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1

PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field trials and subcontractor research have been summarized in this Final Report. Individual field trial reports and research reports are contained in the companion volume titled “Appendices”

Burnett, David

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Edit Test Options Page 1 Edit Test Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edit Test Options Page 1 Edit Test Options Format Test Information 1. Enter a Name for the Test. 2. Choose a color for the title text of the Test. (Optional) 3. Enter a Description in the Text Box. The description is visible to Students before they click on the link to take the Test. (Optional) 4. If you want

Xu, Shouhuai

3

Thermal test options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.( ) Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen BK; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John GH; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S. K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

5

Report Title: PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in...

6

Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40%) with coal.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Abstract 296: Pre-treatment clinical laboratory tests indicative of metabolic status are associated with survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...296: Pre-treatment clinical laboratory tests indicative of metabolic status are associated...value of serum pre-treatment laboratory tests for prognostic purposes in non-small...identify pre-treatment routine laboratory tests indicative of a patient's overall metabolic...

Fanmao Zhang; Qing H. Meng; Yuanqing Ye; Michelle AT Hildebrandt; Maosheng Huang; Xifeng Wu

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

USED FUEL RAIL SHOCK AND VIBRATION TESTING OPTIONS ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges) on the surrogate fuel assemblies, cask and cradle structures, and the railcar so that forces and deflections that would result in the greatest potential for damage to high burnup and long-cooled UNF can be determined. For purposes of this report we consider testing on controlled track when we have control of the track and speed to facilitate modeling.

Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Maheras, Steven J.

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

9

Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

10

Bearing options, including design and testing, for direct drive linear generators in wave energy converters   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The key focus of this research was to investigate the bearing options most suited to operation in a novel direct drive linear generator. This was done through bearing comparisons, modelling and testing. It is fundamental ...

Caraher, Sarah

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

11

Process Testing Results and Scaling for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Engineering Platform - 10173  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy-Office of River Protection’s Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks at Richland, Washington. In support of this effort, engineering-scale tests at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) have been completed to confirm the process design and provide improved projections of system capacity. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale facility designed, constructed, and operated to test the integrated leaching and ultrafiltration processes being deployed at the WTP. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes with prototypic equipment and control strategies and non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The testing approach used a nonradioactive aqueous slurry simulant to demonstrate the unit operations of caustic and oxidative leaching, cross-flow ultrafiltration solids concentration, and solids washing. Parallel tests conducted at the laboratory scale with identical simulants provided results that allow scale-up factors to be developed between the laboratory and PEP performance. This paper presents the scale-up factors determined between the laboratory and engineering-scale results and presents arguments that extend these results to the full-scale process.

Kurath, Dean E.; Daniel, Richard C.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Barnes, Steven M.; Gilbert, Robert A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

12

Biomass pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

13

HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

HERTING DL

2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

14

Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

15

Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Vitrification and Product Testing of AW-101 and AN-107 Pretreated Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective for vitrifying the LAW samples is to generate glass products for subsequent product testing. The work presented in this report is divided into 6 work elements: 1) Glass Fabrication, 2) Chemical Composition, 3) Radiochemical Composition, 4) Crystalline and Non-crystalline Phase Determination, and 5) Release Rate (Modified PCT). These work elements will help demonstrate the RPP-WTP projects ability to satisfy the product requirements concerning, chemical and radionuclide reporting, waste loading, identification and quantification of crystalline and non-crystalline phases, and waste form leachability. VOA, SVOA, dioxins, furans, PCBs, and total cyanide analyses will be reported in as separate document (WTP-RPT-005).

Smith, Gary L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Smith, Harry D.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, Jerome J.

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

Moving Bed, Granular Bed Filter Development Program: Option 1, Component Test Facility. Task 3, Test plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the base contract, Combustion Power Co. developed commercial designs for a moving granular-bed filter (GBF). The proposed filter is similar to previous designs in terms of its shape and method of filtration. The commercial designs have scaled the filter from a 5 ft diameter to as large as a 20 ft diameter filter. In Task 2 of the Moving Bed-Granular Filter Development Program, all technical concerns related to the further development of the filter are identified. These issues are discussed in a Topical Report which has been issued as part of Task 2. Nineteen issues are identified in this report. Along with a discussion of these issues are the planned approaches for resolving each of these issues. These issues will be resolved in either a cold flow component test facility or in pilot scale testing at DOE`s Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located at Southem Company Services` Wilsonville facility. Task 3 presents a test plan for resolving those issues which can be addressed in component test facilities. The issues identified in Task 2 which will be addressed in the component test facilities are: GBF scale-up; effect of filter cone angle and sidewall materials on medium flow and ash segregation; maximum gas filtration rate; lift pipe wear; GBF media issues; mechanical design of the gas inlet duct; and filter pressure drop. This document describes a test program to address these issues, with testing to be performed at Combustion Power Company`s facility in Belmont, California.

Haas, J.C.; Purdhomme, J.W.; Wilson, K.B.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Field TesTing oF AcTivATed cArbon Field TesTing oF AcTivATed cArbon injecTion opTions For Mercury conTrol AT TXu's big brown sTATion Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. Lignite coal is unique because of its highly variable ash content (rich in alkali and alkaline-earth elements), high moisture levels, low chlorine content, and high calcium content. Unique to Texas lignite coals are relatively high iron and selenium concentrations. When combusting Texas lignite coals, up to 80 percent of the mercury in the flue gas is present as elemental mercury, which is not readily captured by downstream pollution control devices. To better understand the factors that influence mercury control at units firing

19

An updated dose assesment for resettlement options at Bikini atoll - A US nuclear test site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radio nuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1978. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, {sup 137}Cs produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 91 mSv, 130 mSv, and 150 mSv, respectively. A detailed uncertainty analysis for these dose estimates is presented in a companion paper in this issue. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5 % of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences. We have calculated the dose for the rehabilitation scenario where the top 40 cm of soil is removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer; the maximum annual effective dose is 0.41 mSv and the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.8 mSv, 14 mSv, and 16 mSv, respectively. 44 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Bearing options, including design and testing, for direct drive linear generators in wave energy converters.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The key focus of this research was to investigate the bearing options most suited to operation in a novel direct drive linear generator. This was… (more)

Caraher, Sarah

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Modeling and Experimental Tests on the Hydraulically Driven Control Rod option for IRIS Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adoption of Internal Control Rod Drive Mechanisms (ICRDMs) represents a valuable alternative to classical, external CRDMs based on electro-magnetic devices, as adopted in current PWRs. The advantages on the safety features of the reactor are apparent: inherent elimination of the Rod Ejection accidents and of possible concerns about the vessel head penetrations. A further positive feedback on the design is the reduction of the primary system overall dimensions. Within the frame of the ICRDM concepts, the Hydraulically Driven Control Rod solution is investigated as a possible option for the IRIS integral reactor. After a brief comparison of the solutions currently proposed for integral reactors, the configuration of the Hydraulic Control Rod device for IRIS, made up by an external movable piston and an internal fixed cylinder, is described. A description of the whole control system is reported as well. Particular attention is devoted to the Control Rod profile characterization, performed by means of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The investigation of the system behavior has been carried out, including the dynamic equilibrium and its stability properties, the withdrawal and insertion step movement and the sensitivity study on command time periods. A suitable dynamic model has been set up for the mentioned purposes: the models corresponding to the various Control Rod system devices have been written in an Object-Oriented language (Modelica), thus allowing an easy implementation of such a system into the simulator for the whole reactor. Finally, a preliminary low pressure, low temperature, reduced length experimental facility has been built. Tests on HDCR stability and operational transients have been performed. The results are compared with the dynamic system model and CFD simulation model, showing good agreement between simulations and experimental data. During these preliminary tests, the control system performed correctly, allowing stable dynamic equilibrium positions for the Control Rod and stable behavior during withdrawal and insertion steps. (authors)

Cammi, Antonio; Ricotti, Marco E.; Vitulo, Alessia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio, 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Pretreatment Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology plan presents a strategy for the identification, evaluation, and development of technologies for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This strategy includes deployment of facilities and process development schedules to support the other program elements. This document also presents schedule information for alternative pretreatment systems: (1) the reference pretreatment technology development system, (2) an enhanced pretreatment technology development system, and (3) alternative pretreatment technology development systems.

Barker, S.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US); Thornhill, C.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

24

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Louisville, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

MAY TH

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

26

Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System Two-vessel system for primary and secondary pretreatment at diff erent temperatures * Biomass is heated by steam injection to temperatures of 120°C to 210°C in the pressurized mixing tube * Preheated, premixed biomass is retained for specified residence time in vertical holding vessel; material continuously moves by gravity from top to bottom of reactor in plug-fl ow fashion * Residence time is adjusted by changing amount of material held in vertical vessel relative to continuous fl ow of material entering and exiting vessel * Optional additional reactor vessel allows for secondary pretreatment at lower temperatures-120°C to 180°C-with potential to add other chemical catalysts * First vessel can operate at residence

28

Financing Options  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A growing variety of options are available for financing an LED street lighting replacement program. One or another approach may be preferable based on the system ownership and maintenance model in...

29

Biomass shock pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IBRF poster developed for the IBRF showcase. Describes the two-vessel system for primary and secondary pretreatment of biomass solids at different temperatures.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download...

32

Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Option 2 Program: Development and testing of zinc titanate sorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most advantageous configurations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system is coupling it with a hot gas cleanup for the more efficient production of electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner. In conventional gasification cleanup systems, closely heat exchangers are necessary to cool down the fuel gases for cleaning, sometimes as low as 200--300{degree}F, and to reheat the gases prior to injection into the turbine. The result is significant losses in efficiency for the overall power cycle. High-temperature coal gas cleanup in the IGCC system can be operated near 1000{degree}F or higher, i.e., at conditions compatible with the gasifier and turbine components, resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for IGCC power systems in which mixed-metal oxides are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this contract is to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical durability of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Zinc ferrite was studied under the base program of this contract. In the next phase of this program novel sorbents, particularly zinc titanate-based sorbents, are being studied under the remaining optional programs. This topical report summarizes only the work performed under the Option 2 program. In the course of carrying out the program, more than 25 zinc titanate formulations have been prepared and characterized to identify formulations exhibiting enhanced properties over the baseline zinc titanate formulation selected by the US Department of Energy.

Ayala, R.E.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Summary - WTP Pretreatment Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Block Block D DOE is Immob site's t facilitie purpos techno Facility to be i The as CTEs, Readin * C * C * W * Tr * U * Pu * W * H * Pl The as require The Ele Site: H roject: W Report Date: M ited States Wast Why DOE Diagram of Cesiu s constructing bilization Plant tank wastes. T es including a P se of this asses ology elements y and determin ncorporated in What th ssessment team along with eac ness Level (TR s Nitric Acid Re s Ion Exchang Waste Feed Eva reated LAW Ev ltrafiltration Pro ulse Jet Mixer Waste Feed Rec LW Lag Storag lant Wash and ssessment team ed maturity prio To view the full T http://www.em.doe. objective of a Tech ements (CTEs), usin Hanford/ORP Waste Treatme March 2007 Departmen te Treatm E-EM Did This um Nitric Acid R a Waste Treat (WTP) at Hanf The WTP is com Pretreatment F ssment was to s (CTEs) in the

34

Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects.

Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

McMillan, J.D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Maryland Efficiency Program Options  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Maryland Efficiency Program Options, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

37

STEP Participant Financing Options  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

STEP Participant Financing Options, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

38

Calcium hydroxide pretreatment of biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROXIDE RECOVERY DATA. . . . . . 135 138 142 . . . . . 148 . . . . . 150 . . . . . 153 156 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Methods used for pretreatment of lignocellulosics. . . . . . . . 15 2. Ammoniation conditions used by previous workers...C-pH diagram for a carbonate solution. 32 12. Flow diagram for continuous calcium hydroxide recovery. . . 13. A tree of possible experimental conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. Sugar yields obtained from ammoniated bagasse...

Nagwani, Murlidhar

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

The Effects of Surfactant Pretreatment and Xylooligomers on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Pretreated Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removal of hydrophobic compounds (Escalante et al. , 2005), which makes surfactants good candidates as pretreatment additives.

Qing, Qing

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Can Delignification Decrease Cellulose Digestibility in Acid Pretreated Corn Stover?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has previously been shown that the improved digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover is at least partially due to the removal of xylan and the consequent increase in accessibility of the cellulose to cellobiohydrolase enzymes. We now report on the impact that lignin removal has on the accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Samples of corn stover were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with and without simultaneous (partial) lignin removal. In addition, some samples were completely delignified after the pretreatment step using acidified sodium chlorite. The accessibility and digestibility of the samples were tested using a fluorescence-labeled cellobiohydrolase (Trichoderma reesei Cel7A) purified from a commercial cellulase preparation. Partial delignification of corn stover during dilute acid pretreatment was shown to improve cellulose digestibility by T. reesei Cel7A; however, decreasing the lignin content below 5% (g g{sup -1}) by treatment with acidified sodium chlorite resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellulose digestibility. Importantly, this effect was found to be enhanced in samples with lower xylan contents suggesting that the near complete removal of xylan and lignin may cause aggregation of the cellulose microfibrils resulting in decreased cellulase accessibility.

Ishizawa, C. I.; Jeoh, T.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.; Davis, M. F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

42

OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS December 2005 CEC-400-2005-039-CMF;OPTIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS COMMISSION REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................iii California's Successful Energy Efficiency Programs

43

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

44

Approximating European Options by Rebate Barrier Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When the underlying stock price is a strict local martingale process under an equivalent local martingale measure, Black-Scholes PDE associated with an European option may have multiple solutions. In this paper, we study an approximation for the smallest hedging price of such an European option. Our results show that a class of rebate barrier options can be used for this approximation, when its rebate and barrier are chosen appropriately. An asymptotic convergence rate is also achieved when the knocked-out barrier moves to infinity under suitable conditions.

Song, Qingshuo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Natural Gas Purchasing Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As a result of economic and regulatory changes, the natural gas marketplace now offers multiple options for purchasers. The purpose of this panel is to discuss short-term purchasing options and how to take advantage of these options both to lower...

Watkins, G.

46

Impacts of project management on real option values  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduces the value of real options. The example of resource allocation is used to test this hypothesis. Based on the results, it is concluded that project management reduces the value of real options by reducing variance of the exercise signal...

Bhargav, Shilpa Anandrao

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

47

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

48

Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

Foody, P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Modeling and optimization of operating parameters for a test-cell option of the Fusion Power Demonstration-II tandem mirror design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models of tandem mirror devices operated with a test-cell insert have been used to calculate operating parameters for FPD-II+T, an upgrade of the Fusion Power Demonstration-II device. Two test-cell configurations were considered, one accommodating two 1.5 m blanket test modules and the other having four. To minimize the cost of the upgrade, FPD-II+T utilizes the same coil arrangement and machine dimensions outside of the test cell as FPD-II, and the requirements on the end cell systems have been held near or below those for FPD-II. The maximum achievable test cell wall loading found for the short test-cell was 3.5 MW/m/sup 2/ while 6.0 MW/m/sup 2/ was obtainable in the long test-cell configuration. The most severe limitation on the achievable wall loading is the upper limit on test-cell beta set by MHD stability calculations. Modification of the shape of the magnetic field in the test-cell by improving the magnet design could raise this beta limit and lead to improved test-cell performance.

Haney, S.W.; Fenstermacher, M.E.

1985-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

52

Extrusion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cellulose more susceptible to enzyma- tic hydrolysis have been tested. These methods include both chemical and physical pretreatments which act to separate one or more components of the lignocellulosic complex and/or to increase the surface area... depolymerization of hemicellulose with over 75% of the xylan reported to be solubilized within 3 minutes. The main advantages of steaming are the autocatalytic nature of the process, through release of acetal groups to form organic acids, and the short reaction...

Ocana Camacho, Ronay

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Impacts of Deacetylation Prior to Dilute Acid Pretreatment on the Bioethanol Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for the biochemical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. During dilute acid pretreatment, xylan depolymerizes to form soluble xylose monomers and oligomers. Because the xylan found in nature is highly acetylated, the formation of xylose monomers requires two steps: (1) cleavage of the xylosidic bonds, and (2) cleavage of covalently bonded acetyl ester groups. Results: In this study, we show that the latter may be the rate limiting step for xylose monomer formation. Furthermore, acetyl groups are also found to be a cause of biomass recalcitrance and hydrolyzate toxicity. While the removal of acetyl groups from native corn stover by alkaline de-esterification prior to pretreatment improves overall process yields, the exact impact is highly dependent on the corn stover variety in use. Xylose monomer yields in pretreatment generally increases by greater than 10%. Compared to pretreated corn stover controls, the deacetylated corn stover feedstock is approximately 20% more digestible after pretreatment. Finally, by lowering hydrolyzate toxicity, xylose utilization and ethanol yields are further improved during fermentation by roughly 10% and 7%, respectively. In this study, several varieties of corn stover lots were investigated to test the robustness of the deacetylation-pretreatment-saccharification-fermentation process. Conclusions: Deacetylation shows significant improvement on glucose and xylose yields during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, but it also reduces hydrolyzate toxicity during fermentation, thereby improving ethanol yields and titer. The magnitude of effect is dependent on the selected corn stover variety, with several varieties achieving improvements of greater than 10% xylose yield in pretreatment, 20% glucose yield in low solids enzymatic hydrolysis and 7% overall ethanol yield.

Chen, X.; Shekiro, J.; Franden, M. A.; Wang, W.; Johnson, D. K.; Zhang, M.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M. P.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pretreatment to enhance biomass conversion to ethanol. Appl.pretreatment to enhance biomass conversion to ethanol. Appl.earliest use of acid in biomass conversion that provided a

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

56

Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

57

NREL: More Search Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

More Search Options More Search Options Search More Search Options Site Map Printable Version The following options help you find information on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site, locate NREL staff, browse publication and photograph collections, and see what hot topics other site visitors are looking for. Search the NREL Web Site Search Tip: use quotes to find exact phrases Example: "renewable energy" Tip: use plus signs to find results that contain all your search terms Example: +biodiesel +buses Search Help Find NREL Staff in the Employee Locator Search by first or last name: Search Select a search type Select your criteria Enter your search term Look at Recent Hot Topics Biomass HOMER (computer model) Hybrid Electric Vehicles Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Jobs PVWATTS (software)

58

Thermal Pretreatment For TRU Waste Sorting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted a study on thermal treatment of TRU waste to develop a removal technology for materials that are forbidden for disposal. The thermal pretreatment in which hot nitrogen and/or air is introduced to the waste is a process of removing combustibles, liquids, and low melting point metals from PVC wrapped TRU waste. In this study, thermal pretreatment of simulated waste was conducted using a desktop thermal treatment vessel and a laboratory scale thermal pretreatment system. Combustibles and low melting point metals are effectively separated from wastes by choosing appropriate temperature of flowing gases. Combustibles such as papers, PVC, oil, etc. were removed and low melting point metals such as zinc, lead, and aluminum were separated from the simulated waste by the thermal pretreatment. (authors)

Sasaki, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Yamaguchi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Nevada Transportatoion Options Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence of rail is restricted to approximately twelve, without upgrading public highways. There is high uncertainty as to what road upgrades and security/escorts the Nevada Department of Transportation would require to obtain an overweight/overdimensional permit. In addition, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program has indicated that a larger cask weight than that analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement may be required for naval shipments, resulting in additional costs for heavy-haul transport. These uncertainties result in a high cost and schedule risk. Option 3 assumes that the start of rail construction will be delayed until after construction authorization is received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Similar to Option 2, Option 3 uses legal-weight truck shipments and limited heavy haul truck shipments to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as Option 1, until rail becomes available. By using heavy-haul truck for two years, Option 3 contains the same uncertainties and resultant high cost and schedule risk as Option 2. The cost and schedule of legal-weight truck transport are not included in this report as that will be evaluated in the report on national transportation.

P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

60

Programming Tuning Options on Hopper  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tuning Options Programming Tuning Options Using Huge Pages Hugepages are virtual memory pages which are bigger than the default base page size of 4KB. Some applications may...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Hydrogen Production Infrastructure Options Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on hydrogen production and infrastructure options presented at the DOE Transition Workshop.

62

Physics & Astronomy Degree options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

148 Physics & Astronomy Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics MPhys AND HL7 in Mathematics Physics and Astronomy (Gateway and International Gateway) Entry For UK students. Physics&Astronomy Subject enquiries Dr Kenny Wood E: physics@st-andrews.ac.uk Features * The nature

Brierley, Andrew

63

Idaho's Energy Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

Robert M. Neilson

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fuels options conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proceedings of the Fuels Options Conference held May 9-10, 1995 in Atlanta, Georgia are presented. Twenty-three papers were presented at the conference that dealt with fuels outlook; unconventional fuels; fuel specification, purchasing, and contracting; and waste fuels applications. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

OVERVIEW OF CONTRACTING OPTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OVERVIEW OF CONTRACTING OPTIONS Presented by Bill McNally July 24, 2012 #12;National Aeronautics and Space Administration Selecting the Right Contract Type · Objective ­ Negotiate a contract type and price a Contract Type · What are your acquisition's objectives? ­ New program? ­ Existing program? (Historical

Waliser, Duane E.

66

Economics & Finance Degree options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

98 Economics & Finance Degree options MA or BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Applied Economics Economics Financial Economics BA (International Honours Degree) Economics (See page 51) MA or BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Economics and one of: Geography Management Mathematics MA (Joint Honours Degrees

Brierley, Andrew

67

Pretreatment Rules (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pretreatment Rules (Ohio) Pretreatment Rules (Ohio) Pretreatment Rules (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This law lists state requirements and standards regulating the introduction of pollutants into Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) by industrial users. The following substances shall not be introduced into a POTW: (1) Pollutants that create a fire or explosion hazard in the POTW including, but not limited to, wastestreams with a closed cup flashpoint of less than 140 degrees Fahrenheit or 60 degrees; (2) Pollutants that will cause corrosive structural damage to the POTW, but in no case discharges with pH lower than 5.0, unless the POTW is

68

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

69

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

The Impact of Biomass Pretreatment on the Feasibility of Overseas Biomass Conversion to Fischer?Tropsch Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Impact of Biomass Pretreatment on the Feasibility of Overseas Biomass Conversion to Fischer?Tropsch Products ... One of the most promising options to produce transportation fuels from biomass is the so-called biomass-to-liquids (BtL) route, in which biomass is converted to syngas from which high-quality Fischer?Tropsch (FT) fuels are synthesized. ... Alternatively to converting biomass into liquids or coal-like material, new and dedicated feeding systems for biomass can be developed. ...

Robin W. R. Zwart; Harold Boerrigter; Abraham van der Drift

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

71

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis Option Analysis DOE and FreedomCAR & Fuel Partnership Hydrogen Delivery and On-Board Storage Analysis Workshop January 25, 2005 Washington DC This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Tan-Ping Chen Nexant Jim Campbell Bhadra Grover Air Liquide Stefan Unnasch TIAX Glyn Hazelden GTI Graham Moore Chevron Matt Ringer NREL Ray Hobbs Pinnacle West 2 Presentation Outline Project Background Knowledge Collected and Preliminary Results for Each Delivery Option Summary of Observations Next Step Project Background Project Background 4 Delivery Options Option 1* GH delivery by new pipelines Option 2 Converting NG/oil pipelines for GH delivery Option 3 Blending GH into NG pipelines Option 4* GH tube trailers

72

The Window Strategy with Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The window strategy is one of several marketing strategies using futures and options to establish a floor price and allow for upside price potential. It also reduces option premium costs. This publication discusses how the window strategy works...

McCorkle, Dean; Amosson, Stephen H.; Fausett, Marvin

1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

73

Milk Futures, Options and Basis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The milk futures and options market enables producers and processors to manage price risk. This publication explains hedging, margin accounts, basis and how to track it, and other fundamentals of the futures and options market....

Haigh, Michael; Stockton, Matthew; Anderson, David P.; Schwart Jr., Robert B.

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

74

Design options for clothes washers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses possible design options for improving the energy efficiency of standard capacity, residential clothes washers.

Biermayer, Peter J.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Investigations of Biomass Pretreatment and Submerged Fixed-bed Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To improve the MixAlco process and biomass pretreatment, five studies were conducted. Three studies related to fermentation, whereas the other two investigated the effectiveness of shock tube pretreatment (STP) coupled with oxidative lime...

Meysing, Daniel

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment...

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

77

Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Studies to Evaluate High-Temperature Aqueous Pretreatment as a Way to Modify the Composition of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Wheat Straw  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Studies to Evaluate High-Temperature Aqueous Pretreatment as a Way to Modify the Composition of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Wheat Straw ... ?-Cellulose was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, Missouri). ... This evidence suggests that CHW pretreatment may produce bio-oil that is composed of a greater amount of sugars and furanics and fewer small molecules and may therefore be a viable option to modify the chemical composition of bio-oils. ...

Robert Lee Johnson; Shi-Shen Liaw; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Su Ha; Sean S.-Y. Lin; Armando G. McDonald; Shulin Chen

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

78

Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7 7 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Facility L. Holton D. Alexander M. Johnson H. Sutter August 2007 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Richland, Washington, 99352 07-DESIGN-047 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Facilities L. Holton D. Alexander M. Johnson H. Sutter August 2007 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 07-DESIGN-047 iii Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Project Recovery has completed a Technology Readiness

79

Peak load management: Potential options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios Presentation on Transition Strategies:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Rural Health Option The Rural Health Option requires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rural Health Option The Rural Health Option requires: Membership in StORM Club, the Students include up to 3 sites/3physician-mentors Enrollment into BOTH rural health electives for a total of 2.sumner@okstate.edu) o Spring: Perspectives in Rural Health for OMSI or OMSII (or OMSIII with special permission) CLME

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

82

Technical Basis of Scaling Relationships for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities. The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is being designed and constructed as part of a plan to respond to an issue raised by the WTP External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) entitled “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” and numbered M12. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching process using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The approach for scaling PEP performance data to predict WTP performance is critical to the successful resolution of the EFRT issue. This report describes the recommended PEP scaling approach, PEP data interpretation and provides recommendations on test conduct and data requirements.

Kuhn, William L.; Arm, Stuart T.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Rassat, Scot D.

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Determination of Insoluble Solids in Pretreated Biomass Material...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Determination of Insoluble NRELTP-510-42627 Solids in Pretreated Biomass March 2008 Material Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 03212008 A. Sluiter, D. Hyman, C....

85

Optional Extra credit exercises  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A system consisting of one original unit plus a ... what must the capacity of the tank be so that the probability of the .... Trains headed for destination A arrive at the train ... nity is in favor of a proposed rise in school taxes, ... (b) What is the maximum allowable value of 0 ... have, we shall perform the following statistical test:.

86

Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment by Fractionation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment by Fractionation Poulomi Sannigrahi 1,2 and Arthur J. Ragauskas 1,2,3 1 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA 2 Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 3 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 10.1 Introduction With the rise in global energy demand and environmental concerns about the use of fossil fuels, the need for rapid development of alternative fuels from sustainable, non-food sources is now well acknowledged. The effective utilization of low-cost high-volume agricultural and forest biomass for the production of transporta- tion fuels and bio-based materials will play a vital role in addressing this concern [1]. The processing of lignocellulosic biomass, especially from mixed agricultural and forest sources with varying composition,

87

Cellulosic Biofuels: Importance, Recalcitrance, and Pretreatment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cellulosic Cellulosic Biofuels: Importance, Recalcitrance, and Pretreatment Lee Lynd 1,2 and Mark Laser 1 1 Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, USA 2 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA 2.1 Our Place in History The two most profound societal transformations in history have been spawned by radical shifts in human- kind's use of natural resources. The agricultural revolution, which spanned about two millennia beginning around 4000 BC, saw hunter-gatherer societies subsisting on wild plants and animals being largely dis- placed by those cultivating the land to produce crops and domesticated livestock. The industrial revolution followed, beginning around 1700 and lasting roughly two hundred years, during which time preindustrial agricultural societies gave way to those harnessing precious metals and fossil energy to develop sophisti- cated economies centered

88

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report, by the Nexant team, documents an in-depth analysis of seven hydrogen delivery options to identify the most cost-effective hydrogen infrastructure for the transition and long term. The pro

89

Digital Options for Panoramic Radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Digital X-ray imaging is making substantial inroads into the dental practice. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a succinct overview of the various digital options for panoramic dental radiography.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Horizontal Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Diff Diff erent pretreatment chemistry/ residence time combinations are possible using these multiple horizontal-tube reactors * Each tube is indirectly and directly steam heated to temperatures of 150 0 C to 210 0 C * Residence time is varied by changing the speed of the auger that moves the biomass through each tube reactor * Tubes are used individually or in combination to achieve diff erent pretreatment residence times * Smaller tubes made from Hastelloy, an acid-resistant material, are used with more corrosive chemicals and residence times from 3 to 20 minutes * Larger tubes made from 316 stainless steel are used for residence times from 20 to 120 minutes Horizontal Pretreatment Reactor System Versatile pretreatment system for a wide range of pretreatment chemistries

91

INTEGRATIVE BIOSCIENCES (IBIOS) GRADUATE PROGRAM OPTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTEGRATIVE BIOSCIENCES (IBIOS) GRADUATE PROGRAM OPTION IN Bioinformatics and Genomics (BG) Degree-Faculty Relation----------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Bioinformatics and Genomics--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 #12;- -3 Bioinformatics and Genomics Option (BG

dePamphilis, Claude

92

Video Project Option | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Video Project Option Video Project Option PARC Education & Outreach Video Students enrolled in the PARCI-CARES Certificate in Renewable Energy and the Environment may choose to...

93

Energy Options Solutions | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Options & Solutions Place: Ann Arbor, Michigan Zip: 48103 Product: Michigan-based alternative energy consultant. References: Energy Options & Solutions1 This article is a...

94

Investigation and demonstration of the durability of air plasma pre-treatment on polypropylene automotive bumpers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Higher utilisation of low-density materials such as polymers and polymer composites is a pre-requisite for the lightweight vehicle of the future. Of the commodity polymers polypropylene (PP) is by far the most attractive for the automotive industry. Additionally, PP can be utilised as a glass or mineral filled composite which may be used for semi-structural applications. A major problem is that PP (along with other polyolefins) has a non-polar surface chemistry which means the wetting characteristics of components made from this material are poor. Ultimately, this will result in poor adhesion of paints, coatings or adhesive bonding products. This problem has been overcome in the majority of instances by treating the surface of the substrate in order to alter the surface chemistry. PP has found extensive use as films and flat sheets and hence certain techniques such as flame and corona have been favoured despite both having problems of heterogeneous or patchy treatment across a surface. However, for complex 3-D automotive shapes, such as bumpers, these methods are less useful. While flame treatment for example is widely used it has several disadvantages in a commercial volume production environment which all centre around the potential for the part to undergo overtreatment, incipient melting or melting during machine stops etc., as well as the hazards associated with combustible gas. An alternative method is atmospheric plasma pre-treatment. This work has investigated the effect of a forced air plasma pre-treatment on surface chemistry and bond strength of a commercial grade polypropylene material. The plasma head was attached to a robot arm which makes it highly suited to continuous production environments and can treat complex surfaces. A range of translation speeds were investigated and the surface chemistry and topography of the treated surfaces were examined using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The processing was further optimised by single lap-shear testing. An optimised set of parameters was used to pre-treat and bond a full size automotive bumper assembly with a polyurethane (PU) adhesive. Bumpers were then subjected to a standard automotive range of climate conditioning as well as soaking at ?20°C and 70°C before front centre impact testing. Parts pre-treated and bonded using this pre-treatment and adhesive system, successfully passed all the required standard automotive impact tests. For added benefit, it was also found that the open time of the pre-treatment was 1 week depending on storage conditions.

Rebecca Stewart; Vannessa Goodship; Felicity Guild; Martyn Green; Jeff Farrow

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Integrated municipal solid waste scenario model using advanced pretreatment and waste to energy processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper an Integrated Municipal Solid Waste scenario model (IMSW-SM) with a potential practical application in the waste management sector is analyzed. The model takes into account quantification and characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) streams from different sources, selective collection (SC), advanced mechanical sorting, material recovery and advanced thermal treatment. The paper provides a unique chain of advanced waste pretreatment stages of fully commingled waste streams, leading to an original set of suggestions and future contributions to a sustainable IMSWS, taking into account real data and EU principles. The selection of the input data was made on MSW management real case studies from two European regions. Four scenarios were developed varying mainly SC strategies and thermal treatment options. The results offer useful directions for decision makers in order to calibrate modern strategies in different realities.

Gabriela Ionescu; Elena Cristina Rada; Marco Ragazzi; Cosmin M?rculescu; Adrian Badea; Tiberiu Apostol

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Energy Options for the Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Options Options for the Future * John Sheffield, 1 Stephen Obenschain, 2,12 David Conover, 3 Rita Bajura, 4 David Greene, 5 Marilyn Brown, 6 Eldon Boes, 7 Kathyrn McCarthy, 8 David Christian, 9 Stephen Dean, 10 Gerald Kulcinski, 11 and P.L. Denholm 11 This paper summarizes the presentations and discussion at the Energy Options for the Future meeting held at the Naval Research Laboratory in March of 2004. The presentations covered the present status and future potential for coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, wind, solar, geo- thermal, and biomass energy sources and the effect of measures for energy conservation. The longevity of current major energy sources, means for resolving or mitigating environmental issues, and the role to be played by yet to be deployed sources, like fusion, were major topics of presentation and discussion. KEY WORDS: Energy; fuels; nuclear; fusion; efficiency; renewables.

97

Effects of pretreatment method of natural bacteria source on microbial community and bio-hydrogen production by dark fermentation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of pretreatment method of cow dung compost, which was employed as natural hydrogen bacteria source, on the microbial community, population distribution of microbes and hydrogen production potential were investigated in the batch tests. The maximum hydrogen yield of 290.8 mL/L-culture appeared in the pretreated method A (infrared drying) by dark fermentation. The pretreated method of compost significantly affected microbial succession, population distribution of microbes. Both Clostridium sp. and Enterobacter sp. were found to be two species of preponderant hydrogen-producing bacteria, the next best was Bacteroides sp. and Veillonella sp., the last was Lactobacillus sp. and Streptococcus sp., which were also essential. The results showed that the mutualism and symbiosis relations of the mixed bacteria played a critical role in hydrogen fermentation process.

Zhao-Xia Song; Yang Dai; Qi-Long Fan; Xiao-Hu Li; Yao-Ting Fan; Hong-Wei Hou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Optimization study on sample pretreatment of spent fuel storage rack  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to evaluate radionuclide inventories as an essential item for the permanent disposal of spent fuel storage racks, chemical conditions for a sample pretreatment of a spent fuel storage rack were studied. ...

Hong-Joo Ahn; Myung-Ho Lee; Se-Chul Sohn…

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19 2.3.3. Lignin………………………………………………………. ……………..22 2.3.4.S, Ragauskas A. Pseudo-lignin and pretreatment chemistry.ME, Vinzant TB. Visualizing lignin coalescence and migration

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Potential of Ferric and Polyaluminium Coagulants for Nanofiltration Pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conventional chemical treatment of soft, cold and humic surface water was studied on a pilot scale, and fouling indexes were used to evaluate the suitability of the pretreated water for nanofiltration. The...

J. Yli-Kuivila; I. T. Miettinen; R. Laukkanen

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

LHC challenges and upgrade options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex.

O Bruning

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Effects of thermal pretreatment (removal of steric hindrance) on subsequent nuclear hydrogenation of heavy alkylaromatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The changes in structures by thermal pretreatment of heavy alkylaromatics, which are very difficult to nuclear hydrogenate, and the effects of the pretreatment on subsequent nuclear hydrogenation were investigated in comparison with catalytic pretreatment of the same feedstock. The following results were obtained: (1) the structures of the thermally pretreated products are quite different from those of the catalytically pretreated ones; (2) subsequent nuclear hydrogenation of the thermally pretreated products becomes much easier because the steric hindrance is removed; (3) in the case where the same feedstock was catalytically pretreated, the products were difficult to nuclear hydrogenate. These results suggest various applications, including heavy oil hydrotreating.

Kubo, Junichi [Nippon Oil Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Central Technical Research Lab.] [Nippon Oil Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Central Technical Research Lab.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Method and apparatus for gasifying with a fluidized bed gasifier having integrated pretreating facilities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.

Rice, Louis F. (Arcadia, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Hydrogen Delivery Options and Issues  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Options and Issues Options and Issues Mark Paster DOE August, 2006 Scope * From the end point of central or distributed production (300 psi H2) to and including the dispenser at a refueling station or stationary power site - GH2 Pipelines and Trucks, LH2 Trucks, Carriers <$1.00/kg of Hydrogen by 2017 Hydrogen Delivery H2 Delivery Current Status * Technology - GH2 Tube Trailers: ~340 kg, ~2600 psi - LH2 Trucks: ~3900 kg - Pipelines: up to 1500 psi (~630 miles in the U.S.) - Refueling Site Operations (compression, storage dispensing): Demonstration projects * Cost (Does NOT include refueling Site Operations) - Trucks: $4-$12/kg - Pipeline: <$2/kg H2A Analysis * Consistent, comparable, transparent approach to hydrogen production and delivery cost analysis * Excel spreadsheet tools with common economic

105

Fuel option for gas turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth in electricity demand is an average of 10% per year. Energy, emission, and economy are importance of critical concerns for generating systems. Therefore, combined cycle power plant is preferred to Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) new power generating capacity. The various option of available fuel for gas turbine are natural gas, liquid fuel and coal fuel. Particularly with the tremendous price increases in imported and domestic fuel supplies, natural gas is an attractive low cost alternative for power generation. EGAT has researched using heavy fuel instead of natural gas since the year 1991. The problems of various corrosion characteristics have been found. In addition, fuel treatment for gas turbine are needed, and along with it, the environmental consideration are options that provide the limitation of environmental regulation.

Tantayakom, S. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand). Chemical and Analysis Dept.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

DOE

2002-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

107

Cementitious waste option scoping study report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This study investigates the nonseparations Cementitious Waste Option (CWO) as a means to achieve this goal. Under this option all liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and existing HLW calcine would be recalcined with sucrose, grouted, canisterized, and interim stored as a mixed-HLW for eventual preparation and shipment off-Site for disposal. The CWO waste would be transported to a Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF) located in the southwestern desert of the US on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All transport preparation, shipment, and disposal facility activities are beyond the scope of this study. CWO waste processing, packaging, and interim storage would occur over a 5-year period between 2013 and 2017. Waste transport and disposal would occur during the same time period.

Lee, A.E.; Taylor, D.D.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

EVALUATION OF TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS FOR INTERMEDIATE NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.”

Case, Susan; Hoggard, Gary

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Using Backup Generators: Alternative Backup Power Options  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In addition to electric generators powered by fuel, homeowners and business owners may consider alternative backup power options.

110

Hydrogen Delivery InfrastructureHydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option AnalysisOption Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Converting NG/oil pipelines for GH delivery Option 3 Blending GH into NG pipelines Option 4* GH tube trailers Option 5* LH tank trucks Option 6 Use of novel H2 carriers (alanate; chemical hydride; liquid hydrocarbon as CA) -- NG distribution lines: gas companies usually use for Class 3 & 4 No odorants used in current H

111

Forecourt Storage and Compression Options | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage and Compression Options Forecourt Storage and Compression Options Presentation by Mark Richards on forecourt storage and compression options. wkshpstoragerichards.pdf...

112

New lignocellulose pretreatments using cellulose solvents: a review  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Received: Received: 7 September 2012 Accepted: 13 September 2012 Published online in Wiley Online Library: (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/jctb.3959 New lignocellulose pretreatments using cellulose solvents: a review Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, a† Anthe George b,c and Y-H Percival Zhang a,d,e∗ Abstract Non-food lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable bioresource as a collectable, transportable, and storable chemical energy that is far from fully utilized. The goal of biomass pretreatment is to improve the enzymatic digestibility of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Many substrate factors, such as substrate accessibility, lignin content, particle size and so on, contribute to its recalcitrance. Cellulose accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes is believed to be the most important substrate characteristic limiting enzymatic hydrolysis. Cellulose

113

Climate Financing Options | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Financing Options Financing Options Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Financing Options Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Bank Sector: Climate Focus Area: People and Policy Phase: Bring the Right People Together, Create a Vision, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Topics: Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Case studies/examples, Guide/manual, Training materials Website: www.climatefinanceoptions.org/cfo/ Language: English References: Climate Finance Options[1] New climate finance tool for developing countries[2] "This Platform aims at providing comprehensive guidance on financial

114

New Energy Options | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Options Options Jump to: navigation, search Name New Energy Options Place Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Sector Wind energy Product Belo Horizonte-based wind farm developer and independent electric energy producer. References New Energy Options[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. New Energy Options is a company located in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil . References ↑ "New Energy Options" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=New_Energy_Options&oldid=349161" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties

115

Measurement of Porosity in Dilute Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conclusions of this report are: (1) pretreated corn stover appeared to have more accessible pore volume than raw corn stover; (2) solute exclusion method--differences in the pore volume were not detectable due to the high variability of the measurements; (3) thermoporosimetry--differences in pore volume between pretreated samples were not observed despite the low variability of the measurement and a good correction was found between unfrozen water at 240K and xylan content; and (4) porosity measurements showed no correlation between ethanol yields and the volume accessible to an enzyme size probe, for this sample set.

Ishizawa, C.; Davis, M. F.; Johnson, D. K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Sludge composting, sludge pretreatment and radiation technology: a review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reviews the state-of-the-art technologies on sludge conditioning and stabilisation. Radiation technology, best contextualised within the concept of Green Chemistry, is yet another developing area of sludge pretreatment. Besides revisiting some important aspects of sludge treatment by composting, this review paper also appraises the application of gamma ray and ultrasound irradiations particularly in sludge pretreatment and sludge composting for monitoring, and to some extent improving, the degradation and subsequent stabilisation of sludge constituents. The scientific principle of each type of radiation and selected research work are discussed, and future needs for applied research are eventually outlined.

Ackmez Mudhoo; Romeela Mohee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

High-Throughput Pretreatment and Hydrolysis Systems for Screening Biomass Species in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High-throughput High-throughput Pretreatment and Hydrolysis Systems for Screening Biomass Species in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass Jaclyn D. DeMartini 1,2,3,Ã and Charles E. Wyman 1,2,3 1 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, USA 2 Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA 3 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA 22.1 Introduction: The Need for High-throughput Technologies The primary barrier to low-cost biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to renewable fuels and chemicals is plant recalcitrance, that is to say, resistance of cell walls to deconstruction by enzymes or microbes [1,2]. However, the discovery and use of biomass species with reduced recalcitrance, when com- bined with optimized pretreatment processes and enzyme mixtures, could potentially

118

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

Francis, Raymond

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

119

Effects of catalyst pretreatment for carbon nanotube growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of pretreatment of iron catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe/A1203 (1/10 nm) thin-film catalyst deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C2H4 in a thermal chemical ...

Morgan, Caitlin D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Review of Alternative Technologies for Pretreatment of Accumulated HLW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accumulated liquid high-level wastes (HLW) from nuclear centers in Russia and the United States (U. S.) contain great amounts of nonradioactive salts; it is prudent to vitrify not the entire volume of these wastes, but only the concentrates of radionuclides recovered from them. For this purpose, different pretreatment technologies based on liquid-liquid extraction are under development.

Romanovsky, V.; Rimski-Korsakov, A.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Combined filtered cathodic arc etching pretreatment-magnetron sputter deposition of highly adherent CrN films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CrN films were prepared on steel substrates by a hybrid method utilizing filtered cathodic arc for Cr ion pretreatment and magnetron sputtering for coating deposition. During pretreatment the substrates were biased to -1200 V and exposed to filtered chromium plasma. The substrate-coating interface formed during the pretreatment contained a Cr-enriched modified layer with composition that was strongly influenced by the temperature of the substrate as observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy--energy dispersive spectroscopy. The modified layer had a nanocrystalline morphology and thickness of 15 nm. The path of formation of the layer is linked to the combined action of implantation, diffusion, and resputtering. The resulting adhesion of 3 {mu}m thick CrN films was very high with scratch test critical load values of 83 N. The morphology of the films was smooth without large scale defects and the microstructure was columnar. The coatings behaved well in dry sliding tests with very low wear coefficients of 2.3x10{sup -16} m{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}, which can be linked to the high adhesion and defect-free microstructure. The smooth coatings also had a high resistance to corrosion as demonstrated by potentiodynamic tests with particularly high pitting potentials of +800 mV.

Ehiasarian, A. P.; Anders, A.; Petrov, I. [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard St., Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

123

3 - Options for this Decade  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heavy public debt has been one of the most important reasons why over 5 to 6 years the economic and social structure of western society has been under stress. Unemployment zoomed and then remained at high level, while national income is lower than what would have been expected in an average recovery. This provides politicians and common citizens with three options, in line of diminishing likelihood:• Continue meddling through hoping to buy time, • A slow, very slow, improvement of the economy and in employment, and • A global “perfect storm” leading to a new economic depression. The meddling through scenarios is the more likely. Steady improvement has lower probability and is optimistic, based on the hypothesis that Euroland finds its way toward a greater economic, financial, fiscal, and political union; the US economy is improving albeit at slow pace; China has a soft landing, and many of the developing countries resume their growth; also there is no war in the Middle East.

Dimitris N. Chorafas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Hydrogen Production Infrastructure Options Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Production Production Infrastructure Options Analysis January 26, 2006 Brian D. James Julie Perez Peter Schmidt (703) 243 - 3383 Brian_James@DirectedTechnologies.com Directed Technologies, Inc. Page 1 of 39 26 January 2006 2006-1-26 DOE Transition Workshop Agenda 1. Project Description and Objective 2. Team Members 3. Approach 4. Model Theory, Structure and Assumptions 5. Model Description 1. Logic 2. Features 3. Cost Components (Production, Delivery & Dispensing) 6. Los Angeles Transitional Example 7. Model Flexibility Page 2 of 39 26 January 2006 2006-1-26 DOE Transition Workshop Team Members & Interactions Start: May 2005 (effective) End: Summer 2007 * Directed Technologies, Inc.- Prime * Sentech, Inc., Research Partner * Air Products, Industrial Gas Supplier * Advisory Board * Graham Moore, Chevron Technology Ventures

125

Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film.It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

H Bahre; K Bahroun; H Behm; S Steves; P Awakowicz; M B?ke; Ch Hopmann; J Winter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Application of High Throughput Pretreatment and Co-Hydrolysis System to Thermochemical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Although hydrothermal pretreatment is currently being employed in most high were compared to results from hydrothermal pretreatments, providing new insights in understanding their recalcitrance and consolidating processing of enzymes and microorganisms to overcome biomass recalci- trance

California at Riverside, University of

127

Project investment supporting by real options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Research work of Trigeorgis in 2002 brought to a method which enabled appropriate evaluation of options in the circumstances of uncertainty. This resulted in great increase of research in the field of evaluating financial assets. A possibility of evaluating so-called financial options was interesting not only to academics, but also was accepted in the field of business systems and project management. This is a survey of basic terms and logic for evaluating financial options.

Peter Meza

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Biochemistry, Research Option BS Degree Completion Checklist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

____ CHEM 4601 ____ Biology Electives: 9 hours 4701 _____ LCC 4702 _____ Free Electives: ____ hours petition. Note on CHEM 4698 vs. 4699 CHEM 4698 does count toward the Research Option designation

Sherrill, David

129

Final Report- Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report provides in-depth analysis of various hydrogen delivery options to determine the most cost effective infrastructure and R&D efforts for the long term.

130

Automated Surface Observing System: Standby Power Options  

Energy Savers [EERE]

for pilot briefing, air traffic control, & weather forecasters Public access dial phone lines Initially UPS designed to back 3 options under consideration to extend backup power to...

131

PC Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO) System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

System Released: February 22, 2011 Download Pedro Application Patch Archive Background The PC Electronic Data Reporting Option, or PEDRO, system enables users to enter Energy...

132

Comparative Study of Corn Stover Pretreated by Dilute Acid and Cellulose Solvent-Based Lignocellulose Fractionation: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Supramolecular Structure, and Substrate Accessibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liberation of fermentable sugars from recalcitrant biomass is among the most costly steps for emerging cellulosic ethanol production. Here we compared two pretreatment methods (dilute acid, DA, and cellulose solvent and organic solvent lignocellulose fractionation, COSLIF) for corn stover. At a high cellulase loading [15 filter paper units (FPUs) or 12.3 mg cellulase per gram of glucan], glucan digestibilities of the corn stover pretreated by DA and COSLIF were 84% at hour 72 and 97% at hour 24, respectively. At a low cellulase loading (5 FPUs per gram of glucan), digestibility remained as high as 93% at hour 24 for the COSLIF-pretreated corn stover but reached only {approx}60% for the DA-pretreated biomass. Quantitative determinations of total substrate accessibility to cellulase (TSAC), cellulose accessibility to cellulase (CAC), and non-cellulose accessibility to cellulase (NCAC) based on adsorption of a non-hydrolytic recombinant protein TGC were measured for the first time. The COSLIF-pretreated corn stover had a CAC of 11.57 m{sup 2}/g, nearly twice that of the DA-pretreated biomass (5.89 m{sup 2}/g). These results, along with scanning electron microscopy images showing dramatic structural differences between the DA- and COSLIF-pretreated samples, suggest that COSLIF treatment disrupts microfibrillar structures within biomass while DA treatment mainly removes hemicellulose. Under the tested conditions COSLIF treatment breaks down lignocellulose structure more extensively than DA treatment, producing a more enzymatically reactive material with a higher CAC accompanied by faster hydrolysis rates and higher enzymatic digestibility.

Zhu, Z.; Sathitsuksanoh, N.; Vinzant, T.; Schell, D. J.; McMillian, J. D.; Zhang, Y. H. P.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Memory and mood during MDMA intoxication, with and without memantine pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Previous studies have shown that single doses of MDMA can affect mood and impair memory in humans. The neuropharmacological mechanisms involved in MDMA-induced memory impairment are not clear. Memantine, an NMDA and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antagonist, was able to reverse MDMA-induced memory impairment in rats. This study investigated whether treatment with memantine can prevent MDMA-induced memory impairment in humans. 15 subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo controlled, within-subject design. Subjects received both pre-treatment (placebo/memantine 20 mg) (T1) and treatment (placebo/MDMA 75 mg) (T2) on separate test days. T1 preceded T2 by 120 min. Memory function was assessed 90 min after T2 by means of a Visual Verbal Learning Task, a Prospective Memory Task, the Sternberg Memory Task and the Abstract Visual Pattern Learning Task. Profile of Mood State and psychomotor performance were also assessed to control whether MDMA and memantine interactions would selectively pertain to memory or transfer to other domains as well. MDMA significantly impaired performance in the visual verbal learning task and abstract visual pattern learning task. Pre-treatment with memantine did not prevent MDMA-induced memory impairment in these two tasks. Both positive (vigour, arousal, elation) and negative mood effects (anxiety) were increased by MDMA. The responses were not altered by pretreatment with memantine which had no effect on memory or mood when given alone. These preliminary results suggest that memantine does not reverse MDMA-induced memory impairment and mood in humans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘CNS Stimulants’.

E.B. de Sousa Fernandes Perna; E.L. Theunissen; K.P.C. Kuypers; P. Heckman; R. de la Torre; M. Farre; J.G. Ramaekers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT: In dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin has been shown formed by hydrothermal pretreatment of a mixture of Avicel cellulose and poplar wood showed that lignin

California at Riverside, University of

135

LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although a Supplemental LAW feed simulant has previously been prepared, this feed composition differs from that simulant because those tests examined only the fully soluble aqueous solution at room temperature, not the composition formed after evaporation, including the insoluble solids that precipitate after it cools. The conceptual flow sheet for Supplemental LAW immobilization has an option for removal of {sup 99}Tc from the feed stream, if needed. Elutable ion exchange has been selected for that process. If implemented, the stream would need filtration to remove the insoluble solids prior to processing in an ion exchange column. The characteristics, chemical speciation, physical properties, and filterability of the solids are important to judge the feasibility of the concept, and to estimate the size and cost of a facility. The insoluble solids formed during these tests were primarily natrophosphate, natroxalate, and a sodium aluminosilicate compound. At the elevated temperature and 8 M [Na+], appreciable insoluble solids (1.39 wt%) were present. Cooling to room temperature and dilution of the slurry from 8 M to 5 M [Na+] resulted in a slurry containing 0.8 wt% insoluble solids. The solids (natrophosphate, natroxalate, sodium aluminum silicate, and a hydrated sodium phosphate) were relatively stable and settled quickly. Filtration rates were in the range of those observed with iron-based simulated Hanford tank sludge simulants, e.g., 6 M [Na+] Hanford tank 241-AN-102, even though their chemical speciation is considerably different. Chemical cleaning of the crossflow filter was readily accomplished with acid. As this simulant formulation was based on an average composition of a wide range of feeds using an integrated computer model, this exact composition may never be observed. But the test conditions were selected to enable comparison to the model to enable improving its chemical prediction capability.

McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

136

Determination of porosity of lignocellulosic biomass before and after pretreatment by using Simonsâ Â’ stain and NMR techniques  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

porosity porosity of lignocellulosic biomass before and after pretreatment by using Simons' stain and NMR techniques Xianzhi Meng a , Marcus Foston a,1 , Johannes Leisen b , Jaclyn DeMartini c , Charles E. Wyman c , Arthur J. Ragauskas a,⇑ a BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th Street, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA b School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA c Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, BioEnergy Science Center, Riverside, CA 92507, USA h i g h l i g h t s  Cellulose accessibility was tested by Simons' stain and multiple NMR techniques.  Pretreatment increases the pore size and overall surface area of the

137

A new option in ECE @ UBC The Biomedical Engineering (BE) option offers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new option in ECE @ UBC The Biomedical Engineering (BE) option offers the opportunity to gain core competency in fundamental electrical engineering topics, key topics in biomedical engineering on the Biomedical Engineering option: Student Services Electrical & Computer Engineering The University of British

Pulfrey, David L.

138

Combining Financial Double Call Options with Real Options for Early Curtailment of Electricity Service  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining Financial Double Call Options with Real Options for Early Curtailment of Electricity@IEOR.Berkeley.edu Abstract In a competitive electricity market traditional demand side management options offering customers curtailable service at reduced rates are replaced by voluntary customer responses to electricity spot prices

139

architecture 2-year master of architecture option deadlinesmaster of architecture 3-year master of architecture option  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

credits) 1 environmental technology course (3 credits) 2 architectural history courses (6 credits) 3master of architecture (M.Arch.) #12;2-year master of architecture option deadlinesmaster of architecture 3-year master of architecture option Taubman College's 2-year master of architecture option

Papalambros, Panos

140

Climate Finance Options Platform | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Finance Options Platform Climate Finance Options Platform Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Finance Options Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme, World Bank Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Finance, Implementation Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.climatefinanceoptions.org/cfo/ Climate Finance Options Screenshot References: CFO[1] "This Platform aims at providing comprehensive guidance on financial options available for climate action in developing countries. Here you can find information on where to access the wide range of funds available from multilateral and bilateral institution, as well as public and private sources. Learn more on how these funds are governed and whether your project is eligible. Users are invited to be a resource to share their

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Improving Anaerobic Codigestion of Corn Stover Using Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignin of the corn stover was measured according to the Laboratory Analytical Procedures (LAP) established by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). ... The methane yield per gram of corn stover is an important parameter to estimate the net energy production of the corn stover digestion. ... This means that NaOH pretreatment is an effective way to obtain higher net energy production through anaerobic codigestion of corn stover. ...

Zhaoyang You; Taoyuan Wei; Jay J. Cheng

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

142

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

143

Gasification performance of switchgrass pretreated with torrefaction and densification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate gasification performance of four switchgrass pretreatments (torrefaction at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and combined torrefaction and densification) and three gasification temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C). Gasification was performed in a fixed-bed externally heated reactor with air as an oxidizing agent. Switchgrass pretreatment and gasification temperature had significant effects on gasification performance such as gas yields, syngas lower heating value (LHV), and carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies. With an increase in the gasification temperature, yields of H2 and CO, syngas LHV, and gasifier efficiencies increased whereas CH4, CO2 and N2 yields decreased. Among all switchgrass pretreatments, gasification performance of switchgrass with combined torrefaction and densification was the best followed by that of densified, raw and torrefied switchgrass. Gasification of combined torrefied and densified switchgrass resulted in the highest yields of H2 (0.03 kg/kg biomass) and CO (0.72 kg/kg biomass), highest syngas LHV (5.08 MJ m-3), CCE (92.53%), and CGE (68.40%) at the gasification temperature of 900 °C.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Various

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Summary of Findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): Corn Stover Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation, with members from Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, Texas A&M University, the University of British Columbia, and the University of California at Riverside, has developed comparative data on the conversion of corn stover to sugars by several leading pretreatment technologies. These technologies include ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment, ammonia recycle percolation pretreatment, dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment, flowthrough pretreatment (hot water or dilute acid), lime pretreatment, controlled pH hot water pretreatment, and sulfur dioxide steam explosion pretreatment. Over the course of two separate USDA- and DOE-funded projects, these pretreatment technologies were applied to two different corn stover batches, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids from each pretreatment technology using identical enzyme preparations, enzyme loadings, and enzymatic hydrolysis assays. Identical analytical methods and a consistent material balance methodology were employed to develop comparative sugar yield data for each pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Although there were differences in the profiles of sugar release, with the more acidic pretreatments releasing more xylose directly in the pretreatment step than the alkaline pretreatments, the overall glucose and xylose yields (monomers + oligomers) from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process steps were very similar for all of these leading pretreatment technologies. Some of the water-only and alkaline pretreatment technologies resulted in significant amounts of residual xylose oligomers still remaining after enzymatic hydrolysis that may require specialized enzyme preparations to fully convert xylose oligomers to monomers.

Elander, R. T.; Dale, B. E.; Holtzapple, M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mitchinson, C.; Saddler, J. N.; Wyman, C. E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High Xylose Yields from Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover Under Process-Relevant Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pretreatment experiments were carried out to demonstrate high xylose yields at high solids loadings in two different batch pretreatment reactors under process-relevant conditions. Corn stover was pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid using a 4-l Steam Digester and a 4-l stirred ZipperClave{reg_sign} reactor. Solids were loaded at 45% dry matter (wt/wt) after sulfuric acid catalyst impregnation using nominal particle sizes of either 6 or 18 mm. Pretreatment was carried out at temperatures between 180 and 200 C at residence times of either 90 or 105 s. Results demonstrate an ability to achieve high xylose yields (>80%) over a range of pretreatment conditions, with performance showing little dependence on particle size or pretreatment reactor type. The high xylose yields are attributed to effective catalyst impregnation and rapid rates of heat transfer during pretreatment.

Weiss, N. D.; Nagle, N. J.; Tucker, M. P.; Elander, R. T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Local Option - Special Districts | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Special Districts Local Option - Special Districts Local Option - Special Districts < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Cooling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Windows, Doors, & Skylights Bioenergy Solar Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Heating Wind Program Info State Florida Program Type PACE Financing '''''Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July 2010 concerning the senior lien status associated with most PACE programs. In response to the FHFA statement, most local PACE programs have been

147

Evaluation of pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic ethanol production from energy cane variety L 79-1002  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Approximately half of the 80 billion tons of crop produced annually around the world remains as residue that could serve as a renewable resource to produce valuable products such as ethanol and butanol. Ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable alternative to diminishing oil and gas liquid fuels. Sugarcane is an important industry in Louisiana. The recently released variety of “energy cane” has great potential to sustain a competitive sugarcane industry. It has been demonstrated that fuel-grade ethanol can be produced from post harvest sugarcane residue in the past, but optimized ethanol production was not achieved. Optimization of the fermentation process requires efficient pretreatment to release cellulose and hemicellulose from lignocellulosic complex of plant fiber. Determining optimal pretreatment techniques for fermentation is essential for the success of lignocellulosic ethanol production process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three pretreatment methods for the energy cane variety L 79-1002 for maximum lignocellulosic ethanol production. The pretreatments include alkaline pretreatment, dilute acid hydrolysis, and solid-state fungal pretreatment process using brown rot and white rot fungi. Pretreated biomass was enzymatically saccharified and subjected to fermentation using a recombinant Escherichia coli FBR5. The results revealed that all pretreatment processes produced ethanol. However, the best result was observed in dilute acid hydrolysis followed by alkaline pretreatment and solid-state fungal pretreatment.

V. Sri Harjati Suhardi; Bijeta Prasai; David Samaha; Raj Boopathy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR PHOTO OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film)..................................................................3 PHOTO OPTION REQUIREMENTS (GATE REQUIRED FOR MOST COURSES): PHOT 255

Dyer, Bill

149

Rolling Up a Put Option as Prices Increase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agricultural producers use put options to protect themselves against declining prices. The technique of "rolling up a put option, explained in this publication, allows the producer to raise the minimum expected selling price of a put option...

Johnson, Jason; Polk, Wade

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

150

An alternative viewpoint on energy options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this short article is to point out some of the inaccurate statements made at a forum rather than to provide a comprehensive discussion of the availability energy options.

Buddhadev Sen

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Nuclear Power: The Last Best Option  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear Power: The Last Best Option ... I never thought I’d favor nuclear power. ... Nuclear power must occupy a larger share of our energy mix and replace coal-fired power plants. ...

Jerald L. Schnoor

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

152

Policy Option for Hydrogen Vehicles and Infrastructure  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

low CO 2 - H 2 pathways and efficient FCVs Policy Options for Early Transition Producer fuel payment 13 Experience with ethanol suggests that the price of gasoline is an...

153

Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec ay of plutonium-241) in the dissolved precipitate, a value consistent with the recovery of europium, the americium surrogate.In a subsequent experiment, the plutonium solubility following an oxalate precipitation to simulate the preparation of a slurry feed for a batch melter was 21 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. The increase in solubility compared to the value measured during the pretreatment experiment was attributed to the increased nitrate concentration and ensuing increase in plutonium complexation. The solubility of the plutonium following a precipitant wash with 0.1M oxalic acid was unchanged. The recovery of plutonium from the precipitate slurry was greater than 97 percent allowing an estimation that approximately 92 percent of the plutonium in Tank 17.1 will report to the glass. The behavior of the lanthanides and soluble metal impurities was consistent with the behavior seen during the pretreatment experiment. A trace level material balance showed that 99.9 percent of the americium w as recovered from the precipitate slurry. The overall recovery of americium from the pretreatment and feed preparation processes was greater than 97 percent, which was consistent with the measured recovery of the europium surrogate.

Rudisill, T.S.

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

154

Cellulase Accessibility of Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) The dilute-acid pretreatment reduces xylan content in corn stover. This reduction in xylan content appears to render the substrate less recalcitrant. Below {approx}8%, xylan content is no longer the dominant factor in biomass recalcitrance. (2) Decreasing xylan content of corn stover also created more binding sites for Cel7A, but no strong correlation with actual xylan content. (3) We found no correlation between bound Cel7A concentration and lignin content. Maybe lignin is blocking the way for Cel7A? The contribution of lignin to biomass recalcitrance requires further investigation.

Jeoh, T.; Johnson, D. K.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy Presentation by 12-Richards to DOE Hydrogen Pipeline...

156

Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy Objectives: Identify business opportunities and...

157

Tool to Compare Solar Energy Program Financing Options | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Information Resources Tool to Compare Solar Energy Program Financing Options Tool to Compare Solar Energy Program Financing Options This model is intended to be used for...

158

Energy Efficiency Policy Rules: Options and Alternatives for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Efficiency Policy Rules: Options and Alternatives for Illinois Energy Efficiency Policy Rules: Options and Alternatives for Illinois Chuck Goldman (LBNL) & Rich Sedano (RAP). ICC...

159

POLICY OPTIONS FOR FCV MARKET INTRODUCTION | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

POLICY OPTIONS FOR FCV MARKET INTRODUCTION POLICY OPTIONS FOR FCV MARKET INTRODUCTION Presentation by K.G. Duleep of Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. at the 2010 - 2025...

160

Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Hydrogen Delivery Options and Issues | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Delivery Options and Issues Hydrogen Delivery Options and Issues Presentation by DOE's Mark Paster at the 2010 - 2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and...

162

Renewable Power Options for Electricity Generation on Kaua'i...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Renewable Power Options for Electricity Generation on Kaua'i: Economics and Performance Modeling Renewable Power Options for Electricity Generation on Kaua'i: Economics and...

163

Brochure HI Standards Subscription Options | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HI Standards Subscription Options Brochure HI Standards Subscription Options HI's Web-based Standards "packages" will provide you with all of the Standards appropriate for a...

164

Comparative analyses of spent nuclear fuel transport modal options: Transport options under existing site constraints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The movement of nuclear waste can be accomplished by various transport modal options involving different types of vehicles, transport casks, transport routes, and intermediate intermodal transfer facilities. A series of systems studies are required to evaluate modal/intermodal spent fuel transportation options in a consistent fashion. This report provides total life-cycle cost and life-cycle dose estimates for a series of transport modal options under existing site constraints. 14 refs., 7 figs., 28 tabs.

Brentlinger, L.A.; Hofmann, P.L.; Peterson, R.W.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

EVALUATION OF SUPPLEMENTAL PRE-TREATMENT DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS TO MEET TRL 6 ROTARY MICROFILTRATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spring 2011, the Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) for the Supplemental Treatment Project (RPP-PLAN-49827, Rev. 0), Technology Maturation Plan for the Treatment Project (T4S01) was developed. This plan contains all identified actions required to reach technical maturity for a field-deployable waste feed pretreatment system. The supplemental pretreatment system has a filtration and a Cs-removal component. Subsequent to issuance of the TMP, rotary microfiltration (RMF) has been identified as the prime filtration technology for this application. The prime Cs-removal technology is small column ion exchange (ScIX) using spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) as the exchange resin. During fiscal year 2011 (FY2011) some of the tasks identified in the TMP have been completed. As of September 2011, the conceptual design package has been submitted to DOE as part of the critical decision (CD-1) process. This document describes the remaining tasks identified in the TMP to reach technical maturity and evaluates the validity of the proposed tests to fill the gaps as previously identified in the TMP. The potential vulnerabilities are presented and the completed list of criteria for the DOE guide DOE G 413.3-4 different technology readiness levels are added in an attachment. This evaluation has been conducted from a technology development perspective - all programmatic and manufacturing aspects were excluded from this exercise. Compliance with the DOE G 413.3-4 programmatic and manufacturing requirements will be addressed directly by the Treatment Project during the course of engineering design. The results of this evaluation show that completion of the proposed development tasks in the TMP are sufficient to reach TRL 6 from a technological point of view. The tasks involve actual waste tests using the current baseline configuration (2nd generation disks, 40 psi differential pressure, 30 C feed temperature) and three different simulants - the PEP, an AP-Farm and an S-saltcake. Based on FY2011 dollars used in the TMP, these tests will have ROM costs of $950K and require up to 10 months to complete. Completion of the simulant testing will satisfy the TRL 5 and TRL 6 criteria that are related to system testing with materials that represent the full range of properties in a relevant environment.

HUBER HJ

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

166

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Low-Cost Options for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control ADA- Environmental Solutions will test two new technologies for mercury control. The TOXECON II(tm) technology injects activated carbon directly into the downstream collecting fields of an electrostatic precipitator. The benefit of this technology is that the majority of the fly ash is collected in the upstream collecting fields which results in only a small portion of carbon-contaminated ash. Additionally, the TOXECON II(tm) technology requires minimal capital investment as only minor retrofits to the electrostatic precipitator are needed. The second technology is injection of novel sorbents for mercury removal on units with hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Mercury removal from hot-side electrostatic precipitators is difficult as their high operating temperature range keeps the mercury in the vapor phase and prevents the mercury from adsorbing onto sorbents. The TOXECON II(tm) technology will be tested at Entergy's Independence Station which burns PRB coal. The novel sorbents for hot-side ESPs technology will be tested at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center and MidAmerican's Louisa Station, both of which burn PRB coal. Additional project partners include EPRI, MidAmerican, Entergy, Alliant, ATCO Power, DTE Energy, Oglethorpe Power, Norit Americas Inc., Xcel Energy, Southern Company, Arch Coal, and EPCOR.

167

Glow discharge pretreatment tools for vacuum web coating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last few years plasma pre-treatment has been established as a powerful tool to increase the quality in vacuum web coating whereas, the effect of web pre-treatment under atmospheric conditions is declining due to several reasons, glow discharge assisted in line–in vacuo pre-treatment is much more reliable. Two tools for plasma pre-treatment are presented here. Both are easily scalable as to comply with the needs of large area web coating with a typical coating width of over 2 m, and they operate in a pressure range that is compatible with sputtering and evaporation processes taking place in the same vacuum system. The effect of the glow discharge on polymeric web depends on electron temperature (typically a few electron volts), electron density (ranging typically from 10?9 to 10?11 cm?3), ion energy, and chemical composition. The mentioned electron density range is indispensable to meet the demands of satisfactory production speeds, in particular with evaporation. By means of the so-called Treatmag®, an abnormal glow discharge enhanced by a closed loop tunnel shaped magnetic field is generated in the 10?2 mbar pressure range. This tool is widely used for the improvement of metallic coatings on polymeric web. The ion energies typically range well below 70 eV. Indeed, water vapor and oxygen permeation rates through OPP have been quartered respectively, third. The so-called RF hollow anode described herein next is comprising a capacitively coupled, asymmetric 13.56 \\{MHz\\} radio frequency glow discharge driven in a hollow life electrode, operated in the 10?2 mbar pressure range. The easily scaleable RF hollow anode is dedicated to the dynamic pre-treatment or coating of either dielectric or metal web (or rigid sheet), and can be used in conjunction either with sputtering or, at line speeds of typical 5–10 m/s, with evaporation processes. The RF hollow anode renders ion fluxes of up to 1 mA/cm2 at energies between 100 and several hundred electron volts. So far it complements the Treatmag®, which yields ions with considerably lower energies. The adhesion improvement by the RF hollow anode we attribute to a pronounced increase of the cross-link density (amorphization) in the near surface region of in-plane oriented polymeric web commonly used. Ex situ XPS spectra taken 3 days after venting from PET samples treated at high web speeds are given. It is mentioned that the industrial application of the RF hollow anode is based on the surface modification as yielded in-situ/in-vacuo almost immediately after treatment. In case the RF hollow anode is operated with hydrocarbon, silane or other gases, it can also be employed for thin base-coatings or top-coatings on web material.

M. Geisler; G. Hoffmann; R. Ludwig; G. Steiniger

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification using a modified EPID  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are high resolution systems that produce electronic dose maps with minimal time required for equipment setup, and therefore potentially present a time-saving alternative for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) pretreatment verification. A modified commercial EPID was investigated operated with an opaque sheet blocking the optical signal produced in the phosphor layer as a precursor to a switched mode dual dosimetry-imaging EPID system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this system for direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification. Methods: A Varian amorphous silicon EPID was modified by placing an opaque sheet between the Gd{sub 2}S{sub 2}O:Tb phosphor layer and the photodiode array to block the optical photons. The EPID was thus converted to a direct-detecting system (dEPID), in which the high energy radiation deposits energy directly in the photodiode array. The copper build-up was replaced with d{sub max} solid water. Sixty-one IMRT beams of varying complexity were delivered to the EPID, to EDR2 dosimetric film and to a 2D ion chamber array (MapCheck). EPID data was compared to film and MapCheck data using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm pass criteria. Results: The fraction of points that passed the gamma test was on average 98.1% and 98.6%, for the EPID versus film and EPID versus MapCheck comparisons, respectively. In the case of comparison with film, the majority of observed discrepancies were associated with problems related to film sensitivity or processing. Conclusions: The very close agreement between EPID and both film and MapCheck data demonstrates that the modified EPID is suitable for direct dose to water measurement for pretreatment IMRT verification. These results suggest a reconfigured EPID could be an efficient and accurate dosimeter. Alternatively, optical switching methods could be developed to produce a dual-mode EPID with both dosimetry and imaging capabilities.

Gustafsson, Helen; Vial, Philip; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia) and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney 2065 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia) and Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Sydney 2170 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia); School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2308 (Australia) and Radiation Oncology Department, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle 2310 (Australia); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2308 (Australia) and Radiation Oncology Department, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle 2310 (Australia)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Constructing ‘population’ criteria for the comparison of different options for a high voltage line route  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a method for comparing the sensitiveness of people to different possible options for the route of High Voltage transmission lines. It has been tested on practical cases. First, we create special dimensions and scales in order to evaluate the different zones of a studied area. Then, the different options for the route of HV lines (which are a succession of different zones) have to be compared. The construction of criteria permitting the comparison of different options raises a theoretical issue: how to punctualise the geographic distribution or the grades of the different zones of an option, in order to reflect preferences? Different methods of punctualisation are proposed which could apply to other cases. But the purpose of the paper is merely to show that these methods of punctualisation are not neutral, they cannot reflect all the characteristics of a distribution of grades.

Nathalie Grassin

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

171

Gantry-angle resolved VMAT pretreatment verification using EPID image prediction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery with electronic portal imaging device (EPID) uses images integrated over the entire delivery or over large subarcs. This work aims to develop a new method for gantry-angle-resolved verification of VMAT dose delivery using EPID.Methods: An EPID dose prediction model was used to calculate EPID images as a function of gantry angle for eight prostate patient deliveries. EPID image frames at 7.5 frames per second were acquired during delivery via a frame-grabber system. The gantry angle for each image was encoded in kV frames which were synchronized to the MV frames. Gamma analysis results as a function of gantry angle were assessed by integrating the frames over 2° subarcs with an angle-to-agreement tolerance of 0.5° about the measured image angle.Results: The model agreed with EPID images integrated over the entire delivery with average Gamma pass-rates at 2%, 2 mm of 99.7% (10% threshold). The accuracy of the kV derived gantry angle for each image was found to be 0.1° (1 SD) using a phantom test. For the gantry-resolved analysis all Gamma pass-rates were greater than 90% at 3%, 3 mm criteria (with only two exceptions), and more than 90% had a 95% pass-rate, with an average of 97.3%. The measured gantry angle lagged behind the predicted angle by a mean of 0.3°± 0.3°, with a maximum lag of 1.3°.Conclusions: The method provides a comprehensive and highly efficient pretreatment verification of VMAT delivery using EPID. Dose delivery accuracy is assessed as a function of gantry angle to ensure accurate treatment.

Woodruff, Henry C.; Rowshanfarzad, Pejman [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Fuangrod, Todsaporn [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); McCurdy, Boyd M. C. [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada) [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)] [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Wireless Network Capacity Management: A Real Options Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capacity, market price of risk, investment timing option 1 Introduction Wireless networks are now regarded

Forsyth, Peter A.

173

Hydrogen Production: Overview of Technology Options, January 2009  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Overview of technology options for hydrogen production, its challenges and research needs and next steps

174

Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Green Building Policy Options Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans Elizabeth Doris Technical Report NREL/TP-7A30-52576 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans Elizabeth Doris Prepared under Task No(s). IDNO.1030 Technical Report NREL/TP-7A30-52576 September 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

175

Disposition options for {sup 233}U  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States is implementing a program to dispose of excess nuclear-weapons-usable materials--including {sup 233}U. A series of studies have identified multiple {sup 233}U disposition options, and these options are described herein. Most of the options involve adding depleted uranium containing {sup 238}U to the {sup 233}U. Converting the {sup 233}U into a mixture of <12 wt % {sup 233}U in {sup 238}U converts the weapons-usable {sup 233}U into nonweapons-usable {sup 233}U. For {sup 233}U that is considered waste, further isotopic dilution to <0.66 wt % {sup 233}U in {sup 238}U minimizes potential long-term repository criticality concerns and in many cases minimizes final waste volumes.

Forsberg, C.W.; Icenhour, A.S.; Krichinsky, A.M.

1998-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

176

EIS-0123: Direct Service Industry Options  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

BPA proposes to implement one or more options to reduce load fluctuations and revenue uncertainty resulting from its electrical service to 10 aluminum smelters and its other direct service industrial customers. BPA believes these options will give BPA greater ability to plan for power needs and help to maintain its relatively strong financial position during the current period of power surplus. They also are expected to enhance BPA's ability to repay the U.S. Treasury. In turn, BPA rates to other customers would stabilize.

177

Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment.

Rudisill, T.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

178

Pretreatment of automobile shredder residue (ASR) for fuel utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automobile shredder residue (ASR) was pretreated to improve its quality for fuel utilization. Composition analysis revealed that ASR components could be classified into four groups: (1) urethane and textile—light fraction and combustibles containing low levels of ash and Cl; (2) plastics and rubber—light or heavy fraction and combustibles containing high levels of Cl; (3) metals and electrical wire—heavy fraction and incombustibles, and (4) particles smaller than 5.6 mm with high ash contents. Based on these results, we successively performed sieving to remove particles smaller than 5.6 mm, float and sink separations to reject the heavy fraction and plastics and rubber containing Cl, thermal treatment under an inert atmosphere to remove Cl derived from PVC, and char washing to remove soluble chlorides. This series of pretreatments enabled the removal of 78% of the ash and 91% of the Cl from ASR. Sieving using a 5.6-mm mesh removed a considerable amount of ash. Product quality was markedly improved after the float and sink method. Specifically, the sink process using a 1.1 g cm?3 medium fluid rejected almost all rubber containing Cl and a large amount of PVC. The remaining Cl in char, after heating at 300 °C under an inert atmosphere and washing, was considered to be present as insoluble chlorides that volatilized at temperatures above 300 °C. Based on a tradeoff relationship between product quality and treatment cost, ASR may be utilized as a form of refuse plastic fuel or char.

I.H. Hwang; S. Yokono; T. Matsuto

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Inhibition of aortic wall calcification in bioprosthetic heart valves by ethanol pretreatment: Biochemical and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhibition of aortic wall calcification in bioprosthetic heart valves by ethanol pretreatment 16 September 1997; 20 February 1998 Abstract: The effectiveness of ethanol pretreatment on pre was previously demonstrated, and the mechanism of action of ethanol was attributed in part to both lipid removal

Zand, Robert

180

PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

CONRAD EA

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Improved Anaerobic Digestion by the Addition of Paper Tube Residuals: Pretreatment, Stabilizing, and Synergetic Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pretreatments with steam explosion were performed on the paper tubes and evaluated by batch assays measuring the biomethane potential. ... 3.1 Biomethane Potential of Untreated and Treated Paper Tubes: Batch Assays ... The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of steam pretreatment on the biomethane potential of biofibers from digested manure. ...

Anna Teghammar; Maria del Pilar Castillo; Johnny Ascue; Claes Niklasson; Ilona Sárvári Horváth

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

182

GRR/Section 18-ID-c - Wastewater Pretreatment Permit | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8-ID-c - Wastewater Pretreatment Permit 8-ID-c - Wastewater Pretreatment Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 18-ID-c - Wastewater Pretreatment Permit 18IDCWastewaterPretreatmentPermit.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 18IDCWastewaterPretreatmentPermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative Industrial wastewater permits are issued at the local level. If wastewater is not discharged into a municipal sewer system, the nonpoint source and NPDES permit inquiries are sufficient. A common approach to wastewater treatment is to treat on-site. See Idaho's

183

A Generic Assessment of Response Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.4 Mitigation Options 236 704.1 Energy conservation and efficiency 7.7 Regional Differences and International improvement 236 Cooperation 254 7.4.2 Fossil fuel switching 240 7.4.3 Renewable energy technologies 241, including · Energy conservation and efficiency improvement · Fossil fuel switching · Renewable energy

Delaware, University of

184

Page 1 of 16 RIGHTS AND OPTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the campus Title IX Coordinator who can provide you with information on your options, rights and remedies with that process, including the investigation process; how confidentiality is handled; available resources, both of complaint, investigation, and discipline procedures; provide consultation to executive/senior level

185

RTGs Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small spacecraft design for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) Mission is under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for a possible launch as early as 1998. JPL's 1992 baseline design calls for a power source able to furnish an energy output of 3963 kWh and a power output of 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. Satisfying those demands is made difficult because NASA management has set a goal of reducing the spacecraft mass from a baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for the power source. To support the ongoing NASA/JPL studies, the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) commissioned Fairchild Space to prepare and analyze conceptual designs of radioisotope power systems for the PFF mission. Thus far, a total of eight options employing essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules were designed and subjected to thermal, electrical, structural, and mass analyses by Fairchild. Five of these - employing thermoelectric converters - are described in the present paper, and three - employing free-piston Stirling converters - are described in the companion paper presented next. The system masses of the thermoelectric options ranged from 19.3 kg to 10.2 kg. In general, the options requiring least development are the heaviest, and the lighter options require more development with greater programmatic risk. There are four duplicate copies

Schock, Alfred

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Hedging Milk with BFP Futures and Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hedging Milk with BFP Futures and Options David Anderson, Dean McCorkle, Robert B. Schwart, Jr. and Rodney Jones* The 1996 farm bill changed the dairy industry forever. The security provided by the support program is gone and the Federal Order...

Anderson, David P.; McCorkle, Dean; Schwart Jr., Robert B.; Jones, Rodney

1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

187

Advanced ignition options for laser ICF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced ignition options for laser ICF FPA Meeting, Washington DC, December 1-3, 2010 R. Betti shock) · Fast Ignition requires major hardware upgrades: 100kJ-class multi-PW laser [also talk by P explore high-gain shock ignition - Polar Shock Ignition (uses half the NIF beams to drive the implosion

188

EVALUATION OF AP-FARM SIMULANT COMPOSITION FOR ROTARY MICROFILTER TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies the feed composition of a Hanford AP tank farm simulant for rotary microfiltration testing. The composition is based on an Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model run in combination with Tank Waste Information Network (TWINS) data and mineralogical studies of actual waste solids. The feed simulant is intended to be used in test runs at SRNL. The simulant will be prepared in two parts: (1) A supernate, composed of water-soluble salts and (2) The undissolved (actually, undissolvable) solids. Test slurries with distinct solids concentrations (e.g., 0.5, 5 and 10 wt%) are then prepared as needed. The base for the composition of supernate and solids is the modeled feed sequence for a deployment scenario of the Supplemental Pretreatment units within AP-farm. These units comprise a filtration part, the RMF, and a Cesium-removal part, a Small Column Ion Exchange. The primary use of this simulant is for filtration testing - however, in case that it is also used for ion-exchange tests, the amount of Cs-137 that would need to be added is available in Table 1 and Attachment 3. A modified model run (MMR-049) of the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) system plan 6 case 3 was performed to identify the feed sequence. Case 3 assumed supplemental treatment besides the low activity waste (LAW) melter with supplemental pretreatment supporting the pretreatment facility. The MMR did not cap the duration of supplemental pretreatment to 15 months, but rather used it throughout the entire treatment mission as an add-on option to the pretreatment facility at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tank 241-AP-105 (AP-105) was chosen as the feed tank to the filtration unit. Other parameters included a fixed minimum of 0.5 wt% solids in the feed and a maximum Na-concentration of 5M in the supernate. The solids rejection from the filtration unit was set to 99.99% and the maximum allowed amount of solids within tank AP-105 was set to 10 wt%. A comprehensive description of the run and the full suite of results were issued as SVF-2364-00. The list of individual feed events including the amounts of liquid and solids transferred for the first five years is added as Attachment 2; the chemical composition of the supernate feed comprises Attachment 3. For the simulant composition, only the first five years of proposed feed delivery were taken into account. The main outcome of MMR-049 was that for the first five years, the feed would come mostly from AP-farms. Multiple delivery campaigns to AP-105 are included in this average feed, while minimizing the amount of contributing tanks to the solids in the feed mix.

HUBER HJ

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

189

Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

191

EVSE Features Charge Delay Option Power Light Indicator Eight-segment Progress Indicator Auto-restart  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Charge Delay Option Power Light Indicator Charge Delay Option Power Light Indicator Eight-segment Progress Indicator Auto-restart EVSE Specifications Grid connection Plug and cord NEMA 6-50 Connector type J1772 Test lab certifications UL Listed Approximate size (H x W x D inches) 10 x 13 x 4 Charge level AC Level 2 Input voltage 240 VAC Maximum input current 30 Amp Circuit breaker rating 40 Amp Test Conditions 1 Test date 10/30/2012 Nominal supply voltage (Vrms) 209.04 Supply frequency (Hz) 59.99 Initial ambient temperature (°F) 64 Test Vehicle 1,3 Make and model 2012 Chevrolet Volt Battery type Li-ion Steady state charge power (AC kW) 3.09 Maximum charge power (AC kW) 3.20 EVSE Test Results 1,2,4

192

Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of food waste and sewage sludge treated using various pretreatment technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic co-digestion with sewage sludge using pretreatment technologies and food waste. We studied the effects of various pretreatment methods (thermal...

Seungjin Kim; Kwangkeun Choi; Jong-Oh Kim; Jinwook Chung

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Tank-Mix Options for Control of Tropical Soda Apple and Dogfennel1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SS-AGR-300 Tank-Mix Options for Control of Tropical Soda Apple and Dogfennel1 B. A. Sellers and J throughout Florida, GrazonNext HL tank-mixed with another herbicide will be required to effectively control both species. Many combinations were tested to determine what herbi- cides could be tank

Watson, Craig A.

194

Effects of Cellulase and Xylanase Enzymes on the Deconstruction of Solids from Pretreatment of Poplar by Leading Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Cellulase and Xylanase Enzymes on the Deconstruction of Solids from Pretreatment mass loadings of 5.8­116 mg/g of glucan in poplar wood prior to pretreat- ment. In addition, the enzyme by enzymes for all pretreatments, xylanase leverage on glucan removal decreased at high cellulase loadings

California at Riverside, University of

195

Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar yields from different switchgrass sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments eased comparisons. All pretreatments enhanced sugar recovery from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic production. The high world con- sumption of fossil energy also drives up accumulation of carbon dioxide

California at Riverside, University of

196

Final Report - Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Power of Experience The Power of Experience Final Report Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-05GO15032 Project director/principal investigator: Tan-Ping Chen Consortium/teaming Partners: Air Liquide, Chevron Technology Venture, Gas Technology Institute, NREL, Tiax, ANL Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis ii TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................... 1-1 1.1 HOW THE RESEARCH ADDS TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE AREA INVESTIGATED. 1-1 1.2 TECHNICAL EFFECTIVENESS AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF THE METHODS OR TECHNIQUES INVESTIGATED OR DEMONSTRATED .................................................... 1-1 1.3 HOW THE PROJECT IS OF BENEFIT TO THE PUBLIC..................................................... 1-1

197

Energy management options for high speed trains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficient operation of trains which undergo large changes in energy as they fulfill their operational function requires recapture of the kinetic energy of a high speed train or the potential energy of a train in mountainous terrain. This paper is a description of the various storage options available in the railroad environment and their relative merits. The economic, environmental, and safety issues are discussed. The options discussed include: the physical means of storing energy, the location on board the train or on fixed ground, and the relation of energy storage to the nature of the engine used as a prime mover. It is argued that, in the absence of a fully electric, power supply connected to a utility grid, the gas turbine engine is the best propulsion system to meet the propulsion needs of trains requiring high power and efficiency because its high power to weight ratio enables the use of energy storage.

Decher, R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

MCNP6 Cosmic-Source Option  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MCNP is a Monte Carlo radiation transport code that has been under development for over half a century. Over the last decade, the development team of a high-energy offshoot of MCNP, called MCNPX, has implemented several physics and algorithm improvements important for modeling galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) interactions with matter. In this presentation, we discuss the latest of these improvements, a new Cosmic-Source option, that has been implemented in MCNP6.

McKinney, Gregg W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstrong, Hirotatsu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clem, John [University of Delaware, BRI; Goldhagen, Paul [DHS, National Urban Security Technology Laboratory

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

199

Understanding Leasing Options for Energy Projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNDERSTANDING LEASING OPTIONS FOR ENERGY PROJECTS Baker Davenport Davenport Finance Company Richmond, Virginia Industrials often find it difficult to fund energy projects with internal monies. Energy projects must compete with the company...?s ?core? assets for capital dollars. Leasing can be used to overcome some of these hurdles. Topics of discussion will include several key leasing structures, with benefits and disadvantages noted. Project financing is also discussed as a way...

Davenport, B.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Seattle's system for evaluating energy options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1975, the City Council developed a blueprint called Energy 1990 for meeting Seattle's future electric energy needs. Priorities for addressing or offsetting expected growth in demand are in order: (1) conservation (2) hydroelectricity (3) other renewable sources such as wind, biomass, solar, and geothermal energy (4) abundant nonrenewable resources such as coal, and (5) other renewables. An energy resources planning group was formed and a data base was established. Resource options were investigated and the recommendations were published.

Logie, P.; Macdonald, M.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Assessing Renewable Energy Options | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assessing Renewable Energy Options Assessing Renewable Energy Options Assessing Renewable Energy Options October 16, 2013 - 5:16pm Addthis Preliminary Screening with an arrow pointing down to Screening. Square with the text planning in the center. A graphic of an arrow pointing down to Feasibility Study. The word Screening appears on the arrow. A square graphic showing the text Programming: Planning Charette and it's aligned to the right of arrow pointing down which reads Screening. An arrow pointing down which reads Feasibility Study. The arrow points to Size and Design Systems. A square graphic with the text Building Design: Schematic Design (35%) shown to the right of an arrow pointing down which reads Feasibility Study. An arrow pointing down which reads Size and Design Systems. This is the last of 4 arrows which show the progression from Preliminary Screening to Screening to Feasibility Study to Size and Design Systems. A square graphic which reads Building Design: Design Development (65%). This is the last of 4 boxes.

202

Power Supply Options for Data Centers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Power Supply Options for Data Centers Power Supply Options for Data Centers Title Power Supply Options for Data Centers Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-63339 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Tschudi, William F., and Charles H. Williams Call Number LBNL-63339 Abstract For many federal facilities, the fastest growing end-use of electric energy is found in concentrations of computing capacity commonly known as data centers. For these users, the critical importance of information processing to their agency mission will present a serious challenge to meeting the aggressive new energy efficiency goals in Executive Order 13423. Federal energy managers can find a variety of methods for reducing energy intensity, in both design and operations, for these high-technology facilities . This report summarizes a recent demonstration of one such technique ? configuring power supply systems for data centers so that they use DC (direct current) power throughout, eliminating the conventional practice of multiple conversions from utility-supplied AC (alternating current) to DC and back again at every stage of the power supply system. This eliminates both the power loss and heat generated by each such conversion (which drives air conditioning energy use).

203

NREL: Financing Geothermal Power Projects - Financing Options for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Financing Options for Geothermal Power Projects Financing Options for Geothermal Power Projects Different financing options are used at each stage in geothermal power project development, which include the exploration and drilling stage and construction and operation stage. The financing option in each stage earns a return proportionate with the risk accepted at that stage in the project's development. For each financing option, both financial and non-financial elements should be considered. Financing options and considerations for a typical geothermal power project are shown in the table below. Your project financing options and considerations may be different. Financing Options and Considerations for a Typical Geothermal Power Project* Financial Considerations Financing Stage Exploration and Drilling Construction and Operation

204

Industrial Engineering-BS ,PhD option in Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I Industrial Engineering- BS ,PhD option in Engineering Industrial & Management Engineering - BS MS Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical 8c Computer Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Industrial Technoloity - BS option in Technology Education Interdisciplinary Studies - BA; BS J. Japan

Dyer, Bill

205

Analysis of sustainable water supply options for Kuwait  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis considers several options for improving the sustainability of Kuwait's water supply system. The country currently relies heavily on desalination and brackish groundwater extraction. The options considered for ...

Murtaugh, Katharine A. (Katharine Ann)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Security is Not an Option | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

is Not an Option Security is Not an Option A 10-year roadmap for achieving control system cyber security in the energy industry has been hailed as a model for other industries....

207

Recommendation 186: Option Periods in Prime Contract Language  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The inclusion of option periods in the language of all future DOE Request for Proposals for prime contracts when appropriate.

208

IIIPRISMA System Operator's Manual PRISMA Therapy Options ............................................................................. 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IIIPRISMA System Operator's Manual ... PRISMA Therapy Options .................................................................................................... PRISMA System ............................... xvi Operator's Manual ......................................................... #12;PRISMA System Operator's Manual ia Controller CCA

Kay, Mark A.

209

THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF A PUBLIC OPTION IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF A PUBLIC OPTION IN HEALTH CARE REFORM: An Economic Analysis Ethan Kaplan and Benefits of a Public Option in Health Care Reform: An Economic Analysis ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like Security|The Costs and Benefits of a Public Option in Health Care Reform: An Economic Analysis EXECUTIVE

Kammen, Daniel M.

210

Changes in lignocellulosic supramolecular and ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment of Populus and switchgrass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

lignocellulosic lignocellulosic supramolecular and ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment of Populus and switchgrass Marcus Foston, Art J. Ragauskas* BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 23 March 2009 Received in revised form 17 July 2010 Accepted 23 July 2010 Available online xxx Keywords: Dilute acid pretreatment Cellulose Supramolecular structure Populus Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) is commonly employed prior to enzymatic deconstruction of cellulose to increase overall sugar and subsequent ethanol yields from downstream bioconversion processes. Typically optimization of pretreatment is evaluated by deter- mining hemicellulose removal, subsequent reactivity towards

211

Optimizing Ethanol and Methane Production from Steam-pretreated, Phosphoric Acid-impregnated Corn Stover  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The composition of raw corn stover and the WIS after pretreatment was...27] from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). All measurements were performed in duplicate. The starch content of corn stover an...

Pia-Maria Bondesson; Aurélie Dupuy; Mats Galbe…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of co-firing of coal and pretreated biomass.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This master thesis describes the co-firing concept, benefits and opportunities of pretreated biomass in pulverized coal boilers for industrial use. Burning fossil fuels, i.e.… (more)

Hye, A S M Abdul

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p < 0.05). For all fractions, xylan and glucan degradation followed a pattern similar to lignin degradation, with leaves having a significantly higher percentage of degradation (p < 0.05). Hydrolytic enzyme activity also revealed that the fungus was more active in the degradation of carbohydrates in leaves. As a result of fungal pretreatment, the highest sugar yield, however, was obtained with corn cobs.

Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

Predicted Effect of Minerals on Pretreatment 1013 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 113116, 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicted Effect of Minerals on Pretreatment 1013 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 113 of cellulose to cellulase enzymes has #12;1014 Lloyd and Wyman Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 113

California at Riverside, University of

215

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

DOE-funded researchers have shown that a new, highly effective pretreatment process used in the production of biofuel can be executed at a larger scale than ever achieved before.

216

Effect of Plasma Pretreatment Followed by Nanoclay Loading on Flame Retardant Properties of Cotton Fabric  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this research work the effect of plasma treatment with nitrogen gas followed by nanoclay treatment on flame retardancy of cotton fabrics ... , nitrogen plasma pretreatment has synergistic effect on nanoclay fo...

Sheila Shahidi; Mahmood Ghoranneviss

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and yard waste, respectively...for yard waste control strain...pCellulose on plant biomass treated...liquid pre-treatment . Biofuel...Insights into plant cell wall degradation...bioenergy systems . Biofuels Bioprod...2010 ) An integrated catalytic approach...

Gregory Bokinsky; Pamela P. Peralta-Yahya; Anthe George; Bradley M. Holmes; Eric J. Steen; Jeffrey Dietrich; Taek Soon Lee; Danielle Tullman-Ercek; Christopher A. Voigt; Blake A. Simmons; Jay D. Keasling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pretreatment efficiency . Biofuels 4 ( 1 ): 63 – 72 . 16 Simmons BA Loque D Blanch HW ( 2008 ) Next-generation biomass feedstocks for biofuel production . Genome Biol 9 ( 12 ): 242 . 17 Kilpelainen A ( 2003 ) Wood properties of Scots pines (Pinus...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Evaluation energy efficiency of bioconversion knot rejects to ethanol in comparison to other thermochemically pretreated biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rejects from sulfite pulp mill that otherwise would be disposed of by incineration were converted to ethanol by a combined physical–biological process that was comprised of physical refining and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The energy efficiency was evaluated with comparison to thermochemically pretreated biomass, such as those pretreated by dilute acid (DA) and sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL). It was observed that the structure deconstruction of rejects by physical refining was indispensable to effective bioconversion but more energy intensive than that of thermochemically pretreated biomass. Fortunately, the energy consumption was compensated by the reduced enzyme dosage and the elevated ethanol yield. Furthermore, adjustment of disk-plates gap led to reduction in energy consumption with negligible influence on ethanol yield. In this context, energy efficiency up to 717.7% was achieved for rejects, much higher than that of SPORL sample (283.7%) and DA sample (152.8%).

Zhaojiang Wang; Menghua Qin; J.Y. Zhu; Guoyu Tian; Zongquan Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Assessment of an ultrafiltration pre-treatment system for a seawater reverse osmosis plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The seawater reverse osmosis system requires extensive pre-treatment in order to ensure reliable performance. The conventional pre-treatment system involves dosing of chemicals, which requires frequent monitoring of raw water quality, and also involves adjusting the dosage. Besides being cumbersome, there is a lot of time lag involved in carrying out these measures. This calls for pre-treatment systems based on physicochemical mechanisms. During the last few years, Ultrafiltration (UF) has emerged as a leading unit operation in order to render raw seawater compatible with reverse osmosis operations. In this context, the Desalination Division of BARC has already installed an operational UF pre-treatment system. In this paper, we examine the role of UF in the overall operations of the seawater reverse osmosis system.

S.A. Tiwari; D. Goswami; S. Prabhakar; P.K. Tewari

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Modeling and simulation of landfill gas production from pretreated MSW landfill simulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cumulative landfill gas (LFG) production and its rate ... simulated for pretreated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill using four models namely first order exponential ... . Considering the behavior of the p...

Rasool Bux Mahar; Abdul Razaque Sahito…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

Raber, E; Burklund, A

2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

223

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Experiment Station FE Exco Resources SCNGO 2012 1012009 - 10312012 John Terneus Armstrong County, PA Pilot Testing: Pretreatment Options to Allow Re-Use of Frac Flowback...

224

Test Automation Test Automation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Test Automation Test Automation Mohammad Mousavi Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Software Testing 2013 Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Outline Test Automation Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Why? Challenges of Manual Testing Test-case design: Choosing inputs

Mousavi, Mohammad

225

Identifying Project Potential and Options Webinar | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Identifying Project Potential and Options Webinar Identifying Project Potential and Options Webinar Identifying Project Potential and Options Webinar April 30, 2014 11:00AM MDT Attendees will understand the components of identifying energy project potential and options. Presenters will discuss market considerations, initial site considerations, project savings or rate-of-return estimates, production potential, final site selection, tribal options, finance, partnerships, and participation processes. Attendees will also become familiar with data gathering and analysis procedures such as tribal facility electric cost data, regulations, and interconnection requirements; paths to market for project power; and renewable sales, risks; and utility rules. By following the steps outlined in the webinar, Tribes can determine

226

Empowering Variable Renewables: Options for Flexible Electricity Systems |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Empowering Variable Renewables: Options for Flexible Electricity Systems Empowering Variable Renewables: Options for Flexible Electricity Systems Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Empowering Variable Renewables: Options for Flexible Electricity Systems Agency/Company /Organization: International Energy Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Market analysis, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Publications Website: www.iea.org/g8/2008/Empowering_Variable_Renewables.pdf Empowering Variable Renewables: Options for Flexible Electricity Systems Screenshot References: Empowering Variable Renewables: Options for Flexible Electricity Systems[1] Summary "Increasing the share of renewables in energy portfolios is a key tool in the drive to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, as well as

227

Automated Surface Observing System: Standby Power Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Automated Automated Surface Observing System Standby Options Power Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) General System Description * Self contained group of sensors and data gathering equipment that produces an automated weather observation * Weather observations support aviation, climate data, non government weather operations, public consumption, etc. * Initial deployment began in 1991 and continued through 1997 * Located at 884 sites nationwide, normally at airports * System has two distinct subsystems: Field installed equipment (DCP & Sensor Group) and an indoor processor (ACU) with peripherals * Separate facility power for DCP & Sensors and ACU 1 * measure and collect data * Located on the airport * back up group for 10 minutes * Currently pl

228

Distillation: Still towering over other options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

Kunesh, J.G. [Fractionation Research, Inc., Stillwater, OK (United States); Kister, H.Z. [Brown and Root, Inc., Alhambra (Canada); Lockett, M.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Evaluating the fluidized bed combustion options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proceedings from a conference on fluidized bed combustion are now available. The book discusses the immediate availability of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology as a practical, environmentally sound option for burning all grades of coal, wood, wood wastes, and biomass. The economics and technical fundamentals of atmospheric FBC are explained for the benefit of owners and managers of industrial boilers, boiler operators, architects/engineers, boiler manufacturers, and fuel suppliers. More than 15 FBC experts have contributed their expertise and experiences to the book.

Sheahan, R.T. (ed.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of contamination from heavy metals. The Berkeley Pit, a large, inactive, open pit copper mine located in Butte, Montana, along with its associated groundwater system, has been selected by the RRP for use as a feedstock for a test bed facility located there. The test bed facility provides the infrastructure needed to evaluate promising technologies at the pilot plant scale. Data obtained from testing these technologies was used to assess their applicability for similar mine drainage water applications throughout the western states and at DOE. The objective of the Clean Option project is to develop strategies that provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to resource recovery using the Berkeley Pit water as a feedstock. The strategies not only consider the immediate problem of resource recovery from the contaminated water, but also manage the subsequent treatment of all resulting process streams. The strategies also employ the philosophy of waste minimization to optimize reduction of the waste volume requiring disposal, and the recovery and reuse of processing materials.

Gerber, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Development of stripper options for FRIB  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University includes a heavy ion superconducting linac capable of accelerating all ions up to uranium with energies higher than 200 MeV/u and beam power up to 400 kW. To achieve these goals with present ion source performance it is necessary to accelerate simultaneously two charge states of uranium from the ion source in the first section of the linac. At an energy of approximately 16.5 MeV/u it is planned to strip the uranium beam to reduce the voltage needed in the rest of the linac to achieve the final energy. Up to five different charge states are planned to be accelerated simultaneously after the stripper. The design of the stripper is a challenging problem due to the high power deposited (approximately 0.7 kW) in the stripper media by the beam in a small spot. To assure success of the project we have established a research and development program that includes several options: carbon or diamond foils, liquid lithium films, gas strippers and plasma strippers. We present in this paper the status of the different options.

Marti, F.; Hershcovitch, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Thieberger, P.

2010-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

232

Evaluating home heating options in Krakow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The city of Krakow, Poland, has poor air quality due, in part, to widespread use of coal for heating. Engineering analyses have been conducted to determine the technical feasibility and capital costs for a number of options for reducing pollution from home heating sources. Capital costs range from $90 per kilowatt (kW) to connect local boiler-houses to the district heating system to $227/kW to upgrade the electrical system and convert coal stoves to electric heat. Air quality analyses have estimated the reduction in pollutant emissions as well as in pollutant concentrations that would result from implementing the options under consideration. Significant reductions can be obtained at a lower cost by using briquettes instead of coal in home stoves than by converting the stoves to electricity or gas. Finally, incentives analyses are examining the cost-effectiveness of the various alternatives and identifying possible incentives that the city could provide to encourage adoption of less-polluting technologies and practices.

Bleda, J.; Nedoma, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Effect of pre-treatment of the substrate surface by energetic C+ ion bombardment on structure and nano-tribological characteristics of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Depositing an ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coating on the surface of the recording heads in magnetic tape drives can improve the tribological problems at the head/tape interface. In this work the effect of pre-treatment of the surface of AlTiC substrate (main bearing surface of head in contact with tape) by C+ ions of moderate energy (smaller than 400?eV) on the structural and tribo-mechanical behaviours of the coated surfaces is studied. Sample preparation consisted of two separate stages of surface pre-treatment and deposition of the protective film, and was done by means of filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Structure of the ta-C film and its interface with the substrate were studied by transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results revealed the formation of a broader, dense atomically mixed layer at the ta-C film–substrate interface of the pre-treated samples comparing with that of the samples without pre-treatment. Chemical characterization of thin diamond-like carbon coatings was conducted by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface pre-treatment was found to have a remarkable effect on increasing the sp3 hybridization fraction in the ta-C overcoat. Nano-tribological properties of the treated surfaces were examined using ball-on-flat wear test at very low load (20?mN). There was a good correlation between the surface and structure characteristics of the film, and the tribological results and the pre-treated surfaces presented a very low coefficient of friction and higher wear life. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of bombardment of the surface with C+ ions of moderate ion energy to improve the structural and tribo-mechanical properties of the protective ta-C films on the magnetic head substrate material.

E Rismani; S K Sinha; S Tripathy; H Yang; C S Bhatia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Evaluation of critical pathways, radionuclides, and remedial measures for reducing the radiological dose to returning populations at a former nuclear test site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bikini Island, the major residence island at Bikini Atoll, was contaminated with radioactive fallout as a result of the BRAVO test conducted on March 1, 1954. We have identified the critical radionuclides and supplied radiological data needed to develop dose estimates for all possible exposure pathways. These estimates show that the major dose to returning populations would result from ingestion of cesium-137 (137 Cs) in locally grown terrestrial foods where the predicted population average effective dose exceeds current federal guidelines. Consequently, we designed several long-term field experiments to develop and evaluate methods to reduce the 137 Cs content in locally grown foods.This paper gives a general outline of the remediation experiments with a more detailed description of a preferred combined option. Our comparative evaluation on various remedial methods show that the combined option--potassium treatment of the entire islands with limited excavation of soil in village an d housing areas--will be effective in reducing the dose to about 10% of pretreatment levels, and offers very significant benefits with respect to adverse environmental impacts as well as savings in overall costs, time, and required expert resources.

Robison, W. L., LLNL

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

POLICY OPTIONS FOR FCV MARKET INTRODUCTION  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

G. Duleep G. Duleep Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. www.eea-inc.com POLICY OPTIONS FOR FCV MARKET INTRODUCTION Prepared for: Hydrogen 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis Meeting Introduction Phases Phase 1 - sales of few hundred FCVs per year. Cost of vehicles will be 5 x over average vehicle and refueling infrastructure will be in an urban area. Phase 2 - ten to twenty thousand FCVs per model and one/two models per major manufacturer. Cost of vehicles will be 2 x over average vehicle, and urban and limited regional refueling infrastructure. Phase 3 - Mass market introduction, FCV cost at 1.1 to 1.2 x. Good regional refueling and limited city pair refueling sites. Policies for Phase 1 Vehicles will not be sold commercially but leased to select fleets and owners. Government fleet buy-

236

IAAP. However, Pantex Plant Option 2  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

p,./qj ' . p,./qj ' . ,! Fdera~ Regbter / Vol. 4Q, No. 210 / Mot&lap, October 29, 3984 1 Notices 43493 be the optimal choice. However, for eignificantly lower caste, a major upgrade of existing facilitiee, including new constr@ion. will provide improved operational reliability and protection. Consequently, an all new facility at any of the three alternative locations was eliminated due to cost considerations. From the standpoint of environmental impact from normal operations (including offsite transportation end the risk of an accident-producing release of radioactive materials, there is little difference between existing operations at Pantex and partial relocation to IAAP. However, Pantex Plant Option 2 provided a greater degree of operational reliability and protection than the

237

OPTIONAL I-""... ..o SD  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

OPTIONAL I-""... ..o SD , * ' y)IP-lW ' a * UNITED S T A T E S COVEKNMENT TO : Files DATE: September 25, 1962 M o m 4' Materials Branch; Division of Licensing & Regulation SUBJECT: PRE-LICENSING VISIT TO THE CONTEMPORARY METALS CORPORATION PROPOSED FACILITY AT HAZELWOOD, M ISSOURI, AND RESIDUE STOCKPILES AT ROBERTSON, M ISSOURI, DOCKET NO, 40-6811 The Contemporary Metals Corporation was awarded a contract by the AEC for the removal of uranium -bearing residues from stock- pile areas at Robertson, M issouri. These residues were generated by the Commission at its Destrehan Street Plant, St; Louis, M issouri. The applicant intends to process these residues at its Hazelwocd facility which is about three (3) m iles from the stock- pile site, Attempts will be made to extract the associated

238

UNDP-Climate Finance Options Platform | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP-Climate Finance Options Platform UNDP-Climate Finance Options Platform Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNDP-Climate Finance Options Platform Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme, World Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics: Finance Website: www.climatefinanceoptions.org/cfo/ Cost: Free UNDP-Climate Finance Options Platform Screenshot References: UNDP-Climate Finance Options Platform[1] "This Climate Finance Options platform, launched under the chapeau "Acting on Climate Change: The UN System Delivering As One", addresses information needs on the multitude of funds available for climate action in developing countries. Based on the UNFCCC framework, the platform is composed of two complementary domains (one led by UNFCCC and one by

239

Green Power Network: Mandatory Utility Green Power Option  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option A number of states have adopted policies requiring or encouraging electricity suppliers to offer green power options to consumers. This section provides summaries of these policies and links to the full text of the legislation or public utility commission rules. Connecticut Iowa Maine Minnesota Montana New Jersey New Mexico Oregon Vermont Virginia Washington Connecticut June 2003—On June 26, Connecticut Governor John G. Rowland signed a bill (SB 733) amending the state's Electric Restructuring Act and granting authority to the Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) to require electric distribution companies to offer green power options. The legislation enables the DPUC to determine the terms and conditions of renewable energy or energy efficiency options, including the contract terms and the minimum percentage of electricity to be derived from renewable energy sources. The green energy options will be developed and implemented by third-party companies selected through a competitive bidding process.

240

Attachment C: Optional AIP Provisions | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

C: Optional AIP Provisions C: Optional AIP Provisions Attachment C: Optional AIP Provisions Optional AIP Provisions This attachment contains sample language for a number of optional provisions that sites may choose to include or not to include in their AIPs. Optional AIP provisions are not mandatory and the language presented is a sample which may be used as is, serve as a guideline for the creation of a modified provision to suit the site-specific needs of a particular AIP program, or not included in a new or renegotiated AIP. 1. Public Participation/Public Accountability in the DOE Planning Process "The DOE will make available to the public in a timely manner all environmental planning documents that require public comment. The DOE will promptly reply to, and confirm receipt of, requests for information

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Directory of Standard, Optional and Other Agency Forms  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The directive lists the Directory of Standard, Optional and Other Agency Forms and includes a list of Departmental reports and forms managers. Cancels DOE 1322.4A.

1989-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

242

Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios given by Sigmund Gronich of DOE during the DOE Hydrogen Transition Analysis Workshop on January 26, 2006.

243

Investigation of energy storage options for sustainable energy systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Determination of the possible energy storage options for a specific source of energy requires a thorough analysis from the points of energy, exergy, and exergoeconomics.… (more)

Hosseini, Mehdi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Feebates: A Legislative Option to Encourage Continuous Improvements...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Feebates: A Legislative Option to Encourage Continuous Improvements to Automobile Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Feebates: A Legislative...

245

Assessment of Future Vehicle Transportation Options and their...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Future Vehicle Transportation Options and Their Impact on the Electric Grid January 10, 2010 New Analysis of Alternative Transportation Technologies 3 What's New? * Additional...

246

DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

and operating the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in New Mexico. The option DOE exercised is a part of the WIPP contract that was competitively...

247

Technological Options for Reducing Non-CO2 GHG Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A project titled Clearinghouse of Technological Options for Reducing Anthropogenic Non-CO 2 GHG Emissions from All Sectors was recently conducted. The o...

Prof. Dr. Jeff Kuo Ph.D.; P.E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Decoupling Policies: Options to Encourage Energy Efficiency Policies...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Decoupling Policies: Options to Encourage Energy Efficiency Policies for Utilities, Clean Energy Policies in States and Communities, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

249

Implementing a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure: Storage Options and System Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

impact of improved hydrogen storage may be through makingand M. Gardiner, Hydrogen Storage Options: Technologies andscience related to hydrogen storage could change how a

Ogden, J; Yang, Christopher

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power.

251

Option to Acquire or Divest a Joint Venture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of uncertainty in 4 If Vi(0) ? Vj(0), the exercise of the option is likely to be accelerated under Vi(0) > Vj(0) and µi > µj and decelerated under Vi(0) µj. In addition, the initial negotiation on the formation of the JV is likely to be more...; Folta and Leiblein, 1994; Folta, 1998), there has been limited effort to scrutinize the properties of JV options (e.g., options to acquire, divest and expand) through rigorous theoretical modeling. As the extensive work on financial and real options...

Chi, Tailan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Maintenance of Parent Strategies is Associated with Pre-Treatment Parent Fidelity, Treatment Assignment, and Post Treatment Community Services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuller, A. (2011). JASPER: Interventionist workshops atjoint attention intervention (JASPER) in which the specificlevel of naturally occurring JASPER fidelity pre-treatment.

Fuller, Amy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

PROJECT W-551 SUMMARY INFORMATION FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides summary data for use by the decision board to assess and select the final technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-fonnaldebyde resin. This document provides a summary of comparative data against prior weighted criteria to support technology selection. Supporting details and background for this summary are documented in the separate report, RPP-RPT-37741.

TEDESCHI AR

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

254

Statement of work for architect-engineer services, initial pretreatment module  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Statement of Work describes the Architect-Engineer services to be provided by Raytheon/BNFL in providing a conceptual design (Contract TGW-SVV-063869) for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), Project W-236B, at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. The IPM Project, a radiochemical process facility, will be designed and constructed for an initial phase of waste pretreatment, which will be for the removal of cesium from supernatant wastes to produce a Low-level waste (LLW) stream to a vitrification facility. The design shall also accommodate side streams of High-Level Waste (HLW) fractions that will be directed to suitable, existing storage tanks where they will be recombined with an additional high-activity waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-activity waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository.

Sowa, K.B.

1994-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Conversion for Avicel and AFEX pretreated corn stover by Clostridium thermocellum and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: Insights into microbial conversion of pretreated cellulosic biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for for Avicel and AFEX pretreated corn stover by Clostridium thermocellum and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: Insights into microbial conversion of pretreated cellulosic biomass Xiongjun Shao a , Mingjie Jin b,c , Anna Guseva a , Chaogang Liu d , Venkatesh Balan b,c , David Hogsett d , Bruce E. Dale b,c , Lee Lynd a,d,⇑ a Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, 8000 Cummings Hall, Hanover, NH 03755, USA b Biomass Conversion Research Laboratory (BCRL), Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, MBI Building, 3900 Collins Road, Lansing, MI 48910, USA c Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA d Mascoma Corporation, 67 Etna Road, Suite 300, Lebanon, NH 03766, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 8 March 2011 Received in revised form 6 May 2011 Accepted

256

Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

Feng, Zhu (Albany, CA); Brewer, Marilee (Goleta, CA); Brown, Ian (Berkeley, CA); Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Pre-treatment for molybdenum or molybdenum-rich alloy articles to be plated  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a method for etching a molybdenum or molybdenum-rich alloy surface to promote the formation of an adherent bond with a subsequently deposited metallic plating. In a typical application, the method is used as a pre-treatment for surfaces to be electrolessly plated with nickel. The pre-treatment comprises exposing the crystal boundaries of the surface by (a) anodizing the surface in acidic solution to form a continuous film of gray molybdenum oxide thereon and (b) removing the film.

Wright, Ralph R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Chemical pre-treatment of waste water from the Morcinek Mine in Poland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a treatment strategy for brine that is recovered from the Morcinek mine near the city of Kartowice in Upper Silesia, Poland. The purpose of the study is to provide sufficient chemical composition and solubility data to permit selection of equipment for a pilot scale waste water processing plant. The report delineates: (1) the pre-treatment steps necessary before the brine is delivered to a reverse osmosis unit; (2) the composition of the brine solution at various stages in the pretreatment process and during the reverse osmosis step; (3) the types and amounts of chemicals that need to be added to the brine during pre-treatment. Analysis of the composition of the brine slurry from the submerged combustion evaporator that follows the reverse osmosis unit and the composition of brine elements that might be carried into the exhaust stack of the evaporator will be dealt with later. The pretreatment process will consist of four steps: (1) aeration and addition of sodium carbonate, (2) multimedia filtration, (3) addition of hydrochloric acid, and (4) ultrafiltration. On the basis of one m{sup 3} of the brine that has a density of 1.03 g/cm{sup 3}, approximately 800 grams (1.7 lbs.) of sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O) and 60 grams (0.12 lbs.) of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCI) will need to be added to the brine during pre-treatment. The goal of the pre-treatment is to produce a fluid that is always undersaturated with respect to all mineral phases. However, only the minimum amount of pre-treatment chemicals should be added in order to minimize costs. Therefore the overall goal is to generate a fluid that approaches but does not exceed saturation at the end of the reverse osmosis process. The suggested amounts of chemicals reported here are therefore the minimum amounts that need to be added during pre-treatment to keep all salts in solution during the reverse osmosis process.

Bourcier, W.; Jackson, K.J.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Pricing European Barrier Options Peter W.Buchen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

barrier options which incorporate a con- stant rebate. The method exploits the symmetries and properties of elemen- tary solutions of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation. The rebate and non-rebate. If rebates apply then the first exit time densities through the barrier are also required. Barrier option

Sydney, University of

260

ICORE: Image Co-addition with Optional Resolution Enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Masci * Implemented QA plot files. * Included ­wf option to control inverse variance weighting. When on. There is no warranty that the software described herein is free of bugs. This includes proper graceful program WCS and distortion keys). * Implemented auto-tiling option to support memory management for outlier

Masci, Frank

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Equilibrium pricing bounds on option prices Marie Chazala  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

probability measure that is equivalent to the historical one, and under which the discounted price processesEquilibrium pricing bounds on option prices Marie Chazala and Ely`es Jouinib a CREST, France price at maturity, we derive an upper bound on the call option price by putting two kind of restrictions

Boyer, Edmond

262

Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

> Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project of strategic options for the natural gas industry as hydrogen energy systems evolve ­ Vehicle to encourage of tradeoffs ­ NY state qualifies natural gas-run fuel cells, CA only renewable hydrogen (potential for partial

263

American Options, Multiarmed Bandits, and Optimal Consumption Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American Options, Multi­armed Bandits, and Optimal Consumption Plans: A Unifying View By Peter Bank, and in the microeconomic theory of intertemporal consumption choice can all be reduced to the same problem of representing and phrases. American options, Gittins index, multi­armed bandits, optimal consumption plans, optimal stopping

Bank, Peter

264

Capital Expenditures, Financial Constraints, and the Use of Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capital Expenditures, Financial Constraints, and the Use of Options Tim Adam RMI Working Paper No@nus.edu.sg 1 #12;Capital Expenditures, Financial Constraints, and the Use of Options Abstract This paper of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of NUS Risk Management Institute (RMI). #12;Capital

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

265

Investment options available through TIAA-CREF Columbia university  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investment options available through TIAA-CREF Columbia university Calvert Funds will be added and funds that are available as investment options, as well as the Calvert funds that will be available on the TIAA-CREF platform as of April 2, 2013. As described in the enclosed letter, if you currently invest

Grishok, Alla

266

Valuation and Optimal Exercise Strategy of Electricity Swing Options.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Valuation and Optimal Exercise Strategy of Electricity Swing Options. Gido Haarbrücker, Daniel Kuhn plateforme de recherche Alexandria https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch | 04.02.2014 Electricity swing options https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch | 04.02.2014 mot-clé energy, derivative pricing, electricity swing

Dalang, Robert C.

267

Front End Target Options K.T. McDonald  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Front End ­ Target Options K.T. McDonald Princeton University (January 7, 2014) #12;Target System://puhep1.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/accel/neuffer_ieeetns_28_2034_81.pdf Fernow et al. reviewed options in 1995: Li lenses, plasma lenses, toroidal horns, and solenoidal capture., http://puhep1

McDonald, Kirk

268

An option of "UCN pump" for ESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this short note is to present an option for a source of ultracold neutrons (UCNs), which could profit from the pulse time-structure of the future ESS spallation neutron source in Lund, and thus which could produce a very high UCN density and a rather high UCN flux simultaneously. In order to realize this idea one has to install a relatively thin solid-deuterium UCN source in a close vicinity to the spallation target and to couple it with an extraction UCN guide with an entrance membrane window, which is moving periodically and synchronously with the operation cycle of the spallation source, as explained in the text below. This proposal profits from the fact that all characteristic parameters of the problem, such as the pulse duration of the ESS spallation source, the typical thickness of solid deuterium source that could be easily realized, the typical time of generation of UCNs in solid deuterium, the length and diameter of the extraction neutron guide and the time diagram of the membrane motion t...

Nesvizhevsky, Valery V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Renewable Energy Options for a Utility System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper renewable energies have been re?addressed with respect to the potentials and feasibility of being incorporated in process industries. Within a process utility system is considered to be the most appropriate place for using sustainable energies. For integrating the renewable energies the pinch analysis is applied as the main tool to provide opportunity for energy conservation. The results demonstrated that the power generation by the wind is the most cost effective and environmentally friendly option for energy conservation in comparison to the other sustainable resources. However the tidal energy stands the least due to the long payback period. Also a computer program has been developed using MATLAB 7.3 to screen out different scenarios and perform economic study. The outcome data showed that there are several different opportunities for the integration of alternative energies. Finally this method has been applied to a case study and various retrofit projects have been identified each of which has certain amount of CO 2 reduction and estimated values for the required investment saving potential and payback period.

Lena Ahmadi; M. Hassan Panjeshahi; Simon Perry

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Evaluation of passive solar retrofit options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An evaluation framework has been developed which allows for the assessment of the role of passive solar retrofit in the nationwide reduction of conventional fuel use. Three types of analysis are proposed within this framework: the physical/technical capability of the present housing stock to incorporate passive solar retrofit; the economic feasibility of the application of retrofit designs; and the actual market potential or acceptance of these alternative retrofit options. Each type of analysis has specific data requirements and a series of evaluation procedures to help establish estimates of the potential for passive solar retrofit in the present housing stock. The data requirements with their respective sources and evaluation procedures for the first two types of analysis-physical/technical setting and economic feasibility, are examined. A distinction is drawn between community specific case studies and more generalized national assessments. Information derived from these three types of analysis, whether case specific or national in scope, can then be used in an evaluation of potential economic impacts. The establishment of regional economic benefits and costs werve as a measure of the merit or attractiveness of the implementation of a passive solar retrofit program.

Ben-David, S.; Kirchemen, C.; Martin, S.; Noll, S.; Roach, F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Jump to: navigation, search Several states require certain electric utilities to offer customers the option of buying electricity generated from renewable resources, commonly known as “green power.” Typically, utilities offer green power generated using renewable resources that the utilities own (or for which they contract), or they buy renewable energy credits (RECs) from a renewable energy provider certified by a state public utilities commission [1] Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 17) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active DEMEC - Green Power Program (Delaware) Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Delaware Municipal Utility Solar Water Heat

272

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Municipal Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Wind Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Provider Washington State Department of Commerce In May 2001, Washington enacted legislation (EHB 2247) that requires all electric utilities serving more than 25,000 customers to offer customers the option of purchasing renewable energy. Eligible renewables include wind, solar, geothermal, landfill gas, wave or tidal action, wastewater treatment gas, certain biomass resources, and "qualified hydropower" that is fish-friendly. Beginning January 1, 2002, each electric utility must inform its customers

273

Mandatory Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities Mandatory Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities < Back Eligibility Municipal Utility Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State Colorado Program Type Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Provider Colorado Public Utilities Commission Municipal electric utilities serving more than 40,000 customers in Colorado must offer an optional green-power program that allows retail customers the choice of supporting emerging renewable technologies. This policy complements Colorado's renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which requires municipal utilities serving more than 40,000 customers to use renewable energy and energy recycling to account for 10% of retail sales by 2020.

274

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option < Back Eligibility Utility Savings Category Bioenergy Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State Iowa Program Type Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Provider Iowa Utilities Board All electric utilities operating in Iowa, including those not rate-regulated by the Iowa Utilities Board (IUB), are required to offer green power options to their customers. These programs allow customers to make voluntary contributions to support the development of renewable energy sources in Iowa. Utilities must file their program plans and tariff schedules with the IUB; however, the filings for non-rate-regulated utilities are intended to be for informational purposes only. This policy

275

Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State California Program Type Building Energy Code Provider California Energy Commission [http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009-SOPR-1/documents/sb_1_bill_20060821_chapte... Senate Bill 1 of 2006], which established the statewide California Solar Initiative, also required the California Energy Commission (CEC) to implement regulations that require sellers of production homes to offer a solar energy system option to all prospective homebuyers. Besides offering solar as an option to prospective homebuyers, sellers of homes constructed on land for which an application for a tentative subdivision map has been

276

Using Backup Generators: Alternative Backup Power Options | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Alternative Backup Power Options Alternative Backup Power Options Using Backup Generators: Alternative Backup Power Options Using Backup Generators: Alternative Backup Power Options In addition to electric generators powered by fuel, homeowners and business owners may consider alternative backup power options. Battery-stored backup power-Allows you to continue operating lights, refrigerators and other appliances, fans, and communications during a power outage. These systems can connect to renewable sources of energy, like solar panels and small-scale wind generators, to help the batteries stay charged during an emergency. You can also recharge many of these battery systems with diesel generators. The length of time you will be able to draw electricity from your batteries will depend on the size of your

277

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Municipal Utility Utility Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Energy Sources Solar Wind Program Info State Maine Program Type Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Provider Maine Public Utilities Commission Legislation enacted in 2009 directed the Maine Public Utilities Commission (PUC) to develop a program offering green power as an option to residential and small commercial customers in the state. The PUC issued rules in October 2010 and issued an RFP. The PUC selected a company, 3 Degrees, to manage the statewide green power program for Maine's transmission and distribution territories. The program includes community-based renewable

278

Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options A Screening Method for Guiding R&D Decisions: Pilot Application to Screen Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options The Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) invests in research and development (R&D) to ensure that the United States will maintain its domestic nuclear energy capability and scientific and technical leadership in the international community of nuclear power nations in the years ahead. The 2010 Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap presents a high-level vision and framework for R&D activities that are needed to keep the nuclear energy option viable in the near term and to expand its use in the decades ahead. The roadmap identifies the development

279

Memorandum, Protective Force Career Options Committee - July 23, 2009 |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Memorandum, Protective Force Career Options Committee - July 23, Memorandum, Protective Force Career Options Committee - July 23, 2009 Memorandum, Protective Force Career Options Committee - July 23, 2009 On March 31,2009, this office commissioned a study to examine career opportunities and retirement options for the Department of Energy (DOE) protective force members. On March 3 1,2009, this office commissioned a study to examine career opportunities and retirement options for the Department of Energy (DOE) protective force members. The study was supported by senior leaders of the Department as well as by the leadership of the National Council of Security Police (NCSP), who took an active role in the study. The results of the study were briefed to several senior Departmental officials on June 30,2009. These leaders accepted the overall thrust of

280

Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June 30,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June 30, 2009 Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June 30, 2009 June 30, 2009 On March 31, 2009 , the Department of Energy (DOE) Chief Health, Safety and Security Officxer commissioned a study to examine "realistic and reasponable options for improving the career opportunities and retirement prospects of protective force members while maintaining, within current and anticipated budgetary constraints, a robust and effective security posture. On March 31, 2009, the Department of Energy (DOE) Chief Health, Safety and Security Officxer commissioned a study to examine "realistic and reasponable options for improving the career opportunities and retirement prospects of protective force members while maintaining, within current and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Expanding Options for Nuclear Power | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Expanding Options for Nuclear Power Expanding Options for Nuclear Power Expanding Options for Nuclear Power April 15, 2013 - 10:12am Addthis The development of clean, affordable nuclear power options is a key element of the Energy Department's Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. As a part of this strategy, a high priority of the Department has been to help accelerate the timelines for the commercialization and deployment of small modular reactor (SMR) technologies through the SMR Licensing Technical Support program. | Photo by the Energy Department. The development of clean, affordable nuclear power options is a key element of the Energy Department's Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. As a part of this strategy, a high priority of the Department has been to

282

Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June 30,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June 30, 2009 Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options - June 30, 2009 June 30, 2009 On March 31, 2009 , the Department of Energy (DOE) Chief Health, Safety and Security Officxer commissioned a study to examine "realistic and reasponable options for improving the career opportunities and retirement prospects of protective force members while maintaining, within current and anticipated budgetary constraints, a robust and effective security posture. On March 31, 2009, the Department of Energy (DOE) Chief Health, Safety and Security Officxer commissioned a study to examine "realistic and reasponable options for improving the career opportunities and retirement prospects of protective force members while maintaining, within current and

283

Effect of Catalyst Pre-Treatment on Chirality-Selective Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that catalyst pre-treatment conditions can have a profound effect on the chiral distribution in single-walled carbon nanotubes chemical vapor deposition. Using a SiO2-supported Cobalt model catalyst and pre-treatment in NH3, we obtain a...

Fouquet, Martin; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Thomsen, Christian; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

284

Master's Degree in Agriculture Plant Health Management Option Option Title: Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture: Plant Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Master's Degree in Agriculture ­ Plant Health Management Option Option Title: Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture: Plant Health Management Department(s) or Program(s): Supported of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences (CAHNRS) Contact Name: Dr. Kim Kidwell, Director MS

Collins, Gary S.

285

Grant funding Mechanism Review Options for consultation In the Options set out below, it has been assumed that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Grant funding Mechanism Review ­ Options for consultation In the Options set out below grants In this model, all exploitation activity (including project maintenance and operations (M&O) for particle physics projects) would be funded via 3year (maximum) standard grants. The detailed model would

Crowther, Paul

286

2007 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Pretreatment: the key to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presents important opportunities to achieve very low costs, pretreatment of naturally resistant cellulosic materials is essential if we are to achieve high yields from biological operations; this operation biological, chemical, physical, and thermal approaches have been investigated over the years, but only those

California at Riverside, University of

287

Upgrading Recovered Paper With Enzyme Pretreat ment and Pressurized Peroxide Bleaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tiveness of enzymes for toner removal was subsequently confirmed on an industrial scale (2,3). In addition to be effective for toner ink removal, can improve the bleachability of low quality recovered paper. When followed mixed recovered paper demonstrated that an enzymatic pretreatment improves the removal of residual inks

Abubakr, Said

288

Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment on the Enzymatic understand these trade-offs, comparative data are reported on xylan and lignin removal and enzymatic with just water enhanced the xylan dissolution rate, more than doubled total lignin removal, and increased

California at Riverside, University of

289

Does change in accessibility with conversion depend on both the substrate and pretreatment technology?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to hydrolysis rates slowing down with conversion, the heterogeneous nature of biomass, which affects glucanDoes change in accessibility with conversion depend on both the substrate and pretreatment, respectively, and its change with conversion were measured for pure Avicel glucan and poplar solids that had

California at Riverside, University of

290

Comparing different pre-treatment methods for strongly compacted organic sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-sieving: a case study on Roman waterlogged deposits Patricia Vandorpe and Stefanie Jacomet Four preComparing different pre-treatment methods for strongly compacted organic sediments prior to wet of the experiment was to find out which pre- treatment method facilitates the sieving process without destroying

Jacomet, Stefanie

291

Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Assessment of Combinations between Pretreatment and Conversion Configurations for Bioethanol Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Therefore, useful alternatives can be generated, although additional factors need to be considered. ... Therefore, the most appropriate conversions to combine with SE are SHCF and SSCF. ... The black color bar represents the energy cost for pretreatment and conversion steps, and the gray color bar represents the energy cost for the distillation step. ...

Carolina Conde-Mejía; Arturo Jiménez-Gutiérrez; Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

293

De-oiling and Pre-treatments for High-Quality Potato Chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A de-oiling step using a centrifuge ensures oil content reduction and improves the quality of fried snacks. A commercial deep-fat fryer with the basket loaded with potatoes and a sample holder was used to fry potato slices, non-pretreated, blanched...

Kim, Tae Hoon

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

294

Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the project are to investigate various coal pretreatment techniques and to determine the effect of these pretreatment procedures on the reactivity of the coal. Reactivity enhancement will be evaluated under both direct hydroliquefaction and co-processing conditions. Coal conversion utilizing low rank coals and low severity conditions (reaction temperatures generally less than 350{degrees}C) are the primary focus of the liquefaction experiments, as it is expected that the effect of pretreatment conditions and the attendant reactivity enhancement will be greatest for these coals and at these conditions. This document presents a comprehensive report summarizing the findings on the effect of mild alkylation pretreatment on coal reactivity under both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing conditions. Results of experiments using a dispersed catalyst system (chlorine) are also presented for purposes of comparison. IN general, mild alkylation has been found to be an effective pretreatment method for altering the reactivity of coal. Selective (oxygen) methylation was found to be more effective for high oxygen (subbituminous) coals compared to coals of higher rank. This reactivity enhancement was evidenced under both low and high severity liquefaction conditions, and for both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing reaction environments. Non-selective alkylation (methylation) was also effective, although the enhancement was less pronounced than found for coal activated by O-alkylation. The degree of reactivity enhancement was found to vary with both liquefaction and/or co-processing conditions and coal type, with the greatest positive effect found for subbituminous coal which had been selectively O-methylated and subsequently liquefied at low severity reaction conditions. 5 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Hypersonic flight testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the design process for a hypersonic vehicle, it is necessary to predict the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic environment for flight conditions. This involves combining results obtained from ground testing with analytical modeling to predict the aerodynamics and heating for all conditions of interest. The question which always arises is, how well will these models predict what is actually seen in a flight environment This paper will briefly address ground-testing and analytical modeling and discuss where each is appropriate, and the associated problems with each area. It will then describe flight test options as well as instrumentation currently available and show how flight tests can be used to validate or improve models. Finally, several results will be shown to indicate areas where ground testing and modeling alone are inadequate to accurately predict hypersonic aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics.

Williamson, W.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Local Option - Green Building Incentives | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Green Building Incentives Local Option - Green Building Incentives Local Option - Green Building Incentives < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Bioenergy Solar Lighting Windows, Doors, & Skylights Heating Buying & Making Electricity Water Water Heating Wind Program Info Start Date 6/11/2009 State North Carolina Program Type Green Building Incentive To encourage sustainable building practices, North Carolina law allows all counties and cities to provide reductions or partial rebates for building permit fees. To qualify for a fee reduction, buildings must meet guidelines established by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

297

Local Option - Building Permit Fee Waivers for Renewable Energy Projects  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Building Permit Fee Waivers for Renewable Energy Local Option - Building Permit Fee Waivers for Renewable Energy Projects (Connecticut) Local Option - Building Permit Fee Waivers for Renewable Energy Projects (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection As of July 2011, Connecticut authorizes municipalities to pass a local

298

Decoupling Policies: Options to Encourage Energy Efficiency Policies for  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Decoupling Policies: Options to Encourage Energy Efficiency Decoupling Policies: Options to Encourage Energy Efficiency Policies for Utilities, Clean Energy Policies in States and Communities, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (Brochure) Decoupling Policies: Options to Encourage Energy Efficiency Policies for Utilities, Clean Energy Policies in States and Communities, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (Brochure) This document discusses the policy of decoupling in utilities and how it can be used to encourage energy efficiency. 46606.pdf More Documents & Publications Greensburg, Kansas: Building a Model Green Community, How Would You Rebuild a Town - Green? April 2009 (Brochure) Greensburg, Kansas: A Better, Greener Place to Live (Revised) (Brochure) Rebuilding It Better: Greensburg, Kansas. Kiowa County Courthouse

299

Cost of Renewable Energy Technology Options | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost of Renewable Energy Technology Options Cost of Renewable Energy Technology Options Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Cost of Renewable Energy Technology Options Focus Area: Solar Topics: Opportunity Assessment & Screening Website: www1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy/guide/renewable_technologies_costs.h Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/cost-renewable-energy-technology-opti Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration & Implementation This resource has been extracted and reformatted from the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Power Technologies Energy Data Book. The data book is an excellent source of consistent information on renewable energy technology status and future expectations. Cost information is available

300

Announcement Notice Options By STI Type | Scientific and Technical  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Notices Notices Announcement Notice Options By STI Type Print page Print page Email page Email page The following list provides basic information regarding which announcement notice should be used by which audience for the various types of STI. For more information, see Submittal Basics. Announcement Options STI Product Types Announcement Notice Audiences AN 241.1 Web Version AN 241.1 Transmission Option Books/Monographs (non-copyrighted) Books/Monographs (copyrighted) Conference Papers/Presentations/Proceedings (non-copyrighted Conference Papers/Presentations/Proceedings (copyrighted) Journal Article Reprints (announcement notice only with adequate information to enable linking via Digital Object Identifier (DOI)) Journal Articles - Accepted manuscript Patents Program Documents

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Local Option - Sustainable Energy Financing Districts | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Sustainable Energy Financing Districts Local Option - Sustainable Energy Financing Districts Local Option - Sustainable Energy Financing Districts < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Energy Sources Water Heating Wind Program Info Start Date 8/15/2009 State Louisiana Program Type PACE Financing '''''Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July 2010 concerning the senior lien status associated with most PACE programs.

302

Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Connecticut) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Connecticut) Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Connecticut) Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Other Ventilation Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Insulation Windows, Doors, & Skylights Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Energy Sources Buying & Making Electricity Solar Water Water Heating Wind Program Info Start Date 10/2012 State Connecticut Program Type PACE Financing Provider Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority

303

Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Utah) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Utah) Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Utah) Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Utah) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Other Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Construction Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Solar Buying & Making Electricity Energy Sources Water Water Heating Wind Program Info State Utah Program Type PACE Financing Provider Office of Energy Development Senate Bill 221 of 2013 authorizes local governments to adopt Commercial* Property Assessed Clean Energy (C-PACE) financing programs. C-PACE allows

304

ESMAP-Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Carbon Development Options Study Low Carbon Development Options Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-ESMAP Low Carbon Country Studies Program Agency/Company /Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance Program of the World Bank Partner United Kingdom Department for International Development Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Forestry Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs Website http://www-wds.worldbank.org/e Country Indonesia South-Eastern Asia References World Bank, ESMAP - Low Carbon Growth Country Studies - Getting Started[1] Overview "The Indonesia's study aimed to evaluate and develop strategic options to mitigate climate change without compromising the country's development

305

Local Option - Improvement Districts for Energy Efficiency and Renewable  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Improvement Districts for Energy Efficiency and Local Option - Improvement Districts for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements Local Option - Improvement Districts for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Construction Heat Pumps Heating Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Bioenergy Solar Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Water Heating Wind Program Info State Colorado Program Type PACE Financing

306

Supplementation with xylanase and beta-xylosidase to reduce xylo-oligomer and xylan inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and pretreated corn stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in pretreated biomass through conversion of xylan and xylo-dioxide makes conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol

Qing, Qing; Wyman, Charles E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater adaptability of the process to DOE alkaline salt wastes, and greater readiness for implementation. Such benefits accrue from optimal sizing of centrifugal contactors for application of the CSSX process for the IPS; more accurate modeling of cesium extraction with greater flexibility and applicability to a variety of feeds and flowsheet conditions; and further improving and optimizing the alternative CSSX solvent and scrub/strip system.

Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

For Immediate Release --Wednesday, September 24, 2014 University of Lethbridge unveils three options for new  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the design process. In developing the three options, an Integrated Design Planning of Lethbridge unveils three options for new Science and Academic Building, as three building massing options for the new Science and Academic Building were

Hossain, Shahadat

309

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DUCT LEAKAGE TEST EXISTING DUCT SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.g., register boots, air handler, coil, plenums, etc.) if those parts are accessible and they can be sealed 2010 Outside air (OA) ducts for Central Fan Integrated (CFI) ventilation systems, shall not be sealed. Option 3. Reduce leakage by 60% or more, and conduct smoke test to seal all accessible leaks. Option 4

310

Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options Agency/Company /Organization: Center for International Forestry Research Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Topics: Implementation, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Publications Website: www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0902.pdf References: Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options[1] "This book seeks to answer these questions by examining what REDD+ at the national level might look like in four areas: institutions and processes to build the REDD+ framework, broad policy reforms to enable REDD+ implementation, sectoral policies to change incentives, and demonstration

311

Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Water Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Water Heating Wind Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Varies (local option) Provider Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources Rhode Island allows cities and towns to exempt, by ordinance, renewable energy systems from property taxation. The term "renewable energy system" is not defined in the applicable statute (R.I. Gen. Laws § 44-3-21). Note that [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=RI02F&re=1&ee=1

312

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary This executive summary provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. 45843.pdf More Documents & Publications Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009 Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009; Appendices

313

Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy Options for Africa | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy Options for Africa Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy Options for Africa Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy Options for Africa Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Publications Website: www.uneca.org/eca_resources/publications/unea-publication-tocsd15.pdf References: Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy Options for Africa[1] Overview "Over the last four decades, the gap between energy supply and demand in Africa has been growing. Projections by experts in the field forecast that

314

Local Option Municipal Economic Development Act (Nebraska) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option Municipal Economic Development Act (Nebraska) Local Option Municipal Economic Development Act (Nebraska) Local Option Municipal Economic Development Act (Nebraska) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Nebraska Program Type Bond Program Grant Program Loan Program Provider Economic Development This act gives local governments the option to provide direct and indirect assistance to business enterprises in their communities, whether for expansion of existing operations, the creation of new businesses, or the provision of new services, by the use of funds raised by local taxation when the voters of the municipality decide it is in their best interest. The act gives local governments broad freedoms to determine the specifics

315

Feebates: A Legislative Option to Encourage Continuous Improvements to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Feebates: A Legislative Option to Encourage Continuous Improvements to Feebates: A Legislative Option to Encourage Continuous Improvements to Automobile Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Feebates: A Legislative Option to Encourage Continuous Improvements to Automobile Efficiency Agency/Company /Organization: Rocky Mountain Institute Focus Area: Standards - Incentives - Policies - Regulations Topics: Best Practices Website: www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/T08-09_FeebatesLegislativeOption The purpose of this paper is to provide information about feebates. This paper discusses: what a feebate is, why Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) believes a feebate is a valuable tool, recent analysis that RMI had done on feebates, what the current status of the feebate is, and how the feebate could interact with existing laws.

316

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report. 48073.pdf More Documents & Publications Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009 Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009; Appendices

317

NREL: Climate Neutral Research Campuses - Analyze Technology Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analyze Technology Options Analyze Technology Options An effective climate action plan follows a portfolio approach and addresses each energy sector on campus. This section outlines how various technology options would fit into a campus climate action plan and provides examples of how others have used these technologies. Links to definitions, technology basics, and references are also provided. Use the Climate Action Planning Tool to identify which options will lead to the most significant reductions in consumption of fossil fuels and in turn meet campus greenhouse gas reduction goals. People and Policy People and Policy Formulate policies that have a long-term effect on energy consumption and identify human behaviors that lower energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Conservation

318

Expert Meeting Report: Windows Options for New and Existing Homes |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Windows Options for New and Existing Homes Windows Options for New and Existing Homes Expert Meeting Report: Windows Options for New and Existing Homes The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011 at the Nolte Building on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN. Featured speakers included John Carmody and Pat Huelman of the University of Minnesota, Charlie Curcija of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Jim Larson of Cardinal Glass Industries, Peter Yost of Building Green, Peter Baker of Building Science Corporation, and Theresa Weston of Du Pont Innovations. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover need and promote dialog among researchers and

319

DOE Exercises Option for Mission Support Contract | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exercises Option for Mission Support Contract Exercises Option for Mission Support Contract DOE Exercises Option for Mission Support Contract December 16, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Cameron Salony, DOE 509-376-0402, Cameron.Salony@rl.doe.gov Mission Support Alliance to Provide Site Services at Hanford through May 2017 WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy (DOE) is extending Mission Support Alliance's (MSA) contract for infrastructure and site services at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state by three years. In 2009, following a competitive bid, DOE awarded MSA a cost-plus-award-fee contract valued at approximately $3 billion for up to 10 years, with a five-year base period. The department is exercising the first of two options for extension. The contract has been extended through May 2017 for

320

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Mandatory Utility Green Power Option < Back Eligibility Utility Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Wind Program Info State New Mexico Program Type Mandatory Utility Green Power Option Provider New Mexico Public Regulation Commission In addition to meeting the requirements of the state [http://www.dsireusa.org/library/includes/incentive2.cfm?Incentive_Code=N... renewables portfolio standard], New Mexico investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are required to offer a voluntary program for purchasing renewable energy to customers. The voluntary renewable tariff may also allow consumers to purchase renewable energy within certain energy blocks and by source of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ABV “most rational” option for Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A regimen of doxorubicin, bleomycin plus vincristine (ABV) seems to be the “most rational” treatment option for AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in a resource-poor setting such as Brazil, say investigators from that...

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Required and Optional Metadata | Scientific and Technical Information...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

and Optional Metadata Print page Print page Metadata Provided to OSTI via AN 241.1 Web Metadata Provided to OSTI via Harvesting Metadata Provided to OSTI via Batch Upload...

323

Small Business Financing Options for Clean Energy Projects  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Traditional financing options available to small businesses for clean energy projects, and the ways state and local governments can use funds to facilitate loans for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in the small business sector.

324

Suite of Off-Grid Options in South Asia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter provides a review of alternative off-grid electrification options in South Asia. It covers ... , regulatory governance and sustainability dimension of off-grid solutions. It concludes that in order t...

Subhes C. Bhattacharyya; Debajit Palit…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Local Option- Property Tax Credit for High Performance Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Similar to Maryland's [http://www.dsireusa.org/library/includes/incentive2.cfm?Incentive_Code=M... Local Option Property Tax Credit for Renewable Energy], Title 9 of Maryland's property tax code...

326

Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

option embedded in a solar PPA or lease be priced no lowerit harder to sell solar PPAs or leases. 2) Credit Quality:post-flip). A lease enables the solar PPA provider to, in

Bolinger, Mark

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

A New Spectral Element Method for Pricing European Options ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nov 11, 2011 ... Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2011 ...... Carr, P., Madan, D.B., Smith, R.H.: Option valuation using the fast Fourier ...

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

328

DESIGN OPTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE SHARED MEMORY MULTIPROCESSORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i DESIGN OPTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE SHARED MEMORY MULTIPROCESSORS by Luiz André Barroso Copyright 1996 Luiz André Barroso #12;ii to Jacqueline Chame #12;iii Acknowledgments During my stay at USC I

Barroso, Luiz André

329

Pricing A Class of Multiasset Options using Information on Smaller ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 19, 2007 ... and Ghaoui [1], describes ?i by a known set of call option prices for a .... 1. Mr max p?P. (wpr · xri ? zpr)), or equivalently the linear program:.

2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

330

Long Term Options for Energy Supply and Demand Side Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A great deal has been said and written about future energy options and the need for responsibility and caution in protecting the world’s natural environment. Clearly, energy policies and environmental policies...

Tom Morron; Fred Denny

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The production and reliability performance of Steam Process Heaters can be significantly affected by the condensate drainage design that is employed. There are currently a variety of drainage options which can be confusing to a system designer who...

Risko, J. R.

332

Early Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.................................................................................................................. 6 3. HIDDEN BENEFITS OF SOLAR ENERGYEarly Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to Achieve Solar Penetration Targets: Accounting the costs both of solar technology and of grid integration, so enabling solar deployment nationwide

333

Microsoft Word - Draft Option Mod Oct - Dec 2011 rev 1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

2006 to December 31, 2011, may be for period(s) from three months to five years. The Contracting Officer will determine the duration of these option period(s) at the time of...

334

The Options Approach to Software Prototyping Decisions 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a software design choice. Boehm [1] pioneered the use of techniques from statistical decision theory Bayesian decision theory to calcuThe Options Approach to Software Prototyping Decisions 1 Prasad Chalasani Somesh Jha Kevin Sullivan

335

Integrated Assessment of Energy-Options for CO2 Reduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy technology options for CO2 reduction are evaluated in a process-oriented dynamic national costs minimizing LP-model of the Dutch energy system. To identify cost-effective CO2 reduction strategies two scena...

T. Kram; P. A. Okken

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Market making and risk management in options markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article examines the personal trading strategies of member proprietary traders in the natural gas futures options market. Trading activity is found to mirror previous findings in futures markets, specific...

Naomi E. Boyd

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Phase: Evaluate Options Topics: Finance, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type: Case studies/examples, Lessons learned/best practices, Technical report Website: nrelpubs.nrel.gov/Webtop/ws/nich/www/public/Record?rpp=25&upp=0&m=1&w= Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, FITs, FIT, RPS, renewable energy, procurement UN Region: Northern America Language: English Tool Overview "State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and

338

Local Option - Property Tax Credit for Renewables and Energy Conservation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Property Tax Credit for Renewables and Energy Local Option - Property Tax Credit for Renewables and Energy Conservation Devices Local Option - Property Tax Credit for Renewables and Energy Conservation Devices < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Other Solar Buying & Making Electricity Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Water Heating Maximum Rebate Varies by jurisdiction. Program Info State Maryland Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Varies by jurisdiction; credit may be available for up to 3 years. Title 9 of Maryland's property tax code provides local governments the option to allow a property tax credit for buildings equipped with a solar, geothermal or qualifying energy conservation device. These devices may be

339

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated sludge: Role of microbial community structure and correlation with process performances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment coupled with Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (TAD) for Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) treatment is a promising combination to improve biodegradation kinetics during stabilization. However, to date there is a limited knowledge of the anaerobic biomass composition and its impact on TAD process performances. In this study, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities selected in two semi-continuous anaerobic digesters, fed with untreated and thermal pretreated sludge, were investigated. The systems were operated for 250 days at different organic loading rate. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses allowed us to identify the majority of bacterial and archaeal populations. Proteolytic Coprothermobacter spp. and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter spp. living in strict syntrophic association were found to dominate in TAD process. The establishment of a syntrophic proteolytic pathway was favoured by the high temperature of the process and enhanced by the thermal pretreatment of the feeding sludge. Proteolytic activity, alone or with thermal pretreatment, occurred during TAD as proven by increasing concentration of soluble ammonia and soluble COD (sCOD) during the process. However, the availability of a readily biodegradable substrate due to pretreatment allowed to significant sCOD removals (more than 55%) corresponding to higher biogas production in the reactor fed with thermal pretreated sludge. Microbial population dynamics analysed by FISH showed that Coprothermobacter and Methanothermobacter immediately established a stable syntrophic association in the reactor fed with pretreated sludge in line with the overall improved TAD performances observed under these conditions.

M.C. Gagliano; C.M. Braguglia; A. Gianico; G. Mininni; K. Nakamura; S. Rossetti

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Effects of \\{NH4Cl\\} and MgCl2 on pretreatment and xylan hydrolysis of miscanthus straw  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigated the effects of \\{NH4Cl\\} and MgCl2 on pretreatment and xylan hydrolysis of miscanthus straw for biofuels production. It was observed that increasing the pretreatment temperature decreased the remaining solid, increased the enzymatic digestibility, and increased the xylan removal. When 0.2–5.0% \\{NH4Cl\\} and MgCl2 were employed in pretreatments, increasing the inorganic salt concentration slightly diminished the remaining solid, though the enzymatic digestibility was enhanced. Under the higher-than-2% condition, no xylan remained in the solid residues after pretreatment. With pretreatment time, the remaining solid slightly decreased, but the enzymatic digestibility was increased. Moreover, xylan removal was linearly increased to 15 min, after which it was completely hydrolyzed. Overall, these results indicated that pretreatment by 2% \\{NH4Cl\\} or MgCl2 at 185 °C for 15 min completely hydrolyzes the xylan of miscanthus straw. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the physical surface of the miscanthus straw showed an apparently damaged surface area and exposure of the internal structure after pretreatment with \\{NH4Cl\\} and MgCl2 by SEM.

Kyeong Eop Kang; Don-Hee Park; Gwi-Taek Jeong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Sequestration Options for the West Coast States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

Larry Myer

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - addressing mitigation options Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On... (GHG) mitigation options for on-road mobile sources from the perspective of DOTs, MPOs and...

344

Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

Dowe, N.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The triadic preference test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A triadic preference test was developed as an alternative to the paired preference test. The three stimuli in the test comprised a putatively identical placebo pair and a different stimulus. This was in contrast to the regular paired preference test that utilizes a placebo pair. Such a test requires the presentation of two pairs of stimuli: a putatively identical placebo pair and a test pair. The triadic preference test only requires one triad. With the regular test, the majority of consumers respond to the placebo pair with a preference response. It is generally assumed that these consumers are responding to extraneous factors: those factors that elicit a preference response that are different from the sensory attributes of the food under assessment. As an attempt to minimize the possibility of responses to extraneous factors when assessing the test pair, it has been suggested to only use those consumers who chose the ‘No Preference’ option for the placebo pair. However, this form of ‘screening’ is not viable because the resulting ‘screened’ sample size is greatly reduced to approximately one third. However, in the present study, with the triadic preference test, the resulting ‘screened’ sample size ranged 76.5–94% of the total. Thus, this form of ‘screening’ against consumers who demonstrated response to extraneous factors for the placebo pair, was now feasible.

Eduardo Calderón; Alondra Rivera-Quintero; Yixun Xia; Ofelia Angulo; Michael O’Mahony

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Role of Liquid Waste Pretreatment Technologies in Solving the DOE Clean-up Mission  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Role of Liquid Waste Pretreatment Technologies in Role of Liquid Waste Pretreatment Technologies in Solving the DOE Clean-up Mission W. R. Wilmarth March 5 2009 March 5, 2009 HLW Corporate Board Phoenix AZ HLW Corporate Board, Phoenix, AZ Co-authors M. E. Johnson, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company G. Lumetta, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory N Machara DOE Office of Engineering and Technology N. Machara, DOE Office of Engineering and Technology M. R. Poirier, Savannah River National Laboratory P C S DOE S h Ri P. C. Suggs, DOE Savannah River M. C. Thompson, Savannah River National Laboratory, Retired Retired 2 Background Separations is a fundamental business within DOE. The role of separations today is to expedite waste retrieval The role of separations today is to expedite waste retrieval, processing and closure. Recognized as part of E&T Roadmap

347

Structural changes in switchgrass lignin and hemicelluloses during pretreatments by NMR analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

changes changes in switchgrass lignin and hemicelluloses during pretreatments by NMR analysis Reichel Samuel a, c , Marcus Foston a, c , Nan Jiang a, c , Lenong Allison a, c , Arthur J. Ragauskas a, b, c, * a School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA b Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA c BioEnergy Science Center, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 14 May 2011 Received in revised form 13 August 2011 Accepted 25 August 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: Switchgrass Pretreatment HSQC NMR analysis Lignin a b s t r a c t Switchgrass is currently being developed as a sustainable bio-energy crop due to its broad adaptability, high mass yield and low agricultural input. Its current conversion to biofuels is detrimentally impacted by its native recalcitrance which is typically addressed using

348

HANFORD MEDIUM & LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 LAB REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fractional crystallization (FC) process is being developed to supplement tank waste pretreatment capabilities provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). FC can process many tank wastes, separating wastes into a low-activity fraction (LAW) and high-activity fraction (HLW). The low-activity fraction can be immobilized in a glass waste form by processing in the bulk vitrification (BV) system.

HAMILTON, D.W.

2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

349

Structural carbohydrate availability with electrochemical ozonation and ammonia pressurization / depressurization pre-treatment technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass into available and /or soluble sugars and organic acids (i. e. uronic acid esters etc. ). The chemical linkages between hemicellulose and lignin may be affected by ammoniation pre-treatment. The significance of this fact is that heavily cross... by Turner et al (1995) demonstrated a significant increase in the available energy and crude protein of NH3 treated maize. Ammoniation of rice straw (Pradhan et al, 1997) bound residual ammonia to fiber and yielded an increase in the level of crude...

Williams, James Jason

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Hanford Waste Treatment Plant places first complex piping module in Pretreatment Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Crews at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant, also known as the "Vit Plant," placed a 19-ton piping module inside the Pretreatment Facility. The module was lifted over 98-foot-tall walls and lowered into a space that provided less than two inches of clearance on each side and just a few feet on each end. It was set 56 feet above the ground.

351

Improved Adhesion of Dense Silica Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Plasma Pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Improved Adhesion of Dense Silica Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Plasma Pretreatment ... In another study,(7) which compared the treatments of low- and atmospheric-pressure plasmas, the authors reported that the low-pressure plasma treatment increased the adhesion with extended treatment time but prolonged atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment decreased the adhesion to epoxy. ... The authors begin with a brief overview of adhesion theory, and of the physics and chem. of cold plasmas. ...

Linying Cui; Alpana N. Ranade; Marvi A. Matos; Geraud Dubois; Reinhold H. Dauskardt

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

352

Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve grindability and retain energy value.

Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

353

Review of technologies for the pretreatment of retrieved single-shell tank waste at Hanford  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the study reported here was to identify and evaluate innovative processes that could be used to pretreat mixed waste retrieved from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. The information was collected as part of the Single Shell Tank Waste Treatment project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The project is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company under their SST Disposal Program.

Gerber, M.A.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Review of technologies for the pretreatment of retrieved single-shell tank waste at Hanford  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the study reported here was to identify and evaluate innovative processes that could be used to pretreat mixed waste retrieved from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) on the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford site. The information was collected as part of the Single Shell Tank Waste Treatment project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The project is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company under their SST Disposal Program.

Gerber, M.A.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package.

Larson, D.E.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Enhanced methane production from wool textile residues by thermal and enzymatic pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Methane production from two types of wool textile wastes (TW1 and TW2) was investigated. To improve the digestibility of these textiles, different pretreatments were applied, and comprised thermal treatment (at 120 °C for 10 min), enzymatic hydrolysis (using an alkaline endopeptidase at different levels of enzymatic loading, at 55 °C for 0, 2, and 8 h), and a combination of these two treatments. Soluble protein concentration and sCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand) were measured to evaluate the effectivity of the different pretreatment conditions to degrade wool keratin. The sCOD as well as the soluble protein content had increased in both textile samples in comparison to untreated samples, as a response to the different pretreatments indicating breakdown of the wool keratin structure. The combined treatments and the thermal treatments were further evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion assays at 55 °C. Combined thermal and enzymatic treatment of TW1 and TW2 resulted in methane productions of 0.43 N m3/kg VS and 0.27 N m3/kg VS, i.e., 20 and 10 times higher yields, respectively, than that gained from untreated samples. The application of thermal treatment by itself was less effective and resulted in increasing the methane production by 10-fold for TW1 and showing no significant improvement for TW2.

Maryam M. Kabir; Gergely Forgács; Ilona Sárvári Horváth

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Effects of different pretreatment methods on anaerobic mixed microflora for hydrogen production and COD reduction from palm oil mill effluent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge inocula were evaluated with respect to hydrogen (H2) production enhancement using palm oil mill effluent (POME) in a batch system. The experimental results showed that the pretreatment methods (chemical, acid, heat-shock, freezing and thawing, and base) at 35 °C and initial pH 5.5 had a positive influence on H2 production yield and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency during the fermentative H2 production as compared to the control experiments (without pretreatment). Heat-shock pretreatment method was shown to be a simple and useful method for enhancing both H2 producing and COD removal processes from POME with highest H2 yield and COD removal efficiency at 0.41 mmol H2/g COD and 86%, respectively.

Parviz Mohammadi; Shaliza Ibrahim; Mohamad Suffian Mohamad Annuar; Sean Law

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Summary of findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): corn stover pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation, with members from Auburn University ... the course of two separate USDA- and DOE-funded projects, these pretreatment technologies were appl...

Richard T. Elander; Bruce E. Dale; Mark Holtzapple; Michael R. Ladisch…

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Towards a metagenomic understanding on enhanced biomethane production from waste activated sludge after pH 10 pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding the effects of pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of sludge waste from wastewater treatment plants is becoming increasingly important, as impetus moves towards the utilization of sludge for rene...

Mabel Ting Wong; Dong Zhang; Jun Li; Raymond Kin Hi Hui…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Lignin removal and benzene–alcohol extraction effects on lignin measurements of the hydrothermal pretreated bamboo substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignin content of hydrothermal pretreated bamboo chips was determined by the two methods: TAPPI standard method (222om-06) and TAPPI standard method without benzene–alcohol extraction (BAE). The results showed that including BAE resulted in lower Klason lignin (KL) and acid soluble lignin (ASL) measurements in the prehydrolyzed substrate, that is to say, BAE removed parts of KL and ASL. Therefore, the TAPPI standard method should be modified by omitting the BAE for lignin measurements of pretreated substrate. The following lignin removal analysis suggested that lignin was removed from the bamboo substrate during pretreatment by a combination of degradation reaction and deconstruction; thereafter the pseudo lignin generated in the hydrothermal pretreatment and condensation reaction between the lignin fragments accounted for the later KL increase.

X.J. Ma; S.L. Cao; X.F. Yang; L. Lin; L.H. Chen; L.L. Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Electric field as pretreatment to enhance the activity of a whole-cell biocatalyst for hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, a method using two successive cultures, solid then liquid, for the production and use of a hydrocarbon degrading biocatalyst (BC) is proposed. Hexadecane (HXD) was used as a model hydrocarbon. An electric field was applied during the solid state culture (SSC) as a novel approach, denoted the electric field pretreatment, to enhance the HXD degrading activity. Afterward, the catalytic activity (CA) was determined in liquid culture. The CA of the biocatalyst pretreated and untreated was evaluated, discriminating between sorption capacity and HXD degradation rate; biomass production on the electric field pretreated biocatalyst was only 20% of that on the untreated biocatalyst, but the maximum biocatalyst sorption capacity was enhanced from 119 ± 41 mg (g BC)?1 to 207 ± 23 mg (g BC)?1 by the effect of the electric field pretreatment. The activity of the biocatalyst was mainly associated with the pretreated fungal biomass; its activity was 9-fold higher than that of the untreated biomass. Linear model was used to obtain the affinity constant and Langmuir to adjust maximum sorption capacity. This enhancement in sorption capacity was associated with the high HXD degradation rate observed here; 86% of the initial HXD was eliminated in 42 h by the pretreated biocatalyst, whilst 53% was eliminated in 48 h by the untreated biocatalyst.

V. Sánchez-Vázquez; I. González; M. Gutiérrez-Rojas

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Statement of Work- Optional Service Offerings for Contractor-Identified Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Spreadsheet features optional Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) services for energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs).

363

Local Option - Solar, Wind and Biomass Energy Systems Exemption |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Solar, Wind and Biomass Energy Systems Exemption Local Option - Solar, Wind and Biomass Energy Systems Exemption Local Option - Solar, Wind and Biomass Energy Systems Exemption < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Solar Lighting Windows, Doors, & Skylights Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Buying & Making Electricity Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Wind Program Info Start Date 01/01/1991 State New York Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount 100% exemption for 15 years (unless local jurisdiction has opted out) Provider Office of Real Property Tax Services Section 487 of the New York State Real Property Tax Law provides a 15-year real property tax exemption for solar, wind energy, and farm-waste energy

364

Solar Energy Option Requirement for Residential Developments | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Energy Option Requirement for Residential Developments Solar Energy Option Requirement for Residential Developments Solar Energy Option Requirement for Residential Developments < Back Eligibility Construction Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Solar Heating Buying & Making Electricity Water Heating Program Info State New Jersey Program Type Building Energy Code Provider New Jersey Department of Community Affairs In March 2009 New Jersey enacted legislation ([http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/2008/Bills/PL09/33_.PDF A.B. 1558]) designed to support the integration of solar energy systems into new residential developments. The law requires that, whenever "technically feasible", developers of residential developments with 25 or more dwelling units (i.e., single-family residences) offer to install or provide for the

365

DOE Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Includes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Includes 30-mile Natural Gas Pipeline from Pasco to Hanford DOE Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Includes 30-mile Natural Gas Pipeline from Pasco to Hanford January 23, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Hardy, DOE , (509) 376-5365, Cameron.Hardy@rl.doe.gov RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering natural gas transportation and distribution requirements to support the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and evaporator operations at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. DOE awarded a task order worth up to $5 million to the local, licensed supplier of natural gas in the Hanford area, Cascade Natural Gas Corporation (Cascade). Cascade will support DOE and its Environmental

366

Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Utah) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Utah) Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Utah) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Summary Last modified on April 2, 2013. Financial Incentive Program Place Utah Name Local Option - Commercial PACE Financing (Utah) Incentive Type PACE Financing Applicable Sector Commercial, Fed. Government, Industrial, Local Government, Multi-Family Residential, Nonprofit, State Government Eligible Technologies Boilers, Building Insulation, Caulking/Weather-stripping, Central Air conditioners, Chillers, Custom/Others pending approval, Doors, Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls, Equipment Insulation, Furnaces, Heat pumps, Heat recovery, Lighting, Programmable Thermostats, Roofs, Windows, Daylighting, Geothermal Direct Use, Geothermal Electric, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Other Distributed Generation Technologies, Photovoltaics, Small Hydroelectric, Small Wind, Solar Water Heat, Wind

367

Local Option - Local Improvement Districts | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Local Improvement Districts Local Option - Local Improvement Districts Local Option - Local Improvement Districts < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Multi-Family Residential Residential Program Info State Oregon Program Type PACE Financing Provider Oregon Department of Energy '''''Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July 2010 concerning the senior lien status associated with most PACE programs. In response to the FHFA statement, most local PACE programs have been suspended until further clarification is provided. ''''' Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property owners to borrow money to pay for energy improvements. The amount borrowed is typically repaid via a special assessment on the property over a period

368

Local Option - Property Tax Assessment for Energy Efficient Buildings |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Property Tax Assessment for Energy Efficient Local Option - Property Tax Assessment for Energy Efficient Buildings Local Option - Property Tax Assessment for Energy Efficient Buildings < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Program Info State Virginia Program Type Property Tax Incentive Provider Virginia Department of Taxation In March 2008, Virginia enacted legislation that would allow local jurisdictions to assess the property tax of energy efficient buildings at a reduced rate. Under this law, eligible energy-efficient buildings, not including the real property on which they are located, may be considered a

369

Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina. greenbuildingpolicy.pdf More Documents & Publications Greensburg Webinars Q&A Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009 USGBC_Roadmap_to_Sustainable_Govt_Blgd.pdf

370

DOE Assistance on EPA MATS Rule and CSAPR Implementation Options |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assistance on EPA MATS Rule and CSAPR Implementation Options Assistance on EPA MATS Rule and CSAPR Implementation Options DOE Assistance on EPA MATS Rule and CSAPR Implementation Options The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is offering technical assistance to state public utility commissioners, generation owner/operators, and utilities on implementing the new and pending EPA air rules affecting the electric utility industry. Examples of typical assistance include technical information on cost and performance of the various power plant pollution retrofit control technologies; technical information on generation, demand-side or transmission alternatives for any replacement power needed for retiring generating units; and assistance to public utility commissions regarding any regulatory evaluations or approvals they may have

371

Female Scientists, Engineers Open Students' Eyes to Career Options |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Female Scientists, Engineers Open Students' Eyes to Career Options Female Scientists, Engineers Open Students' Eyes to Career Options Female Scientists, Engineers Open Students' Eyes to Career Options June 12, 2012 - 3:43pm Addthis Students practice hooking out -- or removing -- DNA from a strawberry sample at Idaho National Laboratory. | Photo courtesy of INL. Students practice hooking out -- or removing -- DNA from a strawberry sample at Idaho National Laboratory. | Photo courtesy of INL. Kortny Rolston INL Communications & Governmental Affairs What are the key facts? 76 female students from Idaho Falls and Twin Falls attended the annual event. The event was organized by Idaho Women in Nuclear (IWIN). Portage, Inc., the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and several other groups support the event. Editor's note: This article was cross-posted from Idaho National

372

Local Option - Special Energy Improvement Districts | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Special Energy Improvement Districts Local Option - Special Energy Improvement Districts Local Option - Special Energy Improvement Districts < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Water Heating Wind Program Info Start Date 10/16/2009 State Ohio Program Type PACE Financing '''''Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July 2010 concerning the senior lien status associated with most PACE programs. In response to the FHFA statement, most local PACE programs have been suspended until further clarification is provided. ''''' Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property

373

Demand-Side Management (DSM) Opportunities as Real-Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demand-Side Management (DSM) Opportunities as Real-Options Demand-Side Management (DSM) Opportunities as Real-Options Speaker(s): Osman Sezgen Date: August 1, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kristina LaCommare As some end-users of energy and aggregators are choosing to be exposed to real-time prices and energy price volatility, they are coming across new DSM opportunities that would not be feasible under typical utility rate structures. Effective evaluation of such opportunities requires a good understanding of the wholesale energy markets and the use of models based on recent financial techniques for option pricing. The speaker will give examples of such modeling approaches based on his experience in the retail-energy industry. Specific examples will include evaluation of distributed generation, load curtailment, dual-fuel cooling, and energy

374

Local Option - Municipal Energy Districts | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Municipal Energy Districts Local Option - Municipal Energy Districts Local Option - Municipal Energy Districts < Back Program Info State California Program Type PACE Financing ''''Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July 2010 concerning the senior lien status associated with most PACE programs. In response to the FHFA statement, most local PACE programs have been suspended until further clarification is provided.'''' Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property owners to borrow money to pay for energy improvements. The amount borrowed is typically repaid via a special assessment on the property over a period of years. California has authorized local governments to establish such

375

Assess Site Factors That Affect Employee Commuting Options for Greenhouse  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assess Site Factors That Affect Employee Commuting Options for Assess Site Factors That Affect Employee Commuting Options for Greenhouse Gas Profile Assess Site Factors That Affect Employee Commuting Options for Greenhouse Gas Profile October 7, 2013 - 1:52pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 2 After establishing an employee commuting behavior baseline for evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile, analyze the specific characteristics of the agency's major worksites to help determine which alternative commute methods and work arrangements are viable and what types of strategies may be most effective for promoting those alternatives. It is recommended that worksite-level data collection focus on worksites with the: Largest number of employees, or clusters of worksites with large employee populations in an area with diverse commuting infrastructure

376

Local Option - County Energy District Authority | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - County Energy District Authority Local Option - County Energy District Authority Local Option - County Energy District Authority < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Nonprofit Residential Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type PACE Financing '''''Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July 2010 concerning the senior lien status associated with most PACE programs. [http://www.dsireusa.org/documents/Incentives/OK18F.htm S.B. 102] amended the law to make PACE loans junior and inferior to other liens. Effective November 1, 2011, this law should allow local governments to adopt PACE programs that are within the acceptable parameters established by the FHFA.''''' Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property

377

Local Option - Renewable Energy Financing District/Solar Energy Improvement  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Renewable Energy Financing District/Solar Energy Local Option - Renewable Energy Financing District/Solar Energy Improvement Special Assessments Local Option - Renewable Energy Financing District/Solar Energy Improvement Special Assessments < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Solar Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Water Heating Wind Program Info Start Date 07/01/2009 State New Mexico Program Type PACE Financing Provider New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department '''''Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July 2010 concerning the senior lien status associated with most PACE programs. In response to the FHFA statement, most local PACE programs have been

378

Local Option - Special Assessment of Wind Energy Devices | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Special Assessment of Wind Energy Devices Local Option - Special Assessment of Wind Energy Devices Local Option - Special Assessment of Wind Energy Devices < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Wind Buying & Making Electricity Program Info Start Date 01/01/1994 State Iowa Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Property valued at 0% of the net acquisition cost in the first assessment year, increasing annually by 5 percentage points to a maximum of 30% of the net acquisition cost in the 7th and succeeding years Provider Iowa Department of Revenue Any city or county in Iowa may pass an ordinance assessing wind energy conversion equipment at a special valuation for property tax purposes, beginning at 0% of the net acquisition cost in the first assessment year

379

Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Sims, J.W. (eds.)

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plans for remediation of the Hanford underground storage tanks are currently undergoing reevaluation. As part of this process, many options are being considered for the Tank Waste Remediation System (MRS). The clean option'' described here proposes an aggressive waste processing strategy to achieve the three ma or objectives: Greatly reduce the volume of high-level waste (HLW) to lessen demands on geologic repository space; decrease by several orders of magnitude the amount of radioactivity and toxicity now in the waste tanks that will be left permanently onsite as low-level solid waste (LLW); and accomplish the first two objectives without significantly increasing the total amount of waste for disposal. The study discussed here focuses on process chemistry, as it provides the foundation for achieving the clean option objectives. Because demonstrated separation steps have been identified and connected in a way that meets these objectives, the study concludes that the process chemistry rests on a firm technical basis.

Straalsund, J.L.; Swanson, J.L.; Baker, E.G.; Jones, E.O.; Kuhn, W.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Holmes, J.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Optional 2012 Project Management Workshop Course | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Optional 2012 Project Management Workshop Course Optional 2012 Project Management Workshop Course Optional 2012 Project Management Workshop Course February 16, 2012 - 4:29pm Addthis Course Title: Enhanced Earned Value Analysis Using PARS II Course Description: This course will provide FPDs, contractor project managers, and their respective project control staffs information and best practices relative to PARS II functionality, business rules, reporting and analysis capabilities, as well as enhanced understanding of EV surveillance and analysis techniques, that coupled together will enhance their ability to manage capital asset projects. Course Objective: Explain the business rules underpinning the data and documentation requirements of PARS II Provide an understanding of the many types of standard EV performance analysis reports in PARS II and how to

382

Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial General Public/Consumer Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Heating & Cooling Water Heating Wind Maximum Rebate Varies (local option) Program Info Start Date 8/3/2007 State Colorado Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Varies (local option) Colorado enacted legislation in April 2007 ([http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2007a/csl.nsf/fsbillcont3/31EEE26A... SB 145]) to authorize counties and municipalities to offer property or sales tax rebates or credits to residential and commercial property owners who install renewable energy systems on their property.

383

Local Option - Energy Improvement Loan Program (Wyoming) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Local Option - Energy Improvement Loan Program (Wyoming) Local Option - Energy Improvement Loan Program (Wyoming) Local Option - Energy Improvement Loan Program (Wyoming) < Back Savings Category Energy Sources Buying & Making Electricity Other Program Info Start Date 7/1/2011 State Wyoming Program Type PACE Financing '''''Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July 2010 concerning the senior lien status associated with most PACE programs.''''' Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property owners to borrow money to pay for energy improvements. The amount borrowed is typically repaid via a special assessment on the property over a period of years. Wyoming has authorized local governments to establish such

384

Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina. greenbuildingpolicy.pdf More Documents & Publications Greensburg Webinars Q&A Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009 Rebuilding After Disaster: Going Green from the Ground Up (Revised)

385

First Look at Renewable Energy Options | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

First Look at Renewable Energy Options First Look at Renewable Energy Options First Look at Renewable Energy Options October 16, 2013 - 5:11pm Addthis Picture of box-shaped structures for system metering installed on a wall. Installation of a feed in and metering system at Coleman Barracks capitalized on the need to repair a damaged roof by simultaneously installing photovoltaic panels, saving manpower, money, and energy consumption. Project planners should conduct a preliminary review of project energy needs and opportunities when considering renewable energy technologies. This makes energy an integral part of the project, begins the discussion about what renewable technologies may be available to the project. Planning is the time to assess the full project and think innovatively about ways renewable energy can be cost effectively and creatively applied.

386

Hybrid options for light-duty vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) offer great promise in improving fuel economy. In this paper, we analyze why, how, and by how much vehicle hybridization can reduce energy consumption and improve fuel economy. Our analysis focuses on efficiency gains associated solely with vehicle hybridization. We do not consider such other measures as vehicle weight reduction or air- and tire-resistance reduction, because such measures would also benefit conventional technology vehicles. The analysis starts with understanding the energy inefficiencies of light-duty vehicles associated with different operation modes in US and Japanese urban and highway driving cycles, with the corresponding energy-saving potentials. The potential for fuel economy gains due to vehicle hybridization can be estimated almost exclusively on the basis of three elements: the reducibility of engine idling operation, the recoverability of braking energy losses, and the capability of improving engine load profiles to gain efficiency associated with specific HEV configurations and control strategies. Specifically, we evaluate the energy efficiencies and fuel economies of a baseline MY97 Corolla-like conventional vehicle (CV), a hypothetical Corolla-based minimal hybrid vehicle (MHV), and a MY98 Prius-like full hybrid vehicle (FHV). We then estimate energy benefits of both MHVs and FHVs over CVs on a performance-equivalent basis. We conclude that the energy benefits of hybridization vary not only with test cycles, but also with performance requirements. The hybrid benefits are greater for ''Corolla (high) performance-equivalent'' vehicles than for ''Prius (low) performance-equivalent'' vehicles. An increasing acceleration requirement would result in larger fuel economy benefits from vehicle hybridization.

An, F., Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.

1999-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

387

Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Local Option - Property Tax Exemption | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Property Tax Exemption Property Tax Exemption Local Option - Property Tax Exemption < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Home Weatherization Heating & Cooling Heating Water Heating Wind Program Info State Vermont Program Type Property Tax Incentive Provider Vermont Department of Taxes Vermont allows municipalities the option of offering an exemption from the municipal real and personal property taxes for certain renewable energy systems (Note: state property taxes would still apply). Eligible systems include, but are not limited to, "windmills, facilities for the collection of solar energy or the conversion of organic matter to methane, net-metered

389

Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Appliances & Electronics Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Other Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Wind Program Info Funding Source American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Start Date 04/01/2010 State Maine Program Type PACE Financing Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property owners to borrow money to pay for energy improvements. The amount borrowed

390

Home Energy Rebate Option (HERO) - Existing Homes Program | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Home Energy Rebate Option (HERO) - Existing Homes Program Home Energy Rebate Option (HERO) - Existing Homes Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Other Maximum Rebate $3,000 Program Info Funding Source American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Expiration Date 06/11/2013 State Louisiana Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount 20% of improvement costs Provider Louisiana Department of Natural Resources '''''NOTE: All HERO program funding has been allocated as of December 6, 2012. Important dates related to the closure of the program have been announced. Please see summary below for more information. '''''

391

Rural Energy Options Analysis Training Development and Implementation at NREL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL has developed a rural energy options analysis training program for rural energy decision makers that provides knowledge, skills and tools for the evaluation of technologies, including renewables, for rural energy applications. Through the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), NREL has refined materials for the program and developed a module that offers hands-on training in the preparation of data for options analysis using HOMER, NREL's micropower optimization model. NREL has used the materials for training in Brazil, the Maldives, Mexico, and Sri Lanka.

Gilman, P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Concept options for the aerial survey of Titan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various aerial platforms intended for long endurance survey of the Titan surface are presented. A few novel concepts are introduced, including a heated methane balloon and a balloon with a tethered wind turbine. All the concept options are predicted to have lower scientific payload fractions than the Huygens probe. It is concluded that the selection of the best aerial platform option depends on more accurate mass estimates and a clear decision on whether, or not, in situ surface composition measurements are required in conjunction with aerial remote sensing.

G.E. Dorrington

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Option pricing and foreign investment under political risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper analyses asset prices in a context of uncertainty over future government policy. As current policy is maintained, perceived risk abates thus leading to a gradual appreciation of asset prices and a gradual decrease in their conditional variance. Option values computed under this process have time series and the term structure of conditional volatility, which, in general, are downward sloping. In price series without a policy reversal, implied volatility from option prices will exceed actual volatility, with this wedge progressively disappearing. This may be viewed as the volatility analogue of the ‘peso premium’ for assets subject to large, infrequent price drops.

Joseph A. Cherian; Enrico Perotti

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

The Farm Credit Crisis: Policy Options and Consequences.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IUU\\,., Z TA245.7 8873 NO.1532 8-1532 ~ Texas Agricultural Extension Service -P~fJ& 1I~tA!/ P~fJ& --------=-. ------- Ifhe Farm Credit Crisis: Policy Opt~ons and ,Consequences LI3RAnv APR 181986 -l~ ? '. University Texas Agricultural... to the need for a comprehensive documentation of the broad spectrum of policy options available to deal with the farm credit crisis. Emphasis is placed upon a description of options and their consequences. The topics covered in the articles were...

Duncan, Marvin; Harrington, David H.; Brake, John; Boehlje, Michael; Lee, Warren; Barry, Peter J.; Penson, John B.; Hughes, Dean W.; Knutson, Ronald D.: Richardson, James W.; Jolly, Robert W.; Lins, David A.; Klinefelter, Danny A.; Guither, Harold D.; Marshall, J. Paxton; Barkley, Paul W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Impact of force withdrawal on options for conventional defenses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soviet withdrawal from the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) could open new defensive options. This report gives some background on those options from post-war nuclear and conventional strategies and the quantitative Soviet threat tot he role of firepower, close air support, and battlefield attrition. Withdrawal under the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty could provide a buffer between opposing armies that aggressor armies drop the bridges and disrupt the roads and rails that would have to be used. If forces were brought into battle piecemeal, they would be annihilated. That would permit effective use of advanced and prepositioned weapons, which would favor the defense. 9 refs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

> Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project > GTI focuses on energy & environmental issues ­ Specialize on natural gas & hydrogen > Our main Natural Gas Gas Hydrates Kent Perry Executive Director Exploration & Production Technology Distributed

397

American Options, Multiarmed Bandits, and Optimal Consumption Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American Options, Multi­armed Bandits, and Optimal Consumption Plans: A Unifying View By Peter Bank consumption choice can all be reduced to the same problem of representing a given stochastic process in terms­armed bandits, optimal consumption plans, optimal stopping, representation theorem, universal exercise signal

Föllmer, Hans

398

Memorandum, Enhanced Career Longevity and Retirement Options- June 30, 2009  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On March 31, 2009 , the Department of Energy (DOE) Chief Health, Safety and Security Officxer commissioned a study to examine "realistic and reasponable options for improving the career opportunities and retirement prospects of protective force members while maintaining, within current and anticipated budgetary constraints, a robust and effective security posture.

399

RISK MANAGEMENT IN REAL OPTIONS BASED PHARMACEUTICAL PORTFOLIO PLANNING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: 814-863-9958. Fax: 814-865-7846. In the pharmaceutical industry, the optimal management of the newRISK MANAGEMENT IN REAL OPTIONS BASED PHARMACEUTICAL PORTFOLIO PLANNING Michael J. Rogers, Anshuman incorporate a Monte Carlo simulation procedure to a stochastic optimization model (OptFolio) of pharmaceutical

Maranas, Costas

400

Department of Philosophy -Philosophy Option Checklist 2010 -2012 Catalog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Philosophy - Philosophy Option Checklist 2010 -2012 Catalog Student: GID #: Students may declare a philosophy major at any time. Please go to the Department Office in 2-155 Wilson Hall Upper-division courses: Required History of Philosophy Courses Semester Grade 1. PHL 361RH History

Maxwell, Bruce D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Department of History and Philosophy Philosophy -Philosophy Option Checklist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of History and Philosophy Philosophy - Philosophy Option Checklist 2012 -2014 Catalog Student: GID #: Students may declare a philosophy major at any time. Please go to the Department Office Grade 1. PHL 236Q, Logic Upper-division courses: Required History of Philosophy Courses Semester Grade 1

Lawrence, Rick L.

402

General Electric Company Evaluation of Sustainable Energy Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

General Electric Company Evaluation of Sustainable Energy Options for the Big Island of Hawaii-West Rd, Post 109 Honolulu, HI 96822 Phone: 808-956-8346 e-mail: rochelea@hawaii.edu General Electric by General Electric Company (GE) as an account of work sponsored by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI

403

National Transportation Policy Options: A Time for Choice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Transportation Policy Options: A Time for Choice A white paper for participants of the 2008 James L. Oberstar Forum The Next Authorization: Transforming Transportation Policy? April 6­7, 2008 Minneapolis, Minnesota Sponsored by Center for Transportation Studies University of Minnesota

Minnesota, University of

404

Assessing Novel Foundation Options for Offshore Wind Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing Novel Foundation Options for Offshore Wind Turbines B.W. Byrne, BE(Hons), BCom, MA, DPhil G.T. Houlsby, MA, DSc, FREng, FICE Oxford University, UK SYNOPSIS Offshore wind farms of these being the foundations for the offshore turbines. We review here the results of a recent research

Byrne, Byron

405

Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

Cipparone, L.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

DATA TRANSMISSION OPTIONS FOR VMT DATA AND FEE COLLECTION CENTERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, VMT fee, data processing, fuel tax alternatives, fee collection center, customer service center 18DATA TRANSMISSION OPTIONS FOR VMT DATA AND FEE COLLECTION CENTERS by Robert L. Bertini Kerri-based fee collection centers, including the identification of issues related to data transmission, data

Bertini, Robert L.

407

New Health Insurance Marketplace Coverage Options and Your Health Coverage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When key parts of the health care reform law (the Affordable Care Act or ACA) take effect in 2014 your employer, you may qualify for Medicaid depending on your household income. Please visit www.HealthCare coverage options, including your eligibility for coverage through the Marketplace and its cost. Visit http://www.HealthCare

Ziurys, Lucy M.

408

Combating global warming via non-fossil fuel energy options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Non-fossil fuel energy options can help reduce or eliminate the emissions of greenhouse gases and are needed to combat climate change. Three distinct ways in which non-fossil fuel options can be used in society are examined here: the capture/production of non-fossil fuel energy sources, their conversion into appropriate energy carriers and increased efficiency throughout the life cycle. Non-fossil fuel energy sources are insufficient to avoid global warming in that they are not necessarily readily utilisable in their natural forms. Hydrogen energy systems are needed to facilitate the use of non-fossil fuels by converting them to two main classes of energy carriers: hydrogen (and hydrogen-derived fuels) and electricity. High efficiency is needed to allow the greatest benefits to be attained from energy options in terms of climate change and other factors. A case study is considered involving the production of hydrogen from non-fossil energy sources via thermochemical water decomposition. Thermochemical water decomposition provides a realistic future non-fossil fuel energy option, which can be driven by non-fossil energy sources (particularly nuclear or solar energy) and help combat global warming.

Marc A. Rosen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

On theoretical pricing of options with fuzzy estimators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we present an application of a new method of constructing fuzzy estimators for the parameters of a given probability distribution function, using statistical data. This application belongs to the financial field and especially to the section ... Keywords: Adaptive fuzzy numbers, Black-Scholes option pricing formula, Fuzzy estimators, Fuzzy volatility, Possibilistic mean

Konstantinos A. Chrysafis; Basil K. Papadopoulos

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

6 options spring '00 understanding adaptation in natural systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Fisheries scientists and mana- gers have increasingly6 options spring '00 understanding adaptation in natural systems Shrinking Cod: Fishery-Induced Change in an Oceanic Stock Fishing is a major source of food and other resources for humankind. Today

Dieckmann, Ulf

411

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management & Protection Act by J of the Nebraska Ground Water Management & Protection Act (GMPA) 2. the special GMPA integrated water management a correlative rights framework, and 5. what additional water management tools are needed to effectively deal

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

412

DISPOSITION PATHS FOR ROCKY FLATS GLOVEBOXES: EVALUATING OPTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC has the responsibility for closure activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). One of the challenges faced for closure is the disposition of radiologically contaminated gloveboxes. Evaluation of the disposition options for gloveboxes included a detailed analysis of available treatment capabilities, disposal facilities, and lifecycle costs. The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC followed several processes in determining how the gloveboxes would be managed for disposition. Currently, multiple disposition paths have been chosen to accommodate the needs of the varying styles and conditions of the gloveboxes, meet the needs of the decommissioning team, and to best manage lifecycle costs. Several challenges associated with developing a disposition path that addresses both the radiological and RCRA concerns as well as offering the most cost-effective solution were encountered. These challenges included meeting the radiological waste acceptance criteria of available disposal facilities, making a RCRA determination, evaluating treatment options and costs, addressing void requirements associated with disposal, and identifying packaging and transportation options. The varying disposal facility requirements affected disposition choices. Facility conditions that impacted decisions included radiological and chemical waste acceptance criteria, physical requirements, and measurement for payment options. The facility requirements also impacted onsite activities including management strategies, decontamination activities, and life-cycle cost.

Lobdell, D.; Geimer, R.; Larsen, P.; Loveland, K.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

413

The Nature of Optional Sibilant Harmony in Navajo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Nature of Optional Sibilant Harmony in Navajo By Copyright 2010 Kelly Harper Berkson Submitted to the graduate degree program in... Linguistics and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts...

Berkson, Kelly Harper

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

414

YEAR PALAEOMAGNETISM OPTION 5TH WEEK ENVIRONMENTAL MAGNETISM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4TH YEAR ­ PALAEOMAGNETISM OPTION ­ 5TH WEEK ­ ENVIRONMENTAL MAGNETISM Questions to be investigated: 1. What is environmental magnetism? 2. What rock magnetic parameters are used in environmental magnetism? 3. What geologic parameters are contributing to the environmental magnetic signals? 4. How can we

Niocaill, Conall Mac

415

3D DVH-based metric analysis versus per-beam planar analysis in IMRT pretreatment verification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate methods of pretreatment IMRT analysis, using real measurements performed with a commercial 2D detector array, for clinical relevance and accuracy by comparing clinical DVH parameters. Methods: We divided the work into two parts. The first part consisted of six in-phantom tests aimed to study the sensitivity of the different analysis methods. Beam fluences, 3D dose distribution, and DVH of an unaltered original plan were compared to those of the delivered plan, in which an error had been intentionally introduced. The second part consisted of comparing gamma analysis with DVH metrics for 17 patient plans from various sites. Beam fluences were measured with the MapCHECK 2 detector, per-beam planar analysis was performed with the MapCHECK software, and 3D gamma analysis and the DVH evaluation were performed using 3DVH software. Results: In a per-beam gamma analysis some of the tests yielded false positives or false negatives. However, the 3DVH software correctly described the DVH of the plan which included the error. The measured DVH from the plan with controlled error agreed with the planned DVH within 2% dose or 2% volume. We also found that a gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm was too lax to detect some of the forced errors. Global analysis masked some problems, while local analysis magnified irrelevant errors at low doses. Small hotspots were missed for all metrics due to the spatial resolution of the detector panel. DVH analysis for patient plans revealed small differences between treatment plan calculations and 3DVH results, with the exception of very small volume structures such as the eyes and the lenses. Target coverage (D{sub 98} and D{sub 95}) of the measured plan was systematically lower than that predicted by the treatment planning system, while other DVH characteristics varied depending on the parameter and organ. Conclusions: We found no correlation between the gamma index and the clinical impact of a discrepancy for any of the gamma index evaluation possibilities (global, local, 2D, or 3D). Some of the tests yielded false positives or false negatives in a per-beam gamma analysis. However, they were correctly accounted for in a DVH analysis. We also showed that 3DVH software is reliable for our tests, and is a viable method for correlating planar discrepancies with clinical relevance by comparing the measured DVH of target and OAR's with clinical tolerance.

Carrasco, Pablo; Jornet, Nuria; Latorre, Artur; Eudaldo, Teresa; Ruiz, Agusti; Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de Radiofisica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Sant Antoni Maria Claret, 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Stock option fraud detection and an analysis for its reasons: Arabic Republic of Egypt case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates how stock option turned from an incentive for good management to a tool of management fraud. The objective of this paper is accomplished through studying the stock option phenomenon in the Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE). Stock option grants data are obtained from all firms that have stock option grants and listed in the Egyptian stock market. The empirical study covers the period from 2006 through 2009. Detecting stock option fraud and distinguishing between control and fraud firms was done through calculating the cumulative abnormal returns before and after stock option grants. Results of this research reveal that the incidence of stock option fraud is higher in unscheduled option grants compared to scheduled ones. These results strongly support that the reason of stock option fraud in ARE is dating games rather than news announcements manipulation.

Zakia M. Alaa Eldeen; Ahmed F. Elbayoumi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Equipment Options for Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Business Case Equipment Options

419

Effect of Lignin Removal by Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on the Susceptibility of Corn Stover to Purified Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Proposed Fidelity Option Line-Up Tier Fund Type Fund Category/Asset Class Proposed Investment Option  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposed Fidelity Option Line-Up Tier Fund Type Fund Category/Asset Class Proposed Investment Vanguard Inflation Protected Securities U.S. Large Cap Stock Index Fund Vanguard S&P 500 Index Fund U.S. Small/Mid Cap Stock Index Fund Vanguard Extended Market Index Fund International Stock Index Fund

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The pretreatment with enhanced coagulation and a UF membrane for seawater desalination with reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The application of reverse osmosis (RO) for desalination process has increased rapidly with the construction of large RO plants. Although there have been considerable improvements in membrane materials and operation experience, the fouling of membranes is a significant problem up to the present. There have been many instances of fouling of RO membranes caused by the presence of iron and silica. Biomineralization is usually believed to be caused by microorganisms metabolizing at iron and silica present. Its formation process was studied and described first in the present work, then the enhanced coagulation with Fe(VI) and UF membrane treatment process for pretreatment of reverse osmosis for desalination has been investigated in a laboratory for 3–4 months. The main aim is to reduce the feed water pollution, such as turbidity, iron, silica and aglae, microbial contamination in order to control biofouling and mineralization on the membrane surface. The results showed that the biomineralization formation process is the adsorption of organism and the biosorption of inorganics onto the organic matrix. The pretreatment results show that turbidity is less than 0.5 NTU, iron concentration never exceeds 0.2 mg/l, silicon concentration must not exceed 0.1 mg/l; and the removal rate of aglae and microbial is more than 98%.

Wei Ma; Yaqian Zhao; Lu Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Effects of Dilute Acid Pretreatment on Cellulose DP and the Relationship Between DP Reduction and Cellulose Digestibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degree of polymerization(DP) of cellulose is considered to be one of the most important properties affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Various pure cellulosic and biomass materials have been used in a study of the effect of dilute acid treatment on cellulose DP. A substantial reduction in DP was found for all pure cellulosic materials studied even at conditions that would be considered relatively mild for pretreatment. The effect of dilute acid pretreatment on cellulose DP in biomass samples was also investigated. Corn stover pretreated with dilute acid under the most optimal conditions contained cellulose with a DPw in the range of 1600{approx}3500, which is much higher than the level-off DP(DPw 150{approx}300) obtained with pure celluloses. The effect of DP reduction on the saccharification of celluloses was also studied. From this study it does not appear that cellulose DP is a main factor affecting cellulose saccharification.

Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Tucker, M.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this research is to gain information on the role that host petroleum-derived oils (1000{degrees}F+), as well as that of catalytically treated host oils, play when used as liquefaction solvents in coprocessing with coal. The host oil will be extensively characterized and then pretreated in a number of ways which involve catalytic reactions such as hydrogenation and hydrocracking. The pretreated oils will then be characterized by elemental analysis, catalytic dehydrogenation, distillation, GC-MS, and NMR. The effect of the host oil on coprocessing with coal will be compared to that obtained using catalytically modified host oils. When appropriate, model compounds will be used to study specific reactions brought about by the pretreatments.

Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this research is to gain information on the role that host petroleum-derived oils (1000F+), as well as that of catalytically treated host oils, play when used as liquefaction solvents in coprocessing with coal. The host oil will be extensively characterized and then pretreated in a number of ways which involve catalytic reactions such as hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and isomerization. The pretreated oils will then be characterized by elemental analysis, catalytic dehydrogenation, distillation, GC-MS, and NMR. The effects of the host oil on coprocessing with coal will be compared to those obtained using catalytically modified heavy oils. When appropriate, model compounds will be used to study specific reactions brought about by the pretreatments.

Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

1993-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

426

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Keith Paustian (keithp@nrel.colostate.edu; 970-491-1547) Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University Ft. Collins, CO 80523 Bruce Babcock (babcock@iastate.edu; 515-294-6785) Cathy Kling (ckling@iastate.edu; 515-294-5767) Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1070 Jerry Hatfield (hatfield@nstl.gov; 515-294-5723) USDA - National Soil Tilth Laboratory Ames, IA 50011 Rattan Lal (lal.1@osu.edu; 614-292-9069) School of Natural Resources The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1085 Bruce McCarl (mccarl@tamu.edu; 979-845-1706) Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-2124 Sandy McLaughlin (un4@ornl.gov; 865-574-7358)

427

NETL: News Release - New Projects to Investigate Smart Drilling Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

February 20, 2004 February 20, 2004 New Projects to Investigate "Smart Drilling" Options Promise Lower Cost, More Reliable Gas Drilling Two additional projects have been selected under a Department of Energy solicitation designed to advance performance when drilling for natural gas. The projects are a key component of the Department's gas exploration and production research program, and support the President's National Energy Policy, which calls for boosting domestic production of natural gas to ensure an adequate future supply at reasonable prices. With shallow and conventional natural gas resources in the United States being depleted, drillers must reach for gas miles below the earth's surface, where temperatures run up to 450 EF and pressures are hundreds of times greater than atmospheric pressure. "Smart drilling" options can increase productivity, improve drilling safety, and lower costs when drilling for these hard-to-reach deep gas supplies.

428

Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems (Connecticut) Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Heating & Cooling Water Heating Wind Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Local Option Provider Connecticut Office of Policy and Management Connecticut municipalities are authorized, but not required, to offer a property tax exemption lasting up to 15 years for qualifying cogeneration systems installed on or after July 1, 2007 (see Conn. Gen. Stat. § 12-81

429

India-Options for Low Carbon Development | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

India-Options for Low Carbon Development India-Options for Low Carbon Development Jump to: navigation, search Name India-ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Agency/Company /Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance Program of the World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Buildings, Industry, Transportation Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Website http://www.esmap.org/filez/pub Country India Southern Asia References World Bank ESMAP[1] Overview "The India study includes the development of a detailed, bottom-up, modeling framework, that serves to comment on opportunities for low carbon growth. Input data was collected across several sectors covering: power supply, household appliances, transportation, industry, and buildings. The

430

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5843 5843 November 2009 Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Executive Summary S. Haase National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-45843 November 2009 Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Executive Summary S. Haase Prepared under Task No. IDKS.1070 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any

431

Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits Innovations and Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits, Innovations, and Options Bethany Speer Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-51644 October 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits, Innovations, and Options Bethany Speer Prepared under Task Nos. SM10.2442, SM12.3010 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-51644 October 2012 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

432

Modern Heating Options for Commercial/Institutional Buildings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modern Heating Options for Commercial/Institutional Buildings Modern Heating Options for Commercial/Institutional Buildings Speaker(s): Thomas Durkin Date: February 23, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Moira Howard-Jeweler This seminar presentation will be video-conferenced from our Washington, DC Projects office.) According to USGBC, LBNL, and CBECS data, commercial/institutional buildings use one quarter of all the energy consumed in the US. Depending on the geographic area of the country, heating can be as little as 30% (Houston), or as much as 68% (Minneapolis) of the building total. Mr. Durkin will share his experience in dramatically reducing the heating energy in buildings using a combination of low temperature boilers, heat recovery strategies and a new approach to geo-thermal systems. His data from completed projects shows 50 to 60%

433

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

073 073 May 2010 Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas S. Haase National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-48073 May 2010 Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas S. Haase Prepared under Task No. IDKS.1070 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any

434

Chapter 14 - Options, Shortcuts, CUI, Design Center, and Express Tools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter begins with a description of advanced customizing features found under the Options dialog box. Covered are features in the Files, Display, Open and Save, Plot and Publish, System, User Preference, Drafting, Selection, and Profile tabs. Then, there is an introduction to shortcuts and the PGP file, followed by a short tour of the Customize User Interface (CUI) dialog box. Next, the chapter progresses to a discussion of the Design Center and Autodesk Seek. It concludes with a tour of the Express Tools, and what is found under the Blocks, Text, Layout Tools, Dimension, Selection Tools, Modify, Draw, File Tools, Web Tools, and Tools menus, including some advanced Layer Tools. An architectural drawing project (4 of 10) is at the end of the chapter. Keywords Options, shortcuts, PGP, CUI, Design Center, Autodesk Seek, express tools, layer tools.

Elliot Gindis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Management Options Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases - combustion products - Temperature from 300 deg. F. to 3000 deg.F. * Radiation-Convection heat loss - From temperature source of 500 deg. F. to 2500 deg. F. * Sensible-latent heat in heated product - From temperature 400 deg. F. to 2200 deg. F. * Cooling water or other liquids - Temperature from 100 deg. F. to 180 deg. F.

437

An updated dose assessment for a U.S. Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1975. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The corresponding 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.1 cSv, 13 cSv, and 15 cSv, respectively. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {plus_minus}35% of its expected value. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Reaching corporate sustainability goals requires new thinking, testing options, and a diverse skill set.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Increased student knowledge of energy reduction practices · Reduction of energy cost and air emissions #12 product is a valuable fuel source, but information on economic and technological feasibility of converting · A cost-effective plan of action to use waste grease as a fuel source · Reduction of energy cost and air

Stuart, Josh

439

Comments on implementation: Contingency options for chemical weapons demilitarization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author discusses the need to formulate contingency options for complying with U.S./U.S.S.R. chemical weapon (C.W.) demilitarization timetables that start in 1992. These timetables could be overly optimistic in the face of emerging environmental concerns and potential political, technical, and operational difficulties. A similar approach may also be relevant to the situation in Iraq, where several years are likely to pass before a suitable C.W. destruction system is available for use.

Aroesty, J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

An option pricing theory explanation of the invasion of Kuwait  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to explain the invasion of Kuwait by making an analogy between a call option and the Iraq-Kuwait situation before the invasion on August 2, 1990. A number of factors contributed to the issuance of a deep-in-the money European call option to Iraq against Kuwait. The underlying asset is the crude oil reserves under Kuwait. Price of crude oil is determined in world spot markets. The exercise price is equal to the cost of permanently annexing and retaining Kuwait. The volatility is measured by the annualized variance of the weekly rate of return of the spot price of crude oil. Time-to-expiration is equal to the time period between decision date and actual invasion date. Finally, since crude oil prices are quoted in U.S. dollars, the U.S. Treasury bill rate is assumed to be the risk-free rate. In a base-case scenario, Kuwait`s oil reserves amount to 94,500 million barrels valued at $18 a barrell in early February 1990 resulting in a market value of $1,701 billion. Because the cost of the war to Iraq is not known, we assume it is comparable to that of the U.S.-led coalition of $51.0 billion. Time-to-expiration is six months. The treasury bill rate in early 1990 was around 7.5 percent. Annualized standard deviation of weekly rates of return is 0.216. The value of Kuwait`s invasion option is $1,642.25 billion. Depending on the scenario, the value of this special option ranged between $1,450 billion and $3.624 billion. 10 refs., 1 tab.

Muhtaseb, M.R.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options Agency/Company /Organization: UNEP-Risoe Centre Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Biomass, - Biofuels Topics: Implementation, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learned/best practices, Case studies/examples Website: tech-action.org/Perspectives/BioenergyIndia.pdf Country: India Cost: Free UN Region: Southern Asia Coordinates: 20.593684°, 78.96288° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":20.593684,"lon":78.96288,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

442

Expected annual electricity bill savings for various PPA price options |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Expected annual electricity bill savings for various PPA price options Expected annual electricity bill savings for various PPA price options Jump to: navigation, search Impact of Utility Rates on PV Economics Bill savings tables (main section): When evaluating PV systems under a PPA, it is important to look at the net effect on the building's annual electricity expense. If the solar value is greater than the PPA price, then the building will realize a net savings on annual energy expenses. If the solar value is less than the PPA price, then the building will realize a net loss. It is useful to understand how annual electricity expenses will be impacted at various PPA price levels. Bill Savings at PPA price of $0.04/kWhr Bill Savings at PPA price of $0.08/kWhr Bill Savings at PPA price of $0.12/kWhr Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Expected_annual_electricity_bill_savings_for_various_PPA_price_options&oldid=515464"

443

GHG mitigation options database (GMOD) and analysis tool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There is a growing public consensus that the primary cause of climate change is anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and that it will be necessary for the global community to use low-carbon technologies in both the energy and industrial sectors (IEA, 2013). As a result of the recent focus on GHG emissions, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are implementing policies and programs to quantify and regulate GHG emissions from sources in the United States. These policies and programs have generated a need for a reliable source of information regarding GHG mitigation options. In response to this need, EPA developed a comprehensive GHG mitigation options database (GMOD). The database is a repository of data on available GHG technologies in various stages of development for several industry sectors. It can also be used to assess the performance, costs, and limitations of various mitigation control options. This paper further describes the objectives of GMOD, the data available in GMOD, and functionality of GMOD as an analysis tool. In addition, examples are provided to demonstrate GMOD's usability and capabilities. A comparison of GMOD to other existing GHG mitigation databases is also provided along with the recommended next steps for GMOD.

Gurbakhash Bhander; Nick Hutson; Jacky Rosati; Frank Princiotta; Kristine Pelt; Jim Staudt; Jeffrey Petrusa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

SRNL Review And Assessment Of WTP UFP-02 Sparger Design And Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During aerosol testing conducted by Parsons Constructors and Fabricators, Inc. (PCFI), air sparger plugging was observed in small-scale and medium-scale testing. Because of this observation, personnel identified a concern that the steam spargers in Pretreatment Facility vessel UFP-02 could plug during Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) operation. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide consultation on the evaluation of known WTP bubbler, and air and steam sparger issues. The authors used the following approach for this task: reviewed previous test reports (including smallscale testing, medium-scale testing, and Pretreatment Engineering Platform [PEP] testing), met with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) personnel to discuss sparger design, reviewed BNI documents supporting the sparger design, discussed sparger experience with Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Sellafield personnel, talked to sparger manufacturers about relevant operating experience and design issues, and reviewed UFP-02 vessel and sparger drawings.

Poirier, M. R.; Duignan, M. R.; Fink, S. D.; Steimke, J. L.

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

445

Apply option-thinking in long term infrastructure investment : the case of commercial real estate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the last two decades the application of real options theory has dramatically altered the way researches model infrastructure investment decisions. Real options are the right, but not obligation to do something for a ...

Zhang, Na, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

'Green energy' an option; PSC plan calls for costly wind power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'Green energy' an option; PSC plan calls for costly wind power Denver Post Staff Writer Colorado wind power Page 1 of 3http://eeredev.nrel.gov/greenpower/option.html #12;In a related announcement

447

Options introduction and volatility in the EU ETS1 Julien Chevallier 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), the European Climate Exchange (ECX) has introduced option the introduction of options has increased or decreased volatility in the European Union Emissions Trading Sc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

448

Valuation of Governmental Guarantee in BOT Project Finance with Real Option Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and calculating the guarantee agreements? contingency due to the complexity of option pricing theory and in considering the uncertainty of the underlying asset. Furthermore, in recent real option-related research that evaluate BOT investment projects...

Jun, Jae Bum

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

449

Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and...

450

American and Bermudan options in currency markets under proportional transaction costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The pricing and hedging of a general class of options (including American, Bermudan and European options) on multiple assets are studied in the context of currency markets where trading in all assets is subject to proportional transaction costs, and where the existence of a riskfree numeraire is not assumed. Probabilistic dual representations are obtained for the bid and ask prices of such options, together with constructions of hedging strategies, optimal stopping times and approximate martingale representations for both long and short option positions.

Roux, Alet

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Home Energy Score: 3-D Simulation Training and Testing for Assessor Candidates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Training and Testing Options Training and Testing Options for Assessor Candidates DOE has acknowledged that the advanced nature and extra cost of the third-party professional certifications may discourage potential candidates from becoming Qualified Assessors. Additionally, DOE has identified an opportunity to make improvements to both the Home Energy Score online training and the online test by utilizing 3-D immersive simulation software to ascertain whether assessor candidates possess the

452

Performance improvement options for the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is under development at Argonne National Laboratory as an advanced power conversion technology for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as well as other Generation IV advanced reactors as an alternative to the traditional Rankine steam cycle. For SFRs, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle eliminates the need to consider sodium-water reactions in the licensing and safety evaluation, reduces the capital cost of the SFR plant, and increases the SFR plant efficiency. Even though the S-CO{sub 2} cycle has been under development for some time and optimal sets of operating parameters have been determined, those earlier development and optimization studies have largely been directed at applications to other systems such as gas-cooled reactors which have higher operating temperatures than SFRs. In addition, little analysis has been carried out to investigate cycle configurations deviating from the selected 'recompression' S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration. In this work, several possible ways to improve S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance for SFR applications have been identified and analyzed. One set of options incorporates optimization approaches investigated previously, such as variations in the maximum and minimum cycle pressure and minimum cycle temperature, as well as a tradeoff between the component sizes and the cycle performance. In addition, the present investigation also covers options which have received little or no attention in the previous studies. Specific options include a 'multiple-recompression' cycle configuration, intercooling and reheating, as well as liquid-phase CO{sub 2} compression (pumping) either by CO{sub 2} condensation or by a direct transition from the supercritical to the liquid phase. Some of the options considered did not improve the cycle efficiency as could be anticipated beforehand. Those options include: a double recompression cycle, intercooling between the compressor stages, and reheating between the turbine stages. Analyses carried out as part of the current investigation confirm the possibilities of improving the cycle efficiency that have been identified in previous investigations. The options in this group include: increasing the heat exchanger and turbomachinery sizes, raising of the cycle high end pressure (although the improvement potential of this option is very limited), and optimization of the low end temperature and/or pressure to operate as close to the (pseudo) critical point as possible. Analyses carried out for the present investigation show that significant cycle performance improvement can sometimes be realized if the cycle operates below the critical temperature at its low end. Such operation, however, requires the availability of a heat sink with a temperature lower than 30 C for which applicability of this configuration is dependent upon the climate conditions where the plant is constructed (i.e., potential performance improvements are site specific). Overall, it is shown that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle efficiency can potentially be increased to 45 %, if a low temperature heat sink is available and incorporation of larger components (e.g.., heat exchangers or turbomachinery) having greater component efficiencies does not significantly increase the overall plant cost.

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

453

Cellulose solventbased biomass pretreatment breaks highly ordered hydrogen bonds in cellulose fibers of switchgrass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solvent-Based Solvent-Based Biomass Pretreatment Breaks Highly Ordered Hydrogen Bonds in Cellulose Fibers of Switchgrass Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, 1,2 Zhiguang Zhu, 1 Sungsool Wi, 3 Y.-H. Percival Zhang 1,2,4 1 Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061; telephone: 540-231-7414, fax: 540-231-3199; e-mail: ypzhang@vt.edu 2 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 3 Chemistry Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 4 DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee Received 25 June 2010; revision received 23 August 2010; accepted 4 October 2010 Published online 21 October 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com).

454

The Zymomonas mobilis regulator hfq contributes to tolerance against multiple lignocellulosic pretreatment inhibitors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Yang et al. BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:135 Yang et al. BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:135 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/10/135 Open Access R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E BioMed Central © 2010 Yang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Research article The Zymomonas mobilis regulator hfq contributes to tolerance against multiple lignocellulosic pretreatment inhibitors Shihui Yang 1,2 , Dale A Pelletier 1 , Tse-Yuan S Lu 1 and Steven D Brown* 1,2 Abstract Background: Zymomonas mobilis produces near theoretical yields of ethanol and recombinant strains are candidate

455

Recovery of Plutonium from Refractory Residues Using a Sodium Peroxide Pretreatment Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recycle of plutonium from refractory residues is a necessary activity for the nuclear weapon production complex. Traditionally, high-fired plutonium oxide (PuO2) was leached from the residue matrix using a nitric acid/fluoride dissolving flowsheet. The recovery operations were time consuming and often required multiple contacts with fresh dissolving solution to reduce the plutonium concentration to levels where residual solids could be discarded. Due to these drawbacks, the development of an efficient process for the recovery of plutonium from refractory materials is desirable. To address this need, a pretreatment process was developed. The development program utilized a series of small-scale experiments to optimize processing conditions for the fusion process and demonstrate the plutonium recovery efficiency using ceramic materials developed as potential long-term storage forms for PuO2 and an incinerator ash from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) as te st materials.

Rudisill, T.S.

2003-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

456

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis Ram Chandra Sekar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis by Ram Chandra Sekar technologies are valued using the "real options" valuation methodology in an uncertain carbon dioxide (CO2

457

Pricing of American retail options Christina Burton, McKay Heasley, Jeffrey Humpherys, Jialin Li  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pricing of American retail options Christina Burton, McKay Heasley, Jeffrey Humpherys, Jialin Li and controlling inventories in a retail market. We propose a new class of American put option contracts on inventories of retail goods, where the retailer can exercise the option at any time during the contract period

Humpherys, Jeffrey

458

August 2014 Change to investment options within the Boston University Retirement Plan and the Supplemental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

August 2014 Change to investment options within the Boston University Retirement Plan with a diverse array of investment options. Among the things considered when selecting and monitoring such options are consistency of investing style, fund performance, whether the funds offer you the best value

459

Rheological study of comingled biomass and coal slurries with hydrothermal pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification of comingled biomass and coal feedstock is an effective means of reducing the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in the coal gasification process while maintaining its inherent benefits of abundance and high-energy density. However, feeding a comingled biomass and coal feedstock into a pressurized gasification reactor poses a technical problem. Conventional dry feeding systems, such as lock hoppers and pressurized pneumatic transport, are complex and operationally expensive. A slurry formation of comingled biomass and coal feedstock can be easily fed into the gasification reactor but, in normal conditions, only allows for a small portion of biomass in the mixture. This is a consequence of the hydroscopic and hydrophilic nature of the biomass. The College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) at the University of California, Riverside, has developed a process producing high solid content biomass-water slurry using a hydrothermal pretreatment process. In this paper, the systematic investigation of the rheological properties (e.g., shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity) of coal-water slurries, biomass-water slurries, and comingled biomass and coal-water slurries is reported. The solid particle size distribution in the slurry and the initial solid/water ratio were investigated to determine the impact on shear rate and viscosity. This was determined using a rotational rheometer. The experimental results show that larger particle size offers better pumpability. The presence of a high percentage of biomass in solid form significantly decreases slurry pumpability. It is also shown that the solid loading of the biomass-water slurry can be increased to approximately 35 wt % with viscosity of less than 0.7 Pa.s after the pretreatment process. The solid loading increased to approximately 45 wt % when the biomass is comingled with coal. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Wei He; Chan S. Park; Joseph M. Norbeck [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Bourns College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significant poten- tial as a feedstock for conversion to liquid fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel (Kadam to be limited. However, dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment has proven to be a very effective in recov- ering most of these pretreatments to corn stover include dilute-sulfuric acid in a high-solids percola- tion reactor (Zhu et al

California at Riverside, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

TCP HACK: TCP Header Checksum Option to Improve Performance over Lossy Links  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, wireless networks have become increasingly common and an increasing number of devices are communicating with each other over lossy links. Unfortunately, TCP performs poorly over lossy links as it is unable to differentiate the loss due to packet corruption from that due to congestion. In this paper, we present an extension to TCP which enables TCP to distinguish packet corruption from congestion in lossy environments resulting in improved performance. We refer to this extension as the HeAder ChecKsum option (HACK). We implemented our algorithm in the Linux kernel and performed various tests to determine its effectiveness. Our results have shown that HACK performs substantially better than both SACK and NewReno in cases where burst corruptions are frequent. We also found that HACK can co-exist very nicely with SACK and performs even better with SACK enabled. Keywords -- Protocol Design, Protocol Analysis, Wireless Networks. I.

Rajesh Krishna Balan; Lee Boon Peng; K. Renjish Kumar; Lillykutty Jacob; Winston K. G. Seah; R. K. Balan; B. P. Lee; K. R. R. Kumar; L. Jacob; W. K. G. Seah; A. L. Ananda

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Virtual Array Receiver Options for 64-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NASA is developing technology for 64 64-ary PPM using relatively large PPM time slots (10 ns) an and relatively simple d electronic electronic-based receiver logic. In this paper we describe photonic photonics-based receiver options for the case of much higher data rates and inherently shorter decision times. The receivers take the form of virtual ( array or quadrant) arrays with associated comparison tests. Previously we explored this concept for 4-ary and 16-ary PPM at data rates of up to 10 Gb/s. The lessons learned are applied to the case of 64 64-ary PPM at 1.25 Gb/s s. Various receiver designs are compare, and t the optimum design, based on virtual array he arrays, is s, evaluated using numerical simulations.

Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

463

Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HiSeq sequencing platform utilizing a TruSeq...5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were not quantified...and pretreatment chemicals. Compared to defined...of furfural and HMF, two inhibitors...5-hydroxymethylfurfural and new chemical evidence for HMF conversion to 2...

Trey K. Sato; Tongjun Liu; Lucas S. Parreiras; Daniel L. Williams; Dana J. Wohlbach; Benjamin D. Bice; Irene M. Ong; Rebecca J. Breuer; Li Qin; Donald Busalacchi; Shweta Deshpande; Chris Daum; Audrey P. Gasch; David B. Hodge

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

464

Optimization of nano TiO2 pretreatment on free acid dyeing of wool using central composite design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of the research is to investigate nano technique of wool acid dyeing without the presence of acid auxiliary agent at temperatures lower than the boiling. The wool fabrics are first pretreated with nano TiO2 and BTCA at different concentrations. The dyeing process is then carried out on the pretreated fabrics with C. I. Acid Blue 113 and C. I. Acid Black 3 dyes. Also, the central composite design analysis is applied to design the relation between nano TiO2 and BTCA concentrations, and dye exhaustion. The response surface methodology is also applied to find the optimum conditions for the wool fabric pretreatment. The scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are employed to indicate the presence, crystal type and size of TiO2 nanoparticles on the wool surface. The pretreatment optimization on the wool surfaces considerably enhances the absorption of acid dyes. The suggested method demonstrates the improvement of fastness properties than control dyeing and could be introduced as a new route, disclosing various desirable multi-functional characteristics, to wool fabric. This technique is also free from some of the disadvantages of acid chemical involved in dyeing such as damage to wool fabrics than wool conventional dyeing.

Ali Nazari; Mohammad Mirjalili; Navid Nasirizadeh; Shahab Torabian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...inhibitory effects on cell growth and fermentation...34). Alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP...production of fuel ethanol. J...characterization of cell wall decomposition...Banerjee, G , S Car, T Liu, DL Williams...integration of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment...organization of plant cell walls, p 61-93...

Trey K. Sato; Tongjun Liu; Lucas S. Parreiras; Daniel L. Williams; Dana J. Wohlbach; Benjamin D. Bice; Irene M. Ong; Rebecca J. Breuer; Li Qin; Donald Busalacchi; Shweta Deshpande; Chris Daum; Audrey P. Gasch; David B. Hodge

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

466

Improved volatile fatty acid and biomethane production from lipid removed microalgal residue (LR?AR) through pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Renewable energy from lipid removed microalgal residues (LR?ARs) serves as a promising tool for sustainable development of the microalgal biodiesel industry. Hence, in this study, LR?AR from Ettlia sp. was characterized for its physico-biochemical parameters, and applied to various pretreatment to increase the biodegradability and used in batch experiments for the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and biomethane. After various pretreatments, the soluble organic matters were increased at a maximum of 82% in total organic matters in alkali-autoclaved sample. In addition, VFA and methane production was enhanced by 30% and 40% in alkali-sonicated and alkali-autoclaved samples, respectively. Methane heating value was recovered at maximum of 6.6 MJ kg?1 VS in alkali-autoclaved conditions with comparison to non-pretreated samples. The pretreatment remarkably improved LR?AR solubilization and enhanced VFA and biomethane production, which holds immense potential to eventually reduce the cost of algal biodiesel.

Arumuganainar Suresh; Charles Seo; Ho Nam Chang; Yeu-Chun Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification ... All equipment costs and sizing are modeled using the correlations from Seider et al.(52) while the RO membrane cost is from Baker and Lokhandwala. ...

Pakkapol Kanchanalai; Ryan P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

468

Chapter 14 - Options, Shortcuts, CUI, Design Center, and Express Tools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter introduces a variety of advanced tools featured in AutoCAD, discussing the options dialog box, files tab, display tab, open and save tab, plot and publish tab, and system tab. The Options dialog box is users' access point for basic AutoCAD customization menus. It helps them change many essential settings and tweak AutoCAD to their personal taste and style. Files tab is the easiest to go over for the simple reason that users rarely have to change anything here. When AutoCAD, or any software for that matter, installs in a computer, it spreads out all over a certain area of the disk drive and drops off necessary files as it sees fit. Display tab has a few items of interest, specifically under the Window Elements and “Layout elements categories” and “Crosshair size.” Layer Express Tools are the most useful ones to the average designer and the ones typically used the most in many different professions. Furthermore, “Layer Isolate” allows users to isolate a layer merely by selecting it. The command turns off all the other layers, leaving the selected one by itself. This chapter begins with a description of advanced customizing features found under the Options dialog box. Covered are features in the Files, Display, Open and Save, Plot and Publish, System, User Preference, Drafting, Selection and Profile tabs. Then there is an introduction to shortcuts and the PGP file, followed by a short tour of the Customize User Interface (CUI) dialog box. Next the chapter progresses to a discussion of the Design Center and Autodesk Seek. It concludes with a tour of the Express Tools, and what is found under the Blocks, Text, Layout Tools, Dimension, Selection Tools, Modify, Draw, File Tools, Web Tools and Tools menus, including some advanced Layer Tools. An architectural drawing project (4 of 10) is at the end of the chapter.

Elliot Gindis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Chapter 14 - Options, Shortcuts, CUI, Design Center, and Express Tools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter concerns the Options dialog box followed by the concept of Shortcuts (the acad.pgp file), and the Customize User Interface (CUI). It discusses the Design Center and the Express Tools and provides introduction to basic customization that greatly enhances the efficiency. The Options dialog box is the access point for basic AutoCAD customization menus and can be used to change many essential settings and tweak AutoCAD to personal taste and style. The Default plots settings for new drawings category selects the default plotter or adds a new one. AutoCAD comes with a wide range of preinstalled shortcuts, but the file is easily found and is meant to be modified to suit the user's taste and habits. Furthermore, this chapter discusses the Customize User Interface dialog box (CUI). The CUI has to do with changing the look and functionality of menus, toolbars, and other items and, as such, can be of importance to a small set of users who may need to do this for aesthetic or functional reasons. This function is the ability of the Design Center to present an extensive array of drawing blocks to use as generic items in the floor plan. This chapter begins with a description of advanced customizing features found under the Options dialog box. Covered are features in the Files, Display, Open and Save, Plot and Publish, System, User Preference, Drafting, Selection and Profile tabs. Then there is an introduction to shortcuts and the PGP file, followed by a short tour of the Customize User Interface (CUI) dialog box. Next the chapter progresses to a discussion of the Design Center and Autodesk Seek. It concludes with a tour of the Express Tools, and what is found under the Blocks, Text, Layout Tools, Dimension, Selection Tools, Modify, Draw, File Tools, Web Tools and Tools menus, including some advanced Layer Tools. An architectural drawing project (4 of 10) is at the end of the chapter.

Elliot Gindis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Local Option - Municipal Sustainable Energy Programs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Municipal Sustainable Energy Programs Municipal Sustainable Energy Programs Local Option - Municipal Sustainable Energy Programs < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Other Windows, Doors, & Skylights Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Solar Water Heating Wind Program Info State New York Program Type PACE Financing '''''Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July

471

Local Option - Clean Energy Development Boards | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clean Energy Development Boards Clean Energy Development Boards Local Option - Clean Energy Development Boards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Other Windows, Doors, & Skylights Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Bioenergy Solar Energy Sources Buying & Making Electricity Water Heating Wind Program Info Funding Source Implementing entities authorized to issue bonds State Missouri Program Type PACE Financing Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources

472

Local Option - Clean Energy Finance Districts | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clean Energy Finance Districts Clean Energy Finance Districts Local Option - Clean Energy Finance Districts < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Water Heating Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Program Info State Vermont Program Type PACE Financing Note: The Federal Housing Financing Agency (FHFA) issued a [http://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/15884/PACESTMT7610.pdf statement] in July 2010 concerning the senior lien status associated with most PACE programs. In response to the FHFA statement, most local PACE programs around the

473

Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (Not Optional)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kitchen Ventilation Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (not Optional) Brett C. Singer Residential Building Systems & Indoor Environment Groups Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Building America Technical Update Denver, CO April 30, 2013 Acknowledgements PROGRAM SUPPORT *U.S. Department of Energy - Building America Program *U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Indoor Environments Division *U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development - Office of Healthy Homes & Lead Hazard Control *California Energy Commission - Public Interest Energy Research Program TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTIONS *Woody Delp, Tosh Hotchi, Melissa Lunden, Nasim Mullen, Chris Stratton, Doug Sullivan, Iain Walker Kitchen Ventilation Simplified PROBLEM: * Cooking burners & cooking produce odors, moisture

474

Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Property Assessed Clean Energy Property Assessed Clean Energy Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Bioenergy Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Solar Water Heating Wind Program Info State Michigan Program Type PACE Financing Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property owners to borrow money to pay for energy improvements. The amount borrowed is repaid via a special assessment on the property over a period of years.

475

Cost-effective Design Options for IsoDAR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This whitepaper reviews design options for the IsoDAR electron antineutrino source. IsoDAR is designed to produce $2.6 \\times 10^{22}$ electron antineutrinos per year with an average energy of 6.4 MeV, using isotope decay-at-rest. Aspects which must be balanced for cost-effectiveness include: overall cost; rate and energy distribution of the electron antineutrino flux and backgrounds; low technical risk; compactness; simplicity of underground construction and operation; reliability; value to future neutrino physics programs; and value to industry. We show that the baseline design outlined here is the most cost effective.

A. Adelmann; J. R. Alonso; W. Barletta; R. Barlow; L. Bartoszek; A. Bungau; L. Calabretta; A. Calanna; D. Campo; J. M. Conrad; Z. Djurcic; Y. Kamyshkov; H. Owen; M. H. Shaevitz; I. Shimizu; T. Smidt; J. Spitz; M. Toups; M. Wascko; L. A. Winslow; J. J. Yang

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

476

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 STORAGE AND SINK ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed life-cycle costs for the major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} storage and sink enhancement. The technologies evaluated included options for storing captured CO{sub 2} in active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of carbon sequestration in forests and croplands. The capture costs for a nominal 500 MW{sub e} integrated gasification combined cycle plant from an earlier study were combined with the storage costs from this study to allow comparison among capture and storage approaches as well as sink enhancements.

Bert Bock; Richard Rhudy; Howard Herzog; Michael Klett; John Davison; Danial G. De La Torre Ugarte; Dale Simbeck

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Is converting landfill gas to energy the best option?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Is converting landfill gas to energy the best option? ... But when it comes to new discards, critics say that the hype over landfill-gas-to-energy(LFGTE) projects may have perverse outcomes, such as discouraging the diversion of organic waste from landfills and actually increasing the amount of methane being released. ... In the notice, EDF suggests that EPA tighten current controls, which require the capture and flaring of landfill gas at sites with more than 2.5 million metric tons of waste, by bringing regulation to smaller landfills and defining LFGTE projects as the best demonstrated technology (BDT). ...

Janet Pelley

2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

478

GroSolar formerly Global Resource Options Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GroSolar formerly Global Resource Options Inc GroSolar formerly Global Resource Options Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name groSolar (formerly Global Resource Options Inc) Place Vermont Zip VT 05001 Sector Solar Product A solar integration firm that designs, distributes, and installs solar electric, hot water and air systems in the USA. References groSolar (formerly Global Resource Options Inc)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. groSolar (formerly Global Resource Options Inc) is a company located in Vermont . References ↑ "groSolar (formerly Global Resource Options Inc)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=GroSolar_formerly_Global_Resource_Options_Inc&oldid=346141

479

The Philosophy UJCC Alternative Guide to FHS Options This guide is aimed at helping philosophy students decide on which philosophy options they  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Philosophy UJCC Alternative Guide to FHS Options This guide is aimed at helping philosophy students decide on which philosophy options they would like to take for their finals. There is an often and Reality, so the Philosophy UJCC (Undergraduate Joint Consultative Committee) has prepared this guide

Oxford, University of

480

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option are to give you an understanding of how our lively  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option tools we use to unravel its complex history. Solid Earth science is the study of the materials, architecture, and processes of the dynamic solid Earth. It deals with rock-forming minerals and processes

Liu, Paul

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "testing pretreatment options" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Center for Climate Strategies Catalog of Policy Options | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Center for Climate Strategies Catalog of Policy Options Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Center for Climate Strategies Catalog of Policy Options Agency/Company /Organization: The Center for Climate Strategies Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency Topics: Policies/deployment programs Website: www.climatestrategies.us/Climate_Policies_Work.cfm Country: United States Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

482

Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

Underwood, M.L. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

483

The National Energy Policy Act and lamp replacement options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Policy Act of 1992 involves the creation of energy efficiency standards for a wide range of products including fluorescent and incandescent lamps. Minimum efficacy (lumens per watt) and color rendering index (CRI) standards are mandated for the popular fluorescent lamps: four-foot medium bi-pin, two-foot U-bent, eight-foot slimline and eight-foot high output. Minimum efficacies are mandated for specific incandescent R and PAR reflector lamps. These standards will affect selected colors and designs of fluorescent lamps, the most significant being the standard lamps in the cool white and warm white colors. The incandescent reflector lamps will include the R-30, R-40, PAR-38 lamps above 40 watts, excluding the halogen types. These efficiency and color rendering standards will require end-users and specifiers to select replacement fluorescent lamps from a range of performance characteristics (lumen output, efficacy, CRI and price). The choice of replacement for the R and PAR incandescent lamps will include the halogen designs and compact fluorescent designs. In this paper, replacement options will be analyzed and discussed and the effect of these options on the performance of the lighting system will be explored in detail.

Ryerson, C.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Linkage options between unit process to enhance proliferation resistance of pyroprocessing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pyroprocessing technology has been actively developed at KAERI as one of the options to address the national spent fuel management issue. As much as the unit process development itself, the linkage method between each unit process is also of importance. There may be different linkage options between a set of two process units, or different options caused by different technologies for one of two unit processes connected to each other. The linkage method may affect the loss of nuclear materials and distribution of fission products, which are essential from the safeguards and proliferation resistance points of view. In this study, different technology options for some of the major process steps and possible linkage options were identified, and aspects of their proliferation resistance including the impact on the safeguards are discussed. Several options for decladding and feeding to electro-reduction, dross and the residual salt treatment of reduced materials as well as feeding to electro-refining, and salt transfer from electro-refining to electro-winning were identified and their technical and proliferation resistance aspects were analyzed. This study does not conclude any ranking of each option or suggest which option is the best. It is important to note that the objectives to review the process and linkage options are to give the basic characteristics and technical information related to safeguards measures and proliferation resistance and to suggest a conceptual idea for certain options to investigate further and enhance those aspects.

Seong-Kyu Ahn; Chung-Seok Seo; Eun-ha Kwon; Ho-Dong Kim

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Random Testing versus Partition Testing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The difference between Partition Testing and Random Testing has been thoroughlyinvestigated theoretically. In this thesis we present a practical study ofthe differences between random… (more)

Oftedal, Kristian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Preliminary Cost Assessment and Compare of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Full superconducting tokamak and water-cooling Cu magnets tokamak are two options proposed for China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Based on the concept design ... Program for Parameters Optimization an...

Dehong Chen; Jieqiong Jiang; Yawei Hou; Wenxue Duan; Muyi Ni…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Treatment plan for aqueous/organic/decontamination wastes under the Oak Ridge Reservation FFCA Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV have entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) which seeks to facilitate the treatment of low-level mixed wastes currently stored at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in violation of the Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The FFCA establishes schedules for DOE to identify treatment for wastes, referred to as Appendix B wastes, that current have no identified or existing capacity for treatment. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DDT&E) program was established to provide the support necessary to identify treatment methods for mixed was meeting the Appendix B criteria. The Program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs for major categories of the Appendix B wastes based on the waste characteristics and possible treatment technologies. The Aqueous, Organic, and Decontamination (A/O/D) project team was established to identify pretreatment options for aqueous and organic wastes which will render the waste acceptable for treatment in existing waste treatment facilities and to identify the processes to decontaminate heterogeneous debris waste. In addition, the project must also address the treatment of secondary waste generated by other DDT&E projects. This report details the activities to be performed under the A/O/D Project in support of the identification, selection, and evaluation of treatment processes. The goals of this plan are (1) to determine the major aqueous and organic waste streams requiring treatment, (2) to determine the treatment steps necessary to make the aqueous and organic waste acceptable for treatment in existing treatment facilities on the ORR or off-site, and (3) to determine the processes necessary to decontaminate heterogeneous wastes that are considered debris.

Backus, P.M.; Benson, C.E.; Gilbert, V.P.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Is Response to Radiotherapy in Patients Related to the Severity of Pretreatment Pain?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between the severity of pretreatment pain and response to palliative radiotherapy (RT) for painful bone metastases. Methods and Materials: The database for patients with bone metastases seen at the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program at the Odette Cancer Center from 1999 to 2006 was analyzed. The proportion of patients with mild (scores 1-4), moderate (scores 5-6), or severe (scores 7-10) pain at baseline who experienced a complete response, partial response, stable response, or progressive response after palliative RT was determined according to International Bone Metastases Consensus definitions. Results: During the 7-year study period 1,053 patients received palliative radiation for bone metastases. The median age was 68 years and the median Karnofsky performance status was 70. Of the patients, 53% had a complete or partial response at 1 month, 52% at 2 months, and 54% at 3 months post-RT. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in terms of the proportion of responders (patie