then treated under DAP conditions. These results highlight that lignin is subjected to depolymerization reactions within the first 2 min of dilute acid pretreatment and these changes are accompanied by increased generation of aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin. This is followed by a competing set of depolymerization and repolymerization reactions that lead to a decrease in the content of guaiacyl lignin units and an increase in condensed lignin units as the reaction residence time is extended beyond 5 min. Finally, we showed that a detailed comparison of changes in functional groups and molecular weights of cellulolytic enzyme lignins with different structural parameters, related to the recalcitrant properties of lignin, could be successfully altered during DAP conditions.

  9. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darsh T. Wasan; Alex D. Nikolov; D.P. Lamber; T. Bond Calloway; M.E. Stone

    2005-03-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has reported severe foaminess in the bench scale evaporation of the Hanford River Protection - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WPT) envelope C waste. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. The antifoams used at Hanford and tested by SRNL are believed to degrade and become inactive in high pH solutions. Hanford wastes have been known to foam during evaporation causing excessive down time and processing delays.

  10. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J.

    2012-05-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  11. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darsh T. Wasan

    2002-02-20

    Radioactive waste treatment processes usually involve concentration of radionuclides before waste can be immobilized by storing it in stable solid form. Foaming is observed at various stages of waste processing like sludge chemical processing and melter operations. Hence, the objective of this research was to study the mechanisms that produce foaming during nuclear waste treatment, to identify key parameters which aggravate foaming, and to identify effective ways to eliminate or mitigate foaming. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomenon, suspension rheology, and bubble generation and interactions that lead to the formation of foam during waste processing were pursued under this EMSP project. Advanced experimental techniques including a novel capillary force balance in conjunction with the combined differential and common interferometry were developed to characterize particle-particle interactions at the foam lamella surfaces as well as inside the foam lamella. Laboratory tests were conducted using a non-radioactive simulant slurry containing high levels of noble metals and mercury similar to the High-Level Waste. We concluded that foaminess of the simulant sludge was due to the presence of colloidal particles such as aluminum, iron, and manganese. We have established the two major mechanisms of formation and stabilization of foams containing such colloidal particles: (1) structural and depletion forces; and (2) steric stabilization due to the adsorbed particles at the surfaces of the foam lamella. Based on this mechanistic understanding of foam generation and stability, an improved antifoam agent was developed by us, since commercial antifoam agents were found to be ineffective in the aggressive physical and chemical environment present in the sludge processing. The improved antifoamer was subsequently tested in a pilot plant at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and was found to be effective. Also, in the SRTC experiment, the irradiated

  12. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of 11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  13. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  14. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, S.

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  15. Energy options: Cogen V and retail wheeling alternatives technical conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The Energy Options technical conference proceedings contains 265 papers, of which 17 were selected for the database. The conference was split into two primary topics: cogeneration and retail wheeling. Subtopics under cogeneration included: the state of cogeneration in the United States, case studies in facility ownership, fuels considerations for tomorrow, and plant design considerations for cogeneration systems. Retail wheeling alternatives subtopics included U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission rulings, end-user options for retail wheeling, deregulation issues, and forecasting of electricity generating costs. Papers not selected for the database, while clearly pertinent topics of interest, consisted of viewgraphs which were judged not to have sufficient technical information and coherence without the corresponding presentation. However, some papers which did consist of viewgraphs were included.

  16. A review of nuclear fuel cycle options for developing nations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, R.K.; Scopatz, A.M.; Ernesti, M.

    2007-07-01

    A study of several nuclear reactor and fuel cycle options for developing nations was performed. All reactor choices were considered under a GNEP framework. Two advanced alternative reactor types, a nuclear battery-type reactor and a fuel reprocessing fast reactor were examined and compared with a conventional Generation III+ LWR reactor. The burn of nuclear fuel was simulated using ORIGEN 2.2 for each reactor type and the resulting information was used to compare the options in terms of waste produced, waste quality and repository impact. The ORIGEN data was also used to evaluate the economics of the fuel cycles using unit costs, discount rates and present value functions with the material balances. The comparison of the fuel cycles and reactors developed in this work provides a basis for the evaluation of subsidy programs and cost-benefit comparisons for various reactor parameters such as repository impact and proliferation risk versus economic considerations. (authors)

  17. Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

  18. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H.

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  19. Web Sites Show Petroleum Reduction Options - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Web Sites Show Petroleum Reduction Options October 25, 2007 Handy new tools on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) redesigned Web sites for the Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) and the Clean Cities Program allow fleet managers and communities to make informed choices among strategies for reducing petroleum use. The resources are located on the AFDC and Clean Cities Web sites, which are developed and managed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Web

  20. Non-Photosynthetic Biohydrogen--Overview of Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non-photosynthetic Biohdyrogen - Overview of Options Bruce E. Rittmann Director of SCEB and Regents' Professor of Environmental Engineering Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology Rittmann@asu.edu Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University http://eb.biodesign.asu.edu I will overview three ways to produce renewable bio-H 2 from biomass. I view this as "indirect" photosynthetic bio-H 2 , since the biomass ultimately came from photosynthesis. 1 Fermentation * Sometimes called

  1. Field development options for a waterflooded heavy-oil reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasraie, M. ); Sammon, P.H. ); Jespersen, P.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Battrum Unit 4 is a moderately heavy-oil reservoir in Saskatchewan producing under waterflood from a thin sand. This paper describes a history match of previous field behavior and systematically analyzes through the use of numerical simulation the potential benefits to production of further waterflooding (with and without infill drilling), steamflooding, and horizontal drilling. It is found that the remaining oil recovery potential of a steamflood with horizontal well is significantly higher than that of any of the waterflood options.

  2. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  3. An option pricing theory explanation of the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhtaseb, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to explain the invasion of Kuwait by making an analogy between a call option and the Iraq-Kuwait situation before the invasion on August 2, 1990. A number of factors contributed to the issuance of a deep-in-the money European call option to Iraq against Kuwait. The underlying asset is the crude oil reserves under Kuwait. Price of crude oil is determined in world spot markets. The exercise price is equal to the cost of permanently annexing and retaining Kuwait. The volatility is measured by the annualized variance of the weekly rate of return of the spot price of crude oil. Time-to-expiration is equal to the time period between decision date and actual invasion date. Finally, since crude oil prices are quoted in U.S. dollars, the U.S. Treasury bill rate is assumed to be the risk-free rate. In a base-case scenario, Kuwait`s oil reserves amount to 94,500 million barrels valued at $18 a barrell in early February 1990 resulting in a market value of $1,701 billion. Because the cost of the war to Iraq is not known, we assume it is comparable to that of the U.S.-led coalition of $51.0 billion. Time-to-expiration is six months. The treasury bill rate in early 1990 was around 7.5 percent. Annualized standard deviation of weekly rates of return is 0.216. The value of Kuwait`s invasion option is $1,642.25 billion. Depending on the scenario, the value of this special option ranged between $1,450 billion and $3.624 billion. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Uranium enrichment: investment options for the long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The US government supplies a major portion of the enriched uranium used to fuel most of the nuclear power plants that furnish electricity in the free world. As manager of the US uranium enrichment concern, the Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating a number of technological choices to improve enrichment service and remain a significant world supplier. The Congress will ultimately select a strategy for federal investment in the uranium enrichment enterprise. A fundamental policy choice between possible future roles - that of the free world's main supplier of enrichment services, and that of a mainly domestic supplier - will underlie any investment decision the Congress makes. The technological choices are gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). A base plan and four alternatives were examined by DOE and the Congressional Budget Office. In terms of total enterprise costs, Option IV, ultimately relying on advanced gas centrifuges for enrichment services, would offer the most economic approach, with costs over the full projection period totaling $123.5 billion. Option III, ultimately relying on AVLIS without gas centrifuge enrichment or gaseous diffusion, falls next in the sequence, with costs of $128.2 billion. Options I and II, involving combinations of the gas centrifuge and AVLIS technologies, follow closely with costs of $128.7 and $129.6 billion. The base plan has costs of $136.8 billion over the projection period. 1 figure, 22 tables.

  5. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  6. Hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated mixed hardwood and purified microcrystalline cellulose by cell-free broth from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, L.R.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The cellulase activity in cell-free broths from Clostridium thermocellum is examined on both dilute-acid-pretreated mixed hardwood (90% maple, 10% birch) and Avicel. Experiments were conducted in vitro in order to distinguish properties of the cellulase from properties of the organism and to evaluate the effectiveness of C. thermocellum cellulase in the hydrolysis of a naturally occurring, lignin-containing substrate. The results obtained establish that essentially quantitative hydrolysis of cellulose from pretreated mixed hardwood is possible using this enzyme system. Pretreatment with 1% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and a 9-s residence time at 220, 210, 200, and 180/sup 0/C allowed yields after enzymatic hydrolysis (percentage of glucan solubilized/glucan potentially solubilized) of 97.8, 86.1, 82.0, and 34.6%, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed hardwood with no pretreatment resulted in a yield of 10.1%. Hydrolysis yields of greater than 95% were obtained from 0.6 g/l mixed hardwood pretreated at 220/sup 0/C in 7 hours at broth strengths of 60 and 80% (v/v) and in approximately 48 hours with 33% broth. Hydrolysis of pretreated mixed hardwood is compared to hydrolysis of Avicel. The initial rate of Avicel hydrolysis saturates with respect to enzyme, whereas the initial rate of hydrolysis of pretreated wood is proportional to the amount of enzyme present. Initial hydrolysis rates for pretreated wood and Avicel at 0.6 g/l are greater for wood at low broth dilutions (1.25:1 to 5:1) by up to 2.7-fold and greater for Avicel at high broth dilutions (5:1 to 50:1) by up to 4.3-fold. Maximum rates of hydrolysis are achieved at less than 2 g substrate/liter for both pretreated wood and Avicel).

  7. Waste separation and pretreatment using crystalline silicotitanate ion exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadros, M.E.; Miller, J.E.; Anthony, R.G.

    1997-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) has been developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University to selectively remove Cs and other radionuclides from a wide spectrum of radioactive defense wastes. The CST exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and Sr under a wide range of conditions. Tests show it can remove part-per-million concentrations of Cs{sup +} from highly alkaline, high-sodium simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. The materials exhibit ion exchange properties based on ionic size selectivity. Specifically, crystalline lattice spacing is controlled to be highly selective for Cs ions even in waste streams containing very high (5 to 10 M) concentrations of sodium. The CST technology is being demonstrated with actual waste at several DOE facilities. The use of inorganic ion exchangers. The inorganics are more resistant to chemical, thermal, and radiation degradation. Their high selectivities result in more efficient operations offering the possibility of a simple single-pass operation. In contrast, regenerable organic ion exchangers require additional processing equipment to handle the regeneration liquids and the eluant with the dissolved Cs.

  8. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  9. Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowe, N.

    2014-05-01

    This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

  10. Performance improvement options for the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-07-17

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is under development at Argonne National Laboratory as an advanced power conversion technology for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as well as other Generation IV advanced reactors as an alternative to the traditional Rankine steam cycle. For SFRs, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle eliminates the need to consider sodium-water reactions in the licensing and safety evaluation, reduces the capital cost of the SFR plant, and increases the SFR plant efficiency. Even though the S-CO{sub 2} cycle has been under development for some time and optimal sets of operating parameters have been determined, those earlier development and optimization studies have largely been directed at applications to other systems such as gas-cooled reactors which have higher operating temperatures than SFRs. In addition, little analysis has been carried out to investigate cycle configurations deviating from the selected 'recompression' S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration. In this work, several possible ways to improve S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance for SFR applications have been identified and analyzed. One set of options incorporates optimization approaches investigated previously, such as variations in the maximum and minimum cycle pressure and minimum cycle temperature, as well as a tradeoff between the component sizes and the cycle performance. In addition, the present investigation also covers options which have received little or no attention in the previous studies. Specific options include a 'multiple-recompression' cycle configuration, intercooling and reheating, as well as liquid-phase CO{sub 2} compression (pumping) either by CO{sub 2} condensation or by a direct transition from the supercritical to the liquid phase. Some of the options considered did not improve the cycle efficiency as could be anticipated beforehand. Those options include: a double recompression cycle, intercooling between the compressor stages, and reheating

  11. Linking morphology with activity through the lifetime of pretreated PtNi nanostructured thin film catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullen, David A.; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Debe, Mark; Steinbach, Andrew J.; Guetaz, L.

    2015-04-10

    In this study, the nanoscale morphology of highly active Pt3Ni7 nanostructured thin film fuel cell catalysts is linked with catalyst surface area and activity following catalyst pretreatments, conditioning and potential cycling. The significant role of fuel cell conditioning on the structure and composition of these extended surface catalysts is demonstrated by high resolution imaging, elemental mapping and tomography. The dissolution of Ni during fuel cell conditioning leads to highly complex, porous structures which were visualized in 3D by electron tomography. Quantification of the rendered surfaces following catalyst pretreatment, conditioning, and cycling shows the important role pore structure plays in surface area, activity, and durability.

  12. Linking morphology with activity through the lifetime of pretreated PtNi nanostructured thin film catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cullen, David A.; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Debe, Mark; Steinbach, Andrew J.; Guetaz, L.

    2015-04-10

    In this study, the nanoscale morphology of highly active Pt3Ni7 nanostructured thin film fuel cell catalysts is linked with catalyst surface area and activity following catalyst pretreatments, conditioning and potential cycling. The significant role of fuel cell conditioning on the structure and composition of these extended surface catalysts is demonstrated by high resolution imaging, elemental mapping and tomography. The dissolution of Ni during fuel cell conditioning leads to highly complex, porous structures which were visualized in 3D by electron tomography. Quantification of the rendered surfaces following catalyst pretreatment, conditioning, and cycling shows the important role pore structure plays in surfacemore » area, activity, and durability.« less

  13. Plans for an ERL Test Facility at CERN (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plans for an ERL Test Facility at CERN Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plans for an ERL Test Facility at CERN The baseline electron accelerator for LHeC and one option ...

  14. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, Joe A; Smith, Paul H; Psaras, John D; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Costa, David A; Joyce, Jr., Edward L

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  15. Interaction-Region Design Options for a Linac-Ring LHeC (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interaction-Region Design Options for a Linac-Ring LHeC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interaction-Region Design Options for a Linac-Ring LHeC The interaction-region ...

  16. U-226: Linux Kernel SFC Driver TCP MSS Option Handling Denial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6: Linux Kernel SFC Driver TCP MSS Option Handling Denial of Service Vulnerability U-226: Linux Kernel SFC Driver TCP MSS Option Handling Denial of Service Vulnerability August 2,...

  17. Liquid-Metal Technology Options for A Lunar-Based Fission Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquid-Metal Technology Options for A Lunar-Based Fission Surface Power System Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Liquid-Metal Technology Options for A Lunar-Based Fission...

  18. Fact #919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and ...

  19. Lattice Design for ERL Options at SLAC (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    One previously studied option is the PEP-X low emittance storage ring. The alternative option is based on a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and the PEP-X design. The ...

  20. Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel report assesses the technical options for the safe and permanent disposal of ...

  1. FTCP-09-001, Safety System Oversight competencies and FAQS Options...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1, Safety System Oversight competencies and FAQS Options FTCP-09-001, Safety System Oversight competencies and FAQS Options FTCP Issue Paper: FTCP-09-001 Approved by FTCP, August...

  2. HANFORD MEDIUM & LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 LAB REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-30

    A fractional crystallization (FC) process is being developed to supplement tank waste pretreatment capabilities provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). FC can process many tank wastes, separating wastes into a low-activity fraction (LAW) and high-activity fraction (HLW). The low-activity fraction can be immobilized in a glass waste form by processing in the bulk vitrification (BV) system.

  3. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve

  4. Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

    2013-08-06

    A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

  5. Review of technologies for the pretreatment of retrieved single-shell tank waste at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to identify and evaluate innovative processes that could be used to pretreat mixed waste retrieved from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) on the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford site. The information was collected as part of the Single Shell Tank Waste Treatment project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The project is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company under their SST Disposal Program.

  6. Review of technologies for the pretreatment of retrieved single-shell tank waste at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to identify and evaluate innovative processes that could be used to pretreat mixed waste retrieved from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. The information was collected as part of the Single Shell Tank Waste Treatment project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The project is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company under their SST Disposal Program.

  7. Pretreatment and Process Hydrolysis Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    23, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Platform Melvin Tucker National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2015 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review Pretreatment and Process Hydrolysis 2.2.3.100 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Goal Statement To produce high concentration sugar and reactive lignin streams at high yields and low costs from biomass to meet BETO's 2017 ($5/GGE) and 2022 ($3/GGE) Goals and Targets. *

  8. Process Improvement to Biomass Pretreatment for Fuels and Chemicals Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Peer Review Process Improvement to Biomass Pretreatment for Fuels and Chemicals March 24 th 2015 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Principal investigator: Farzaneh Teymouri Organization: MBI, Lansing MI Tel.: (517) 337-3181, www.mbi.org This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Feedstock supply, including logistics systems and sustainable high quality feedstock, inadequate supply chain

  9. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant places first complex piping module in Pretreatment Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Crews at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant, also known as the "Vit Plant," placed a 19-ton piping module inside the Pretreatment Facility. The module was lifted over 98-foot-tall walls and lowered into a space that provided less than two inches of clearance on each side and just a few feet on each end. It was set 56 feet above the ground.

  10. Closing the Loop: Ionic Liquids from Biomass Waste Could Pretreat Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Destined for Biofuels | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Closing the Loop: Ionic Liquids from Biomass Waste Could Pretreat Plants Destined for Biofuels Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Community Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence

  11. Closing the Loop: Ionic Liquids from Biomass Waste Could Pretreat Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Destined for Biofuels | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Closing the Loop: Ionic Liquids from Biomass Waste Could Pretreat Plants Destined for Biofuels Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S.

  12. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Atmospheric Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Atmospheric Testing A total of 100 atmospheric tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site. These tests were conducted to provide information on weapons effects, effects of the height of burst on overpressure, and information on nuclear phenomena to improve the design of nuclear weapons. Atmospheric testing ceased for good in 1963, after which nuclear testing moved underground. Instructions: Click the

  13. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-04-01

    This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

  14. Improved Multivariate Calibration Models for Corn Stover Feedstock and Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Sluiter, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied rapid calibration models to predict the composition of a variety of biomass feedstocks by correlating near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data to compositional data produced using traditional wet chemical analysis techniques. The rapid calibration models are developed using multivariate statistical analysis of the spectroscopic and wet chemical data. This work discusses the latest versions of the NIR calibration models for corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. Measures of the calibration precision and uncertainty are presented. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen between NIR calibration models built using different mathematical pretreatments. Finally, two common algorithms for building NIR calibration models are compared; no statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen for the major constituents glucan, xylan, and lignin, but the algorithms did produce different predictions for total extractives. A single calibration model combining the corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover samples gave less satisfactory predictions than the separate models.

  15. Interim data quality objectives for waste pretreatment and vitrification. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kupfer, M.J.; Conner, J.M.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Mobley, J.R.

    1994-09-15

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for storing, processing, and immobilizing the Hanford Site tank wastes. Characterization information on the tank wastes is needed so that safety concerns can be addressed, and retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes can be designed, permitted, and implemented. This document describes the near-term tank waste sampling and characterization needs of the Pretreatment, High-Level Waste (HLW) Disposal, and Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Programs to support the TWRS disposal mission. The final DQO (Data Quality Objective) will define specific waste tanks to be sampled, sample timing requirements, an appropriate analytical scheme, and a list of required analytes. This interim DQO, however, focuses primarily on the required analytes since the tanks to be sampled in FY 1994 and early FY 1995 are being driven most heavily by other considerations, particularly safety. The major objective of this Interim DQO is to provide guidance for tank waste characterization requirements for samples taken before completion of the final DQO. The characterization data needs defined herein will support the final DQO to help perform the following: Support the TWRS technical strategy by identification of the chemical and physical composition of the waste in the tanks and Guide development efforts to define waste pretreatment processes, which will in turn define HLW and LLW feed to vitrification processes.

  16. Redistribution of Xylan in Maize Cell Walls During Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunecky, R.; Vinzant, T. B.; Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Johnson, D. K.; Himmel, M. E.

    2009-04-15

    Developing processes for the conversion of biomass for use in transportation fuels production is becoming a critically important economic and engineering challenge. Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising technology for increasing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. However, a deeper understanding of the pretreatability of biomass is needed so that the rate of formation and yields of sugars can be increased. Xylan is an important hemicellulosic component of the plant cell wall and acts as a barrier to cellulose, essentially blocking cellulase action. To better understand xylan hydrolysis in corn stover, we have studied changes in the distribution of xylan caused by dilute acid pretreatment using correlative microscopy. A dramatic loss of xylan antibody signal from the center of the cell wall and an increase or retention of xylan at the plasma membrane interface and middle lamella of the cell were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). We also observed a reduction in xylan fluorescence signal by CLSM that is generally consistent with the decrease in xylan content measured experimentally in the bulk sample, however, the compartmentalization of this xylan retention was not anticipated.

  17. Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes. Milestone Report No. C064

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, D.G.; Brothers, A.J.; Beary, M.M.; Nicholson, G.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities.

  18. Global transcriptome analysis of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 during growth on dilute acid pretreated Populus and switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Charlotte M; Rodriguez Jr, Miguel; Johnson, Courtney M; Martin, S L.; Chu, Tzu Ming; Wolfinger, Russ; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Brown, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    Background The thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production. The aim of this study was to investigate C. thermocellum genes required to ferment biomass substrates and to conduct a robust comparison of DNA microarray and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analytical platforms. Results C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 fermentations were conducted with a 5 g/L solid substrate loading of either pretreated switchgrass or Populus. Quantitative saccharification and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) for elemental analysis revealed composition differences between biomass substrates, which may have influenced growth and transcriptomic profiles. High quality RNA was prepared for C. thermocellum grown on solid substrates and transcriptome profiles were obtained for two time points during active growth (12 hours and 37 hours postinoculation). A comparison of two transcriptomic analytical techniques, microarray and RNA-seq, was performed and the data analyzed for statistical significance. Large expression differences for cellulosomal genes were not observed. We updated gene predictions for the strain and a small novel gene, Cthe_3383, with a putative AgrD peptide quorum sensing function was among the most highly expressed genes. RNAseq data also supported different small regulatory RNA predictions over others. The DNA microarray gave a greater number (2,351) of significant genes relative to RNA-seq (280 genes when normalized by the kernel density mean of M component (KDMM) method) in an analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing method with a 5 % false discovery rate (FDR). When a 2-fold difference in expression threshold was applied, 73 genes were significantly differentially expressed in common between the two techniques. Sulfate and phosphate uptake/utilization genes, along with genes for a putative efflux pump system were some of the most differentially regulated transcripts

  19. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  20. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  1. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 STORAGE AND SINK ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Bock; Richard Rhudy; Howard Herzog; Michael Klett; John Davison; Danial G. De La Torre Ugarte; Dale Simbeck

    2003-02-01

    This project developed life-cycle costs for the major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} storage and sink enhancement. The technologies evaluated included options for storing captured CO{sub 2} in active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of carbon sequestration in forests and croplands. The capture costs for a nominal 500 MW{sub e} integrated gasification combined cycle plant from an earlier study were combined with the storage costs from this study to allow comparison among capture and storage approaches as well as sink enhancements.

  2. Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Transition Strategies Possible Range of Government Support Options * Hydrogen Fuel Initiative - 2015 commercialization decision * 2015 commercialization decision - 1000s of cars by 2015, and 10,000s of cars by 2018 * 2015 commercialization decision, 100,000s of cars by 2018 * 2010 commercialization decision, 10,000s of cars by 2015 and 100,000s of cars by 2018 * 2010 commercialization decision, 100,000s of cars by 2016 and millions by 2021. These scenarios are provided for transition analyses as

  3. Gas option: America's least-cost energy strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, G.H.

    1980-05-17

    Public energy policy which acknowledges the gas option as having significant potential will increase supply incentives while decreasing demand restraints. The arguments developed by the Mellon Institute and others confirm the need to reject the Title II incremental pricing and the need to implement the Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS). Positive evidence that proved reserves are higher than was thought has prompted the gas industry to fight incremental pricing as a barrier to a least-cost national energy strategy. BEPS, on the other hand, encourages more efficient use without eliminating industrial use. (DCK)

  4. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  5. Models & Tools for Evaluation of Project Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Models & Tools for Evaluation of Project Options Tribal Energy Program Review 2015 Lars Lisell 5/7/2015 2 Energy Audits/Energy Evaluation * Envelope/Weatherization * Lighting * HVAC * Plug loads 3 * http://www.nrel.gov/gis/ RE Resource Maps 4 * Biopower Atlas * https://mapsbeta.nrel.gov/biopower-atlas/ RE Resource Maps 5 PV Watts http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/ 6 PV Watts http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/ 7 PV Watts http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/ 8 PV Watts http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/ 9 PV Watts

  6. Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases -

  7. Microsoft Word - Draft Option Mod Oct - Dec 2011 rev 1

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Attachment to Modification M231 B&W Pantex Contract No. DE-AC54-00AL66620 Page 2 of 5 The purpose of this Modification is to incorporate FAR 52.217-9; exercise the First Three-Month Option Period; Revise Section F, DELIVERIES OR PERFORMANCE, paragraph F.1; revise Section F, DELIVERIES OR PERFORMANCE, paragraph F.3; revise Section F, DELIVERIES OR PERFORMANCE, Paragraph F.4; revise Section B, SUPPLIES OR SERVICES AND PRICES/COSTS, paragraph B.2(a)(2); and, revise Section B, SUPPLIES OR

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Windows Options for New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2013-05-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011 at the Nolte Building on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN. Featured speakers included John Carmody and Pat Huelman of the University of Minnesota, Charlie Curcija of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Jim Larson of Cardinal Glass Industries, Peter Yost of Building Green, Peter Baker of Building Science Corporation, and Theresa Weston of Du Pont Innovations. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover need and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals.

  9. Expert Meeting Report. Windows Options for New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyck, C.; Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2013-05-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011, at the Nolte Building on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN. Featured speakers included John Carmody and Pat Huelman of the University of Minnesota, Charlie Curcija of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Jim Larson of Cardinal Glass Industries, Peter Yost of Building Green, Peter Baker of Building Science Corporation, and Theresa Weston of Du Pont Innovations. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover need and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals.

  10. Refrigeration options for the Advanced Light Source Superbend Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Schlueter, R.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.

    1999-07-09

    The 1.9 GeV Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produces photons with a critical energy of about 3.1 kev at each of its thirty-six 1.3 T gradient bending magnets. It is proposed that at three locations around the ring the conventional gradient bending magnets be replaced with superconducting bending magnets with a maximum field of 5.6 T. At the point where the photons are extracted, their critical energy will be about 12 keV. In the beam lines where the SuperBend superconducting magnets are installed, the X ray brightness at 20 keV will be increased over two orders of magnitude. This report describes three different refrigeration options for cooling the three SuperBend dipoles. The cooling options include: (1) liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryogen cooling using stored liquids, (2) a central helium refrigerator (capacity 70 to 100 W) cooling all of the SuperBend magnets, (3) a Gifford McMahon (GM) cryocooler on each of the dipoles. This paper describes the technical and economic reasons for selecting a small GM cryocooler as the method for cooling the SuperBend dipoles on the LBNL Advanced Light Source.

  11. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

  12. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-15

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  13. Potential GHG mitigation options for agriculture in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erda, Lin; Yue, Li; Hongmin, Dong

    1996-12-31

    Agriculture contributes more or less to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). China`s agriculture accounts for about 5-15% of total emissions for these gases. Land-use changes related to agriculture are not major contributors in China. Mitigation options are available that could result in significant decrease in CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural systems. If implemented, they are likely to increase crop and animal productivity. Implementation has the potential to decrease CH{sub 4} emissions from rice, ruminants, and animal waste by 4-40%. The key to decreasing N{sub 2}O emissions is improving the efficiency of plant utilization of fertilizer N. This could decrease N{sub 2}O emissions from agriculture by almost 20%. Using animal waste to produce CH{sub 4} for energy and digested manure for fertilizer may at some time be cost effective. Economic analyses of options proposed should show positive economic as well as environmental benefits.

  14. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  15. Technology Test Drive: PNNL Offers Exploratory Licenses

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Signing a two-page agreement and paying just $1,000 can get U.S. companies an opportunity to test drive promising technologies through a new, user-friendly commercialization option being offered at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  16. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  17. An updated dose assessment for a U.S. Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1975. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The corresponding 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.1 cSv, 13 cSv, and 15 cSv, respectively. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {plus_minus}35% of its expected value. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

  18. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library - Test Preparation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Preparation NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Test Preparation Photos in this category depict preparations for past nuclear tests. The last test at the Nevada National Security Site was conducted in 1992, the year President Bush instituted a moratorium. Since that time, the United States has ceased all nuclear testing. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links

  19. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Underground Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underground Testing NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Underground Testing Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted in specially drilled shafts, horizontal tunnels and craters at the Nevada National Security Site. Most vertical shaft tests assisted in the development of new weapon systems. Horizontal tunnel tests occurred to evaluate the effects (radiation, ground shock) of various weapons on military hardware and systems.

  20. Forklift Test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forklift Safety Test Instructions: All Training and Testing Material is for LSU CAMD Users ... A minimum passing score is 80% (8 out of 10) This test can only be taken once in a thirty ...

  1. Lustre Tests

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-08-31

    Lustre-tests is a package of regression tests for the Lustre file system containing I/O workloads representative of problems discovered on production systems.

  2. Market-Based Indian Grid Integration Study Options: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Clark, K.; Negi, S. K.

    2012-03-01

    The Indian state of Gujarat is forecasting solar and wind generation expansion from 16% to 32% of installed generation capacity by 2015. Some states in India are already experiencing heavy wind power curtailment. Understanding how to integrate variable generation (VG) into the grid is of great interest to local transmission companies and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. This paper describes the nature of a market-based integration study and how this approach, while new to Indian grid operation and planning, is necessary to understand how to operate and expand the grid to best accommodate the expansion of VG. Second, it discusses options in defining a study's scope, such as data granularity, generation modeling, and geographic scope. The paper also explores how Gujarat's method of grid operation and current system reliability will affect how an integration study can be performed.

  3. PEDRO (Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option) user guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    PEDRO is an electronic data communications product that simplifies filing and transmission of petroleum survey data. Your burden is significantly reduced as PEDRO eliminates paperwork, provides immediate onsite correction of data errors, and reduces the need for followup calls and survey resubmission. PEDRO provides an online error-checking process that highlights discrepancies. This permits you to enter and check data before transmitting to EIA. EIA then combines and reformats the data from different users for use by analytical and reporting programs. PEDRO is available at no cost to the user. Formal training is not required since installation, data processing, and transmission are done by interactive, user-friendly menu options. The PEDRO system is divided into three functions: (1) data processing, (2) transmitting data to EIA, and (3) EIA processing. 28 figs.

  4. Options to reduce the operating costs at fossil power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, L.; White, T.R.

    1998-12-31

    With the coming of deregulation in the electric power industry, existing power plants will have to evaluate options to reduce their operating costs in methods more commonly used in the industrial sector. Similar to organizations throughout the country, electrical generation companies are looking for ways to reduce their costs. The projected impact of figure deregulation on free enterprise production and trading have further emphasized this need. Historically, the ability to sell or dispatch electrical load based on economic advantages, has existed within local systems. Generating facilities with higher production costs must implement operating cost reductions or expect even lower capacity factors following deregulation. This paper examines various means to reducing operating costs and the methods used in their evaluation.

  5. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

  6. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  7. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Test Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Historical Test Films > Film Page NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Historical Test Film Instructions: Click the Windows Media or MPG Movie link below the thumbnail to view the video Film details are listed on the right under Description Click the Full Text link for additional information about the video Refer to the Viewing Instructions and FAQs

  8. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E. K.

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  9. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; et al

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have largemore » implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  10. State options for low-carbon coal policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Cowart; Shanna Vale; Joshua Bushinsky; Pat Hogan

    2008-02-15

    There is growing state-level interest in the USA in accelerating the development of low-carbon coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS). Many states have adopted greenhouse gas emission targets and made commitments to low-carbon energy, and believe that these polices will result in job creation, air quality improvements, and reliable low-cost energy supplies. This paper provides an overview of options for states to encourage the deployment of carbon capture and sequestration. It describes actions (including legislation, regulations, and incentives) throughout the country. It also reviews in greater detail the range of policies available to state Public Utility Commissions for advancing deployment of CCS. Many states are adopting meaningful incentives for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, and, as a handful of states are beginning to demonstrate, a number of these incentives can apply to CCS as well. States also have a number of authorities relevant to advancement of clean coal power, particularly within the domain of state public utility commissions (PUCs). State commissions have a wide array of policy options available to them in pursuing this goal, and will play a crucial role in determining the speed and effectiveness with which such technologies are deployed. States also enjoy major advantages, such as their direct jurisdiction over many critical power plant issues (including siting and retail ratemaking) that federal agencies do not possess. Regardless of the final form of federal greenhouse gas rules, states have the chance to gain experience as first movers and policy innovators, and will play an important role in shaping a low-carbon future. Although national policy is essential, a proactive approach by state policymakers and regulators to drive CCS can reduce future compliance costs, speed the required technological developments, and pave the way for future national policy.

  11. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy

  12. SRNL Review And Assessment Of WTP UFP-02 Sparger Design And Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M. R.; Duignan, M. R.; Fink, S. D.; Steimke, J. L.

    2014-03-24

    During aerosol testing conducted by Parsons Constructors and Fabricators, Inc. (PCFI), air sparger plugging was observed in small-scale and medium-scale testing. Because of this observation, personnel identified a concern that the steam spargers in Pretreatment Facility vessel UFP-02 could plug during Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) operation. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide consultation on the evaluation of known WTP bubbler, and air and steam sparger issues. The authors used the following approach for this task: reviewed previous test reports (including smallscale testing, medium-scale testing, and Pretreatment Engineering Platform [PEP] testing), met with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) personnel to discuss sparger design, reviewed BNI documents supporting the sparger design, discussed sparger experience with Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Sellafield personnel, talked to sparger manufacturers about relevant operating experience and design issues, and reviewed UFP-02 vessel and sparger drawings.

  13. Effect of Lignin Removal by Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on the Susceptibility of Corn Stover to Purified Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

  14. Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Chlorine in Fuel Gases: Impact on High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance and Clean-Up Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Chlorine in Fuel Gases: Impact on High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance and Clean-Up Options OLGA A MARINA Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Workshop on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications March 6-7, 2014 57% net electrical efficiency on methane 8 SOFC cells per furnace with independent gas flow Multi-cell MCFC test stand 2 High Temperature Fuel Cell R&D at PNNL; Impurities Overview OA Marina Selected Impurities in Biogas/Landfill Gas: Cell/stack/system

  15. Solar assisted alkali pretreatment of garden biomass: Effects on lignocellulose degradation, enzymatic hydrolysis, crystallinity and ultra-structural changes in lignocellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S.P.M. Prince; Vaidya, Atul N.; Das, Sera; Wate, Satish R.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • SAAP is an efficient and economic means of pretreatment. • SAAP was found to be efficient in lignin and hemicellulose removal. • SAAP enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis. • FTIR, XRD and SEM provided vivid understanding about the mode of action of SAAP. • Mass balance closer of 98% for pretreated GB confirmed the reliability of SAAP. - Abstract: A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of solar assisted alkali pretreatment (SAAP) on garden biomass (GB). The pretreatment efficiency was assessed based on lignocellulose degradation, conversion of cellulose into reducing sugars, changes in the ultra-structure and functional groups of lignocellulose and impact on the crystallinity of cellulose, etc. SAAP was found to be efficient for the removal of lignin and hemicellulose that facilitated enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. FTIR and XRD studies provided details on the effectiveness of SAAP on lignocellulosic moiety and crystallinity of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed ultra-structural disturbances in the microfibrils of GB as a result of pretreatment. The mass balance closer of 97.87% after pretreatment confirmed the reliability of SAAP pretreatment. Based on the results, it is concluded that SAAP is not only an efficient means of pretreatment but also economical as it involved no energy expenditure for heat generation during pretreatment.

  16. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  17. Fermentation of dilute acid pretreated Populus by Clostridium thermocellum, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yee, Kelsey L.; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Thompson, Olivia A.; Elkins, James G.; Davison, Brian H.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.

    2015-07-25

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), which merges enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and fermentation into a single step, has the potential to become an efficient and economic strategy for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to transportation fuels or chemicals. In this study, we evaluated Clostridium thermocellum, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, three , thermophilic,cellulolytic, mixed-acid fermenting candidate CBP microorganisms, for their fermentation capabilities using dilute acid pretreated Populus as a model biomass feedstock. Under pH controlled, anaerobic fermentation conditions, each candidate successfully digested a minimum of 75% of the cellulose from dilute acid pretreated Populus, as indicated by an increase in planktonic cellsmore » and end-product metabolites and a concurrent decrease in glucan content. C. thermocellum, which employs a cellulosomal approach to biomass degradation, required 120 hours to achieve 75% cellulose utilization. In contrast, the non-cellulosomal, secreted hydrolytic enzyme system of the Caldicellulosiruptor sp. required 300 hours to achieve similar results. End-point fermentation conversions for C. thermocellum, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis were determined to be 0.29, 0.34, and 0.38 grams of total metabolites per gram of loaded glucan, respectively. This data provide a starting point for future strain engineering efforts that can serve to improve the biomass fermentation capabilities of these three promising candidate CBP platforms.« less

  18. Modification of Bi:YIG film properties by substrate surface ion pre-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Mikhailova, T.V.; Kotov, V.A.; Balabanov, D.E.; Sharay, I.V.; Salyuk, O.Y.; Vasiliev, M.; Golub, V.O.

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: Effects of substrates ion beam treatment on magnetoptical properties Bi:YIG films. Substrate surface damage results in sign inversion of the magneto-optical effects. Atomically smooth films growth takes place on low energy ions treated substrates. High energy ions treatment results in selective nucleation mechanism of the growth. - Abstract: The effect of a controlled ion beam pre-treatment of (1 1 1)-oriented Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} substrates on the magneto-optical properties and surface morphology of the ultrathin bismuth-substituted yttriumiron garnet films with a composition Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was studied. It has been shown that the observed sign inversion of magneto-optical effects (Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism) observed in films that were deposited on the GGG substrate pre-treated by 1 keV and 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion beams is a result of the substrate surface amorphization caused by the ion bombardment.

  19. Fact #919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Times Vary Considerably - Dataset | Department of Energy 9: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably - Dataset Fact #919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably fotw#919_web.xlsx (372.17 KB) More Documents & Publications Codes and Standards Support Vehicle Electrification Overview of Vehicle and

  20. Morphological changes in the cellulose and lignin components of biomass occur at different stages of steam pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Urban, Volker S.; Petridis, Loukas; Davison, Brian H.; Langan, Paul

    2014-01-09

    Morphological changes to the different components of lignocellulosic biomass were observed as they occurred during steam pretreatment by placing a pressure reaction cell in a neutron beam and collecting time-resolved neutron scattering data. Changes to cellulose morphology occurred mainly in the heating phase, whereas changes in lignin morphology occurred mainly in the holding and cooling phases. During the heating stage, water is irreversibly expelled from cellulose microfibrils as the elementary fibrils coalesce. During the holding phase lignin aggregates begin to appear and they increase in size most noticeably during the cooling phase. This experiment demonstrates the unique information that inmore » situ small angle neutron scattering studies of pretreatment can provide. This approach is potentially useful in optimizing the heating, holding and cooling stages of pretreatments to allow the exact size and nature of lignin aggregates to be controlled in order to enhance enzyme accessibility to cellulose and therefore the efficiency of biomass conversion.« less

  1. Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

    2013-01-01

    A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

  2. Effects of Dilute Acid Pretreatment on Cellulose DP and the Relationship Between DP Reduction and Cellulose Digestibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Tucker, M.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of polymerization(DP) of cellulose is considered to be one of the most important properties affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Various pure cellulosic and biomass materials have been used in a study of the effect of dilute acid treatment on cellulose DP. A substantial reduction in DP was found for all pure cellulosic materials studied even at conditions that would be considered relatively mild for pretreatment. The effect of dilute acid pretreatment on cellulose DP in biomass samples was also investigated. Corn stover pretreated with dilute acid under the most optimal conditions contained cellulose with a DPw in the range of 1600{approx}3500, which is much higher than the level-off DP(DPw 150{approx}300) obtained with pure celluloses. The effect of DP reduction on the saccharification of celluloses was also studied. From this study it does not appear that cellulose DP is a main factor affecting cellulose saccharification.

  3. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Project. Semi-annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-03-13

    The design changes and construction of the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse are described. The greenhouse performance and horticultural and educational activities are discussed. (MHR)

  4. Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options on Solar Installations on K-12 Schools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts.

  5. Critical Question #3: What are the Best Options for All-Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Utilizing Bacteria for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost Nanoparticles ...

  6. China-Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable...

  7. U.S. Lighting Market Characterization Volume II: Energy Efficient Lighting Technology Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Eugene; Conroy, Louise A.; Scholand, Michael J.

    2005-09-30

    Multiyear study to evaluate light sources and identify opportunities for saving energy. This report looks broadly at energy-efficient options in lighting and identifies leading opportunities.

  8. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  9. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM -pre-treated biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E.; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-04-23

    We report that cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is amore » trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. Lastly, we found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance.« less

  10. Net Test

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-09-01

    Nettest is a secure, real-time network utility. The nettest framework is designed to incorporate existing and new network tests, and be run as a daemon or an interactive process. Requests for network tests are received via a SSL connection or the user interface and are authorized using a ACL list (in the future authorization using Akenti will also be supported). For tests that require coordination between the two ends of the test, Nettest establishes anmore » SSL connection to accomplish this coordination. A test between two remote computers can be requested via the user interlace if the Nettest daemon is running on both remote machines and the user is authorized. Authorization for the test is through a chain of trust estabtished by the nettest daemons. Nettest is responsible for determining if the test request is authorized, but it does nothing further to secure the test once the test is running. Currently the Nettest framework incorporates lperf-vl.2, a simple ping type test, and a tuned TCP test that uses a given required throughput and ping results to determine the round trip time to set a buffer size (based on the delay bandwidth product) and then performs an iperf TCP throughput test. Additional network test tools can be integrated into the Nettest framework in the future.« less

  11. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gresham, Garold Linn; Kenney, Kevin Louis

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  12. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-07-01

    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders.

  13. Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge

    1999-10-01

    The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  14. Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  15. Natural Gas as a Fuel Option for Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Wegrzyn; Wai Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

    1999-04-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) is promoting the use of natural gas as a fuel option in the transportation energy sector through its natural gas vehicle program [1]. The goal of this program is to eliminate the technical and cost barriers associated with displacing imported petroleum. This is achieved by supporting research and development in technologies that reduce manufacturing costs, reduce emissions, and improve vehicle performance and consumer acceptance for natural gas fueled vehicles. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, projects are currently being pursued in (1) liquefied natural gas production from unconventional sources, (2) onboard natural gas storage (adsorbent, compressed, and liquefied), (3) natural gas delivery systems for both onboard the vehicle and the refueling station, and (4) regional and enduse strategies. This paper will provide an overview of these projects highlighting their achievements and current status. In addition, it will discuss how the individual technologies developed are being integrated into an overall program strategic plan.

  16. Mathematical investigation of one-way transform matrix options.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, James Arlin

    2006-01-01

    One-way transforms have been used in weapon systems processors since the mid- to late-1970s in order to help recognize insertion of correct pre-arm information while maintaining abnormal-environment safety. Level-One, Level-Two, and Level-Three transforms have been designed. The Level-One and Level-Two transforms have been implemented in weapon systems, and both of these transforms are equivalent to matrix multiplication applied to the inserted information. The Level-Two transform, utilizing a 6 x 6 matrix, provided the basis for the ''System 2'' interface definition for Unique-Signal digital communication between aircraft and attached weapons. The investigation described in this report was carried out to find out if there were other size matrices that would be equivalent to the 6 x 6 Level-Two matrix. One reason for the investigation was to find out whether or not other dimensions were possible, and if so, to derive implementation options. Another important reason was to more fully explore the potential for inadvertent inversion. The results were that additional implementation methods were discovered, but no inversion weaknesses were revealed.

  17. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Quarterly status report, July--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on the project ``High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing``, for the time period 1 July through 30 September 1994. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades evaluated mostly involve using additives in the FGD systems. The ``base`` project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. AR five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station (Option I), the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station (Option II), the PSI Energy Gibson Station (Option III), the Duquesne Light Elrama Station (Option IV), and the New York State Electric and Gas Company Kintigh Station (Option V). By the end of September 1994, testing was completed for the base project and for all options. The document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from these technical efforts during the quarter. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the fourth quarter of calendar year 1994. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

  18. JV Task 122 - Assessment of Mercury Control Options for the San Miguel Electric Cooperative Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas Lentz; Brandon Pavlish; John Kay; Michael Jones

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, testing has been under way at electric coal-fired power plants to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending regulations. San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) engaged the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) through a request for proposal (RFP) to perform research tests to evaluate sorbent-based technologies at its coal-fired San Miguel Generating Station to identify possible technology options that could be used by SMEC to meet the mercury reduction requirements of future U.S. federal standards. The goal of the testing was to target a mercury removal of {ge}90%. The EERC has successfully field-tested several sorbent-based technologies in previous projects that offer promise and potential to achieve a target removal of {ge}90%. Based on these field test results, yet recognizing that fuel type and plant operating conditions affect mercury capture significantly, the EERC proposed research tests to evaluate potential sorbent-based technologies provided by Norit Americas and the EERC that could potentially meet SMEC's mercury control objectives. Over the period of May through mid-June 2008, the EERC tested injection of both treated and nontreated activated carbon (AC) provided by Norit Americas and sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) provided by the EERC. Tests were performed at San Miguel Unit 1 (450 MW) and included injection at the inlet of the air heater (AH) (temperature of 720 F). The test coal was a Texas lignite fuel with an average moisture content of 31.19%, an ash content of 26.6%, a heating value of 5,094 Btu/lb, a sulfur content of 2.7%, and a mercury concentration of 0.182 ppm, all reported on an as-received basis. Pilot-scale testing results identified DARCO{reg_sign} Hg-LH, SEA2 + DARCO{reg_sign} Hg, and the ChemMod sorbents as technologies with the potential to achieve the target mercury removal of {ge}90% at the full-scale test. Mercury concentrations were tracked with continuous mercury

  19. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water and alkaline pretreatment on cellulose accessible surface area and overall porosity of Populus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Sun, Qining; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-06-19

    Pretreatment is known to render biomass more reactive to cellulase by altering the chemical compositions as well as physical structures of biomass. Simons stain technique along with mercury porosimetry were applied on the acid, neutral, and alkaline pretreated materials to measure the accessible surface area of cellulose and pore size distribution of Populus. Results indicated that acid pretreatment is much more effective than water and alkaline pretreatment in terms of cellulose accessibility increase. Further investigation suggests that lignin does not dictate cellulose accessibility to the extent that hemicellulose does, but it does restrict xylan accessibility which in turn controls themore » access of cellulase to cellulose. The most interesting finding is that severe acid pretreatment significantly decreases the average pore size, i.e., 90% average size decrease could be observed after 60 min dilute acid pretreatment at 160 °C; moreover, the nano-pore space formed between coated microfibrils is increased after pretreatment, especially for the acid pretreatment, suggesting this particular type of biomass porosity is probably the most fundamental barrier to effective enzymatic hydrolysis.« less

  20. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water and alkaline pretreatment on cellulose accessible surface area and overall porosity of Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Sun, Qining; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-06-19

    Pretreatment is known to render biomass more reactive to cellulase by altering the chemical compositions as well as physical structures of biomass. Simons stain technique along with mercury porosimetry were applied on the acid, neutral, and alkaline pretreated materials to measure the accessible surface area of cellulose and pore size distribution of Populus. Results indicated that acid pretreatment is much more effective than water and alkaline pretreatment in terms of cellulose accessibility increase. Further investigation suggests that lignin does not dictate cellulose accessibility to the extent that hemicellulose does, but it does restrict xylan accessibility which in turn controls the access of cellulase to cellulose. The most interesting finding is that severe acid pretreatment significantly decreases the average pore size, i.e., 90% average size decrease could be observed after 60 min dilute acid pretreatment at 160 °C; moreover, the nano-pore space formed between coated microfibrils is increased after pretreatment, especially for the acid pretreatment, suggesting this particular type of biomass porosity is probably the most fundamental barrier to effective enzymatic hydrolysis.

  1. Impact of Pretreatment Tumor Growth Rate on Outcome of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, Soha; Cho, B.C. John; Allibhai, Zishan; Taremi, Mojgan; Giuliani, Meredith; Le, Lisa W.; Brade, Anthony; Sun, Alexander; Bezjak, Andrea; Hope, Andrew J.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of pretreatment tumor growth rate on outcomes in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A review was conducted on 160 patients with T1-T2N0M0 NSCLC treated with SBRT at single institution. The patient's demographic and clinical data, time interval (t) between diagnostic and planning computed tomography (CT), vital status, disease status, and cause of death were extracted from a prospectively kept database. Differences in gross tumor volume between diagnostic CT (GTV1) and planning CT (GTV2) were recorded, and growth rate was calculated by use of specific growth rate (SGR). Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for overall survival (OS). Differences between groups were compared with a log-rank test. Multivariate analyses were performed by use of the Cox proportional hazard model with SGR and other relevant clinical factors. Cumulative incidence was calculated for local, regional, and distant failures by use of the competing risk approach and was compared with Gray's test. Results: The median time interval between diagnostic and planning CT was 82 days. The patients were divided into 2 groups, and the median SGR was used as a cut-off. The median survival times were 38.6 and 27.7 months for the low and high SGR groups, respectively (P=.03). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P=.01), sex (P=.04), SGR (P=.03), and GTV2 (P=.002) were predictive for OS in multivariable Cox regression analysis and, except sex, were similarly predictive for failure-free survival (FFS). The 3-year cumulative incidences of regional failure were 19.2% and 6.0% for the high and low SGR groups, respectively (P=.047). Conclusion: High SGR was correlated with both poorer OS and FFS in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT. If validated, this measurement may be useful in identifying patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant

  2. Recovery of Plutonium from Refractory Residues Using a Sodium Peroxide Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2003-10-23

    The recycle of plutonium from refractory residues is a necessary activity for the nuclear weapon production complex. Traditionally, high-fired plutonium oxide (PuO2) was leached from the residue matrix using a nitric acid/fluoride dissolving flowsheet. The recovery operations were time consuming and often required multiple contacts with fresh dissolving solution to reduce the plutonium concentration to levels where residual solids could be discarded. Due to these drawbacks, the development of an efficient process for the recovery of plutonium from refractory materials is desirable. To address this need, a pretreatment process was developed. The development program utilized a series of small-scale experiments to optimize processing conditions for the fusion process and demonstrate the plutonium recovery efficiency using ceramic materials developed as potential long-term storage forms for PuO2 and an incinerator ash from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) as te st materials.

  3. Impact of Mixed Feedstocks and Feedstock Densification on Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Shi; Vicki S. Thompson; Neal A. Yancey; Vitalie Stavila; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lignocellulosic biorefineries must be able to efficiently process the regional feedstocks that are available at cost-competitive prices year round. These feedstocks typically have low energy densities and vary significantly in composition. One potential solution to these issues is blending and/or densifying the feedstocks in order to create a uniform feedstock. Results/discussion: We have mixed four feedstocks - switchgrass, lodgepole pine, corn stover, and eucalyptus - in flour and pellet form and processed them using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Sugar yields from both the mixed flour and pelletized feedstocks reach 90% within 24 hours of saccharification. Conclusions: Mixed feedstocks, in either flour or pellet form, are efficiently processed using this pretreatment process, and demonstrate that this approach has significant potential.

  4. Evaluation of solid-based separation materials for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Wester, D.W.; Morrey, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    Separation science will play an important role in pretreating nuclear wastes stored at various US Department of Energy Sites. The application of separation processes offers potential economic and environmental benefits with regards to remediating these sites. For example, at the Hanford Site, the sizeable volume of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks could be partitioned into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW). After waste separation, only the smaller volume of HLW would require costly vitrification and geologic disposal. Furthermore, the quality of the remaining LLW form (e.g., grout) would be improved due to the lower inventory of radionuclides present in the LLW stream. This report investigates extraction chromatography as a possible separation process for Hanford wastes.

  5. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent W. Dixon; Steven J. Piet

    2004-10-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository (63,000 MTiHM commercial, 7,000 MT non-commercial). There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected. The first step in understanding the need for different spent fuel management approaches is to understand the size of potential spent fuel inventories. A full range of potential futures for domestic commercial nuclear energy is considered. These energy futures are as follows: 1. Existing License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus extrapolation of future plant-by-plant discharges until the end of each operating license, including known license extensions. 2. Extended License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus a plant-by-plant extrapolation of future discharges assuming on all operating plants having one 20-year extension. 3. Continuing Level Energy Generation - Based on extension of the current ~100 GWe installed commercial base and average spent fuel discharge of 2100 MT/yr through the year 2100. 4. Continuing Market Share Generation Based on a 1.8% compounded growth of the electricity market through the year 2100, matched by growing nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge. 5. Growing Market Share Generation - Extension of current nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge through 2100 with 3.2% growth representing 1.5% market growth (all energy, not just electricity) and 1.7% share growth. Share growth results in

  6. Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The successful bench-scale test of a novel carbon dioxide capturing sorbent promises to further advance the process as a possible technological option for reducing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants.

  7. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    options for produced fluids that require additional treatment for these constituents are also discussed, including surface disposal, reuse and recycle, agricultural industrial and domestic uses, mineral extraction and recovery, and solid waste handling.

  8. 327 Building liquid waste handling options modification project plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-03-28

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste (RLW) generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 327 Building. The overall objective of the 327 Facility Stabilization Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the 327 Facility. The issue of handling of RLW from the 327 Facility (assuming the 34O Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been conceptually examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart l997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 327 Facility RLWS handling systems to provide a truck load-out station, either within the confines of the facility or exterior to the facility. The alternatives also maximized the use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes. An issue discussed in each study involved the anticipated volume of the RLW stream. Estimates ranged between 113,550 and 387,500 liters in the earlier studies. During the development of the 324/327 Building Stabilization/Deactivation Project Management Plan, the lower estimate of approximately 113,550 liters was confirmed and has been adopted as the baseline for the 327 Facility RLW stream. The goal of this engineering study is to reevaluate the existing preferred alternative and select a new preferred alternative, if appropriate. Based on the new or confirmed preferred alternative, this study will also provide a conceptual design and cost estimate for required modifications to the 327 Facility to allow removal of RLWS and treatment of the RLW generated during deactivation.

  9. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-07-27

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) design has been developed for a cyclone fired utility boiler in which a field test of RRI will be performed later this year. Initial evaluations of RRI for PC fired boilers have been performed. Calibration tests have been developed for a corrosion probe to monitor waterwall wastage. Preliminary tests have been performed for a soot model within a boiler simulation program. Shakedown tests have been completed for test equipment and procedures that will be used to measure soot generation in a pilot scale test furnace. In addition, an initial set of controlled experiments for ammonia adsorption onto fly ash in the presence of sulfur have been performed that indicates the sulfur does enhance ammonia uptake.

  10. Recalcitrance and structural analysis by water-only flowthrough pretreatment of 13C enriched corn stover stem

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Foston, Marcus B.; Trajanob, Heather L.; Samuel, Reichel; Wyman, Charles E.; He, Jian; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-28

    Here, this study presents high temperature water-only continuous flowthrough pretreatment coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a promising analytical tool to examine the plant cell wall, to understand its recalcitrance (i.e., cell wall resistance to deconstruction), and to probe the chemistry occurring during batch pretreatment of biomass. 13C-enriched corn stover stems were pretreated at 170 °C for 60 min with a hot-water flow rate of 20 mL/min to control fractionation of the cell wall. This approach helped elucidate the nature of plant cell wall chemical recalcitrance and biomass pretreatment chemistry by tracking cell wall fragmentation as a function ofmore » time. Fractions of the reactor effluent were collected in a time-resolved fashion and characterized by various NMR techniques to determine the degree and sequence of fragments released, as well as, the chemical composition, molecular structure, and relative molecular weight of those released fragments.« less

  11. Carbon flows and economic evaluation of mitigation options in Tanzani's forest sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.R.; Okinting'Ati, Aku

    1995-02-02

    This paper presents estimates of the rate of forest use, deforestation and forest degradation, as well as the corresponding carbon flows, in the Tanzanian forest sector. It is estimated that the country lost 525,000 ha of forests in 1990, with associated committed emissions of 31.5 Mt. Carbon (MtC), and 7.05 MtC of committed carbon sequestration. The paper then describes the possible response options in the forest sector to mitigate GHG emissions, and evaluates the most stable subset of these-i.e. forest conservation, woodfuel plantations and agroforestry. The conservation options were found to cost an average of U.S. $1.27 per tonne of carbon (tC) conserved. Five options for fuelwood plantations and agroforestry, with two different ownership regimes were evaluated. Each one of the options gives a positive net present value at low rates of discount, ranging from U.S. $1.06 to 3.4/1C of avoided emissions at 0 percent discount rate. At 10 percent discount, the eucalyptus and maize option has a highest PNV of U.S. $1.73 tC, and the government plantation gives a negative PNV (loss) of U.S. $0.13 tC sequestered. The options with a private/community type of ownership scheme fared better than government run options. This conclusion also held true when ranking the options by the BRAC indicator, with the government fuelwood plantation ranked the lowest, and the private agroforestry option of eucalyptus and corn performing best. The mitigation options evaluated here show that the forest sector in Tanzania has one of the most cost-effective GHG mitigation opportunities in the world, and they are within the developmental aspirations of the country.

  12. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  13. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanicallybiologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global

  14. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern

  15. Evaluation of an aSi-EPID with flattening filter free beams: Applicability to the GLAaS algorithm for portal dosimetry and first experience for pretreatment QA of RapidArc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolini, G.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Cozzi, L.; Fogliata, A.; Krauss, H.; Fenoglietto, P.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of portal dosimetry with an amorphous silicon mega voltage imager for flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams by means of the GLAaS methodology and to validate it for pretreatment quality assurance of volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc).Methods: The GLAaS algorithm, developed for flattened beams, was applied to FFF beams of nominal energy of 6 and 10 MV generated by a Varian TrueBeam (TB). The amorphous silicon electronic portal imager [named mega voltage imager (MVI) on TB] was used to generate integrated images that were converted into matrices of absorbed dose to water. To enable GLAaS use under the increased dose-per-pulse and dose-rate conditions of the FFF beams, new operational source-detector-distance (SDD) was identified to solve detector saturation issues. Empirical corrections were defined to account for the shape of the profiles of the FFF beams to expand the original methodology of beam profile and arm backscattering correction. GLAaS for FFF beams was validated on pretreatment verification of RapidArc plans for three different TB linacs. In addition, the first pretreatment results from clinical experience on 74 arcs were reported in terms of ? analysis.Results: MVI saturates at 100 cm SDD for FFF beams but this can be avoided if images are acquired at 150 cm for all nominal dose rates of FFF beams. Rotational stability of the gantry-imager system was tested and resulted in a minimal apparent imager displacement during rotation of 0.2 0.2 mm at SDD = 150 cm. The accuracy of this approach was tested with three different Varian TrueBeam linacs from different institutes. Data were stratified per energy and machine and showed no dependence with beam quality and MLC model. The results from clinical pretreatment quality assurance, provided a gamma agreement index (GAI) in the field area for six and ten FFF beams of (99.8 0.3)% and (99.5 0.6)% with distance to agreement and dose difference criteria set

  16. Green Energy Options for Consumer-Owned Business

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Co-opPlus of Western Massachusetts

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this project was to define, test, and prototype a replicable business model for consumer-owned cooperatives. The result is a replicable consumer-owned cooperative business model for the generation, interconnection, and distribution of renewable energy that incorporates energy conservation and efficiency improvements.

  17. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanan, Deirdre; Burnley, Stephen; Cooke, David

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Isolated communities have particular problems in terms of waste management. ► An MCDA tool allowed a group of non-experts to evaluate waste management options. ► The group preferred local waste management solutions to export to the mainland. ► Gasification of paper was the preferred option followed by recycling. ► The group concluded that they could be involved in the decision making process. - Abstract: The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making.

  18. Completion of Population of and Quality Assurance on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Laura L.; Barela, Amanda Crystal; Walkow, Walter M.; Schetnan, Richard Reed; Arnold, Matthew Brian

    2015-12-01

    An Evaluation and Screening team supporting the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Office of the United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy is conducting an evaluation and screening of a comprehensive set of fuel cycle options. These options have been assigned to one of 40 evaluation groups, each of which has a representative fuel cycle option [Todosow 2013]. A Fuel Cycle Data Package System Datasheet has been prepared for each representative fuel cycle option to ensure that the technical information used in the evaluation is high-quality and traceable [Kim, et al., 2013]. The information contained in the Fuel Cycle Data Packages has been entered into the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog at Sandia National Laboratories so that it is accessible by the evaluation and screening team and other interested parties. In addition, an independent team at Savannah River National Laboratory has verified that the information has been entered into the catalog correctly. This report documents that the 40 representative fuel cycle options have been entered into the Catalog, and that the data entered into the catalog for the 40 representative options has been entered correctly.

  19. Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-10-23

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

  20. Crane Test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crane Safety Test Instructions: All Training and Testing Material is for LSU CAMD Users ONLY! Please enter your personal information in the spaces below. A minimum passing score is 80% (8 out of 10) This test can only be taken once in a thirty day period. All fields are required to be filled in. Login: Login First Name: Last Name: Phone Number: Contact: 1. The first thing you should do when using the crane is to: a. verify the battery power on the remote control. b. drag the load to the desired

  1. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finley

    2005-09-30

    reservoirs deep beneath geological structures, and 30,000 to 35,000 million tonnes (33,069 to 38,580 million tons) of capacity in saline reservoirs on a regional dip >1,219 m (4,000 ft) deep. The major part of this effort assessed each of the three geological sinks: coals, oil reservoirs, and saline reservoirs. We linked and integrated options for capture, transportation, and geological storage with the environmental and regulatory framework to define sequestration scenarios and potential outcomes for the region. Extensive use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and visualization technology was made to convey results to project sponsors, other researchers, the business community, and the general public. An action plan for possible technology validation field tests involving CO{sub 2} injection was included in a Phase II proposal (successfully funded) to the U.S. Department of Energy with cost sharing from Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  2. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  3. Optional Partnering Form for Potential Applicants to DE--FOA--0001412,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area of Interest 3, Topics 1 and 2 | Department of Energy Optional Partnering Form for Potential Applicants to DE--FOA--0001412, Area of Interest 3, Topics 1 and 2 Optional Partnering Form for Potential Applicants to DE--FOA--0001412, Area of Interest 3, Topics 1 and 2 This optional form is intended to pair up potential applicants for Area of Interest 3: Consortium Topics as part of Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-FOA-0001412. Potential partners are invited to self-identify

  4. DOE-SR Exercises Option on Management and Operating Contract | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy DOE-SR Exercises Option on Management and Operating Contract DOE-SR Exercises Option on Management and Operating Contract August 4, 2016 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact: Jim Giusti, DOE-SR, (803) 952-8283 james-r.giusti@srs.gov The Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Operations Office, will exercise an option to extend the term of the current management and operating contract with Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) for an additional 22 months, from Oct. 1, 2016 to July

  5. DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WIPP | Department of Energy Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate WIPP DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate WIPP January 18, 2005 - 9:55am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that it has decided to exercise the five year option in the Washington TRU Solutions LLC ("WTS") contract to continue managing and operating the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP),

  6. Critical Question #3: What are the Best Options for All-Electric Homes? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3: What are the Best Options for All-Electric Homes? Critical Question #3: What are the Best Options for All-Electric Homes? In moving toward net zero energy homes, the challenge of specifying components for all-electric homes is inevitable. In this case, what are the most cost-effective and reliable options for water heating and space conditioning cq3_all_electric_houses_prahl.pdf (5.12 MB) cq3_airsource_heat_pumps_munk.pdf (2.74 MB) More Documents & Publications

  7. CX-008950: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pilot Testing: Pretreatment Options to Allow Re-Use of Frac Flowback Water CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/13/2012 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-008270: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pilot Testing: Pretreatment Options to Allow Re-Use of Frac Flowback Water CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/14/2012 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-04-30

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream

  10. Experimental Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  11. Mechanical Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  12. The RDT-RPC technology option of GEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    A muon system for the GEM SSCL detector based on Round Drift Tubes (RDT) has many attractive features. The Pt-trigger and beam crossing tag for the RDT tracking system can be accomplishment by either a PWC system, similar but less costly in design than Cathode Strip Chambers, or by a promising new type of RPC chamber. Given the economic construction of these chamber technologies a system can be envisioned with both good momentum reconstruction performance and pattern recognition capabilities. Full-scale chamber prototypes based on the RDT and RPC technologies have been constructed and tested successfully at the Texas Test Rig. Spatial resolutions have been measured in two designs of RDT chambers which meet or exceed the baseline resolution requirement of 100{mu}m per chamber layer.

  13. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-01-31

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

  14. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng; Hardin, Ernest L.

    2015-07-01

    -profile threaded connections at each end. The internal-flush design would be suitable for loading waste that arrives from the originating site in weld-sealed, cylindrical canisters. Internal, tapered plugs with sealing filet welds would seal the tubing at each end. The taper would be precisely machined onto both the tubing and the plug, producing a metal-metal sealing surface that is compressed as the package is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. The lower plug would be welded in place before loading, while the upper plug would be placed and welded after loading. Conceptual Waste Packaging Options for Deep Borehole Disposal July 30, 2015 iv Threaded connections between packages would allow emplacement singly or in strings screwed together at the disposal site. For emplacement on a drill string the drill pipe would be connected directly into the top package of a string (using an adapter sub to mate with premium semi-flush tubing threads). Alternatively, for wireline emplacement the same package designs could be emplaced singly using a sub with wireline latch, on the upper end. Threaded connections on the bottom of the lowermost package would allow attachment of a crush box, instrumentation, etc.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Transportation Options in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Rostam-Abadi; S. S. Chen; Y. Lu

    2004-09-30

    This report describes carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture options from large stationary emission sources in the Illinois Basin, primarily focusing on coal-fired utility power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions data were collected for utility power plants and industrial facilities over most of Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and western Kentucky. Coal-fired power plants are by far the largest CO{sub 2} emission sources in the Illinois Basin. The data revealed that sources within the Illinois Basin emit about 276 million tonnes of CO2 annually from 122 utility power plants and industrial facilities. Industrial facilities include 48 emission sources and contribute about 10% of total emissions. A process analysis study was conducted to review the suitability of various CO{sub 2} capture technologies for large stationary sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of technology were investigated. Based on these analyses, a suitable CO{sub 2} capture technology was assigned to each type of emission source in the Illinois Basin. Techno-economic studies were then conducted to evaluate the energy and economic performances of three coal-based power generation plants with CO{sub 2} capture facilities. The three plants considered were (1) pulverized coal (PC) + post combustion chemical absorption (monoethanolamine, or MEA), (2) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) + pre-combustion physical absorption (Selexol), and (3) oxygen-enriched coal combustion plants. A conventional PC power plant without CO2 capture was also investigated as a baseline plant for comparison. Gross capacities of 266, 533, and 1,054 MW were investigated at each power plant. The economic study considered the burning of both Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The cost estimation included the cost for compressing the CO{sub 2} stream to pipeline pressure. A process simulation software, CHEMCAD, was employed to perform steady-state simulations of power generation systems

  16. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  17. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  18. A Review of HOV Lane Performance and Policy Options in the United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Review of HOV Lane Performance and Policy Options in the United States - Final Report Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Review of HOV Lane Performance...

  19. DOE Exercises Both Option Periods on the LANL Cleanup Bridge Contract

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Los Alamos – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management – Los Alamos Field Office (EM-LA) exercised both the first and second option periods on the Los Alamos Legacy Cleanup Bridge Contract today.

  20. Local Option- Property Tax Credit for Renewables and Energy Conservation Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Title 9 of Maryland’s property tax code provides local governments the option to allow a property tax credit for buildings equipped with a solar, geothermal or qualifying energy conservation device...