National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for test conditions cold

  1. Cold Test Operation of the German VEK Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleisch, J.; Schwaab, E.; Weishaupt, M. [WAK GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gruenewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fur Nukleare Entsorgung, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In 2007 the German High-Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) Vitrification plant VEK (Verglasungseinrichtung Karlsruhe) has passed a three months integral cold test operation as final step before entering the hot phase. The overall performance of the vitrification process equipment with a liquid-fed ceramic glass melter as main component proved to be completely in line with the requirements of the regulatory body. The retention efficiency of main radioactive-bearing elements across melter and wet off-gas treatment system exceeded the design values distinctly. The strategy to produce a specified waste glass could be successfully demonstrated. The results of the cold test operation allow entering the next step of hot commissioning, i.e. processing of approximately 2 m{sup 3} of diluted HLLW. In summary: An important step of the VEK vitrification plant towards hot operation has been the performance of the cold test operation from April to July 2007. This first integral operation was carried out under boundary conditions and rules established for radioactive operation. Operation and process control were carried out following the procedure as documented in the licensed operational manuals. The function of the process technology and the safe operation could be demonstrated. No severe problems were encountered. Based on the positive results of the cold test, application of the license for hot operation has been initiated and is expected in the near future. (authors)

  2. Laboratory's role in Cold War nuclear weapons testing program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    70th anniversary lecture Laboratory's role in Cold War nuclear weapons testing program focus of next 70th anniversary lecture Lab's role in the development of nuclear weapons...

  3. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750°C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  4. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating element near the pour tube. After charging the CEF with cullet from a previous Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) run, the melter was slurry-fed with SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 6 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation variables and off-gas chemistry. In order to satisfy the objective of Phase I testing, vapor space steady testing in the range of ~300°C-700°C was conducted without argon bubbling to baseline the melter data to the existing DWPF melter flammability model. Adjustments to heater outputs, air flows and feed rate were necessary in order to achieve the vapor space temperatures in this range. The results of the Phase I testing demonstrated that the CEF is capable of operating under the low vapor space temperatures A melter pressure of -5 inches of water was not sustained throughout the run, but the melter did remain slightly negative even with the maximum air flows required for the lowest temperature conditions were used. The auxiliary pour tube heater improved the pouring behavior at all test conditions, including reduced feed rates required for the low vapor space testing. Argon bubbling can be used to promote mixing and increase feed rate at multiple conditions. Improvements due to bubbling have been determined previously; however, the addition of the cameras to the CEF allows for visual observation during a range of bubbling configurations. The off-gas analysis system proved to be robust and capable of operating for long durations. The total operational hours on the melter vessel are approximately 385 hours. Dimensional measurements taken prior to Phase I testing and support block temperatures recorded during Phase I testing are available if an extension of service life beyond 1250 hours is desired in the future.

  5. The Cold Dark Matter Search test stand warm electronics card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, Bruce; Hansen, Sten; Huber, Martin; Kiper, Terry; Rau, Wolfgang; Saab, Tarek; Seitz, Dennis; Sundqvist, Kyle; Mandic, Vuk; /Minnesota U.

    2010-11-01

    A card which does the signal processing for four SQUID amplifiers and two charge sensitive channels is described. The card performs the same functions as is presently done with two custom 9U x 280mm Eurocard modules, a commercial multi-channel VME digitizer, a PCI to GPIB interface, a PCI to VME interface and a custom built linear power supply. By integrating these functions onto a single card and using the power over Ethernet standard, the infrastructure requirements for instrumenting a Cold Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector test stand are significantly reduced.

  6. SHEAR STRENGTH MEASURING EQUIPMENT EVALUATION AT THE COLD TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-09-09

    Retrievals under current criteria require that approximately 2,000,000 gallons of double-shell tank (DST) waste storage space not be used to prevent creating new tanks that might be susceptible to buoyant displacement gas release events (BDGRE). New criteria are being evaluated, based on actual sludge properties, to potentially show that sludge wastes do not exhibit the same BDGRE risk. Implementation of the new criteria requires measurement of in situ waste shear strength. Cone penetrometers were judged the best equipment for measuring in situ shear strength and an A.P. van den berg Hyson 100 kN Light Weight Cone Penetrometer (CPT) was selected for evaluation. The CPT was procured and then evaluated at the Hanford Site Cold Test Facility. Evaluation demonstrated that the equipment with minor modification was suitable for use in Tank Farms.

  7. Testing models of vacuum energy interacting with cold dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    We test the models of vacuum energy interacting with cold dark matter, and try to probe the possible deviation from the $\\Lambda$CDM model using current observations. We focus on two specific models, $Q=3\\beta H\\rho_{\\Lambda}$ and $Q=3\\beta H\\rho_c$. The data combinations come from the Planck 2013 data, the baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, the Type-Ia supernovae data, the Hubble constant measurement, the redshift space distortions data and the galaxy weak lensing data. For the $Q=3\\beta H\\rho_c$ model, we find that it can be tightly constrained by all the data combinations, while for the $Q=3\\beta H\\rho_{\\Lambda}$ model there still exist significant degeneracies between parameters. The tightest constraints for the coupling constant are $\\beta=-0.026^{+0.036}_{-0.053}$ (for $Q=3\\beta H\\rho_{\\Lambda}$) and $\\beta=-0.00045\\pm0.00069$ (for $Q=3\\beta H\\rho_c$) at $1\\sigma$ level. For all the fit results, we find that the null interaction $\\beta=0$ is always consistent with data. Our work completes the di...

  8. Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Material at Cold Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer D. Snow; D. Keith Morton; Robert K. Blandford

    2008-07-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. However, a previous paper [1] reported on impact testing and analysis results performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel base material specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The goal of the work presented herein is to add recently completed impact tensile testing results at -20 degrees F conditions for dual-marked 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel material specimens (hereafter referred to as 304L and 316L, respectively). Recently completed welded material impact testing at -20 degrees F, room, 300 degrees F, and 600 degrees F is also reported. Utilizing a drop-weight impact test machine and 1/4-inch to 1/2-inch thick dog-bone shaped test specimens, the impact tests achieved strain rates in the 4 to 40 per second range, depending upon the material temperature. Elevated true stress-strain curves for these materials reflecting varying strain rates and temperatures are presented herein.

  9. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range {minus}100 to 100{degree}C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  10. 2010 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advance Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  11. 2013 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  12. 2012 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  13. 2011 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  14. Static and Fatigue Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades Subject to Cold Weather Conditions Using Finite Element Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Static and Fatigue Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades Subject to Cold Weather Conditions Using Finite Turbine Blades Subject to Cold Weather Conditions Using Finite Element Analysis by Patricio Andres Lillo experienced in candi- date Canadian wind turbine deployment locations. The thesis then narrows its focus

  15. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  16. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  17. Waste Tank Size Determination for the Hanford River Protection Project Cold Test, Training, and Mockup Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Kuhn, William L.

    2001-03-30

    The objective of the study was to determine the minimum tank size for the Cold Test Facility process testing of Hanford tank waste. This facility would support retrieval of waste in 75-ft-diameter DSTs with mixer pumps and SSTs with fluidic mixers. The cold test model will use full-scale mixer pumps, transfer pumps, and equipment with simulated waste. The study evaluated the acceptability of data for a range of tank diameters and depths and included identifying how the test data would be extrapolated to predict results for a full-size tank.

  18. Design and first cold test of BNL superconducting 112 MHz QWR for electron gun applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Boulware, C.H.; Chang, X.; Grimm, T.L.; Siegel, B.; Than, R.; Winowski, M.

    2011-03-28

    Brookhaven National Laboratory and Niowave, Inc. have designed, fabricated, and performed the first cold test of a superconducting 112 MHz quarter-wave resonator (QWR) for electron gun experiments. The first cold test of the QWR cryomodule has been completed at Niowave. The paper discusses the cryomodule design, presents the cold test results, and outline plans to upgrade the cryomodule for future experiments. A quarter-wave resonator concept of superconducting RF (SRF) electron gun was proposed at BNL for electron cooling ion/proton beams at RHIC. QWRs can be made sufficiently compact even at low RF frequencies (long wavelengths). The long wavelength allows to produce long electron bunches, thus minimizing space charge effects and enabling high bunch charge. Also, such guns should be suitable for experiments requiring high average current electron beams. A 112 MHz QWR gun was designed, fabricated, and cold-tested in collaboration between BNL and Niowave. This is the lowest frequency SRF gun ever tested successfully. In this paper we describe the gun design and fabrication, present the cold test results, and outline plans for the cryomodule upgrade for future experiments.

  19. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

  20. A STATISTICAL METHOD FOR MEASURING THE GALACTIC POTENTIAL AND TESTING GRAVITY WITH COLD TIDAL STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penarrubia, Jorge; Walker, Matthew G.

    2012-11-20

    We introduce the Minimum Entropy Method, a simple statistical technique for constraining the Milky Way gravitational potential and simultaneously testing different gravity theories directly from 6D phase-space surveys and without adopting dynamical models. We demonstrate that orbital energy distributions that are separable (i.e., independent of position) have an associated entropy that increases under wrong assumptions about the gravitational potential and/or gravity theory. Of known objects, 'cold' tidal streams from low-mass progenitors follow orbital distributions that most nearly satisfy the condition of separability. Although the orbits of tidally stripped stars are perturbed by the progenitor's self-gravity, systematic variations of the energy distribution can be quantified in terms of the cross-entropy of individual tails, giving further sensitivity to theoretical biases in the host potential. The feasibility of using the Minimum Entropy Method to test a wide range of gravity theories is illustrated by evolving restricted N-body models in a Newtonian potential and examining the changes in entropy introduced by Dirac, MONDian, and f(R) gravity modifications.

  1. Cold Test Measurements on the GTF Prototype RF Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gierman, S.M.

    2010-12-03

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. Based on longitudinal phase space measurements showing a correlated energy spread the gun was removed and re-characterized in 2002. The low power RF measurements performed on the gun are described below. Perturbative bead measurements were performed to determine the field ratio in the two-cell gun, and network analyzer measurements were made to characterize the mode structure. A second probe was installed to monitor the RF field in the first cell, and a diagnostic was developed to monitor the high-power field ratio. Calibration of the RF probes, a model for analyzing RF measurements, and Superfish simulations of bead and RF measurements are described.

  2. Stability of the Horizontal Curvature of the LHC Cryodipoles During Cold Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cano, E D Fernandez; García-Pérez, J; Jeanneret, Jean Bernard; Poncet, A; Seyvet, F; Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Wildner, E; IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

    2006-01-01

    The LHC will be composed of 1232 horizontally curved, 15 meter long, superconducting dipole magnets cooled at 1.9 K. They are supported within their vacuum vessel by three Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (GFRE) support posts. Each cryodipole is individually cold tested at CERN before its installation and interconnection in the LHC 27 km circumference tunnel. As the magnet geometry under cryogenic operation is extremely important for the LHC machine aperture, a new method has been developed at CERN in order to monitor the magnet curvature change between warm and cold states. It enabled us to conclude that there is no permanent horizontal curvature change of the LHC dipole magnet between warm and cold states, although a systematic horizontal transient deformation during cool-down was detected. This deformation generates loads in the dipole supporting system; further investigation permitted us to infer this behavior to the asymmetric thermal contraction of the rigid magnet thermal shield during cool-down. Controlli...

  3. Cold- and Beam Test of the First Prototypes of the Superstructure for the TESLA Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baboi, Nicoleta

    2003-08-08

    After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two superconducting 7-cell weakly coupled subunits, have been installed in the TESLA Test Facility linac (TTF) for the cold- and beam-test. The energy stability, the HOMs damping, the frequency and the field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirmed expectation on the superstructure performance and proved that alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider, as it was proposed in TDR, is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results which are commented in more detail elsewhere in these Proceedings.

  4. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  5. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. McConnell, Paul E.; Wauneka, Robert; Saltzstein, Sylvia J.; Sorenson, Ken B. Abstract not provided. Sandia...

  6. Final Report - Spent Nuclear Fuel Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel

    1999-08-24

    Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin; clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of fuel, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of fuel and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training.

  7. Cold galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We use 350 mu angular diameter estimates from Planck to test the idea that some galaxies contain exceptionally cold (10-13 K) dust, since colder dust implies a lower surface brightness radiation field illuminating the dust, and hence a greater physical extent for a given luminosity. The galaxies identified from their spectral energy distributions as containing cold dust do indeed show the expected larger 350 mu diameters. For a few cold dust galaxies where Herschel data are available we are able to use submillimetre maps or surface brightness profiles to locate the cold dust, which as expected generally lies outside the optical galaxy.

  8. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  9. The Technical and Economical Analysis of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System with Cold Storage Refrigeration in High-Rise Residential Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, C.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the application of a centralized air-conditioning system (CACS) with cold storage refrigeration in high-rise residential buildings has gradually increased. Due to the large difference between civil residential buildings...

  10. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses results of cold- and hot-start transient tests using gasoline and 3 alcohol-gasoline blends (50% and 85% ethanol, and 83% iso-butanol)

  11. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  12. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  13. Conditioned changes in pain reactivity: conditioned stimuli elicit hypoalgesia under a wide range of test conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illich, Paul Anthony

    1990-01-01

    in pain reactivity. In four experiments I attempt to isolate the variables which determine the direction of the conditioned response. In all experiments, I assessed the impact of a previously paired stimulus (CSt) and a nonreinforced stimulus (CS...-) on pain reactivity as measured by both tail-flick latencies and shock-induced vocalization. Experiment 1 assessed whether the amount of training plays a critical role. I found that the CS+ elicited longer tail-flick latencies (hypoalgesia) irrespective...

  14. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  15. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project. Phase 3, Final report: Volume 1, Cold checkout test report, Book 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 2 discusses the following topics: Fuel Rod Extraction System Test Results and Analysis Reports and Clamping Table Test Results and Analysis Reports.

  16. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing relatively high concentrations of zirconium and aluminum, representative of the cladding material of the reprocessed fuel that generated the calcine. A separate study to define the CCIM testing needs of these other calcine classifications in currently being prepared under a separate work package (WP-0) and will be provided as a milestone report at the end of this fiscal year.

  17. Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This is an analysis of the effect on the technical solutions when monetary values of externalities are included in a model for selecting air conditioning cold/heat sources. The focus of the study is on heating and cooling using conventional...

  18. Test Report for Permanganate and Cold Strontium Strike for Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, James B.; Huber, Heinz J.; Smalley, Colleen S.

    2013-11-27

    Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 supernatants contain soluble Sr-90 and transuranic elements that require removal prior to vitrification to comply with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste specification (WTP Contract, DE-AC27-01RV 14136, Specification 2.2.2.8, "Radionuclide Concentration Limitations") and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission provisional agreement on waste incidental to reprocessing (letter, Paperiello, C. J., "Classification of Hanford Low-Activity Tank Waste Fraction"). These two tanks have high concentrations of organics and organic complexants and are referred to as complexant concentrate tanks. A precipitation process using sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}) and strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) was developed and tested with tank waste samples to precipitate Sr-90 and transuranic elements from the supernate (PNWD-3141, Optimization of Sr/TRU Removal Conditions with Samples of AN-102 Tank Waste). Testing documented in this report was conducted to further evaluate the use of the strontium nitrate/sodium permanganate process in tank farms with a retention time of up to 12 months. Previous testing was focused on developing a process for deployment in the ultrafiltration vessels in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. This environment is different from tank farms in two important ways: the waste is diluted in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant to ~5.5 M sodium, whereas the supernate in the tank farms is ~9 M Na. Secondly, while the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant allows for a maximum treatment time of hours to days, the in-tank farms treatment of tanks 241-AN102 and 241-AN-107 will result in a retention time of months (perhaps up to12 months) before processing. A comparative compilation of separation processes for Sr/transuranics has been published as RPP-RPT-48340, Evaluation of Alternative Strontium and Transuranic Separation Processes. This report also listed the testing needs for the permanganate precipitation process to be field-deployable. A more comprehensive listing of future testing needs to allow the process to be field deployable are contained in RPP-PLAN-51288, Development Test Plan for Sr/TRU Precipitation Process.

  19. Two simple systems with cold atoms: quantum chaos tests and nonequilibrium dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavan Stone; Yassine Ait El Aoud; Vladimir A Yurovsky; Maxim Olshanii

    2010-05-29

    This article is an attempt to provide a link between the quantum nonequilibrium dynamics of cold gases and fifty years of progress in the lowdimensional quantum chaos. We identify two atomic systems lying on the interface: two interacting atoms in a harmonic multimode waveguide and an interacting two-component Bose-Bose mixture in a double-well potential. In particular, we study the level spacing distribution, the wavefunction statistics, the eigenstate thermalization, and the ability to thermalize in a relaxation process as such.

  20. Byggmeister Test Home: Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wytrykowska, H.; Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a retrofit project undertaken by Building Science Corporation and partner Byggmeister on a multifamily brick row house located in Jamaica Plain, MA. This project studied the row house to determine the right combination of energy efficiency measures that are feasible, affordable, and suitable for this type of construction and acceptable to homeowners.

  1. Byggmeister Test Home. Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wytrykowska, H.; Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a retrofit project undertaken by Building Science Corporation and partner Byggmeister on a multifamily brick row house located in Jamaica Plain, MA. This project studied the row house to determine the right combination of energy efficiency measures that are feasible, affordable, and suitable for this type of construction and acceptable to homeowners.

  2. Tribological Testing of Anti-Adhesive coatings for Cold Rolling Mill Rolls--Application to TiN-Coated Rolls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ould, Choumad; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Gachon, Yves; Badiche, Xavier

    2011-05-04

    Roll life is a major issue in cold strip rolling. Roll wear may result either in too low roll roughness, bringing friction below the minimum requested for strip entrainment; or it may degrade strip surface quality. On the contrary, adhesive wear and transfer (''roll coating'', ''pick up'') may form a thick metallic deposits on the roll which increases friction excessively and degrades strip surface again [1]. The roll surface, with the help of a materials-adapted lubricant, must therefore possess anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties. Thus, High Speed Steeel (HSS) rolls show superior properties compared with standard Cr-steel rolls due to their high carbide surface coverage. Another way to improve wear and adhesion properties of surfaces is to apply hard metallic (hard-Cr) or ceramic coatings. Chromium is renowned for its excellent anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties and may serve as a reference. Here, as a first step towards alternative, optimised coatings, a PVD TiN coating has been deposited on tool steels, as previous attempts have proved TiN to be rather successful in cold rolling experiments [2,3]. Different tribological tests are reported here, giving insight in both anti-adhesive properties and fatigue life improvement.

  3. Effects of K-Reactor pre-operational cold flow testing on total suspended solids in Pen Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, E.W.

    1991-12-01

    Total suspended solids (TSS) levels were monitored by SRL Environmental Sciences personnel at two locations in the Pen Branch Creek system in conjunction with K Reactor cold flow (pump) testing required as part of the reactor restart effort. The TSS data were compared with flow and rainfall data collected simultaneously in an effort to obtain insight on the suspension and movement for particulate material in the Pen Branch system in response to natural and operational causes. Pump testing clearly caused higher TSS levels at the two sampling locations. The artificially elevated TSS levels were more pronounced at a sampling location near the reactor than at a sampling location farther downstream. Although the environmental data provided by this study were obtained and used exclusively for process control and research purposes, rather than for formal regulatory compliance (i.e. NPDES monitoring), the TSS levels determined by the comprehensive testing were compared with NPDES limits required at various SRS outfalls. TSS values in Pen Branch were seldom in excess of these limits. Because of the relatively few times that TSS values at the two sampling locations exceeded typical'' NPDES limits, and the fact that occasional relatively high TSS values could clearly be solely attributed to rainfall, it was concluded that no major adverse environmental impacts were caused to the Pen Branch system as a result of the K-Reactor pre-operational pump testing.

  4. Effects of K-Reactor pre-operational cold flow testing on total suspended solids in Pen Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, E.W.

    1991-12-01

    Total suspended solids (TSS) levels were monitored by SRL Environmental Sciences personnel at two locations in the Pen Branch Creek system in conjunction with K Reactor cold flow (pump) testing required as part of the reactor restart effort. The TSS data were compared with flow and rainfall data collected simultaneously in an effort to obtain insight on the suspension and movement for particulate material in the Pen Branch system in response to natural and operational causes. Pump testing clearly caused higher TSS levels at the two sampling locations. The artificially elevated TSS levels were more pronounced at a sampling location near the reactor than at a sampling location farther downstream. Although the environmental data provided by this study were obtained and used exclusively for process control and research purposes, rather than for formal regulatory compliance (i.e. NPDES monitoring), the TSS levels determined by the comprehensive testing were compared with NPDES limits required at various SRS outfalls. TSS values in Pen Branch were seldom in excess of these limits. Because of the relatively few times that TSS values at the two sampling locations exceeded ``typical`` NPDES limits, and the fact that occasional relatively high TSS values could clearly be solely attributed to rainfall, it was concluded that no major adverse environmental impacts were caused to the Pen Branch system as a result of the K-Reactor pre-operational pump testing.

  5. Analysis of a double-ended cold-leg break simulation: THTF Test 3. 05. 5B. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craddick, W.G.; Pevey, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    On July 3, 1980, an experiment was performed in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility that simulated a double-ended cold-leg break pressurized-water reactor (PWR) accident. Analysis of the experiment revealed that nuclear fuel rods exposed to the same hydrodynamic environment as that which existed in the experiment would have departed from nucleate boiling both earlier and later than the fuel rod simulator (FRS), depending on the size of the gap between the nuclear fuel pellets and cladding and on the initial power of the nuclear fuel rod. Comparison of the results of the current experiment, which used an FRS bundle with geometry similar to 17 x 17 PWR fuel assemblies, to the results of earlier experiments, which used an FRS bundle with geometry similar to 15 x 15 PWR fuel assemblies, revealed no differences that can be attributed to the difference in geometries.

  6. Byggmeister Test Home: Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals and verified implementation. With the high exposure of energy efficiency and retrofit terminology being used in the general media at this time, it is important to have evidence that measures being proposed will in fact benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. There are several basic areas of research to which the technical report for these test homes can be expected to contribute. These include the combination of measures that is feasible, affordable and acceptable to homeowners as well as expectations versus results. Two Byggmeister multi-family test homes in Massachusetts are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes.

  7. Assessment of RELAP/MOD3 using BETHSY 6.2TC 6-inch cold leg side break comparative test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Young-Jong; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kim, Dong-Su

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the RELAP5/MOD3 Version 7j assessment on BETHSY 6.2TC. BETHSY 6.2TC test corresponding to a six inch cold leg break LOCA of the Pressurizer Water Reactor(PWR). The primary objective of the test was to provide reference data of two facilities of different scales (BETHSY and LSTF facility). On the other hand, the present calculation aims at analysis of RELAP5/N4OD3 capability on the small break LOCA simulation, The results of calculation have shown that the RELAP5/MOD3 reasonably predicts occurrences as well as trends of the major phenomena such as primary pressure, timing of loop seal clearing, liquid hold up, etc. However, some disagreements also have been found in the predictions of loop seal clearing, collapsed core water level after loop seal clearing, and accumulator injection behaviors. For better understanding of discrepancies in same predictions, several sensitivity calculations have been performed as well. These include the changes of two-phase discharge coefficient at the break junction and some corrections of the interphase drag term. As result, change of a single parameter has not improved the overall predictions and it has been found that the interphase drag model has still large uncertainties.

  8. A Cold War Battlefield: Frenchman Flat Historic District, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, William Gray; Holz, Barbara A; Jones, Robert

    2000-08-01

    This report provides the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office with the documentation necessary to establish the Frenchman Flat Historic District on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It includes a list of historic properties that contribute to the eligibility of the district for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and provides contextual information establishing its significance. The list focuses on buildings, structures and features associated with the period of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS between 1951 and 1962. A total of 157 locations of buildings and structures were recorded of which 115 are considered to be eligible for the NRHP. Of these, 28 have one or more associated features which include instrumentation supports, foundations, etc. The large majority of contributing structures are buildings built to study the blast effects of nuclear weaponry. This has resulted in a peculiar accumulation of deteriorated structures that, unlike most historic districts, is best represented by those that are the most damaged. Limitations by radiological control areas, surface exposure and a focus on the concentration of accessible properties on the dry lake bed indicate additional properties exist which could be added to the district on a case-by-case basis.

  9. Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01

    -savings at this area. Namely, we may use the combination of evaporative cooling, dehumidifier and mechanical cooling to save energy for air-conditioning....

  10. Harsh conditions can't contain researchers' efforts to test radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harsh conditions can't contain researchers' efforts to test radiation detection systems | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People...

  11. Brief Chilling to Subzero Temperature Increases Cold Hardiness in the Hatchling Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    freezing when cooled in the presence or absence of ice and exogenous ice nuclei. Survival following tests174 Brief Chilling to Subzero Temperature Increases Cold Hardiness in the Hatchling Painted Turtle-acclimated turtles were "cold conditioned" by chilling them in the supercooled (unfrozen) state to 7 C over a few

  12. Formation of H2-He Substellar Bodies in Cold Conditions: Gravitational Stability of Binary Mixtures in a Phase Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Füglistaler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Molecular clouds consist typically of 3/4 H2, 1/4 He and traces of heavier elements. In an earlier work we showed that at very low temperatures and high densities, H2 can be in a phase transition leading to the formation of ice clumps as large as comets, or even planets. However, He has very different chemical properties and no phase transition is expected before H2 in dense ISM conditions. The gravitational stability of fluid mixtures has been studied before, but not including a phase transition. We study the gravitational stability of binary fluid mixtures with special emphasis if one component is in a phase transition. The results are aimed at applications in molecular cloud conditions. We study the gravitational stability of van der Waals fluid mixtures using linearised analysis and examine virial equilibrium conditions using the Lennard-Jones inter-molecular potential. Then, combining the Lennard-Jones and gravitational potentials, the non-linear dynamics of fluid mixtures are studied using the molecular...

  13. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  14. Test-Suite Reduction and Prioritization for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrold, Mary Jean

    Test-Suite Reduction and Prioritization for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage James A. Jones condition/decision coverage (MC/DC) adequate. Despite its cost, there is evidence that MC/DC is an effective verification technique and can help to uncover safety faults. As the software is modified and new test cases

  15. THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3: A TEST FOR STELLAR FEEDBACK, GALACTIC OUTFLOWS, AND COLD STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Sijing; Madau, Piero; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Guedes, Javiera [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mayer, Lucio [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-9057 Zurich (Switzerland); Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-03-10

    We present new results on the kinematics, thermal and ionization state, and spatial distribution of metal-enriched gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of massive galaxies at redshift {approx}3, using the Eris suite of cosmological hydrodynamic ''zoom-in'' simulations. The reference run adopts a blastwave scheme for supernova feedback that produces large-scale galactic outflows, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold, metal-dependent radiative cooling, and a model for the diffusion of metals and thermal energy. The effect of the local UV radiation field is added in post-processing. The CGM (defined as all gas at R > 0.2 R{sub vir} = 10 kpc, where R{sub vir} is the virial radius) contains multiple phases having a wide range of physical conditions, with more than half of its heavy elements locked in a warm-hot component at T > 10{sup 5} K. Synthetic spectra, generated by drawing sightlines through the CGM, produce interstellar absorption-line strengths of Ly{alpha}, C II, C IV, Si II, and Si IV as a function of the galactocentric impact parameter (scaled to the virial radius) that are in broad agreement with those observed at high redshift by Steidel et al. The covering factor of absorbing material declines less rapidly with impact parameter for Ly{alpha} and C IV compared to C II, Si IV, and Si II, with Ly{alpha} remaining strong (W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 300 mA) to {approx}> 5 R{sub vir} = 250 kpc. Only about one third of all the gas within R{sub vir} is outflowing. The fraction of sightlines within one virial radius that intercept optically thick, N{sub H{sub I}}>10{sup 17.2} cm{sup -2} material is 27%, in agreement with recent observations by Rudie et al. Such optically thick absorption is shown to trace inflowing ''cold'' streams that penetrate deep inside the virial radius. The streams, enriched to metallicities above 0.01 solar by previous episodes of star formation in the main host and in nearby dwarfs, are the origin of strong (N{sub C{sub II}}>10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}) C II absorption with a covering factor of 22% within R{sub vir} and 10% within 2 R{sub vir}. Galactic outflows do not cause any substantial suppression of the cold accretion mode. The central galaxy is surrounded by a large O VI halo, with a typical column density N{sub O{sub VI}} {approx}> 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and a near unity covering factor maintained all the way out to 150 kpc. This matches the trends recently observed in star-forming galaxies at low redshift by Tumlinson et al. Our zoom-in simulations of this single system appear then to reproduce quantitatively the complex baryonic processes that determine the exchange of matter, energy, and metals between galaxies and their surroundings.

  16. Effect of testing conditions and doping on superplastic creep of alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    716 Effect of testing conditions and doping on superplastic creep of alumina P. Gruffel, P. Carry. pressive creep tests at 1450 °C [3]. It was un- ambiguously established that: - normal grain growth took superplastic deformation. Fig. 1. Strain rate variations during creep tests in compression C and tension

  17. Thermo-mechanical analysis of a DEMO divertor under the EFREMOV test conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cizelj, Leon

    Thermo-mechanical analysis of a DEMO divertor under the EFREMOV test conditions Igor Simonovski as a boundary condition in a thermo-mechanical analysis of the divertor. The analysis is performed for a number to Fusion Engineering and Design May 11, 2009 #12;Key words: thermo-mechanical analysis, divertor, He

  18. Comment on Li pellet conditioning in tokamak fusion test reactor R. V. Budny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budny, Robert

    Comment on Li pellet conditioning in tokamak fusion test reactor R. V. Budny Princeton Plasma; published online 9 September 2011) Li pellet conditioning in TFTR results in a reduction of the edge technique for introducing Li is via pellet injection. This was pioneered in ALCATOR- CMOD where it was first

  19. Test-Suite Reduction and Prioritization for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrold, Mary Jean

    Test-Suite Reduction and Prioritization for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage James A. Jones (MC/DC) adequate. Despite its cost, there is evidence that MC/DC is an effective verification technique, and can help to uncover safety faults. As the software is modified and new test cases are added

  20. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring During GRC Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.; Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Veers, P.; Keller, J.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-10-01

    This report will present the wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring (CM) research conducted under the phase 1 and phase 2 Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) tests. The rationale and approach for this drivetrain CM research, investigated CM systems, test configuration and results, and a discussion on challenges in wind turbine drivetrain CM and future research and development areas, will be presented.

  1. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, P.G. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  2. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 6. Thermal-hydraulic test facility experimental data report for test 3. 05. 5B - double-ended cold-leg break simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.; Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1982-05-18

    Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) Test 3.05.5B was conducted by members of the ORNL PWR Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program on July 3, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small and large break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test 3.05.5B was designed to provide transient thermal-hydraulics data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. Reduced instrument responses are presented. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

  3. Accident Conditions versus Regulatory Test for NRC-Approved UF6 Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLS, G. SCOTT; AMMERMAN, DOUGLAS J.; LOPEZ, CARLOS

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approves new package designs for shipping fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}. Currently there are three packages approved by the NRC for domestic shipments of fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}: NCI-21PF-1; UX-30; and ESP30X. For approval by the NRC, packages must be subjected to a sequence of physical tests to simulate transportation accident conditions as described in 10 CFR Part 71. The primary objective of this project was to relate the conditions experienced by these packages in the tests described in 10 CFR Part 71 to conditions potentially encountered in actual accidents and to estimate the probabilities of such accidents. Comparison of the effects of actual accident conditions to 10 CFR Part 71 tests was achieved by means of computer modeling of structural effects on the packages due to impacts with actual surfaces, and thermal effects resulting from test and other fire scenarios. In addition, the likelihood of encountering bodies of water or sufficient rainfall to cause complete or partial immersion during transport over representative truck routes was assessed. Modeled effects, and their associated probabilities, were combined with existing event-tree data, plus accident rates and other characteristics gathered from representative routes, to derive generalized probabilities of encountering accident conditions comparable to the 10 CFR Part 71 conditions. This analysis suggests that the regulatory conditions are unlikely to be exceeded in real accidents, i.e. the likelihood of UF{sub 6} being dispersed as a result of accident impact or fire is small. Moreover, given that an accident has occurred, exposure to water by fire-fighting, heavy rain or submersion in a body of water is even less probable by factors ranging from 0.5 to 8E-6.

  4. Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael

    2010-05-15

    A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

  5. Drug testing example for conditional probability Suppose that a drug test for an illegal drug is such that it is 98% accurate in the case of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, Louis J.

    Drug testing example for conditional probability Suppose that a drug test for an illegal drug .98 in the case that the tested individual uses the drug) and 90% accurate in the case of a non it is known that 10% of the entire population uses this drug. You test someone and the test is positive. What

  6. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Rahman, O.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  7. On Sufficient Conditions for Testing Optimality of Codewords in ISI Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    On Sufficient Conditions for Testing Optimality of Codewords in ISI Channels Fabian Lim1 if a codeword is optimal, for intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. I. INTRODUCTION The maximum interference (ISI) channels, where (channel) memory is present. The techniques for the memoryless channels

  8. Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate...

  9. Early Mars climate near the NoachianHesperian boundary: Independent evidence for cold conditions from basal melting of the south polar ice sheet (Dorsa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    from basal melting of the south polar ice sheet (Dorsa Argentea Formation) and implications for valley of the Amazonian, the mean annual surface temperatures of Mars are so cold that basal melting does not occur in ice-developed eskers (sediment-filled former sub-glacial meltwater chan- nels) in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea

  10. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests are met for all configurations: one, two, or three fans (normal).

  11. Effect of test conditions and sample configuration on the AMTEC electrode/electrolyte characteristics measurements in the Sodium Exposure Test Cell experiment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azimov, Ulughbek Bakhadirovich

    2001-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of test conditions and sample configuration on the AMTEC electrode/electrolyte characteristic measurements in a Sodium Exposure Test Cell (SETC). The ...

  12. Test Anxiety is a psychological condition experienced by a very small percentage of individuals. Test Anxiety should be confirmed by a licensed counselor.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ·Test Anxiety is a psychological condition experienced by a very small percentage of individuals. Test Anxiety should be confirmed by a licensed counselor. ·Test Worry is the culmination of real or perceived pressure and expectations from yourself or others. Test Worry is often the result of varying

  13. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  14. cold standby

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowingFuelWeatherize »EvePlantEnergyinspection report isCold

  15. Drug testing example for conditional probability Suppose that a drug test for an illegal drug is such that it is 98% accurate in the case of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, Louis J.

    Drug testing example for conditional probability Suppose that a drug test for an illegal drug is such that it is 98% accurate in the case of a user of that drug (e.g. it produces a positive result with probability .98 in the case that the tested individual uses the drug) and 90% accurate in the case of a non

  16. Performance evaluation approach for the supercritical helium cold circulators of ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaghela, H.; Sarkar, B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Kapoor, H. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Chalifour, M.; Chang, H.-S.; Serio, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon - 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-01-29

    The ITER project design foresees Supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling for the main cryogenic components, namely, the superconducting (SC) magnets and cryopumps (CP). Therefore, cold circulators have been selected to provide the required SHe mass flow rate to cope with specific operating conditions and technical requirements. Considering the availability impacts of such machines, it has been decided to perform evaluation tests of the cold circulators at operating conditions prior to the series production in order to minimize the project technical risks. A proposal has been conceptualized, evaluated and simulated to perform representative tests of the full scale SHe cold circulators. The objectives of the performance tests include the validation of normal operating condition, transient and off-design operating modes as well as the efficiency measurement. A suitable process and instrumentation diagram of the test valve box (TVB) has been developed to implement the tests at the required thermodynamic conditions. The conceptual engineering design of the TVB has been developed along with the required thermal analysis for the normal operating conditions to support the performance evaluation of the SHe cold circulator.

  17. Testing the Boundary Conditions of General Relativity Near the Earth-Sun Saddle Point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Martin

    1999-06-03

    We suggest that a satellite with a stable atomic clock on board be sent through the Earth-Sun gravitational saddle point to experimentally determine whether Nature prefers static solutions of the field equations of General Relativity, such as the standard Schwarzschild solution, or whether Nature prefers equivalent non-static solutions. This is a test of the boundary conditions of General Relativity rather than of the field equations. The fractional difference in clock rates between the two possibilities is a part in a hundred million. This is a large and easily measurable effect.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSOR NETWORK TEST BED FOR ISD MATERIALS AND STRUCUTRAL CONDITION MONITORING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-07-06

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  19. Cold Test Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode Cluster CompatibilityCoalCode

  20. A test platform for measuring the energy efficiency of AC induction motors under various loading conditions and control schemes/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granata, John A. (John Anthony)

    2012-01-01

    A test platform was developed to measure and compare the energy efficiency of an AC induction motor under steady-state and cyclical loading conditions while operating in both a constant speed mode and while performing speed ...

  1. Testing of a Hydrogen Diffusion Flame Array Injector at Gas Turbine Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, Nathan T.; Sidwell, Todd G.; Strakey, Peter A.

    2013-07-03

    High-hydrogen gas turbines enable integration of carbon sequestration into coal-gasifying power plants, though NO{sub x} emissions are often high. This work explores nitrogen dilution of hydrogen diffusion flames to reduce thermal NO{sub x} emissions and avoid problems with premixing hydrogen at gas turbine pressures and temperatures. The burner design includes an array of high-velocity coaxial fuel and air injectors, which balances stability and ignition performance, combustor pressure drop, and flame residence time. Testing of this array injector at representative gas turbine conditions (16 atm and 1750 K firing temperature) yields 4.4 ppmv NO{sub x} at 15% O{sub 2} equivalent. NO{sub x} emissions are proportional to flame residence times, though these deviate from expected scaling due to active combustor cooling and merged flame behavior. The results demonstrate that nitrogen dilution in combination with high velocities can provide low NO{sub x} hydrogen combustion at gas turbine conditions, with significant potential for further NO{sub x} reductions via suggested design changes.

  2. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Asphalt Shingles in a Cold Climate, Boilingbrook, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels ResearchofDerivativeCold Climate FoundationTotal Heating andTesting

  3. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poerschke, Andrew; Stecher, Dave

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  4. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  5. NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Comparing In-Field Gearbox Response to Different Dynamometer Test Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; Wallen, R.; McNiff, B.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of NREL's Gearbox Reliability Collaborative comparison of dynamometer tests conducted on a 750-kW gearbox to field testing.

  6. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  7. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under degraded conditions. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 threeton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion...

  8. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stecher, Dave; Poerschke, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the Building America team, IBACOS, sought to determine cost-effective, energy-efficient solutions for heating and cooling houses. To this end, the team performed field testing in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California, to evaluate three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. These included a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  9. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stecher, D.; Poerschke, A.

    2014-02-01

    Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems -- a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms -- were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  10. Numerical analysis of thermal-hydrological conditions in the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Yvonne W.

    1998-01-01

    Single Heater Test at Yucca Mountain, LBNL-39789, E.O. Law­Single Heater Test at Yucca Mountain Jens T. Birkholzer andwaste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the

  11. Test versus predictions for rotordynamic coefficients and leakage rates of hole-pattern gas seals at two clearances in choked and unchoked conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Jonathan Leigh

    2004-09-30

    This thesis documents the results of high pressure testing of hole-pattern annular gas seals conducted at the Texas A&M University's Turbomachinery Laboratory. The testing conditions were aimed at determining the test seals ...

  12. Surge recovery techniques for the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Makara, J.N.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, made by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/s of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/s and operating speeds between 40 and 95 krpm. Since initial commissioning in 1993, Tevatron transient conditions such as quench recovery have led to multiple-location machine trips as a result of the cold compressors entering the surge regime. Historically, compressors operating at lower inlet pressures and higher speeds have been especially susceptible to these machine trips and it was not uncommon to have multiple compressor trips during large multiple-house quenches. In order to cope with these events and limit accelerator down time, surge recovery techniques have been implemented in an attempt to prevent the compressors from tripping once the machine entered this surge regime. This paper discusses the different methods of surge recovery that have been employed. Data from tests performed at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab as well as actual Tevatron operational data were utilized. In order to aid in the determination of the surge region, a full mapping study was undertaken to characterize the entire pressure field of the cold compressor. These techniques were then implemented and tested at several locations in the Tevatron with some success.

  13. Implicit Measurement of Extraversion and Agreeableness Using Conditional Reasoning Tests: The Impact of Faking 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, Jennifer

    2015-08-07

    ................................................................................................. 58 5. Example Conditional Reasoning Item for Agreeableness .................................... 66 6. Sample Size by Condition .................................................................................... 73 7. CRT_FG_NR: Illogical Responses... Chosen by Participants ................................ 87 8. CRT_FG_R: Illogical Responses Chosen by Participants ................................... 88 9. CRT_H_NR: Illogical Responses Chosen by Participants................................... 89 10...

  14. Microgram-Scale Testing of Reaction Conditions in Solution Using Nanoliter Plugs in Microfluidics with Detection by MALDI-MS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Microgram-Scale Testing of Reaction Conditions in Solution Using Nanoliter Plugs in Microfluidics-mail: r-ismagilov@uchicago.edu This paper describes a microfluidic system to screen and optimize organic solutions. Previously, we demonstrated the use of a microfabricated PDMS plug-based microfluidic system

  15. Context and Usability Testing: User-Modeled Information Presentation in Easy and Difficult Driving Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, John; Winterboer, Andi; Nass, Clifford; Moore, Johanna D.

    2010-11-03

    A 2x2 enhanced Wizard-of-Oz experiment (N = 32) was conducted to compare two different approaches to presenting information to drivers in easy and difficult driving conditions. Data of driving safety, evaluation of ...

  16. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T., E-mail: armen@phy.syr.edu, E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1130 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  17. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  18. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review Cold Smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Cold Smoke is a dense white smoke produced by the reaction of titanium tetrachloride and aqueous ammonia aerosols. Early studies on the toxicity of this nonpyrotechnically generated smoke indicated that the smoke itself is essentially non-toxic (i.e. exhibits to systemic toxicity or organ damage due to exposure) under normal deployment conditions. The purpose of this evaluation was to review and summarize the recent literature data available on the toxicity of Cold Smoke, its chemical constituents, and its starting materials.

  19. Accelerated high-temperature tests with spent PWR and BWR fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porsch, G.; Fleisch, J.; Heits, B.

    1986-09-01

    Accelerated high-temperature tests on 25 intact pressurized water and boiling water reactor rods were conducted for more than 16 months at 400, 430, and 450/sup 0/C in a helium gas atmosphere. The pretest characterized rods were examined by nondestructive methods after each of the three test cycles. No cladding breaches occurred and the creep deformation remained below 1%, which was in good agreement with model calculations. The test atmospheres were analyzed for /sup 85/Kr and tritium. The /sup 85/Kr concentrations were negligible and the tritium release agreed with the theoretical predictions. It can be concluded that for Zircaloy-clad fuel, cladding temperatures up to 450/sup 0/C are acceptable for dry storage in inert cover gases.

  20. Some Calculations for Cold Fusion Superheavy Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, X H; Ning, P Z

    2004-01-01

    The Q value and optimal exciting energy of the hypothetical superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reaction are calculated with relativistic mean field model and semiemperical shell model mass equation(SSME) and the validity of the two models is tested. The fusion barriers are also calculated with two different models and reasonable results are obtained. The calculations can give useful references for the experiments in the superheavy nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions.

  1. Implications of Theoretical Ideas Regarding Cold Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afsar Abbas

    1995-03-29

    A lot of theoretical ideas have been floated to explain the so called cold fusion phenomenon. I look at a large subset of these and study further physical implications of the concepts involved. I suggest that these can be tested by other independent physical means. Because of the significance of these the experimentalists are urged to look for these signatures. The results in turn will be important for a better understanding and hence control of the cold fusion phenomenon.

  2. Some Calculations for Cold Fusion Superheavy Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. H. Zhong; L. Li; P. Z. Ning

    2004-10-18

    The Q value and optimal exciting energy of the hypothetical superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reaction are calculated with relativistic mean field model and semiemperical shell model mass equation(SSME) and the validity of the two models is tested. The fusion barriers are also calculated with two different models and reasonable results are obtained. The calculations can give useful references for the experiments in the superheavy nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions.

  3. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates.

  4. ISSUANCE 2015-12-11: Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

  5. Testing executive function models of ADHD and its comorbid conditions: A latent variable approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dong Hyung

    2005-11-01

    (ADHD) is a psychiatric condition characterized by three major symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD is usually first diagnosed during elementary school years when school adjustment is compromised (American Psychiatric... with ADHD due to their working memory deficits, their attention is often easily distracted and redirected to other stimuli in their environments; this distraction is observed by others as hyperactivity and impulsivity. While disinhibition is a...

  6. Drug testing Example for Conditional Probability and Bayes Theorem Suppose that a drug test for an illegal drug is such that it is 98% accurate in the case of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, Louis J.

    Drug testing Example for Conditional Probability and Bayes Theorem Suppose that a drug test a positive result with probability .98 in the case that the tested individual uses the drug) and 90% accurate not use the drug). Suppose it is known that 10% of the entire population uses this drug. You test someone

  7. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-19

    Traditionally, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) have been used more often in warmer climates; however, some new ASHPs are gaining ground in colder areas. These systems operate at subzero (Fahrenheit) temperatures and many do not include backup electric resistance elements. There are still uncertainties, however, about capacity and efficiency in cold weather. Also, questions such as “how cold is too cold?” do not have clear answers. These uncertainties could lead to skepticism among homeowners; poor energy savings estimates; suboptimal system selection by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors; and inconsistent energy modeling. In an effort to better understand and characterize the heating performance of these units in cold climates, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven, ductless ASHPs across the Northeast. Operating data were collected for three Mitsubishi FE18 units, three Mitsubishi FE12 units, and one Fujitsu 15RLS2 unit. The intent of this research was to assess heat output, electricity consumption, and coefficients of performance (COPs) at various temperatures and load conditions. This assessment was accomplished with long- and short-term tests that measured power consumption; supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures; and airflow through the indoor fan coil.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-11-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  9. Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

    2006-01-01

    non-uniform so that residents usually feel uncomfortable. The distribution of indoor airflow by cold air distribution is researched in this paper. We study indoor air distribution under different low temperature air supply conditions by numerical...

  10. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Boundary conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12to the Problem of Cold Start 1.1 Polymer—Electrolyte Fuelin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”

  11. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Stuart, FL); Sanders, Stuart A. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  12. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in...

  13. Cold Climates Heat Pump Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Heat pumps provide an efficient heating method; however they suffer from sever capacity and performance degradation at low ambient conditions. This has deterred market penetration in cold climates. There is a continuing effort to find an efficient air source cold climate heat pump that maintains acceptable capacity and performance at low ambient conditions. Systematic optimization techniques provide a reliable approach for the design of such systems. This paper presents a step-by-step approach for the design optimization of cold climate heat pumps. We first start by describing the optimization problem: objective function, constraints, and design space. Then we illustrate how to perform this design optimization using an open source publically available optimization toolbox. The response of the heat pump design was evaluated using a validated component based vapor compression model. This model was treated as a black box model within the optimization framework. Optimum designs for different system configurations are presented. These optimum results were further analyzed to understand the performance tradeoff and selection criteria. The paper ends with a discussion on the use of systematic optimization for the cold climate heat pump design.

  14. Be prepared. Learn how to drive in winter conditions. Winter weather challenges our

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    Be prepared. Learn how to drive in winter conditions. Winter weather challenges our driving skills in cold weather. Watch for"black ice", areas of the road with a thin, almost invisible coating of ice weather. Mother Nature's road test. Know before you go. ShiftIntoWinter.ca | DriveBC.ca This information

  15. Cold starting capabilities of petroleum and syntehetic lubricants in heavy-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margeson, M.A.; Belmesch, B.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the work described in this paper was to compare the cold weather starting ability of diesel engines lubricated with SAE 15W-40 petroleum and SAE 5W-30 synthetic motor oil. Laboratory bench tests were used to compare rhelogical features such as borderline pumping temperature and cold cranking simulator profiles. A cold box provided a well controlled environment in which cranking and starting studies were carried out on the two oils in a turbocharged diesel engine. The SAE 5W-30 synthetic exhibited higher cranking speeds, lower starter amperage draw and immediate oil pressure readings when compared to the SAE l5W-40 petroleum. The SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil was safely started at {minus} l0 {sup 0}F oil temperature without auxiliary heaters. The comparative cylinder turbocharged diesel engines representing conditions commonly found in the commercial and off-highway sectors, These studies indicate that combining high capacity cold cranking amperage batteries, high pressure ether aid injection, and SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil resulted in a system that safely starts diesel engines down to actual oil temperatures of at least {minus} 10 {sup 0}F.

  16. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  17. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  18. Investigation and demonstration of a rich combustor cold-start device for alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, J.W.; Irick, D.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have completed a study in which they investigated the use of a rich combustor to aid in cold starting spark-ignition engines fueled with either neat ethanol or neat methanol. The rich combustor burns the alcohol fuel outside the engine under fuel-rich conditions to produce a combustible product stream that is fed to the engine for cold starting. The rich combustor approach significantly extends the cold starting capability of alcohol-fueled engines. A design tool was developed that simulates the operation of the combustor and couples it to an engine/vehicle model. This tool allows the user to determine the fuel requirements of the rich combustor as the vehicle executes a given driving mission. The design tool was used to design and fabricate a rich combustor for use on a 2.8 L automotive engine. The system was tested using a unique cold room that allows the engine to be coupled to an electric dynamometer. The engine was fitted with an aftermarket engine control system that permitted the fuel flow to the rich combustor to be programmed as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. Testing indicated that reliable cold starts were achieved on both neat methanol and neat ethanol at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C. Although starts were experienced at temperatures as low as {minus}30 C, these were erratic. They believe that an important factor at the very low temperatures is the balance between the high mechanical friction of the engine and the low energy density of the combustible mixture fed to the engine from the rich combustor.

  19. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  20. Cold worked ferritic alloys and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K. (Wexford, PA)

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid metal fast breeder reactor and steam generator precipitation hardening fully ferritic alloy components which have a microstructure substantially free of the primary precipitation hardening phase while having cells or arrays of dislocations of varying population densities. It also relates to the process by which these components are produced, which entails solution treating the alloy followed by a final cold working step. In this condition, the first significant precipitation hardening of the component occurs during high temperature use.

  1. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Cold Work Embrittlement of Interstitial Free Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John T Bowker; Pierre Martin

    2002-10-31

    This work addresses the issues of measurement of secondary cold work embrittlement (SCWE) of an IF steel in deep-drawn parts using laboratory tests, and its correlation with real part fracture. It aimed at evaluating the influence of the steel chemistry and processing condition, microstructure, and test conditions, on SCWE as well as the effect of SCWE on fatigue properties. Size 6-in. cups produced with various draw ratios or trimmed at different heights were tested to determine the ductile-to-brittle-transition temperature (DBTT) as a function of strain. The 2-in. cup/expansion test, bend test and fracture of notched specimens were also used to generate information complementary to that provided by the 6-inch cup/expansion test. The relationship between laboratory tests and fracture in real parts was established by testing large-scale parts. The fatigue behavior was investigated in the as-rolled and deep drawn (high stain) conditions, using prestrained specimens taken from the wall of a formed part.

  2. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  3. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  4. Peregrinations on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, L.

    1989-01-01

    Attention is focused on the possibility of resonance-enhanced deuteron Coulomb barrier penetration. Because of the many-body nature of the interactions of room-temperature deuterons diffusing through a lattice possessing deuterons in many of the interstitial positions, the diffusing deuterons can resonate on the atomic scale in the potential wells bounded by the ascending walls of adjacent Coulomb barriers and thereby penetrate the Coulomb barriers in a fashion vastly underestimated by two-body calculations in which wells for possible resonance are absent. Indeed, perhaps the lack of robust reproducibility in cold fusion originates from the narrowness of such transmission resonances. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Effects of testing conditions on conceptual survey results Lin Ding, Neville W. Reay, Albert Lee, and Lei Bao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Lei

    , and Lei Bao Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA Received 2 March took both the pre-test and post-test of the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism under electricity and magnetism E&M course at The Ohio State University OSU . The administration of the CSEM took

  6. Economical Analysis of the Cold Air Distribution System: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly introduce the super cold air distribution technique. By comparing the schemes of two air conditioning systems, including a modified air conditioning system, this paper analyzes the technique parameters and the economics...

  7. Pressure field study of the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebaner, A.L.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2003-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/sec of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/sec. Operating speeds are between 40 and 95 krpm, with a speed of 80 krpm at the design point. Different heat loads and magnet quench performance of each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators dictates different process pressure and flow rates of the cold compressors. Reducing the process flow rate can cause the centrifugal cold compressor to stop pumping and subsequently surge. Tests have been conducted at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab to map the pressure field and appropriate efficiency of the IHI hydrodynamic cold compressor. The information allows tuning of each of the twenty-four Tevatron satellite refrigerators to avoid cold compressor operation near the surge and choke lines. A new impeller has also been tested. The Tevatron cold compressor pressure field and efficiency data with the new impeller are presented in this paper.

  8. Cold condensation of dust in the ISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouillé, Gaël; Krasnokutski, Serge A; Krebsz, Melinda; Henning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The condensation of complex silicates with pyroxene and olivine composition at conditions prevailing in molecular clouds has been experimentally studied. For this purpose, molecular species comprising refractory elements were forced to accrete on cold substrates representing the cold surfaces of surviving dust grains in the interstellar medium. The efficient formation of amorphous and homogeneous magnesium iron silicates at temperatures of about 12 K has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The gaseous precursors of such condensation processes in the interstellar medium are formed by erosion of dust grains in supernova shock waves. In the laboratory, we have evaporated glassy silicate dust analogs and embedded the released species in neon ice matrices that have been studied spectroscopically to identify the molecular precursors of the condensing solid silicates. A sound coincidence between the 10 micron band of the interstellar silicates and the 10 micron band of the low-temperature siliceous condensates can be...

  9. Design, fabrication, and testing of a multichannel microfluidic device to dynamically control oxygen concentration conditions in-vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Rosa H

    2008-01-01

    Multilayer microfluidic devices were designed and fabricated such that an array of different oxygen concentrations could be applied to a testing area in any desired sequence and with unconstraint application times. The ...

  10. Cold isopressing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Stawisuck, Valerie M. (North Tonawanda, NY); Prasad, Ravi (East Amherst, NY)

    2003-01-01

    A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

  11. The Evolution and Life Cycle of Valley Cold Pools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Travis Harold

    2015-01-01

    Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Adiabatic Cold Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  12. Analysis of an industrial cogeneration unit driven by a gas engine. Part 1: Experimental testing under full and part-load operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Lucia, M.; Lanfranchi, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes and analyzes an industrial cogeneration plant driven by a gas fueled reciprocating engine installed in a textile factory. It presents the results of experimental testing conducted under full and part-load operating conditions, as well as first-law energy considerations. The experimental tests conducted on the cogeneration unit proved the validity of the plant design and also enabled evaluation of part-load performance, which is the most common operating mode in cogeneration plants in the small-size industries which typical of central Italy.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W. Travis; Groll, Eckhard A.; Braun, James E.

    2014-06-01

    The primary goals of the proposed project were to develop, test, and evaluate a high performance and cost-effective vapor compression air-source heat pump for use in cold climate regions. Vapor compression heat pumps are a proven technology, and have been used for many years to meet heating requirements for buildings in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. However, in climate regions that experience very low outdoor ambient temperatures both the heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of traditional air-source vapor compression heat pumps drops dramatically with a decrease in the outdoor air temperature. The efficiency of heat pumping equipment has improved substantially over the past 20 years; however, the efficiencies of the highest rated equipment on the market are approaching practical limits that cannot be surpassed without modifications to the basic cycle and possibly the use of additional hardware. In this report, three technologies to improve the efficiency of vapor compression systems are described. These are a) vapor injected compression, b) oil flooded compression and c) hybrid flow control of the evaporator. Compressor prototypes for both, oil flooded and vapor injected compression were developed by Emerson Climate Technologies. For the oil flooded compressor, the oil injection port location was optimized and an internal oil separator was added using several design iterations. After initial testing at Emerson Climate Technologies, further testing was done at Purdue University, and compressor models were developed. These models were then integrated into a system model to determine the achievable improvement of seasonal energy efficiency (SEER) for Minneapolis (Minnesota) climate. For the oil flooded compression, a 34% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency was found while a 21% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency ratio was found for the vapor injected compression. It was found that one benefit of both tested compression technologies is a lower discharge temperature, which allows for continued operation at lower ambient temperatures. A bin analysis of the vapor injected prototype cold climate heat pump predicts a 6% improvement in HSPF for Minneapolis. This improvement is mainly a result of the increased capacity of the system for active vapor injection. For the oil flooded system, a slightly larger performance improvement is predicted, in this case mostly caused by an increase in heating COP. Based on an economic analysis of these results, the maximum additional cost of the system changes, for the Minneapolis location, are $430 for the vapor injected system and $391 for the oil flooded system. These estimates assume that a 3-year simple payback period is accepted by the customer. For the hybrid flow control of evaporators, a new type of balancing valve was developed together with Emerson Climate technologies to reduce the cost of the control scheme. In contrast to conventional stepper motor valves, this valve requires less cables and can be driven by a cheaper output circuit on the control board. The correct valve size was determined in a dedicated test stand in several design iterations. The performance benefits of the hybrid control of the evaporator coil were determined for clean coil conditions as well as with partial blockage of the air inlet grille and under frosting conditions. For clean coil conditions, the benefits in terms of COP and capacity are negligible. However, significant benefits were noted for severely air-maldistributed operating conditions. For the H2-test, the maximum COP improvement of 17% along with a capacity improvement of nearly 40% was observed. Overall, the hybrid control scheme leads to a significant amount of performance improvement, if the air inlet conditions to the evaporator are maldistributed.

  14. Long term out-of-pile thermocouple tests in conditions representative for nuclear gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurie, M.; Fourrez, S.; Fuetterer, M. A.; Lapetite, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    During irradiation tests at high temperature, failure of commercial Inconel 600 sheathed thermocouples is commonly encountered. To understand and remedy this problem, out-of-pile tests were performed with thermocouples in carburizing atmospheres which can be assumed to be at least locally representative for High Temperature Reactors. The objective was to screen those thermocouples which would consecutively be used under irradiation. Two such screening tests have been performed with a set of thermocouples embedded in graphite (mainly conventional Type N thermocouples and thermocouples with innovative sheaths) in a dedicated furnace with helium flushing. Performance indicators such as thermal drift, insulation and loop resistance were monitored and compared to those from conventional Type N thermocouples. Several parameters were investigated: niobium sleeves, bending, thickness, sheath composition, temperature as well as the chemical environment. After the tests, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examinations were performed to analyze possible local damage in wires and in the sheath. The present paper describes the two experiments, summarizes results and outlines further work, in particular to further analyze the findings and to select suitable thermocouples for qualification under irradiation. (authors)

  15. Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions Appendix II The unique geology, hydrology and instream habitat. This chapter examines how environmental conditions in the Deschutes watershed affect, the discussion characterizes the environmental conditions within three watershed areas: the Lower Deschutes

  16. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  17. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  18. Airflow reduction during cold weather operation of residential heat recovery ventilators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGugan, C.A.; Edwards, P.F.; Riley, M.A.

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory measurements of the performance of residential heat recovery ventilators have been carried out for the R-2000 Energy Efficient Home Program. This work was based on a preliminary test procedure developed by the Canadian Standards Association, part of which calls for testing the HRV under cold weather conditions. An environmental chamber was used to simulate outdoor conditions. Initial tests were carried out with an outdoor temperature of -20/sup 0/C; subsequent tests were carried out at a temperature of -25/sup 0/C. During the tests, airflows, temperatures, and relative humidities of airstreams entering and leaving the HRV, along with electric power inputs, were monitored. Frost buildup in the heat exchangers and defrost mechanisms, such as fan shutoff or recirculation, led to reductions in airflows. The magnitude of the reductions is dependent on the design of the heat exchanger and the defrost mechanism used. This paper presents the results of tests performed on a number of HRVs commercially available in Canada at the time of the testing. The flow reductions for the various defrost mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatiblemore »with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-? turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.« less

  20. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatible with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-? turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.

  1. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963....

  2. Degradation of alumina and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) hip prostheses tested under microseparation conditions in a shock device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uribe, Juliana; Gremillard, Laurent; Reynard, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the degradation of alumina and zirconia toughened alumina vs. alumina for hip implants. The materials are as assumed to be load bearing surfaces subjected to shocks in wet conditions. The load is a peak of force; 9 kN was applied over 15 ms at 2 Hz for 800,000 cycles. The volumetric wear and roughness are lower for ZTA than for alumina. The long ZTA ageing did not seem to have a direct influence on the roughness. The ageing increased the wear volumes of ZTA and it was found to have a higher wear resistance compared to alumina.

  3. NESC VII European project: demonstration of warm pre-stressing effect in biaxial loading conditions - Bending tests on 18MND5 cruciform specimens and their interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacquemoud, C.; Yuritzinn, T.; Marie, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the NESC VII European project, a large experimental program has been dedicated to characterize the Warm Pre-Stressing (WPS) effect in different testing configurations. One of the CEA (France) contributions to this project is the realization of five point bending tests on large cruciform specimens considering different WPS loading cycles. The five cruciform specimens, sponsored by EDF (France) and IRSN (France), are made of 18MND5 steel. Two of them have been tested on a same LCF (Load-Cool-Fracture) loading cycle and two others on the same LCTF (Load-Cool-Transient-Fracture) loading cycle. The experimental results presented in this paper give a successful demonstration of the WPS effect in biaxial loading conditions either on a LCF or on a LCTF cycle. During the test interpretations, different models have then been tested and compared in order to evaluate their ability to predict the cleavage fracture in the case of different WPS loading cycles. They all provide very conservative predictions whatever loading cycle is concerned. (authors)

  4. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, Evan A [ORNL; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  5. NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment Overview and Preliminary Results NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment Overview and Preliminary Results NASA Cold Land ProcessesNASA Cold Land Processes Field properties using active and passive microwave remote sensing. NASA DC-8 Airborne Laboratory with AIRSAR

  6. Cold War Entanglements of Social ANDY BYFORD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    REVIEW Cold War Entanglements of Social Science ANDY BYFORD MLAC, Durham University, UK Cold War.00. The Cold War era the three decades between the end of the Second World War and the end of the Vietnam War of `America' s Cold War' (Farish, 2010). More speci cally, it focuses on the multiple ambiguous `entanglements

  7. Respiration Physiology (1984) 55, 367-377 367 MAXIMUM OXYGEN CONSUMPTION DURING EXERCISE AND COLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Wendy

    1984-01-01

    imposed high aerobic demands. Cold and exercise are commonly used to determine ~'o2max (e.g., Hart and Heroux, 1963; Pohl, 1965; Segrem and Hart, 1967a,b; Wunder, 1970; Rosenmann and Morrison, 1974; Lechner that avoided conditioning problems associated with exercise training regimes, and used cold exposure protocols

  8. Preliminary Market Assessment for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen; Khowailed, Gannate; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-09-01

    Cold climate heat pump (HP) technology is relevant to a substantial portion of the U.S. population, especially with more than one-third of U.S. housing stock concentrated in colder regions of the country and another 31% in the mixed-humid climate region. Specifically, it is estimated that in 2010 almost 1.37 million heating equipment units were shipped to the cold/very cold climate regions and that 1.41 million were shipped to the nation s mixed-humid region. On a national level, the trend in the last decade has indicated that shipments of gas furnaces have grown at a slower rate than HPs. This indicates a potential opportunity for the cold climate HP, a technology that may be initially slow to penetrate its potential market because of the less expensive operating and first costs of gas furnaces. Anticipated implementation of regional standards could also negatively affect gas furnace shipments, especially with the higher initial cost for more efficient gas furnaces. However, as of 2011, the fact that there are more than 500 gas furnace product models that already achieve the expected efficiency standard indicates that satisfying the regional standard will be a challenge but not an obstacle. A look at the heating fuel and equipment currently being used in the housing stock provides an insight into the competing equipment that cold climate HPs hope to replace. The primary target market for the cold climate HP is the 2.6 million U.S. homes using electric furnaces and HPs in the cold/very cold region. It is estimated that 4.75% of these homeowners either replace or buy new heating equipment in a given year. Accordingly, the project team could infer that the cold climate HP primary market is composed of 123,500 replacements of electric furnaces and conventional air-to-air HPs annually. A secondary housing market for the cold climate HP comprises homes in the mixed-humid region of the country that are using electric furnaces. Homes using gas furnaces across both the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions represent another secondary market for the cold climate HP. The cold climate HP could also target as a secondary market homes across both the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions that use propane and fuel oil as their primary heating fuel. The combined total of homes in these three secondary markets is 46 million, and we can also infer that about 2.2 million of these systems are replaced annually. When comparing heating equipment stock in 2001, 2005, and 2009 in the cold/very cold region of the country, it appears that gas furnaces are slowly losing market share and that electric furnaces and HPs are making gains. The fact that electricity-dependent heating equipment is rising in preference among homeowners in the colder regions of the country shows that future penetration of the cold climate HP holds promise. Accordingly, cold climate HP technology could achieve an attractive position, given certain favorable market conditions such as reaching a competitive cost point, strong federal incentives, a consistent level of reliable performance, and a product rollout by a credible market leader. The project team relied on payback analysis to estimate the potential market penetration for the cold climate HP in each of its primary and secondary markets. In this analysis, we assumed a $250 price premium for the cold climate HP over the baseline HP. Electricity and gas prices and emissions were based on the 2010 Buildings Energy Data Book. The average heating load was calculated as 25.2 MMBTU per year in the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions of the United States. Typical installed costs were obtained from the technical document supporting the U.S. Department of Energy rulemaking. The analysis showed that the cold climate HP will have a 2.2 year payback period when replacing an existing electric HP in the colder regions of the nation. The cold climate HP will have a 6 year payback period when replacing gas furnaces in the same climate regions. Accordingly, we estimated that the cold climate HP will have a penetration ratio rangin

  9. Cold nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. O. Dorso; P. A. Giménez Molinelli; J. I. Nichols; J. A. López

    2013-05-09

    The behavior of nuclear matter is studied at low densities and temperatures using classical molecular dynamics with three different sets of potentials with different compressibility. Nuclear matter is found to arrange in crystalline structures around the saturation density and in non-homogeneous (i.e. pasta-like) structures at lower densities. Similar results were obtained with a simple Lennard-Jones potential. Finite size effects are analysed and the existence of the non-homogeneous structures is shown to be inherent to the use of periodic boundary conditions and the finitude of the system. For large enough systems the non-homogeneous structures are limited to one sphere, one rod or one slab per simulation cell, which are shown to be minimal surface structures under cubic periodic boundary conditions at the corresponding volume fraction. The relevance of these findings to the simulations of neutron star and supernovae matter is discussed.

  10. Note: High density pulsed molecular beam for cold ion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokish, M. G.; Rajagopal, V.; Marler, J. P.; Odom, B. C.

    2014-08-15

    A recent expansion of cold and ultracold molecule applications has led to renewed focus on molecular species preparation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Meanwhile, molecular beams have been used to study gas phase chemical reactions for decades. In this paper, we describe an apparatus that uses pulsed molecular beam technology to achieve high local gas densities, leading to faster reaction rates with cold trapped ions. We characterize the beam's spatial profile using the trapped ions themselves. This apparatus could be used for preparation of molecular species by reactions requiring excitation of trapped ion precursors to states with short lifetimes or for obtaining a high reaction rate with minimal increase of background chamber pressure.

  11. On the Nature of Particulate Emissions from DISI Engines at Cold-Fast-Idle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketterer, Justin E.

    Particulate emissions from a production gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine were studied under a typical cold-fast-idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The particle number (PN) density in the 22 to 365 nm ...

  12. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and educational institution founded 1890 980 staff members Seven divisions ·Research (cancer, neuroscience, plant, located at Cold Spring Harbor, Plymouth (UK), Tuebingen (Germany) and San Diego. Over 200 books in print ·Finding appropriate authors/editors for new books ·Preparing a proposal for the book ·Outline / Table

  13. Crack-arrest behavior in SEN wide plates of low-upper-shelf base metal tested under nonisothermal conditions: WP-2 series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Bass, B.R.; Robinson, G.C. Jr.; Iskander, S.K.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fields, R.J.; deWit, R.; Low, S.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Schwartz, C.W. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Johansson, I.B. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1990-08-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting analytical and experimental studies aimed at understanding the circumstances that would initiate the growth of an existing crack in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the conditions leading to arrest of a propagating crack. Objectives of these studies are to determine (1) if the material will exhibit crack-arrest behavior when the driving force on a crack exceeds the ASME limit, (2) the relationship between K{sub Ia} and temperature, and (3) the interaction of fracture modes (arrest, stable crack growth, unstable crack growth, and tensile instability) when arrest occurs at high temperatures. In meeting these objectives, crack-arrest data are being developed over an expanded temperature range through tests involving large thermally shocked cylinders, pressurized thermally shocked vessels, and wide-plate specimens. The wide-plate specimens provide the opportunity for a significant number of data points to be obtained at relatively affordable costs. These tests are designed to provide fracture-toughness measurements approaching or above the onset of the Charpy upper-shelf regime in a rising toughness region and with an increasing driving force. This document discusses test methodology and results. 23 refs., 92 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Critical speed measurements in the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, B.; Bossert, R.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high energy operations. Nominal operating range for these compressors is 43,000 to 85,000 rpm. Past foil bearing failures prompted investigation to determine if critical speeds for operating compressors fall within operating range. Data acquisition hardware and software settings will be discussed for measuring liftoff, first critical and second critical speeds. Several tests provided comparisons between an optical displacement probe and accelerometer measurements. Vibration data and analysis of the 20 Tevatron ring cold compressors will be presented.

  15. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  16. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirström, E. S.; Persson, C. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (?10 K) water vapor has been detected—L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work—likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  17. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    Field Evaluation of Cold Air Distribution Systems. EPRIand J.S. Elleson. 1988. Cold Air Distribution Design Guide.Field Evaluation of a Cold Air Distribution System. EPRI

  18. A versatile elevated-pressure reactor combined with an ultrahigh vacuum surface setup for efficient testing of model and powder catalysts under clean gas-phase conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morfin, Franck; Piccolo, Laurent [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS and Université Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)] [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS and Université Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-09-15

    A small-volume reaction cell for catalytic or photocatalytic testing of solid materials at pressures up to 1000 Torr has been coupled to a surface-science setup used for standard sample preparation and characterization under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The reactor and sample holder designs allow easy sample transfer from/to the UHV chamber, and investigation of both planar and small amounts of powder catalysts under the same conditions. The sample is heated with an infrared laser beam and its temperature is measured with a compact pyrometer. Combined in a regulation loop, this system ensures fast and accurate temperature control as well as clean heating. The reaction products are automatically sampled and analyzed by mass spectrometry and/or gas chromatography (GC). Unlike previous systems, our GC apparatus does not use a recirculation loop and allows working in clean conditions at pressures as low as 1 Torr while detecting partial pressures smaller than 10{sup ?4} Torr. The efficiency and versatility of the reactor are demonstrated in the study of two catalytic systems: butadiene hydrogenation on Pd(100) and CO oxidation over an AuRh/TiO{sub 2} powder catalyst.

  19. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Testing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Asphalt Shingles in a Cold Climate Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Asphalt Shingles in a...

  20. Vibrational cooling in a cold ion trap: Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of cold C60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    Vibrational cooling in a cold ion trap: Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of cold C August 2005 We demonstrate vibrational cooling of anions via collisions with a background gas in an ion cold C60 - anions, produced by electrospray ionization and cooled in the cold ion trap, have been

  1. Energy-saving Renovation Technology Studies of Existing Residential Building in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Summer Zone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, M.; Li, J.

    2006-01-01

    , China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ,Vol.I-4-4 Energy-saving Renovation Technology Studies of Existing Residential Building in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Summer Zone... Residential Building, Outside Environment, Energy-saving Renovation 1.OUTSIDE HOT ENVIROMENT OF HOT SUMMER AND COLD WINTER ZONE AND ITS INFLUENCE CONDITION TO HEAT LOSS OF EXITING RESIDENTIAL BUILDING The Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone is over a...

  2. The reality of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, L.C. (Eltron, Inc., Winchester, MA (US))

    1991-12-01

    Despite the unreproducibility, doubt, and controversy involved in the question of the cold fusion of deuterium, enough good data have been published to clearly indicate the reality of some sort of nuclear fusion. Yamaguchi and Niushioka reported a thrice-repeated event in which large amounts of heat and definite bursts of neutrons evolved simultaneously with considerable out-gassing of absorbed deuterium. These results are consistent with nuclear fusion and not with a chemical reaction. In this paper a detailed mechanism is proposed that is consistent with these events and that also generally explains many of the scattered indications of cold fusion that have been reported. There must be an adventitiously large enough presence of tritium to initiate the nuclear reaction. The results of previously successful experiments cannot now be reproduced because currently available D{sub 2}O (and D{sub 2}) is so low in adventitious tritium as to preclude initiation of the nuclear reaction.

  3. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  4. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  5. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denny, Edward C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  6. Mechanical Performance Extreme Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical Performance ­ Extreme Conditions METALS This project provides property data, metrology information using the image correlation technique. With this instrument, high strain rate mechanical testing

  7. Terms and Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Dark Fiber Testbed Federated Testbed Circuits Test Circuit Service Performance (perfSONAR)...

  8. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ``next generation`` melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area.

  9. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  10. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  11. Cold Climate Building Enclosure Solutions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractorEnergy, science,6. Radiative Forcing ofCold

  12. OMEGA: A NEW COLD X-RAY SIMULATION FACILITY FOR THE EVALUATION OF OPTICAL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, J H; Newlander, C D; Fournier, K B; Beutler, D E; Coverdale, C A; May, M J; Tobin, M; Davis, J F; Shiekh, D

    2007-04-27

    We report on recent progress for the development of a new cold X-ray optical test capability using the Omega Facility located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. These tests were done on the 30 kJ OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Rochester, NY. We conducted a six-shot series called OMEGA II on 14 July 2006 in one eight-hour day (supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency). The initial testing was performed using simple protected gold optical coatings on fused silica substrates. PUFFTFT analyses were completed and the specimen's thermal lateral stress and transverse stress conditions were calculated and interpreted. No major anomalies were detected. Comparison of the pre- and posttest reflective measurements coupled with the TFCALC analyses proved invaluable in guiding the analyses and interpreting the observed damage. The Omega facility is a high quality facility for performing evaluation of optical coatings and coupons and provides experience for the development of future National Ignition Facility (NIF) testing.

  13. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. )

    1991-08-01

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  14. Performance House -- A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Grab, J.; Williamson, J.

    2013-08-01

    Working with builder partners on a test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 'Performance House' was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the 'Performance House' were not cutting-edge, but simply 'best practices practiced'. The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  15. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  16. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  17. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

  18. Minimizing Mould Growth in Cold Rooms Why does mould growth occur in Cold Rooms?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    , textiles, or other porous materials inside the cold room. Styrofoam is okay. Store files in plastic bins

  19. A new generation's view on foreign intervention: an experimental approach in the post-cold war era 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyner, Brittani Dawne

    1998-01-01

    This study explores the post-cold war preferences of 400 undergraduate college participants in an experiment about conditions for U.S. intervention and the use of American military forces abroad. Two factors believed to ...

  20. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu (Albany, CA); Doughty, Christine A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  1. High-Current Cold Cathode Employing Diamond and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-10-22

    The essence of this project was for diamond films to be deposited on cold cathodes to improve their emission properties. Films with varying morphology, composition, and size of the crystals were deposited and the emission properties of the cathodes that utilize such films were studied. The prototype cathodes fabricated by the methods developed during Phase I were tested and evaluated in an actual high-power RF device during Phase II. These high-power tests used the novel active RF pulse compression system and the X-band magnicon test facility at US Naval Research Laboratory. In earlier tests, plasma switches were employed, while tests under this project utilized electron-beam switching. The intense electron beams required in the switches were supplied from cold cathodes embodying diamond films with varying morphology, including uncoated molybdenum cathodes in the preliminary tests. Tests with uncoated molybdenum cathodes produced compressed X-band RF pulses with a peak power of 91 MW, and a maximum power gain of 16.5:1. Tests were also carried out with switches employing diamond coated cathodes. The pulse compressor was based on use of switches employing electron beam triggering to effect mode conversion. In experimental tests, the compressor produced 165 MW in a ~ 20 ns pulse at ~18× power gain and ~ 140 MW at ~ 16× power gain in a 16 ns pulse with a ~ 7 ns flat-top. In these tests, molybdenum blade cathodes with thin diamond coatings demonstrated good reproducible emission uniformity with a 100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The new compressor does not have the limitations of earlier types of active pulse compressors and can operate at significantly higher electric fields without breakdown.

  2. R-Cold: Order (2013-CE-5354)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered R-Cold, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding R-Cold had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler or freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  3. Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M. [Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Jentsch, Ch. [Astrium GmbH-Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Schleich, W. P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2008-01-25

    We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193.

  4. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    3.2.2.9 3.3 Cold—Start Simulation Transport of ions andperformance during cold start. Transport of water in thetransport overpotentials for the hydrogen electrode are neglected. Table 1.3: Automotive cold-

  5. New analogies between extreme QCD and cold atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke

    2012-08-15

    We discuss two new analogies between extreme QCD and cold atoms. One is the analogue of 'hard probes' in cold atoms. The other is the analogue of 'quark-hadron continuity' in cold atoms.

  6. Turbine Research Program Cold Weather Turbine Project: Period of Performance May 27, 1999 -- March 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, J.; Bywaters, G.; Costin, D.; Hoskins, S.; Mattila, P.; Stowell, J.

    2004-08-01

    Northern Power Systems completed the Cold Weather Turbine (CWT) project, which was funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under subcontract XAT-9-29200-01. The project's primary goal is to develop a 100-kW wind turbine suited for deployment in remote villages in cold regions. The contract required testing and certification of the turbine to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-1 international standard through Underwriters Laboratories (UL). The contract also required Northern Power Systems to study design considerations for operation in extreme cold (-80F at the South Pole, for example). The design was based on the successful proof of concept (POC) turbine (developed under NREL and NASA contracts), considered the prototype turbine that would be refined and manufactured to serve villages in cold regions around the world.

  7. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Purdue prototype system Purdue prototype system...

  8. Advanced Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Applications in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Workshop Advanced Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen...

  9. Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production Processes to Their Environmental Consequences Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons...

  10. Raman subrecoil spectroscopy of cold cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Ringot; P. Szriftgiser; J. C. Garreau

    2001-07-28

    We describe and characterize a setup for subrecoil stimulated Raman spectroscopy of cold cesium atoms. We study in particular the performances of a method designed to active control and stabilization of the magnetic fields across a cold-atom cloud inside a small vacuum cell. The performance of the setup is monitored by {\\em copropagative-beam} stimulated Raman spectroscopy of a cold cesium sample. The root mean-square value of the residual magnetic field is 300 $\\mu G$, with a compensation bandwidth of 500 Hz. The shape of the observed spectra is theoretically interpreted and compares very well to numerically generated spectra.

  11. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  12. B. Von Frey Test C. Cold Allodynia INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    -opioid receptors and a-tubulin expression. Experiment 2 (Box 6) · Animals received chronic infusion of Lidocaine 2.02), while the infusion lasted. After cessation of treatment at 14 days post injury, in treated animals lower in drug treated SNI animals than saline controls (F(1,13)=9.19, pinfusion period

  13. Continuing the Validation of CCIM Processability for Glass Ceramic HLLW Forms: Plan for Test AFY14CCIM-GC1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vince Maio

    2014-04-01

    This test plan covers test AFY14CCIM-GC1which is the first of two scheduled FY-2014 test runs involving glass ceramic waste forms in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Cold Crucible Induction Melter Pilot Plant. The test plan is based on the successes and challenges of previous tests performed in FY-2012 and FY-2013. The purpose of this test is to continue to collect data for validating the glass ceramic High Level Liquid Waste form processability advantages using Cold Crucible Induction Melter technology. The major objective of AFYCCIM-GC1 is to complete additional proposed crucible pouring and post tapping controlled cooling experiments not completed during previous tests due to crucible drain failure. This is necessary to qualify that no heat treatments in standard waste disposal canisters are necessary for the operational scale production of glass ceramic waste forms. Other objectives include the production and post-test analysis of surrogate waste forms made from separate pours into the same graphite mold canister, testing the robustness of an upgraded crucible bottom drain and drain heater assembly, testing the effectiveness of inductive melt initiation using a resistive starter ring with a square wave configuration, and observing the tapped molten flow behavior in pans with areas identical to standard High Level Waste disposal canisters. Testing conditions, the surrogate waste composition, key testing steps, testing parameters, and sampling and analysis requirements are defined.

  14. STS.436 Cold War Science, Spring 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, David

    This course examines the history and legacy of the Cold War on science, looking predominantly at examples in the United States. It begins by exploring scientists’ new political roles after World War II, ranging from elite ...

  15. It was 1986, during the Cold War...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was 1986, during the Cold War, and I had finished my session at a large conference focused on topics related to nuclear war. It was lunchtime. I walked into the lunchroom. I...

  16. Cold quark matter in compact stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2013-03-25

    We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.

  17. Trapping cold rubidium in a fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, David Ross, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we demonstrate the novel technique of loading cold ??Rb into a red-detuned optical dipole trap within a hollow core photonic fiber. This confines the atoms to 6 microns in two dimensions. We initially cooled ...

  18. E-Commerce cold chain fulfillment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakzan, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    A challenging part of E-Commerce for perishable consumer packaged goods (PCPG) is the fulfillment. Given the fragile nature of the items shipped, they require a low cost, effective cold chain fulfillment method so as to ...

  19. 94 M. SIMKA, M. DRUTAROVSK Y, V. FISCHER, OBSERVING PLL-BASED TRNG IN CHANGING WORKING CONDITIONS Testing of PLL-based True Random Number Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    94 M. SIMKA, M. DRUTAROVSK ´Y, V. FISCHER, OBSERVING PLL-BASED TRNG IN CHANGING WORKING CONDITIONS DRUTAROVSK ´Y 2, Viktor FISCHER 3 1 Datel, Drawska 10/17, 02-202 Warsaw, Poland 2 Dept. of Electronics. info@martinsimka.com, Milos.Drutarovsky@tuke.sk, fischer@univ-st-etienne.fr Abstract. Security

  20. Condensate fraction of cold gases in a nonuniform external potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Krutitsky, K. V.

    2011-09-15

    Exact calculation of the condensate fraction in multidimensional inhomogeneous interacting Bose systems in a confining potential of arbitrary shape is a difficult computational problem. We have developed an iterative procedure which allows us to calculate the condensate fraction as well as the corresponding eigenfunction of the one-body density matrix. We successfully validate this procedure in diffusion Monte Carlo simulations of a Bose gas in an optical lattice at zero temperature. We also discuss the relation between different criteria used for testing coherence in cold Bose systems, such as the fraction of particles that are superfluid, condensed, or in the zero-momentum state.

  1. Evaluation of light microscopy and rapid diagnostic test for the detection of malaria under operational field conditions: a household survey in Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endeshaw, Tekola; Gebre, Teshome; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Graves, Patricia M.; Shargie, Estifanos B.; Ejigsemahu, Yeshewamebrat; Ayele, Berhan; Yohannes, Gedeon; Teferi, Tesfaye; Messele, Ayenew; Zerihun, Mulat; Genet, Asrat; Mosher, Aryc W.; Emerson, Paul M.; Richards, Frank O. Jr

    2008-07-03

    of whom 11,504 (82%) were included in the analysis. Overall slide positivity rate was 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4–5.0%) while ParaScreen RDT was positive in 3.3% (95% CI 2.6–4.1%) of those tested. Considering microscopy as the gold standard...

  2. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    energy commission representatives, and other users of cold air distribution technology. The contact list

  3. Cold bond agglomeration of waste oxides for recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Alessio, G.; Lu, W.K. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Recycling of waste oxides has been an on-going challenge for integrated steel plants. The majority of these waste oxides are collected from the cleaning systems of ironmaking and steelmaking processes, and are usually in the form of fine particulates and slurries. In most cases, these waste materials are contaminated by oils and heavy metals and often require treatment at a considerable expense prior to landfill disposal. This contamination also limits the re-use or recycling potential of these oxides as secondary resources of reliable quality. However, recycling of some selected wastes in blast furnaces or steelmaking vessels is possible, but first requires agglomeration of the fine particulate by such methods as cold bond briquetting. Cold bond briquetting technology provides both mechanical compacting and bonding (with appropriate binders) of the particulates. This method of recycling has the potential to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The nature of the present study is cold bond briquetting of iron ore pellet fines with a molasses-cement-H{sub 2}O binder for recycling in a blast furnace. The inclusion of molasses is for its contribution to the green strength of briquettes. During the curing stage, significant gains in strength may be credited to molasses in the presence of cement. The interactions of cement (and its substitutes), water and molasses and their effects on the properties of the agglomerates during and after various curing conditions were investigated. Tensile strengths of briquettes made in the laboratory and subjected to experimental conditions which simulated the top part of a blast furnace shaft were also examined.

  4. Boiling water reactor fuel behavior at burnup of 26 GWd/tonne U under reactivity-initiated accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio . Dept. of Reactor Safety Research); Sobajima, Makoto ); Ishijima, Kiyomi; Fujishiro, Toshio . Dept. of Reactor Safety Research)

    1994-10-01

    Irradiated boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel behavior under reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) conditions was investigated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Short test fuel rods, refabricated from a commercial 7 x 7 type BWR fuel rod at a burnup of 26 GWd/ tonne U, were pulse irradiated in the NSRR under simulated cooled startup RIA conditions of the BWRs. Thermal energy from 230 J/g fuel (55 cal/g fuel) to 410 J/g fuel (98 cal/g fuel) was promptly subjected to the test fuel rods by pulse irradiation within [approximately] 10 ms. The peak fuel enthalpies are believed to be the same as the prompt energy depositions. The test fuel rods demonstrated characteristic behavior of the irradiated fuel rods under the accident conditions, such as enhanced pellet cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) and fission gas release. However, all the fuel rods survived the accident conditions with considerable margins. Simulations by the FRAP-T6 code and fresh fuel rod tests under the same RIA conditions highlighted the burnup effects on the accident fuel performance. The tests and the simulation suggested that the BWR fuel would possibly fail by a cladding burst due to fission gas release during the cladding temperature escalation rather than the PCMI under the cold startup RIA conditions of a severe power burst.

  5. Evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic response and fuel rod thermal and mechanical deformation behavior during the power burst facility test LOC-3. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yackle, T.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Broughton, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the results from the LOC-3 nuclear blowdown test conducted in the Power Burst Facility is presented. The test objective was to examine fuel and cladding behavior during a postulated cold leg break accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Separate effects of rod internal pressure and the degree of irradiation were investigated in the four-rod test. Extensive cladding deformation (ballooning) and failure occurred during blowdown. The deformation of the low and high pressure rods was similar; however, the previously irradiated test rod deformed to a greater extent than a similar fresh rod exposed to identical system conditions.

  6. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga; Ann Stepp, Mary; Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony; Trink, Barry

    2013-05-15

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  7. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-12-31

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989`s feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun.

  8. Interface conditions of two-shot molded parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisslinger, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.kisslinger@pccl.at [Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Bruckmoser, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.bruckmoser@unileoben.ac.at; Resch, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.resch@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Chair of Materials Science and Testing of Polymers, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Lucyshyn, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.lucyshyn@unileoben.ac.at, E-mail: guenter.langecker@unileoben.ac.at; Langecker, Guenter Ruediger, E-mail: thomas.lucyshyn@unileoben.ac.at, E-mail: guenter.langecker@unileoben.ac.at; Holzer, Clemens, E-mail: clemens.holzer@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Chair of Polymer Processing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    The focus of this work is on interfaces of two-shot molded parts. It is well known that e.g. material combination, process parameters and contact area structures show significant effects on the bond strength of multi-component injection molded parts. To get information about the bond strength at various process parameter settings and material combinations a test mold with core back technology was used to produce two-component injection molded tensile test specimens. At the core back process the different materials are injected consecutively, so each component runs through the whole injection molding cycle (two-shot process). Due to this consecutive injection molding processes, a cold interface is generated. This is defined as overmolding of a second melt to a solidified polymer preform. Strong interest lies in the way the interface conditions change during the adhesion formation between the individual components. Hence the interface conditions were investigated by computed tomography and Raman spectroscopy. By analyzing these conditions the understanding of the adhesion development during the multi-component injection molding was improved.

  9. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2015-01-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  11. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  12. Exergy Analysis and Operational Efficiency of a Horizontal Ground Source Heat Pump System Operated in a Low-Energy Test House under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data, analyses, measures of performance, and conclusions for a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) providing space conditioning to a 345m2 house whose envelope is made of structural insulated panels (SIP). The entire thermal load of this SIP house with RSI-3.7 (RUS-21) walls, triple pane windows with a U-factor of 1.64 W/m2 K (0.29 Btu/h ft2 oF) and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of 0.25, a roof assembly with overall thermal resistance of about RSI-8.8 (RUS-50) and low leakage rates of 0.74 ACH at 50Pa was satisfied with a 2.16-Ton (7.56 kW) GSHP unit consuming negligible (9.83kWh) auxiliary heat during peak winter season. The highest and lowest heating COP achieved was 4.90 (October) and 3.44 (February), respectively. The highest and lowest cooling COP achieved was 6.09 (April) and 3.88 (August). These COPs are calculated on the basis of the total power input (including duct, ground loop, and control power losses ). The second Law (Exergy) analysis provides deep insight into how systemic inefficiencies are distributed among the various GSHP components. Opportunities for design and further performance improvements are identified. Through Exergy analysis we provide a true measure of how closely actual performance approaches the ideal, and it unequivocally identifies, better than energy analysis does, the sources and causes of lost work, the root cause of system inefficiencies.

  13. Test Automation Test Automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Test Automation Test Automation Mohammad Mousavi Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Software Testing 2013 Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Outline Test Automation Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Why? Challenges of Manual Testing Test-case design: Choosing inputs

  14. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  15. CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE COLD DEBRIS OF SUPERNOVA 1987A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamenetzky, J.; McCray, R.; Glenn, J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Indebetouw, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Decin, L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D BUS 2401, B-2001 Leuven (Belgium); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dunne, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8410 (New Zealand); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gomez, H. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lakicevic, M. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Marcaide, J. [Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Marti-Vidal, I. [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-08-20

    We report spectroscopic and imaging observations of rotational transitions of cold CO and SiO in the ejecta of SN1987A, the first such emission detected in a supernova remnant. In addition to line luminosities for the CO J = 1-0, 2-1, 6-5, and 7-6 transitions, we present upper limits for all other transitions up to J = 13-12, collectively measured from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver. Simple models show the lines are emitted from at least 0.01 M{sub Sun} of CO at a temperature >14 K, confined within at most 35% of a spherical volume expanding at {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}. Moreover, we locate the emission within 1'' of the central debris. These observations, along with a partial observation of SiO, confirm the presence of cold molecular gas within supernova remnants and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes in the ejecta. Furthermore, we demonstrate the powerful new window into supernova ejecta offered by submillimeter observations.

  16. Influence of projectile neutron number on cross section in cold fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragojevic, I.

    2008-01-01

    ON CROSS SECTION IN COLD FUSION REACTIONS I. Dragojevi? ,type of reaction has been referred to as “cold fusion. ”The study of cold fusion reactions is an indispensable

  17. T-661: ColdFusion Security Hotfix | APSB11-14, ColdFusion Important...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Console, CSRF protection is disabled. 3. If ColdFusion throws an exception "java.io.FileNotFoundException: ..logsesapiconfig.log" after applying the hot fix, go to...

  18. Lab begins demolition of Cold War-era buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demolition begins of cold War-Era buildings Lab begins demolition of Cold War-era buildings More than 165,000 square feet of former research, production, and office buildings will...

  19. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    of starting a cold PEFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Theand Design Parameters on PEFC Cold Start,” Journal of Powera) Expanded View of a single PEFC. (b) Cells arranged in a

  20. Phase stabilization of laser beams in a cold atom accelerometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Nicole (Nicole Malenie)

    2014-01-01

    A cold atom accelerometer measures the displacement of a proof mass of laser cooled atoms with respect to an instrument reference frame. The cold atom interferometer's reference frame is defined by a pair of specially ...

  1. Hot-dark matter, cold dark matter and accelerating universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbas Farmany; Amin Farmany; Mohammad Mahmoodi

    2006-07-07

    The Friedman equation is solved for a universe contains hotdark matter and cold dark matter. In this scenario, hot-dark matter drives an accelerating universe no cold dark matter.

  2. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  3. www.carleton.ca/~kbstorey ADAPTATIONS TO COLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storey, Kenneth B.

    12/19/2012 1 www.carleton.ca/~kbstorey ADAPTATIONS TO COLD Below 0°C Freeze Avoidance Freeze Supercool ADAPTATIONS TO COLD Below 0°C Freeze Avoidance Freeze Tolerance Hibernation Invertebrates Some Migrating DOWN #12;12/19/2012 3 Fresh Water Salt water ADAPTATIONS TO COLD Below 0°C Freeze Avoidance Freeze

  4. Radiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    field of study deals with the transport of near resonant light in such media. Using cold atoms, one can at the end of the 20th century that studies of light transport in optically thick clouds of cold atomsRadiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1 Robin Kaiser,1, and Dominique Delande

  5. Page 1 of 3 Policy: Cold Weather Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Page 1 of 3 Policy: Cold Weather Policy Responsible Party: Director, Safety and Risk Management The Office of Safety and Risk Management (SRM) at Montana State University (MSU) has developed a cold weather and infrastructure resulting from periods of cold and snowy weather. 200.00 TRIGGER POINTS Trigger points have been

  6. Thermal spray and cold spray analysis of density, porosity, and tensile Specimens for use with LIGA applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DECKER,MERLIN K.; SMITH,MARK F.

    2000-02-01

    This analysis provides a preliminary investigation into using Twin-Wire Arc Thermal Spray and Cold Spray as material deposition processes for LIGA applications. These spray material processes were studied to make an initial determination of their potential as alternatives to producing mechanical parts via the electroplating process. Three materials, UltraMachinable{reg_sign} Stainless Steel, BondArc{reg_sign}, and aluminum, were sprayed using Thermal Spray. Only aluminum was sprayed using the Cold Spray process. Following the spray procedure, the test specimens were released from a copper mold and then tested. Three tests, density, tensile strength, and porosity, were performed on the specimens to determine the spray effect on material properties. Twin-Wire Arc Thermal Spray did not demonstrate adequate deposition properties and does not appear to be a good process candidate for LIGA. However, Cold Spray yielded better density results and warrants further investigation to analyze the minimum feature size produced by the process.

  7. Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Cold and Very Cold Climate – Volume 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2011-02-01

    This document describes measures builders can use to construct homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% in the cold and very cold climate region of the United States.

  8. The Central American cold surge: an observational analysis of the deep southward penetration of North American cold fronts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reding, Philip John

    1992-01-01

    THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COLD SURGE: AN OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEEP SOUTHWARD PENETRATION OF NORTH AMERICAN COLD FRONTS A Thesis by PHILIP JOHN REDING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A &M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Meteorology THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COLD SURGE: AN OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEEP SOUTHWARD PENETRATION OF NORTH AMERICAN COLD FRONTS A Thesis by PHILIP...

  9. Security Conditions

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-07-08

    This Notice ensures that DOE uniformly meets the requirements of the Homeland Security Advisory System outlined in Homeland Security Presidential Directive-3, Threat Conditions and Associated Protective Measures, dated 3-11-02, and provides responses specified in Presidential Decision Directive 39, U.S. Policy on Counterterrorism (U), dated 6-21-95. It cancels DOE N 473.8, Security Conditions, dated 8-7-02. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels DOE N 473.8

  10. MEDICAL INSURANCE ConditionCare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of health issues ranging from asthma to zinc, like: Coughs Abdominal Pain Weight Loss Colds Children

  11. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  12. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

  13. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  14. Palladium metallurgy and cold fusion; Some remarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murr, L.E. )

    1990-04-01

    In this paper the recent confusion surrounding claims for the observation of cold fusion involving palladium electrodes in electrochemical cells containing deuterium might be clarified to some extent if the palladium metallurgy, particularly in the context of fundamental microstructures, are accurately defined. Both the palladium/hydrogen and palladium/deuterium systems have been extensively investigated, and it is asserted more than two decades ago that the palladium/hydrogen system was perhaps the most extensively, experimentally investigated metal/gas system. Ordinary hydrogen absorbed in palladium fused to form helium, while in the 1940's Wilner actually observed the fusion reaction at the center of the current cold fusion controversy: d + d {yields} {sup 3}He + n (where d = {sup 2}H represents a deuteron, and n is a neutron). In the experiment by Wilner, a deuterium-saturated palladium sheet was bombarded with accelerated deuterons. The product neutrons (n) were slowed by paraffin wax and detected by the activation of silver.

  15. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  16. Conditional tests of corporate governance theories 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Jianxin

    2005-08-29

    in months, a dummy variable indicating firms that are incorporated in Delaware, and a dummy variable indicating firms that are members of the S&P500 index. Previous research shows that these variables are likely to affect firm Q. In addition, I include... m e asur ed in m onths since the firm ? s fir s t appearance in Co m pustat. 1127 9 5. 508 5. 799 0. 644 2. 4 8 5 6 . 2 2 3 Delawa re Du mm y A du m m y var i able equals one if the firm is incor por ated in Delawar e . 1127 9 0. 5 3...

  17. Cold weather operating guidelines and experience for natural draft cooling towers on the American Electric Power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michell, F.L.; Drew, D.H. [American Electric Power Service, Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    American Electric Power`s more than 30 years of experience in operating natural draft cooling towers during freezing winter weather conditions is discussed in the paper. Design features incorporated into the specifications for major rebuild/repack projects for crossflow and counterflow towers to facilitate cold weather operation are also reviewed.

  18. Pneumatically powered material testing devices for the extreme test conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    -IET Netherlands, SCK-CEN Belgium, Riso Denmark, CEA France, PSI Switzerland #12;430/04/2013 Hydraulic system

  19. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3? by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}?

  20. Cold neutron scattering in imperfect deuterium crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Adamczak

    2010-12-10

    The differential cross sections for cold neutron scattering in mosaic deuterium crystals have been calculated for various target temperatures. The theoretical results are compared with the recent experimental data for the neutron wavelengths $\\lambda\\approx$~1--9~\\AA. It is shown that the structures of observed Bragg peaks can be explained by the mosaic spread of about $3^{\\circ}$ and contributions from a~limited number of crystal orientations. Such a~crystal structure should be also taken into account in ultracold neutron upscattering due to the coherent phonon annihilation in solid deuterium.

  1. Direct Detection of Cold Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Baudis

    2007-11-25

    We know from cosmological and astrophysical observations that more than 80% of the matter density in the Universe is non-luminous, or dark. This non-baryonic dark matter could be composed of neutral, heavy particles, which were non-relativistic, or 'cold', when they decoupled from ordinary matter. I will review the direct detection methods of these hypothetical particles via their interactions with nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground experiments. The emphasis is on most recent results and on the status of near future projects.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode Cluster CompatibilityCoalCodeCold Vacuum

  3. High Efficiency Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢HelpHigh Efficiency Cold Climate

  4. Is it a Cold or the Flu? -Know the Difference Signs & Symptoms Cold Flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Rare Usual; high (100.40 F to 1020 F) is typical; lasts 3-4 days Cough Hacking: mild Dry; can become discomfort Mild to moderate; hacking cough Common Treatment Antihistamines Decongestants Advil® (ibuprofen. Avoid close contact with anyone with a cold. Vaccination. Wash your hands. Cover your cough. Stay

  5. Reapproaching Ramsey: Conditionals and Iterated Belief Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubart, Christoph

    Reapproaching Ramsey: Conditionals and Iterated Belief Change in the Spirit of AGM Hans Rott Final version of 25 November 2010 Abstract According to the Ramsey Test, conditionals reflect changes of beliefs") has seemed to show that the Ramsey test is not a viable analysis of conditionals if it is combined

  6. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  7. Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monwhea Jeng

    2005-12-29

    We review the Mpemba effect, where intially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. While the effect appears impossible at first sight, it has been seen in numerous experiments, was reported on by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, and has been well-known as folklore around the world. It has a rich and fascinating history, which culminates in the dramatic story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon, while simple to describe, is deceptively complex, and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. We survey proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect, and the results of modern experiments on the phenomenon. Studies of the observation that hot water pipes are more likely to burst than cold water pipes are also described.

  8. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: One-dimensional soil thaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freezing and thawing a b s t r a c t Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have. Simulated and/or observed climate change impacts in cryogenic soils include permafrost degradation, active that include the dynamic freeze­thaw process have been tested against analytical solutions, such as the Neumann

  9. The Performance House - A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Grab, J.; Williamson, J.

    2013-08-01

    Working with builder partners on test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 "Performance House" was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the "Performance House" were not cutting-edge, but simply "best practices practiced". The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  10. Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ultra)cold neutrons to the LHC Authors: Bhattacharya, Tanmoy ; Cirigliano, Vincenzo ; Cohen, Saul D. ; Filipuzzi, Alberto ; Gonzlez-Alonso, Martn ; Graesser, Michael L. ;...

  11. The Department of Energy Announces Major Cold War Legacy Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This marks an important milestone in DOE's mission to clean up the country's Cold War legacy. "This accomplishment reflects the hard work and dedication of our workers and...

  12. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for...

  13. Transient Cold-Climate Building Foundation Hygrothermal Experimental...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of two years of continuous transient experimental measurements on the hygrothermal performance of concrete masonry block walls in a full basement in a cold climate (US DOE...

  14. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The...

  15. COLD BUBBLE FORMATION DURING TOKAMAK DENSITY LIMIT DISRUPTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    COLD BUBBLE FORMATION DURING TOKAMAK DENSITY LIMIT DISRUPTIONS J. HOWARD, M. PERSSON* Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra

  16. How a Small Business is Transforming the Cold Climate Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mechanical Solutions, Inc.s Supercharger could break open a major new market for heat pumps: cold climates. Here, MSI engineers Peter Chapman and Andrew Rogers monitor a...

  17. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and water from the reaction of cold hydrogen atoms with solid oxygen at 10K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Miyauchi; H. Hidaka; T. Chigai; A. Nagaoka; N. Watanabe; A. Kouchi

    2008-05-01

    The reactions of cold H atoms with solid O2 molecules were investigated at 10 K. The formation of H2O2 and H2O has been confirmed by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. We found that the reaction proceeds very efficiently and obtained the effective reaction rates. This is the first clear experimental evidence of the formation of water molecules under conditions mimicking those found in cold interstellar molecular clouds. Based on the experimental results, we discuss the reaction mechanism and astrophysical implications.

  18. The Cold War is over. What now?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  19. Method for cold stable biojet fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seames, Wayne S.; Aulich, Ted

    2015-12-08

    Plant or animal oils are processed to produce a fuel that operates at very cold temperatures and is suitable as an aviation turbine fuel, a diesel fuel, a fuel blendstock, or any fuel having a low cloud point, pour point or freeze point. The process is based on the cracking of plant or animal oils or their associated esters, known as biodiesel, to generate lighter chemical compounds that have substantially lower cloud, pour, and/or freeze points than the original oil or biodiesel. Cracked oil is processed using separation steps together with analysis to collect fractions with desired low temperature properties by removing undesirable compounds that do not possess the desired temperature properties.

  20. COLD-PLASMA ASSISTED GRAFTING OF PAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaiolas, C.; Costa, A. P.; Nunes, M.; Silva, M. J. Santos; Belgacem, M. N.

    2008-08-28

    The treatment of cellulose with cold-plasma in the presence of two silanes (vinyltrimethoxysilane and {gamma}-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane) was found to be efficient in grafting of cellulose macromolecules. The occurrence of the grafting was proved by contact angle measurement, ESCA and SEM. Thus, after solvent extraction of the modified substrates, in order to remove unbounded grafts, the polar component of the surface energy of treated samples decreased from 23 mJ/m{sup 2} to practically zero. The ESCA spectra showed the appearance of two new peaks at 102 and 150 eV, relative to the presence of Si atoms and a substantial increase in C1 signal, attributed to the enrichment of the surface by C-H moieties borne by the silanes.

  1. Ductile damage parameters identification for cold metal forming applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ductile damage parameters identification for cold metal forming applications Pierre damage mechanics is essential to predict failure during cold metal forming applications. Several damage models can be found in the literature. These damage models are coupled with the mechanical behavior so

  2. BOOK REVIEW Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    BOOK REVIEW Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature institutionalism in economics to post- war neoclassicism, with its physics-like empha- sis on mathematical theory to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working

  3. Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review of the Literature and contributions from individuals and organizations involved in ground-source heat pump installation around Alaska

  4. High-z objects and cold-dark-matter cosmogonies: the case of 53W091

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kashlinsky; R. Jimenez

    1996-10-31

    The recently discovered high redshift galaxy, 53W091, with accurate age measurements (Dunlop et al 1996) provides a measure of the small-scale power of the primordial density field and, as we show, a crucial test of the inflation-inspired models. It allows $\\Omega$=1 cosmologies only for low values of $H_0$, but then pushes formation of that galaxy to redshift much greater than allowed for by the cold-dark-matter density field. Cold-dark-matter (CDM) models with cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$) and low $\\Omega$ would decrease the redshift at which this galaxy has collapsed. However, in CDM models decreasing $\\Omega$ suppresses the small scale power in the density field and this effect turns out to be dominant. We estimate the mass of the galaxy and show that it represents a very rare and unlikely event in the density field of such models. Similar problems would occur in other modifications of the CDM cosmogonies.

  5. The Cold Dark Ocean This talk will help younger students understand that most of the ocean is an expansive cold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the El Niño/La Niña cycle in the Pacific Ocean and how it impacts the climate of the Southeast UThe Cold Dark Ocean This talk will help younger students understand that most of the ocean is an expansive cold dark abyss. The concepts of solar heating of the ocean surface and effects of temperature

  6. g:\\self care\\cold sore throat cough allergy 8/08 SELF CARE CHECK LIST FOR COLD, SORE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    g:\\self care\\cold sore throat cough allergy 8/08 SELF CARE CHECK LIST FOR COLD, SORE THROAT, COUGH worse? NO YES Do you have chest pain, wheezing or any difficulty with breathing? NO YES Are you coughing, hacky cough? Expectorant (guaifenesin/Robitussin) Cough suppressant (dextromethorphan/ DM) Do you have

  7. Heat or Eat? Cold Weather Shocks and Nutrition in Poor American Families

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Jay; DeLeire, Thomas C; Haider, Steven; Currie, Janet

    2002-01-01

    SERIES HEAT OR EAT? COLD WEATHER SHOCKS AND NUTRITION INsource. Heat or Eat? Cold Weather Shocks and Nutrition inthe effects of cold weather periods on family budgets and on

  8. Transnational assimilation : literary practices and the racial regime of Cold War America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yin

    2012-01-01

    U.S. or a sheer fiction deployed for Cold War propaganda.Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots of Terror.1984. Borstelmann, Thomas. The Cold War and the Color Line:

  9. Biomechanical conditions of walking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y F; Luo, L P; Li, Z Y; Han, S Y; Lv, C S; Zhang, B

    2015-01-01

    The development of rehabilitation training program for lower limb injury does not usually include gait pattern design. This paper introduced a gait pattern design by using equations (conditions of walking). Following the requirements of reducing force to the injured side to avoid further injury, we developed a lower limb gait pattern to shorten the stride length so as to reduce walking speed, to delay the stance phase of the uninjured side and to reduce step length of the uninjured side. This gait pattern was then verified by the practice of a rehabilitation training of an Achilles tendon rupture patient, whose two-year rehabilitation training (with 24 tests) has proven that this pattern worked as intended. This indicates that rehabilitation training program for lower limb injury can rest on biomechanical conditions of walking based on experimental evidence.

  10. Soot formation in direct injection spark ignition engines under cold-idle operating conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketterer, Justin Edward

    2013-01-01

    Direct injection spark ignition engines are growing rapidly in popularity, largely due to the fuel efficiency improvements in the turbo-downsized engine configuration that are enabled by direct injection technology. ...

  11. Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01

    is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1 to 2?, and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6W/m2. Combining phase change material with the building envelope can lower the indoor temperature, make the room thermally comfortable, and cut down the turn...

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk Galaxy Formation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Wang; Tom Abel

    2007-12-06

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a $10^{10}$ \\msun halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform $10^{-9}$ G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting $\\sim500$ Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.

  13. Out of the Closed World: how the Computer Revolution helped to End the Cold War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skinner, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    politics of discourse in Cold War America. Cambridge, MA:John Lewis. The Cold War: A New History, 2005. Gardener,Science of Thermonuclear War. Harvard University Press.

  14. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, R.J.; Bjorken, J.D.; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  15. Premixed cold reaction cw laser nozzle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hook, D.L.; Broadwell, J.E.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a combustor for a premixed cold reaction CW chemical laser. The combustor consists of: a combustion chamber, the combustion chamber containing reaction products forming heated primary gas having therein atomic species of an oxidizer, the combustion chamber directing the reaction products to an output plenum; wedges positioned downstream of the output plenum to form a plurality of primary nozzles, each of the primary nozzles having an input section, a throat section, and an output section, the sections forming a supersonic nozzle to output the reaction products as a supersonic gas; secondary injectors having supersonic jets therefrom, the secondary injectors being located on exit walls substantially parallel to the streamlines of the primary nozzles and located downstream of the throat section of the primary nozzles, the secondary injectors being arranged in substantially parallel rows in a streamwise direction, each of the rows having the secondary injectors therein, the secondary injectors in a row comprising groups of secondary injectors, a first group being proximal to the throat section and injecting a diluent, a second group of secondary injectors downstream of the first group and inputting a fuel therein. The secondary injectors are at an acute angle to the exit walls, the acuteness being in the downstream direction.

  16. Physical Mechanisms of Interaction of Cold Plasma with Polymer Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bormashenko, Edward; Multanen, Victor; Shulzinger, Evgeny; Chaniel, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    Physical mechanisms of the interaction of cold plasmas with organic surfaces are discussed. Trapping of plasma ions by the CH2 groups of polymer surfaces resulting in their electrical charging is treated. Polyethylene surfaces were exposed to the cold radiofrequency air plasma for different intervals of time. The change in the wettability of these surfaces was registered. The experimentally established characteristic time scales of the interaction of cold plasma with polymer surfaces are inversely proportional to the concentration of ions. The phenomenological kinetic model of the electrical charging of polymer surfaces by plasmas is introduced and analyzed.

  17. COLD-START CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrochemical reaction kinetics, species transport, and solid water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. A simplified analysis is developed to enable the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction on cell performance during cold-start. Supporting neutron imaging data are also provided to reveal the real-time water evolution. Temperature-dependent voltage changes due to the reaction kinetics and ohmic loss are also analyzed based on the ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperature. The analysis is valuable for the fundamental study of PEFC cold-start.

  18. Microscopic simulation of methanol and formaldehyde ice formation in cold dense cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuppen, H M; Herbst, E; Tielens, A G G M

    2009-01-01

    Methanol and its precursor formaldehyde are among the most studied organic molecules in the interstellar medium and are abundant in the gaseous and solid phases. We recently developed a model to simulate CO hydrogenation via H atoms on interstellar ice surfaces, the most important interstellar route to H2CO and CH3OH, under laboratory conditions. We extend this model to simulate the formation of both organic species under interstellar conditions, including freeze-out from the gas and hydrogenation on surfaces. Our aim is to compare calculated abundance ratios with observed values and with the results of prior models. Simulations under different conditions, including density and temperature, have been performed. We find that H2CO and CH3OH form efficiently in cold dense cores or the cold outer envelopes of young stellar objects. The grain mantle is found to have a layered structure with CH3OH on top. The species CO and H2CO are found to exist predominantly in the lower layers of ice mantles where they are not ...

  19. 4.5-K Cold Box for SNS - A Successful Cooperation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleck, U.; Kurtcuoglu, K. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland); Urbin, J.; Howe, D. [Linde BOC Process Plants LLC, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 74133-1923 (United States)

    2004-06-23

    The US Department of Energy is constructing the next generation, accelerator-based, neutron source, the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The superconducting LINAC requires a large custom cryogenic helium system that was specified and ordered by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory. Two groups of Linde AG's engineering division teamed to design, fabricate, and deliver the 4.5-K cold box for the SNS Central He liquefier. Linde Kryotechnik AG (LK), Switzerland provided design, engineering support and the gas bearing turbine systems. Process design for 4.5 K cooling as well as 38-K shield cooling will be explained. Control logic, including turbine related logic, was specified by LK and implemented successfully by ORNL in their control system in cooperation with LK. Linde BOC Process Plants LLC, Tulsa, Oklahoma fabricated, tested and delivered the cold box. Skills and techniques specific to helium cold box fabrication will be discussed. Finally, an overview of the commissioning will be provided according to the project status.

  20. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi, E-mail: roudkenar@ibto.ir [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halabian, Raheleh [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourani, Mohammad Reza [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masroori, Nasser [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Majid [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  1. Slower, colder, longer : prospects for a very cold neutron source.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micklich, B. J.; Carpenter, J. M.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    2007-01-01

    The motivation for our study is to establish the prospects for a neutron source providing intense pulsed beams with spectra as cold as is realistic. The scientific motivation is to serve applications in nanoscience, biology and technology.

  2. Microsoft Word - 0Hrma ColdCap Final (2)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of reacting melter feed floating on the surface of molten glass in a glass-melting furnace. The cold cap consists of two distinct portions, the upper portion which allows the...

  3. R-Cold: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5354)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that R-Cold, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    June 21, 2011 Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin AIKEN, S.C. - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers re- cently cleaned up a second...

  5. Perturbative thermodynamics at nonzero isospin density for cold QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graf, Thorben; Fraga, Eduardo S

    2015-01-01

    We use next-to-leading-order in perturbation theory to investigate the effects of a finite isospin density on the thermodynamics of cold strongly interacting matter. Our results include nonzero quark masses and are compared to lattice data.

  6. Perturbative thermodynamics at nonzero isospin density for cold QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorben Graf; Juergen Schaffner-Bielich; Eduardo S. Fraga

    2015-11-30

    We use next-to-leading-order in perturbation theory to investigate the effects of a finite isospin density on the thermodynamics of cold strongly interacting matter. Our results include nonzero quark masses and are compared to lattice data.

  7. Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

  8. Cold and Flu Prevention - HPMC Occupational Health Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cold and Flu Prevention Hand Washing Healthy Sleep Heat Stress Radon Signs of a Heart Attack Signs of a Stroke Coping with Stress & Change Skin Cancer Awareness Choose My...

  9. The Chemistry of Cold Interstellar Cloud Cores Eric Herbst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Tom

    Chapter 1 The Chemistry of Cold Interstellar Cloud Cores Eric Herbst Department of Physics and Their Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Gas-Phase Chemical Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2.4 Organic Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.2.5 Negative

  10. US foreign policy and the CIA: A cold war retrospective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The document consists of three previously announced reports: The CIA under Truman: CIA Cold War Records (PB94-928005); The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (PB92-927906); and Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union (PB93-928112).

  11. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1 ½-Story Homes in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team analyzed five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. These homes were chosen for testing as they are common in Minnesota and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled the team to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  12. Deterrence, disarmament, and post-cold war stability: Enhancing security for both ``haves`` and ``have nots``

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, R. F. II

    1995-04-01

    This paper examines possible developments in nuclear disarmament resulting from the end of the Cold War.

  13. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; Klebaner, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Theilacker, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features of the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.

  14. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.

    2015-06-01

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features ofmore »the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.« less

  15. Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartley, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Kletzing, C. A.; Denton, M. H.; Kurth, W. S.

    2015-02-17

    Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1–0.9 fce). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wavemore »intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10?³ nT², using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.« less

  16. Boiling Water Reactor Fuel Behavior Under Reactivity-Initiated-Accident Conditions at Burnup of 41 to 45 GWd/tonne U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Takahashi, Masato; Okonogi, Kazunari; Ishijima, Kiyomi

    2000-02-15

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel at burnup of 41 to 45 GWd/tonne U was pulse irradiated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate fuel behavior under cold startup reactivity-initiated-accident conditions. Current Japanese BWR fuel, 8 x 8BJ type (Step I), from Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 was refabricated into short segments, and the test rods were promptly subjected to thermal energy from 293 to 607 J/g (70 to 145 cal/g) within {approx}20 ms. The fuel cladding was ductile enough to survive the prompt deformation due to pellet cladding mechanical interaction, while the plastic hoop strain reached 1.5% at the peak location. Transient fission gas release by the pulse irradiation varied from 3.1 to 8.2%, depending on the peak fuel enthalpy and the steady-state operation conditions.

  17. Development and Implementation of 3-D, High Speed Capacitance Tomography for Imaging Large-Scale, Cold-Flow Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qussai Marashdeh

    2012-09-30

    A detailed understanding of multiphase flow behavior inside a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) requires a 3-D technique capable of visualizing the flow field in real-time. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) is a newly developed technique that can provide such measurements. The attractiveness of the technique is in its low profile sensors, fast imaging speed and scalability to different section sizes, low operating cost, and safety. Moreover, the flexibility of ECVT sensors enable them to be designed around virtually any geometry, rendering them suitable to be used for measurement of solid flows in exit regions of the CFB. Tech4Imaging LLC has worked under contract with the U.S. Department of Energyâ??s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to develop an ECVT system for cold flow visualization and install it on a 12 inch ID circulating fluidized bed. The objective of this project was to help advance multi-phase flow science through implementation of an ECVT system on a cold flow model at DOE NETL. This project has responded to multi-phase community and industry needs of developing a tool that can be used to develop flow models, validate computational fluid dynamics simulations, provide detailed real-time feedback of process variables, and provide a comprehensive understating of multi-phase flow behavior. In this project, a complete ECVT system was successfully developed after considering different potential electronics and sensor designs. The system was tested at various flow conditions and with different materials, yielding real-time images of flow interaction in a gas-solid flow system. The system was installed on a 12 inch ID CFB of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Labs. Technical and economic assessment of Scale-up and Commercialization of ECVT was also conducted. Experiments conducted with larger sensors in conditions similar to industrial settings are very promising. ECVT has also the potential to be developed for imaging multi-phase flow systems in high temperature and high pressure conditions, typical in many industrial applications.

  18. Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2003-02-25

    The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed remotely in one of the R7 vitrification cell. This paper will present the results obtained in the framework of these qualification programs.

  19. Mark Solovey. Shaky Foundations: The PoliticsPatronageSocial Science Nexus in Cold War Shaky Foundations: The PoliticsPatronageSocial Science Nexus in Cold War America by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    Mark Solovey. Shaky Foundations: The Politics­Patronage­Social Science Nexus in Cold War America. Shaky Foundations: The Politics­Patronage­Social Science Nexus in Cold War America by Mark Solovey). CATHY GERE Mark Solovey. Shaky Foundations: The Poli- tics­Patronage­Social Science Nexus in Cold War

  20. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  1. High-Burnup BWR Fuel Behavior Under Simulated Reactivity-Initiated Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    2002-06-15

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel at 56 to 61 GWd/tonne U was pulse irradiated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate fuel behavior under cold startup reactivity-initiated accident conditions. Current Japanese 8 x 8 type Step II BWR fuel from Fukushima Daini Unit 2 was refabricated to short segments, and thermal energy from 272 to 586 J/g (65 to 140 cal/g) was promptly inserted to the test rods. Cladding deformation of the BWR fuel by the pulse irradiation was smaller than that of pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels. However, cladding failure occurred in tests with fuel at burnup of 61 GWd/tonne U at fuel enthalpies of 260 to 360 J/g (62 to 86 cal/g) during the early stages of transients, while the cladding remained cool. The failure was comparable to the one observed in high-burnup PWR fuel tests, in which embrittled cladding with dense hydride precipitation near the outer surface was fractured due to pellet cladding mechanical interaction. Transient fission gas release by the pulse irradiation was {approx}9.6 to 17% depending on the peak fuel enthalpy.

  2. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  3. Bridging the Cold War and the 21st century: chronicling the history of Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mora, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    A historical perspective is given for Sandia National Laboratories from its beginnings as a small engineering group at an offshoot of Los Alamos Laboratory to a facility of 7000 people at its main facility in Albuquerque, another 1000 people in Livermore, California and test ranges in Tonopah, Nevada and Kauai, Hawaii. The Sandia army base became the Z division of Los Alamos and $25 million construction program began the structures that would carry out a test program for nuclear weapons during the cold war. Bell System/AT&T stewardship of the site continued from 1949 to 1993, when Martin Marietta (now Lockheed Martin) was chosen as the new contractor. Management decisions, personnel, and political aspects of the Laboratory are presented up to 1997 and forecasts are given for future policy and programs of Sandia.

  4. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Studies for Making Glass Ceramic Waste Forms: A Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Maio, Vincent; McCloy, John S.; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian J.; Benefiel, Bradley; Vienna, John D.; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.; Olszta, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (~1/4 scale) cold crucible induction meter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  5. Cold crucible induction melter studies for making glass ceramic waste forms: A feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod; Maio, Vince; McCloy, John; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian; Benefiel, Brad; Vienna, John; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joe; Olszta, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (approximately 1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  6. Photonic portal to the sterile world of cold dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wojciech Krolikowski

    2007-12-18

    We assume that the cold dark matter consists of spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles described by a bispinor field \\psi and a scalar field \\phi, sterile from all Standard Model charges (in contrast, neutralinos, supersymmetric candidates for cold dark matter, are not sterile from weak Standard Model charges). We propose, however, that such a sterile world can contact with our Standard Model world not only through gravity but also through a portal provided by photons coupled to sterile particles by means of two very weak effective interactions -(f/M^2)\\phi F^{\\mu\

  7. Expansion of a cold non-neutral plasma slab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karimov, A. R.; Yu, M. Y.; Stenflo, L.

    2014-12-15

    Expansion of the ion and electron fronts of a cold non-neutral plasma slab with a quasi-neutral core bounded by layers containing only ions is investigated analytically and exact solutions are obtained. It is found that on average, the plasma expansion time scales linearly with the initial inverse ion plasma frequency as well as the degree of charge imbalance, and no expansion occurs if the cold plasma slab is stationary and overall neutral. However, in both cases, there can exist prominent oscillations on the electron front.

  8. Strongly Coupled Plasmas via Rydberg-Blockade of Cold Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bannasch, G; Pohl, T

    2013-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new scheme to produce ultracold neutral plasmas deep in the strongly coupled regime. The method exploits the interaction blockade between cold atoms excited to high-lying Rydberg states and therefore does not require substantial extensions of current ultracold plasma experiments. Extensive simulations reveal a universal behavior of the resulting Coulomb coupling parameter, providing a direct connection between the physics of strongly correlated Rydberg gases and ultracold plasmas. The approach is shown to reduce currently accessible temperatures by more than an order of magnitude, which opens up a new regime for ultracold plasma research and cold ion-beam applications with readily available experimental techniques.

  9. Cold-start characteristics of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishler, Jeff [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yun [UNIV. CAL. RIVERSIDE; Mishler, Jeff [UNIV. CAL. RIVERSIDE; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrochemical reaction kinetics, species transport, and solid water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. A simplitied analysis is developed to enable the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction on cell performance during coldstart. Supporting neutron imaging data are also provided to reveal the real-time water evolution. Temperature-dependent voltage changes due to the reaction kinetics and ohmic loss are also analyzed based on the ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperature. The analysis is valuable for the fundamental study of PEFC cold-start.

  10. Production of Ultra-Cold-Neutrons in Solid ?-Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Gutsmiedl; A. Frei; F. Boehle; A. Maier; S. Paul; H. Schober; A. Orecchini

    2010-07-30

    Our recent neutron scattering measurements of phonons and magnons in solid \\alpha-oxygen have led us to a new understanding of the production mechanismen of ultra-cold-neutrons (UCN) in this super-thermal converter. The UCN production in solid \\alpha-oxygen is dominated by the excitation of phonons. The contribution of magnons to UCN production becomes only slightly important above E >10 meV and at E >4 meV. Solid \\alpha-oxygen is in comparison to solid deuterium less effcient in the down-scattering of thermal or cold neutrons into the UCN energy regime.

  11. Probing thermoelectric transport with cold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles Grenier; Corinna Kollath; Antoine Georges

    2013-11-10

    We propose experimental protocols to reveal thermoelectric and thermal effects in the transport properties of ultracold fermionic atoms, using the two-terminal setup recently realized at ETH. We show in particular that, for two reservoirs having equal particle numbers but different temperatures initially, the observation of a transient particle number imbalance during equilibration is a direct evidence of thermoelectric (off-diagonal) transport coefficients. This is a time-dependent analogue of the Seebeck effect, and a corresponding analogue of the Peltier effect can be proposed. We reveal that in addition to the thermoelectric coupling of the constriction a thermoelectric coupling also arises due to the finite dilatation coefficient of the reservoirs. We present a theoretical analysis of the protocols, and assess their feasibility by estimating the corresponding temperature and particle number imbalances in realistic current experimental conditions.

  12. Comparison of "warm and wet" and "cold and icy" scenarios for early Mars in a 3D climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wordsworth, Robin D; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T; Forget, Francois; Head, James W

    2015-01-01

    We use a 3D general circulation model to compare the primitive Martian hydrological cycle in "warm and wet" and "cold and icy" scenarios. In the warm and wet scenario, an anomalously high solar flux or intense greenhouse warming artificially added to the climate model are required to maintain warm conditions and an ice-free northern ocean. Precipitation shows strong surface variations, with high rates around Hellas basin and west of Tharsis but low rates around Margaritifer Sinus (where the observed valley network drainage density is nonetheless high). In the cold and icy scenario, snow migration is a function of both obliquity and surface pressure, and limited episodic melting is possible through combinations of seasonal, volcanic and impact forcing. At surface pressures above those required to avoid atmospheric collapse (~0.5 bar) and moderate to high obliquity, snow is transported to the equatorial highland regions where the concentration of valley networks is highest. Snow accumulation in the Aeolis quadr...

  13. Fueling Robot Automates Hydrogen Hose Reliability Testing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, K.

    2014-01-01

    Automated robot mimics fueling action to test hydrogen hoses for durability in real-world conditions.

  14. Unconventional states and geometric effects in mesoscopic systems of ultra-cold atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolech, C. J.

    2014-10-15

    During the last decade, experiments all over the world started to test the superconducting state of matter using a newly developed mesoscopic tunable system: trapped ultra-cold atomic gases. Theorists and experimentalists hand-in-hand are now able to advance our understanding of the superconducting state by asking new questions that probe further into the physical mechanisms underlying the phenomenon and the door is open to the exploration of exotic unconventional superconducting states. In particular, a series of experiments on systems of trapped cold atomic gases were aimed at studying the effects of polarization on superconducting pairing. Two different experimental groups encountered surprising qualitative and quantitative discrepancies which seemed to be a function of the confining geometry and the cooling protocol. Our numerical studies demonstrate a tendency towards metastability and suggest an explanation for the observed discrepancy. From our calculations, the most likely solution which is consistent with the experiments supports a state strikingly similar to the so called FFLO state (after Ferrell, Fulde, Larkin and Ovchinnikov), which had been theorized long ago but eluded detection so far. Moreover, the three-dimensional scenario described above is reminiscent of predictions for one-dimensional systems of dilute polarized attractive gases and another set of ultra-cold-atom experiments incorporates optical lattices to study this reduced-dimensionality setting. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations (using a wide array of numerical and analytic techniques) in which a partially polarized phase is found to be the one-dimensional analogue of the FFLO state. Moreover, exploring the dimensional-crossover regime, our latest findings indicate that the mesoscopic nature of these quasi-one-dimensional systems favors the appearance of a new type of Mott phase transition involving an emergent pair-superfluid of equal-spin fermions.

  15. On the Rheology of Cold Drawing. I. Elastic Materials*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the Rheology of Cold Drawing. I. Elastic Materials* BERNARD D. COLEMAN and DANIEL C. NEWMAN effects and, therefore, can be treated by use of constitutive assumptions appropriate to elastic materials constitutive equation for incompressible,three-dimensional,elastic materials is explored in detail and is found

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  17. Variant selection in samples of austenitic stainless steel cold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    austenitic stainless steels such as AISI- 304L and 301L partially transform to martensite when deformed. #12Variant selection in samples of austenitic stainless steel cold rolled and deformed by tension of martensite crystallography (PMTC ) and Patel-Cohen´s theory for variant selection to predict crystallographic

  18. THE COLD AND DARK PROCESS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmour, J; William Austin, W; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-31

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of a facility exposes D&D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called ''Cold & Dark''. Several ''near miss'' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D&D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D&D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold & Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold & Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tagout, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold & Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards.

  19. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  20. What's Cooler Than Being Cool? UltraCold Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    -induced spallation ("Shoot" protons at tungsten or lead targets) fast slow Accelerator-driven: #12;hot cold 20)? At Absolute Zero, no more heat can be removed from a system Record Low: 0.45 nK (MIT, 2003) 0.00000000045 K

  1. On the Rheology of Cold Drawing. 11. Viscoelastic Materials*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . NEWMAN Department of Mechanics and Materials Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey mechanics of the phenomenon of cold draw- ing. In the first paper' (to be referred to as I), we discussed the time required for the onset of neck formation under an applied static load and the magnitude

  2. Fundamental Physics with Cold Neutrons J. S. Nico,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fundamental Physics with Cold Neutrons J. S. Nico,1 G. L. Greene,2 F. E. Wietfeldt,3 and W. S physics and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Low energy properties of nucleons and nuclei, such as weak interactions in n-A systems, low energy n-A scattering amplitudes, and the internal electro- magnetic structure

  3. Neutral cold gas (H atoms): HI clouds, 50% MISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estalella, Robert

    Neutral cold gas (H atoms): HI clouds, 50% MISM Tk = 100 K, n = 102 cm-3 observation: hyperfine transition of the fundamental level, F = 1-0 = 21 cm, = 1 420 405 751.786 Hz Interstellar Medium: HI clouds & Hindman (Sidney) Prediction and discovery of the HI 21 cm line #12;Radiative processes: thermal motion

  4. Cold spray coating: review of material systems and future perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, Ming

    . This includes metallic, ceramic and metal matrix composite (MMC) coatings and their applications. Polymer (both matrix composite, Polymer, Ceramic, Nanostructured Powder This paper is part of a special issue on cold. Different materials such as metals, ceramics, composites and polymers can be deposited using CS, creating

  5. Sorghum gene expression modulated by water deficit and cold stress 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sanghyun

    2007-04-25

    Global gene expression in Sorghum bicolor, an important crop showing drought tolerance in arid and semi-arid cultivated areas, was monitored to exposure of 8-days seedlings to water deficit (20% polyethylene glycol) or cold stress (4 �ºC). A...

  6. Semiclassical energy conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin-Moruno, Prado

    2013-01-01

    We present and develop several nonlinear energy conditions suitable for use in the semiclassical regime. In particular, we consider the recently formulated "flux energy condition" (FEC), and the novel "trace-of-square" (TOSEC) and "determinant" (DETEC) energy conditions. As we shall show, these nonlinear energy conditions behave much better than the classical linear energy conditions in the presence of semiclassical quantum effects. Moreover, whereas the quantum extensions of these nonlinear energy conditions seem to be quite widely satisfied as one enters the quantum realm, analogous quantum extensions are generally not useful for the linear classical energy conditions.

  7. The Cold and Dark Process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmour, John C.; Willis, Michael L.

    2008-01-15

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of a facility exposes D and D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called 'Cold and Dark'. Several 'near miss' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D and D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D and D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold and Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold and Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tag-out, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold and Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards. Savannah River Site experienced 6 electrical events prior to declaring a facility 'cold and dark' and has had zero electrical events after 'cold and dark' declaration (263 facilities to date). The formal Cold and Dark process developed at SRS has eliminated D and D worker exposures to hazardous energy sources. Since the implementation of the process there have been no incidents involving energized conductors or pressurized liquids/gases. During this time SRS has demolished over 200 facilities. The ability to perform intrusive D and D activities without the normal controls such as lock outs results in shorter schedule durations and lower overall costs for a facility D and D.

  8. Drug Testing Notification Form RV 2 May 22, 2013 DRUG TESTING NOTIFICATION FORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drug Testing Notification Form RV 2 May 22, 2013 DRUG TESTING NOTIFICATION FORM Section 1: Employer testing collector. You are required to undergo urine drug testing as a condition of hiring. You must have of Collection: ___________________________ Date and time of Test* * For testing out side of Louisiana testing

  9. SPECTR System Operational Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.H. Landman Jr.

    2011-08-01

    This report overviews installation of the Small Pressure Cycling Test Rig (SPECTR) and documents the system operational testing performed to demonstrate that it meets the requirements for operations. The system operational testing involved operation of the furnace system to the design conditions and demonstration of the test article gas supply system using a simulated test article. The furnace and test article systems were demonstrated to meet the design requirements for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Therefore, the system is deemed acceptable and is ready for actual test article testing.

  10. Protein-protein interactions of the cold shock protein CspE of salmonella typhimurium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwynne, Peter John

    2015-06-29

    Despite their name, a number of the cold shock proteins are expressed during normal growth, and not just during cold shock, in several species. The function of these constitutively expressed CspA paralogues is unclear. ...

  11. Worlds on view : visual art exhibitions and state identity in the late Cold War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Nicole Murphy

    2010-01-01

    Acheson: A Life in the Cold War. Oxford: Oxford UniversityBarbara. Artists of World War II. Westport CT: GreenwoodExchange and the Cold War, Raising the Iron Curtain.

  12. Analyzing the level of service and cost trade-offs in cold chain transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Saiqi

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses the tradeoff between transportation cost and the level of service in cold chain transportation. Its purpose is to find the relationship between transportation cost and the level of service in cold ...

  13. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Waste Water Treatment Plant [The Inhabited Landscape: An Exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Architects, Centerbrook

    1988-01-01

    Spring Harbor Laboratory Waste Water Treatment Plant JuryThe Cold Spring Harbor Waste Water Treatment Plant makes aA Cold Spring Harbor Waste Water Treatment Plant Photograph

  14. Mergers and Mass Assembly of Dark Matter Halos in a Lambda Cold Dark Matter Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fakhouri, Onsi Joe

    2010-01-01

    of a ? cold dark matter universe. MNRAS, 376:215–232, Marchlarge-scale structure in a universe dominated by cold darkfirst structures in the early Universe. Nature, 433:389–391,

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed from the MCO back to the K Basins.

  16. TRAC analyses for CCTF and SCTF tests and UPTF design/operation. [Cylindrical Core Test Facility; Slab Core Test Facility; Upper Plenum Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spore, J.W.; Cappiello, M.W.; Dotson, P.J.; Gilbert, J.S; Martinez, V.; Stumpf, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The analytical support in 1985 for Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) tests involves the posttest analysis of 16 tests that have already been run in the CCTF and the SCTF and the pretest analysis of 3 tests to be performed in the UPTF. Posttest analysis is used to provide insight into the detailed thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring during the refill and reflood tests performed in CCTF and SCTF. Pretest analysis is used to ensure that the test facility is operated in a manner consistent with the expected behavior of an operating full-scale plant during an accident. To obtain expected behavior of a plant during an accident, two plant loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) calculations were performed: a 200% cold-leg-break LOCA calculation for a 2772 MW(t) Babcock and Wilcox plant and a 200% cold-leg-break LOCA calculation for a 3315 MW(t) Westinghouse plant. Detailed results are presented for several CCTF UPI tests and the Westinghouse plant analysis.

  17. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 12: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-02-01

    This best practices guide is the twelfth in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the cold and very cold climates can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and thos erequirements are highlighted in the text. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Energy Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Badger, L. [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline explains the benefits of evaluating and identifying energy efficiency retrofit measures that could be made during renovation and maintenance of multifamily buildings. It focuses on low-rise multifamily structures (three or fewer stories) in a cold climate. These benefits lie primarily in reduced energy use, lower operating and maintenance costs, improved durability of the structure, and increased occupant comfort. This guideline focuses on retrofit measures for roof repair or replacement, exterior wall repair or gut rehab, and eating system maintenance. All buildings are assumed to have a flat ceiling and a trussed roof, wood- or steel-framed exterior walls, and one or more single or staged boilers. Estimated energy savings realized from the retrofits will vary, depending on the size and condition of the building, the extent of efficiency improvements, the efficiency of the heating equipment, the cost and type of fuel, and the climate location.

  19. MyUni Tests Tests.............................................................................................................................................. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    MyUni ­ Tests Tests.............................................................................................................................................. 2 Test question types.................................................................................................................... 2 Create a test

  20. The bugs that came in from the cold: molecular adaptations to low temperatures in insects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    of genes differentially regulated by low temperatures have revealed that heat shock proteins, cold stress that reduced the impact of cold or freezing stress. This review focuses on our current interests in some placed under the umbrella of "cold hardi- ness", to counter the effects of such stress. Classification

  1. Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Steve

    Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe R. M. Purvis,1 A. C of a cold front, a rapid uplift of reactive carbon from the boundary layer to the mid free troposphere, convection Citation: Purvis, R. M., et al., Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over

  2. Book Reviews Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    Book Reviews Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature, could be relevant to historians of econom- ics. However, the idea that the Cold War provides Cravens's edited volume, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human

  3. -The Bubble Chamber -http://thebubblechamber.org -Review: Cold War Social Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    [1] - The Bubble Chamber - http://thebubblechamber.org - Review: Cold War Social Science Posted By Mike Thicke On July 10, 2013 @ 11:04 pm In What We're Reading | No Comments Cold War Social Science.) Palgrave Macmillan (2012) Cold War Social Science is an edited volume that serves as an ideal entrée

  4. Chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba+ ions and neutral molecules in the gas phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Stephan

    Chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba+ ions and neutral molecules in the gas phase B. Roth, D-cooled ion trapping apparatus, we have investigated laser-induced chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba is to investigate chemical reactions between cold atomic and molecular ions trapped in radio-frequency traps

  5. Intraseasonal variability in the summer South China Sea: Wind jet, cold filament, and recirculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Intraseasonal variability in the summer South China Sea: Wind jet, cold filament of ocean-atmospheric response, including a wind jet and cold filament in the South China Sea (SCS). We variability in summer. Our analysis shows that the development of the wind jet and cold filament

  6. On the Persistence of Cold-Season SST Anomalies Associated with the Annular Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    England, Matthew

    On the Persistence of Cold-Season SST Anomalies Associated with the Annular Modes LAURA M. CIASTO fluxes, and Ekman currents on the persistence of cold-season extratropical sea surface temperature (SST. Observational analysis reveals that during the cold season, SST anomalies associated with the southern annular

  7. Equatorial currents transport changes for extreme warm and cold events in the Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Equatorial currents transport changes for extreme warm and cold events in the Atlantic Ocean Marlos compositedevents.For the cold(warm)eventthe EUC shows a greater (reduced) transport and core velocity, and a deeper.Wainer, Equatorial currents transport changes for extreme warm and cold events in the Atlantic Ocean, Geophys. Res

  8. Condition Monitoring of Cables Task 3 Report: Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villaran, M.; Lofaro, R.; na

    2009-11-30

    For more than 20 years the NRC has sponsored research studying electric cable aging degradation, condition monitoring, and environmental qualification testing practices for electric cables used in nuclear power plants. This report summarizes several of the most effective and commonly used condition monitoring techniques available to detect damage and measure the extent of degradation in electric cable insulation. The technical basis for each technique is summarized, along with its application, trendability of test data, ease of performing the technique, advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of the test results to characterize and assess the condition of electric cables.

  9. The Physics of the Cold Neutral Medium: Low-frequency Carbon Radio Recombination Lines with the Square Kilometre Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oonk, J B R; Salgado, F; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Tielens, A G G M; Rottgering, H J A

    2015-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will transform our understanding of the role of the cold, atomic gas in galaxy evolution. The interstellar medium (ISM) is the repository of stellar ejecta and the birthsite of new stars and, hence, a key factor in the evolution of galaxies over cosmic time. Cold, diffuse, atomic clouds are a key component of the ISM, but so far this phase has been difficult to study, because its main tracer, the HI 21 cm line, does not constrain the basic physical information of the gas (e.g., temperature, density) well. The SKA opens up the opportunity to study this component of the ISM through a complementary tracer in the form of low-frequency (<350 MHz) carbon radio recombination lines (CRRL). These CRRLs provide a sensitive probe of the physical conditions in cold, diffuse clouds. The superb sensitivity, large field of view, frequency resolution and coverage of the SKA allows for efficient surveys of the sky, that will revolutionize the field of low-frequency recombination line studie...

  10. Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

    1992-04-01

    The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

  11. The implications of the large scale galaxy power spectrum for Cold Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Baugh; E. Gaztanaga

    1998-10-12

    The APM Galaxy Survey maps the angular positions of more than one million galaxies to $b_{J} = 20$, covering a volume comparable to the forthcoming Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A numerical algorithm has been developed to estimate the power spectrum in three dimensions, using the angular clustering and a model for the redshift distribution of APM Galaxies. The power spectrum obtained is free from distortions of the pattern of clustering caused by the peculiar motions of galaxies. We discuss the uncertainties in the estimated power spectrum and describe tests of the algorithm using large numerical simulations. The APM Galaxy power spectrum shows an inflection at a wavenumber $k \\sim 0.15 h/Mpc$, with evidence for a peak or turnover in the range $ k \\sim 0.03-0.06 h/Mpc$. These features can place strong constraints on Cold Dark Matter models for structure formation.

  12. TRAC-PD2 modeling of LOFT and PWR small cold-leg breaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, T.D.; Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.; Lime, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light-water reactors. TRAC-PD2, the latest publicly released version of the code, is currently being tested against small-break and other transients in experimental facilities; it is also being used to analyze postulated accidents in commercial power reactors. Calculated results for LOFT small-break experiments are compared to data, and the results from two small-break calculations for two different reactor systems are presented. It is concluded that TRAC-PD2 is useful for the analysis of cold-leg small-break accidents.

  13. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  14. Conditions for establishing quasistable double layers in the Earth's auroral upward current region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Main, D. S.; Newman, D. L.; Ergun, R. E.

    2010-12-15

    The strength and stability of simulated double layers at the ionosphere-auroral cavity boundary have been studied as a function of cold ionospheric electron temperature and density. The simulations are performed with an open boundary one-dimensional particle-in- cell (PIC) simulation and are initialized by imposing a density cavity within the simulation domain. The PIC simulation includes H{sup +} and O{sup +} ion beams, a hot H{sup +} background population, cold ionospheric electrons, and a hot electron population. It is shown that a double layer remains quasistable for a variety of initial conditions and plasma parameters. The average potential drop of the double layer is found to increase as the cold electron temperature decreases. However, in terms of cold electron density, the average potential drop of the double layer is found to increase up to some critical cold electron density and decreases above this value. Comparisons with FAST observations are made and agreement is found between simulation results and observations in the shape and width of the double layer. This study helps put a constraint on the plasma conditions in which a DL can be expected to form and remain quasistable.

  15. Stable Higgs Bosons - new candidate for cold dark matter -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yutaka Hosotani

    2010-03-31

    The Higgs boson is in the backbone of the standard model of electroweak interactions. It must exist in some form for achieving unification of interactions. In the gauge-Higgs unification scenario the Higgs boson becomes a part of the extra-dimensional component of gauge fields. The Higgs boson becomes absolutely stable in a class of the gauge-Higgs unification models, serving as a promising candidate for cold dark matter in the universe. The observed relic abundance of cold dark matter is obtained with the Higgs mass around 70 GeV. The Higgs-nucleon scattering cross section is found to be close to the recent CDMS II and XENON10 bounds in the direct detection of dark matter. In collider experiments stable Higgs bosons are produced in a pair, appearing as missing energies and momenta so that the way of detecting Higgs bosons must be altered.

  16. Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhao-Qing; Li, Jun-Qing; Scheid, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Within the concept of the dinuclear system (DNS), a dynamical model is proposed for describing the formation of superheavy nuclei in complete fusion reactions by incorporating the coupling of the relative motion to the nucleon transfer process. The capture of two heavy colliding nuclei, the formation of the compound nucleus and the de-excitation process are calculated by using an empirical coupled channel model, solving a master equation numerically and applying statistical theory, respectively. Evaporation residue excitation functions in cold fusion reactions are investigated systematically and compared with available experimental data. Maximal production cross sections of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions with stable neutron-rich projectiles are obtained. Isotopic trends in the production of the superheavy elements Z=110, 112, 114, 116, 118 and 120 are analyzed systematically. Optimal combinations and the corresponding excitation energies are proposed.

  17. Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao-Qing Feng; Gen-Ming Jin; Jun-Qing Li; Werner Scheid

    2007-10-17

    Within the concept of the dinuclear system (DNS), a dynamical model is proposed for describing the formation of superheavy nuclei in complete fusion reactions by incorporating the coupling of the relative motion to the nucleon transfer process. The capture of two heavy colliding nuclei, the formation of the compound nucleus and the de-excitation process are calculated by using an empirical coupled channel model, solving a master equation numerically and applying statistical theory, respectively. Evaporation residue excitation functions in cold fusion reactions are investigated systematically and compared with available experimental data. Maximal production cross sections of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions with stable neutron-rich projectiles are obtained. Isotopic trends in the production of the superheavy elements Z=110, 112, 114, 116, 118 and 120 are analyzed systematically. Optimal combinations and the corresponding excitation energies are proposed.

  18. Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons as a Test of Stopping Power in Degenerate Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; Gerard Jungman; A. E. Schulz; M. Boswell; M. M. Fowler; G. Grim; A. Klein; R. S. Rundberg; J. B. Wilhelmy; D. Wilson

    2014-11-25

    We present the first measurements of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons in an inertial confinement fusion system. The experiments were carried out at the National Ignition Facility, using both Low Foot and High Foot drives and cryogenic plastic capsules. In both cases, the high-energy RIF ($E_n>$ 15 MeV) component of the neutron spectrum was found to be about $10^{-4}$ of the total. The majority of the RIF neutrons were produced in the dense cold fuel surrounding the burning hotspot of the capsule and the data are consistent with a compressed cold fuel that is moderately to strongly coupled $(\\Gamma\\sim$0.6) and electron degenerate $(\\theta_\\mathrm{Fermi}/\\theta_e\\sim$4). The production of RIF neutrons is controlled by the stopping power in the plasma. Thus, the current RIF measurements provide a unique test of stopping power models in an experimentally unexplored plasma regime. We find that the measured RIF data strongly constrain stopping models in warm dense plasma conditions and some models are ruled out by our analysis of these experiments.

  19. Microscopic Lensing by a Dense, Cold Atomic Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stetson Roof; Kasie Kemp; Mark Havey; I. M. Sokolov; D. V. Kupriyanov

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate that a cold, dense sample of 87Rb atoms can exhibit a micron-scale lensing effect, much like that associated with a macroscopically-sized lens. The experiment is carried out in the fashion of traditional z-scan measurements but in much weaker fields and where close attention is paid to the detuning dependence of the transmitted light. The results are interpreted using numerical simulations and by modeling the sample as a thin lens with a spherical focal length.

  20. Viscoelastic modes in a strongly coupled, cold, magnetized dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Debabrata; Mylavarapu, Janaki Sita; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2010-11-15

    A generalized hydrodynamical model has been used to study the low frequency modes in a strongly coupled, cold, magnetized dusty plasma. Such plasmas exhibit elastic properties due to the strong correlations among dust particles and the tensile stresses imparted by the magnetic field. It has been shown that longitudinal compressional Alfven modes and elasticity modified transverse shear mode exist in such a medium. The features of these collective modes are established and discussed.

  1. Cold War Context Statement: Sandia National Laboratories, California Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ULLRICH, REBECCA A.

    2003-01-01

    This document was prepared to support the Department of Energy's compliance with Sections 106 and 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act. It provides an overview of the historic context in which Sandia National Laboratories/California was created and developed. Establishing such a context allows for a reasonable and reasoned historical assessment of Sandia National Laboratories/California properties. The Cold War arms race provides the primary historical context for the SNL/CA built environment.

  2. Quantum Theory for Cold Avalanche Ionization in Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, H. X.; Zu, X. T.; Xiang, X.; Sun, K.

    2010-09-10

    A theory of photon-assisted impact ionization in solids is presented. Our theory makes a quantum description of the new impact ionization--cold avalanche ionization recently reported by P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083001 (2009)]. The present theory agrees with the experiments and can be reduced to the traditional impact ionization expression in the absence of a laser.

  3. Viscoelastic modes in a strongly coupled cold magnetized dusty plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debabrata; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    A generalized hydrodynamical model has been used to study low frequency modes in a strongly coupled, cold, magnetized dusty plasma. Such plasmas exhibit elastic properties due to strong correlations among dust particles and the tensile stresses imparted by the magnetic field. It has been shown that longitudinal compressional Alfven modes and elasticity modified transverse shear mode exist in such a medium. The features of these collective modes are established and discussed.

  4. Edge Transport in 2D Cold Atom Optical Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. W. Scarola; S. Das Sarma

    2007-05-24

    We theoretically study the observable response of edge currents in two dimensional cold atom optical lattices. As an example we use Gutzwiller mean-field theory to relate persistent edge currents surrounding a Mott insulator in a slowly rotating trapped Bose-Hubbard system to time of flight measurements. We briefly discuss an application, the detection of Chern number using edge currents of a topologically ordered optical lattice insulator.

  5. Light transport in cold atoms and thermal decoherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Labeyrie; Dominique Delande; Robin Kaiser; Christian Miniatura

    2006-03-17

    By using the coherent backscattering interference effect, we investigate experimentally and theoretically how coherent transport of light inside a cold atomic vapour is affected by the residual motion of atomic scatterers. As the temperature of the atomic cloud increases, the interference contrast dramatically decreases emphazising the role of motion-induced decoherence for resonant scatterers even in the sub-Doppler regime of temperature. We derive analytical expressions for the corresponding coherence time.

  6. Searching for WISPy cold dark matter with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horns, Dieter; Jaeckel, Joerg; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas; Lobanov, Andrei; Redondo, Javier E-mail: jjaeckel@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: alobanov@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de

    2013-04-01

    The cold dark matter of the Universe may be comprised of very light and very weakly interacting particles, so-called WISPs. Two prominent examples are hidden photons and axion-like particles. In this note we propose a new technique to sensitively search for this type of dark matter with dish antennas. The technique is broadband and allows to explore a whole range of masses in a single measurement.

  7. U-060: Security update: Hotfix available for ColdFusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vulnerabilities have been identified in ColdFusion 9.0.1 and earlier versions for Windows, Macintosh and UNIX. These vulnerabilities could lead to a cross-site scripting attack. Adobe categorizes this as an important update and recommends that users apply the latest update for their product installation.This update resolves a cross-site scripting vulnerability in cfform tag (CVE-2011-2463). This update resolves a cross-site scripting vulnerability in RDS (CVE-2011-4368).

  8. Shutting the Door on Cold Weather | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4 » Searchwith Ultra-DeepwaterShutting the Door on Cold

  9. Magneto-Centrifugal Launching of Jets from Accretion Disks; 1, Cold Axisymmetric Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnopolsky, R; Blandford, R D

    1999-01-01

    The magneto-centrifugal model for jet formation is studied by time-dependent simulations reaching steady state in a cold gas with negligible fluid pressure, in an axisymmetric geometry, using a modification of the Zeus3D code adapted to parallel computers. The number of boundary conditions imposed at the coronal base takes into account the existence of the fast and Alfvenic critical surfaces, avoiding over-determination of the flow. The size and shape of the computational box is chosen to include these critical surfaces, reducing the influence of the outer boundary conditions. As there is a region, near the origin, where the inclination of field lines to the axis is too small to drive a centrifugal wind, we inject a thin, axial jet, expected to form electromagnetically near black holes. Acceleration and collimation appear for wide generic conditions. A reference run is shown in detail, with a wind leaving the computational volume in the axial direction with a poloidal velocity equal to 4 times the poloidal Al...

  10. Magneto-Centrifugal Launching of Jets from Accretion Disks. I: Cold Axisymmetric Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Krasnopolsky; Z. -Y. Li; R. D. Blandford

    1999-07-29

    The magneto-centrifugal model for jet formation is studied by time-dependent simulations reaching steady state in a cold gas with negligible fluid pressure, in an axisymmetric geometry, using a modification of the Zeus3D code adapted to parallel computers. The number of boundary conditions imposed at the coronal base takes into account the existence of the fast and Alfvenic critical surfaces, avoiding over-determination of the flow. The size and shape of the computational box is chosen to include these critical surfaces, reducing the influence of the outer boundary conditions. As there is a region, near the origin, where the inclination of field lines to the axis is too small to drive a centrifugal wind, we inject a thin, axial jet, expected to form electromagnetically near black holes. Acceleration and collimation appear for wide generic conditions. A reference run is shown in detail, with a wind leaving the computational volume in the axial direction with a poloidal velocity equal to 4 times the poloidal Alfven speed, collimated inside 11 degrees. Finally, the critical surfaces, fieldlines, thrust, energy, torque and mass discharge of the outgoing wind are shown for simulations with various profiles of mass and magnetic flux at the base of the corona.

  11. Test procedure for measurement of performance vs temperature of Whittaker electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1997-01-23

    This document is the test procedure to systematically test the Whittaker cells between the temperatures of -20 degrees F and +120 degrees F. These sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) flammable gas interlock (FGI), to detect and quantify hydrogen gas. This procedure supports the testing, that is being performed after cold weather attempts on the Whittaker cell failed.

  12. Standard test method for creep-fatigue testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical properties pertaining to creep-fatigue deformation or crack formation in nominally homogeneous materials, or both by the use of test specimens subjected to uniaxial forces under isothermal conditions. It concerns fatigue testing at strain rates or with cycles involving sufficiently long hold times to be responsible for the cyclic deformation response and cycles to crack formation to be affected by creep (and oxidation). It is intended as a test method for fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and cracking vary with material and with temperature for a given material. 1.2 The use of this test method is limited to specimens and does not cover testing of full-scale components, structures, or consumer products. 1.3 This test method is primarily ...

  13. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  14. Laboratory's role in Cold War nuclear weapons testing program focus of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate studentScienceLaboratory program helpsgarnernear DPnext

  15. Cold air distribution in office buildings: technology assessment for califonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Borgers, T.; LaBerge, P.; Gadgil, A.

    1993-01-01

    for sunm~er air conditioning with ice storage. ASHRAEIce storage is one form of thermal energy storage (TES), or off-peak air conditioning,

  16. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    for summer air conditioning with ice storage." ASHRAEIce storage is one form of thennal energy storage (TES), or off-peak air-conditioning,

  17. Silicate Based Glass Formulations for Immobilization of U.S. Defense Wastes Using Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Gary L.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Marra, James C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Crawford, Charles L.; Vienna, John D.

    2014-05-22

    The cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) is an alternative technology to the currently deployed liquid-fed, ceramic-lined, Joule-heated melter for immobilizing of U.S. tank waste generated from defense related reprocessing. In order to accurately evaluate the potential benefits of deploying a CCIM, glasses must be developed specifically for that melting technology. Related glass formulation efforts have been conducted since the 1990s including a recent study that is first documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to summarize the silicate base glass formulation efforts for CCIM testing of U.S. tank wastes. Summaries of phosphate based glass formulation and phosphate and silicate based CCIM demonstration tests are reported separately (Day and Ray 2013 and Marra 2013, respectively). Combined these three reports summarize the current state of knowledge related to waste form development and process testing of CCIM technology for U.S. tank wastes.

  18. The role of stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the occurrence of extreme winter cold spells over northern Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    the stratosphere, the MPI Earth System Model. Geopotential height anomalies leading to cold air outbreaks leave

  19. 600-T Magnetic Fields due to Cold Electron Flow in a simple Cu-Coil irradiated by High Power Laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Baojun; Yuan, Dawei; Li, Yanfei; Li, Fang; Liao, Guoqian; Zhao, Jiarui; Zhong, Jiayong; Xue, Feibiao; Wei, Huigang; Zhang, Kai; Han, Bo; Pei, Xiaoxing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Weimin; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A new simple mechanism due to cold electron flow to produce strong magnetic field is proposed. A 600-T strong magnetic field is generated in the free space at the laser intensity of 5.7x10^15 Wcm^-2. Theoretical analysis indicates that the magnetic field strength is proportional to laser intensity. Such a strong magnetic field offers a new experimental test bed to study laser-plasma physics, in particular, fast-ignition laser fusion research and laboratory astrophysics.

  20. Test Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Test Images. I hope to have a set of test images for the course soon. Some images are available now; some will have to wait until I can find another 100-200

  1. Meatiness Testing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the ignition phenomena of selected polymeric materials using the Hot Wire Ignition Test. This test is prescribed by Underwriters Laboratories as one of various requirements ...

  2. The Effect of Cold Work on Properties of Alloy 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    Alloy 617 is approved for non-nuclear construction in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and Section VIII, but is not currently qualified for nuclear use in ASME Code Section III. A draft Code Case was submitted in 1992 to qualify the alloy for nuclear service but efforts were stopped before the approval process was completed.1 Renewed interest in high temperature nuclear reactors has resulted in a new effort to qualify Alloy 617 for use in nuclear pressure vessels. The mechanical and physical properties of Alloy 617 were extensively characterized for the VHTR programs in the 1980’s and incorporated into the 1992 draft Code Case. Recently, the properties of modern heats of the alloy that incorporate an additional processing step, electro-slag re-melting, have been characterized both to confirm that the properties of contemporary material are consistent with those in the historical record and to increase the available database. A number of potential issues that were identified as requiring further consideration prior to the withdrawal of the 1992 Code Case are also being re-examined in the current R&D program. Code Cases are again being developed to allow use of Alloy 617 for nuclear design within the rules of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In general the Code defines two temperature ranges for nuclear design with austenitic and nickel based alloys. Below 427°C (800°F) time dependent behavior is not considered, while above this temperature creep and creep-fatigue are considered to be the dominant life-limiting deformation modes. There is a corresponding differentiation in the treatment of the potential for effects associated with cold work. Below 427°C the principal issue is the relationship between the level of cold work and the propensity for stress corrosion cracking and above that temperature the primary concern is the impact of cold work on creep-rupture behavior.

  3. Verification Testing Test Driven Development Testing with JUnit Verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Dennis

    Verification Testing Test Driven Development Testing with JUnit Verification Any activity should be verified. #12;Verification Testing Test Driven Development Testing with JUnit Approaches to verification 1 Testing 2 Static Analysis · Peer review · Insepction/Walk-through/Structured review · Formal

  4. Cooperatively enhanced light transmission in cold atomic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasie Kemp; S. J. Roof; M. D. Havey; I. M. Sokolov; D. V. Kupriyanov

    2014-10-09

    We report enhanced transmission in measurements of the spectral dependence of forward light scattering by a high-density and cold ensemble of 87Rb atoms. This phenomenon, which is a result of dipole-dipole interaction induced cooperative light scattering in the atomic sample, implies a significant departure from the traditional density dependence of the transmitted light as embodied in the Beer-Lambert Law. Absolute values of the density-dependent forward light scattering cross-section are extracted from the measurements.

  5. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  6. Nonlinear lower hybrid oscillations in a cold viscous plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2011-12-15

    An analytical description of nonlinear lower hybrid oscillations in a cold quasi-neutral plasma in the presence of viscosity is presented in one spatial dimension by using Lagrangian variables. By treating viscosity coefficients of the electron and ion fluids as inversely proportional to their respective densities, an exact solution is obtained. It is found that the damping rate of such oscillations is directly proportional to the effective viscosity coefficients of electron and ion fluids. A possible implication of such solutions is briefly outlined.

  7. Measuring the Earth's gravity field with cold atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier Carraz; Christian Siemes; Luca Massotti; Roger Haagmans; Pierluigi Silvestrin

    2015-06-12

    The scope of the paper is to propose different concepts for future space gravity missions using Cold Atom Interferometers (CAI) for measuring the diagonal elements of the gravity gradient tensor, the spacecraft angular velocity and the spacecraft acceleration. The aim is to achieve better performance than previous space gravity missions due to a very low white noise spectral behaviour of the CAI instrument and a very high common mode rejection, with the ultimate goals of determining the fine structures of the gravity field with higher accuracy than GOCE and detecting time-variable signals in the gravity field.

  8. Deuterated polyethylene coatings for ultra-cold neutron applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altarev, I; Fierlinger, P; Geltenbort, P; Gutsmiedl, E; Kuchler, F; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Marino, M G; Niessen, B; Petzoldt, G; Ruhstorfer, D; Seeman, K M; Soltwedel, O; Stuiber, St; Taubenheim, B; Windmayer, D; Zechlau, T

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and use of deuterated polyethylene (dPE) as a coating material for ultra-cold neutron (UCN) storage and transport. The Fermi potential has been determined to be 214 neV and the wall loss coefficient $\\eta$ is 2$\\cdot$10$^4$ per wall collision. The coating technique allows for a wide range of applications and new possibilities in this field of physics. In particular, flexible and quasi-massless UCN guides with slit-less shutters and slit-less UCN storage volumes become possible. These properties enable the use in next-generation measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  9. Continuous guided beams of slow and internally cold polar molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommer, Christian; Motsch, Michael; Pohle, Sebastian; Bayerl, Josef; Pinkse, Pepijn W H; Rempe, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    We describe the combination of buffer-gas cooling with electrostatic velocity filtering to produce a high-flux continuous guided beam of internally cold and slow polar molecules. In a previous paper (L.D. van Buuren et al., arXiv:0806.2523v1) we presented results on density and state purity for guided beams of ammonia and formaldehyde using an optimized set-up. Here we describe in more detail the technical aspects of the cryogenic source, its operation, and the optimization experiments that we performed to obtain best performance. The versatility of the source is demonstrated by the production of guided beams of different molecular species.

  10. Coherent light transport in a cold Strontium cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Bibel; B. Klappauf; J. C. Bernard; D. Delande; G. Labeyrie; C. Miniatura; D. Wilkowski; R. Kaiser

    2002-02-05

    We study light coherent transport in the weak localization regime using magneto-optically cooled strontium atoms. The coherent backscattering cone is measured in the four polarization channels using light resonant with a J=0 to J=1 transition of the Strontium atom. We find an enhancement factor close to 2 in the helicity preserving channel, in agreement with theoretical predictions. This observation confirms the effect of internal structure as the key mechanism for the contrast reduction observed with an Rubidium cold cloud (see: Labeyrie et al., PRL 83, 5266 (1999)). Experimental results are in good agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations taking into account geometry effects.

  11. Initial-state splitting kernels in cold nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ovanesyan, Grigory; Vitev, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We derive medium-induced splitting kernels for energetic partons that undergo interactions in dense QCD matter before a hard-scattering event at large momentum transfer $Q^2$. Working in the framework of the effective theory ${\\rm SCET}_{\\rm G}\\,$, we compute the splitting kernels beyond the soft gluon approximation. We present numerical studies that compare our new results with previous findings. We expect the full medium-induced splitting kernels to be most relevant for the extension of initial-state cold nuclear matter energy loss phenomenology in both p+A and A+A collisions.

  12. Deuterium concentration and cold fusion; Rate distributions in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.; Nielson, K.K. )

    1989-12-01

    Cold fusion reactions and excess heat production have been reported in the electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium metal cathode. Solution of the standard diffusion equation for deuterium without fusion indicates that the deuterium concentration distribution rapidly becomes constant in the palladium lattice. Solution of the nonlinear diffusion equation for deuterium undergoing fusion also gives constant deuterium concentrations, suggesting that any fusion occurs uniformly throughout the palladium lattice. The hypothesis that fusion reactions occur predominantly at the palladium surface is shown to be inconsistent with experimental data.

  13. Thermal, thermoelectric, and cathode poisoning effects in cold fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keesing, R.G.; Greenhow, R.C.; Cohler, M.D. ); McQuillan, A.J. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on an unsuccessful attempt to repeat the observations by Fleischmann and Pons of cold nuclear fusion in deuterium-charged palladium; no excess heat is found, nor is any gamma or neutron activity identified. Peltier heating at the palladium/platinum junction is investigated, but no effects are seen; the possibility remains, however, that a large Peltier coefficient may arise for deuterium concentrations that render the palladium-deuterium semiconducting. Finally, the effects of poisoning the palladium with cyanide were investigated.

  14. PHEV Engine Cold Start Emissions Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT P - . . - - 4 v - rPBS: WindPEMFCY-127-A09Cold

  15. Underground Flow Measurement and Particle Release Test | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Underground Flow Measurement and Particle Release Test Underground Flow Measurement and Particle Release Test This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the...

  16. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    the energy efficiency of air conditioning products isbetween the energy efficiency of air conditioning productsthe air conditioning testing facilities of energy efficiency

  17. 13-03-09 9:30 PMCold War Social Science and the Rubric of the "Cold War" | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/06/cold-war-social-science-and-the-rubric-of-the-cold-war/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    13-03-09 9:30 PMCold War Social Science and the Rubric of the "Cold War" | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/06/cold-war-social-science-and-the-rubric-of-the-cold-war/ Cold War Social Science and the Rubric of the "Cold War" September 6, 2012 Posted by Will Thomas in EWP

  18. Nanoindentation Under Dynamic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Jeffrey M

    2009-05-22

    and in analysis of the resulting data. Recent development has enabled investigation of materials under several dynamic conditions. The palladium-hydrogen system has a large miscibility gap, where the palladium lattice rapidly expands to form a hydrogen-rich ?...

  19. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates were analyzed for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. The reason for choosing this house type was they are very common in our area and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR Building America industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled us to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  20. Operating Experience Level 3, Laboratory Tests Indicate Conditions...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    provides new information on a potential performance issue associated with certain axial flow high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that do not contain separators in the...

  1. Novel capability enables first test of real turbine engine conditions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unique insights into thermo mechanical states, particularly at the thermally grown oxide layer." This work was funded by the National Science Foundation and the German Science...

  2. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Content: Close Send 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  3. Operating Experience Level 3, Laboratory Tests Indicate Conditions that

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -DepartmentAvailableHighOffice| Department of Energy FallCould

  4. Forming the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt in a light Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon, Andrew; Lithwick, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Large Kuiper Belt Objects are conventionally thought to have formed out of a massive planetesimal belt that is a few thousand times its current mass. Such a picture, however, is incompatible with multiple lines of evidence. Here, we present a new model for the conglomeration of Cold Classical Kuiper belt objects, out of a solid belt only a few times its current mass, or a few percent of the solid density in a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. This is made possible by depositing most of the primordial mass in grains of size centimetre or smaller. These grains collide frequently and maintain a dynamically cold belt out of which large bodies grow efficiently: an order-unity fraction of the solid mass can be converted into large bodies, in contrast to the ~0.1% efficiency in conventional models. Such a light belt may represent the true outer edge of the Solar system, and it may have effectively halted the outward migration of Neptune. In addition to the high efficiency, our model can also produce a mass spectrum that pe...

  5. A REALISTIC EXAMINATION OF COLD FUSION CLAIMS 24 YEARS LATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.

    2012-10-22

    On March 29, 1989, chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced they had discovered an effect whose explanation was required to lie in the realm of nuclear reactions. Their claim, and those subsequent to it of roughly similar nature, became known as ‘cold fusion’. Research continues to this day on this effect, but what has become clear is that whatever it is, it is not a conventional fusion process. Thus the ‘cold fusion’ moniker is somewhat inappropriate and many current researchers in the field prefer the term “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)”, although other terms have been coined for it as well. the results developed out of the LENR research do in fact show something is happening to produce signals which might be interpreted as supporting nuclear reactions (which is what encourages and sustains LENR researchers), but which can also be interpreted via a set of unique and interesting conventional processes. The focus of this document is to describe and address recent objections to such processes so that subsequent LENR research can be guided to develop information that will determine whether either set of explanations has merit. It is hoped that criteria delineated herein will aid the USDOE and other agencies in determining if LENR proposals are meritorious and worthy of support or not.

  6. Sandia Energy - Extreme Conditions Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extreme Conditions Modeling Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Technology Development Extreme Conditions Modeling Extreme Conditions ModelingAshley...

  7. Conditional data watchpoint management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdick, Dean Joseph (Austin, TX); Vaidyanathan, Basu (Austin, TX)

    2010-08-24

    A method, system and computer program product for managing a conditional data watchpoint in a set of instructions being traced is shown in accordance with illustrative embodiments. In one particular embodiment, the method comprises initializing a conditional data watchpoint and determining the watchpoint has been encountered. Upon that determination, examining a current instruction context associated with the encountered watchpoint prior to completion of the current instruction execution, further determining a first action responsive to a positive context examination; otherwise, determining a second action.

  8. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  9. Performance House: A Cold Climate Challenge Home, Old Greenwich, Connecticut (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    By working with builder partners on test homes, researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program can vet whole-house building strategies and avoid potential unintended consequences of implementing untested solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, Connecticut. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 "Performance House" was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adaptable to the needs of homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the "Performance House" were best practices rather than cutting edge, with a focus on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. Achieving 30% source energy savings compared with a home built to the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code in the cold climate zone requires that nearly all components and systems be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Index Score of 20 (43 without photovoltaics [PV]).

  10. Surviving Through The Post-Cold War Era: The Evolution of Foreign Policy In North Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    to the development of nuclear weapons to substitute for thethe Cold War. Developing nuclear weapons also bolstered thethe reduction of nuclear weapons as well as the general

  11. Discussion on Energy-Efficient Technology for the Reconstruction of Residential Buildings in Cold Areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, J.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    with the software PKPM, and provides the technical and economic analysis, which may provide reference for suitable plans for energy efficient reconstruction of buildings in cold areas....

  12. Thermodynamics of Quantum Ultra-cold Neutron Gas under Gravity of The Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiromi Kaneko; Akihiro Tohsaki; Atsushi Hosaka

    2012-06-29

    The stored ultra-cold neutrons have been developed. A high density ultra-cold neutron gas has been recently produced by using the nuclear spallation method. We investigate the thermodynamic properties of the quantum ultra-cold neutron gas in the Earth's gravitational field. We find that the quantum effects increase temperature dependence of the chemical potential and the internal energy in the low temperature region. The density distribution of quantum ultra-cold neutron gas is modified by the Earth's gravitational field.

  13. Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K. [Multilayer insulation (MLI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

    1992-04-01

    The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

  14. Modified Cold-Dark-Matter models in light of 53W091 an old galaxy at high z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kashlinsky; R. Jimenez

    1996-10-22

    The epoch of galaxy formation provides an important additional test of cosmological theories. Cold-dark-matter (CDM) models with cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$) are designed to account for the observed excess power in galaxy distribution, but at the same time suppress the power on small scales pushing galaxy formation to recent epochs. We point out that the recently discovered high redshift galaxy, 53W091, with accurate age measurements (Dunlop et al 1996) provides a particularly important test of these models. In the flat $\\Lambda$-dominated Universe, the redshift of formation of 53W091 decreases with decreasing $\\Omega$. However, in the modified CDM models decreasing $\\Omega$ suppresses the small scale power in the density field and this effect turns out to be dominant. We estimate the mass of the galaxy and show that it represents a very rare and unlikely event in the density field of such models. Similar problems would occur in other modifications of the CDM cosmogonies.

  15. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  16. What do we do, if some of the MICE magnets can't be kept cold using the two-stage coolers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.

    2011-01-26

    Tests of the spectrometer solenoids have not been encouraging in terms of keeping the magnets cold using three 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) coolers. The spectrometer solenoids are being rebuilt with additional cooling capacity at 4.2 K. It is hoped that there will be sufficient 4.2 K cooling to keep the magnets cold. The spectrometer solenoids can be kept cold using liquid helium (up to a boil-off of 20 liters per day). This option does not apply for the other magnets in the MICE cooling channel, because there is not enough liquid helium storage within the magnet cold mass. It is important that the MICE collaboration ask the question, “How do we keep the MICE cooling channel magnets cold, if there isn’t sufficient cooling from the 4.2 K coolers?” This report discusses the cooling requirements at both 40 K and 4.2 K for all three types of MICE cooling channel magnets. This report discusses the steps that must be taken in the magnet fabrication to permit the magnets to be cooled using a small (20 to 40 W) external 4.2 K Claude cycle refrigerator. One must also ask the question as to whether there is enough excess capacity in the decay solenoid refrigerator to cool some of the MICE magnets. A plan for cooling the magnets using a Linde 1400 series refrigerator is presented. A plan for increasing the 4.4 K refrigeration from the existing decay solenoid refrigerator is also presented.

  17. Particulate matter emissions from a DISI engine under cold-fast-idle conditions for ethanol-gasoline blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimou, Iason

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to build internal combustion engines with both reduced brake-specific fuel consumption and better emission control, engineers developed the Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. DISI engines combine ...

  18. Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimou, Iason

    The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0° C to 40° C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

  19. Moving granular-bed filter development program - option 1 - component test facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smelzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Westinghouse Science & Technology Center has proposed a novel moving granular bed filter concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF). The SMGBF has inherent advantages over the current state-of-the-art moving granular bed filter technology and is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters. The SMGBF system combines several unique features that make it highly effective for use in advanced coal-fueled power plants, such as pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and integrated coal-gasification combined cycles (IGCC). The SMGBF is being developed in a phased program having an initial Base Contract period followed by optional periods. The Base Contract period was successfully completed and previously documented by Westinghouse. The Option 1 period, {open_quote}Component Test Facilities{close_quotes}, has also been completed and its results are reported in this document. The objective of the Option 1 program was to optimize the performance of the SMGBF system through component testing focused on the major technology issues. The SMGBF has been shown to be a viable technology in both cold flow simulations and high-temperature, high-pressure testing, and conditions to lead to best performance levels have been identified. Several development activities remain to be complete before the SMGBF can achieve commercial readiness.

  20. Cold tolerance of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and thermal-refuge technology to protect this species from cold-kill in aquaculture ponds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorsett, Paul Wesley

    1994-01-01

    The need to protect red drum in aquaculture ponds from cold-kill led to the development of thermalrefuge technology for overwintering these fish. Successive versions of an experimental thermal refuge were installed and operated in two adjacent red...

  1. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  2. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-01-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  3. How water contributes to pressure and cold denaturation of proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianco, Valentino

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of cold- and pressure-denaturation of proteins are matter of debate and are commonly understood as due to water-mediated interactions. Here we study several cases of proteins, with or without a unique native state, with or without hydrophilic residues, by means of a coarse-grain protein model in explicit solvent. We show, using Monte Carlo simulations, that taking into account how water at the protein interface changes its hydrogen bond properties and its density fluctuations is enough to predict protein stability regions with elliptic shapes in the temperature-pressure plane, consistent with previous theories. Our results clearly identify the different mechanisms with which water participates to denaturation and open the perspective to develop advanced computational design tools for protein engineering.

  4. Demonstration of anomalous heat from the cold fusion effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storms, E.

    1995-12-01

    Heat production by an unexpected process is the most challenging aspect of the {open_quotes}cold fusion{close_quotes} phenomenon to accept. Many studies have been done in ways that invite criticism and easy rejection. A few recent studies have attempted to eliminate obvious errors and, thereby, reduce the ease of rejection. In addition, several of these studies have revealed important variables related to improving reproducibility. This paper will describe heat measurements done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory using a closed, pressurized, stirred calorimeter having two independent methods of calibration. Results using several batches of palladium are discussed in terms of those characteristics that lead to reproducibility using the electrolytic loading technique.

  5. Inert-sterile neutrino: Cold or warm dark matter candidate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Osoba, Efunwande [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    In usual particle models, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter of the Universe only if they have masses in the keV range and are warm dark matter. Stringent cosmological and astrophysical bounds, in particular, imposed by x-ray observations, apply to them. We point out that in a particular variation of the inert doublet model, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter in the Universe and may be either cold or warm dark matter candidates, even for masses much above the keV range. These inert-sterile neutrinos, produced nonthermally in the early Universe, would be stable and have very small couplings to standard model particles, rendering very difficult their detection in either direct or indirect dark matter searches. Their existence could be revealed only by discovering other particles of the model in collider experiments.

  6. A Nanofiber-Based Optical Conveyor Belt for Cold Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp Schneeweiss; Samuel T. Dawkins; Rudolf Mitsch; Daniel Reitz; Eugen Vetsch; Arno Rauschenbeutel

    2012-12-17

    We demonstrate optical transport of cold cesium atoms over millimeter-scale distances along an optical nanofiber. The atoms are trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by a two-color evanescent field surrounding the nanofiber, far red- and blue-detuned with respect to the atomic transition. The blue-detuned field is a propagating nanofiber-guided mode while the red-detuned field is a standing-wave mode which leads to the periodic axial confinement of the atoms. Here, this standing wave is used for transporting the atoms along the nanofiber by mutually detuning the two counter-propagating fields which form the standing wave. The performance and limitations of the nanofiber-based transport are evaluated and possible applications are discussed.

  7. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.

    1993-01-20

    We performed a wide variety of laboratory analyses during the past quarter. As with most of the work we performed during the previous quarter, our recent efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the cohesivity and tensile strength of powders. We also continued our analyses of dust cake ashes that have had the soluble compounds leached from their particle surfaces by repeated washings with water. Our analyses of leached and unleached dust cake ashes continued to provide some interesting insights into effects that compounds adsorbed on surfaces of ash particles can have on bulk ash behavior. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and on surface chemistry. Our measurements of tensile strength show, that for many of the samples we have analyzed a relative minimum in tensile strength exists for samples conditioned and tested at about 30% relative humidity. In our examinations of the effects of water conditioning on sample cohesivity, we determined that in the absence of absorption of water into the interior of the particles, cohesivity usually increases sharply when environments having relative humidities above 75% are used to condition and test the samples. Plans are under way to condition selected samples with (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4], NH[sub 4]HSO[sub 4], CaCl[sub 2], organosiloxane, and SO[sub 3]. Pending approval, we will begin these conditioning experiments, and subsequent analyses of the conditioned samples.

  8. A strained silicon cold electron bolometer using Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brien, T. L. R. Ade, P. A. R.; Barry, P. S.; Dunscombe, C.; Morozov, D. V.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Parker, E. H. C.; Prest, M. J.; Whall, T. E.; Prunnila, M.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    2014-07-28

    We describe optical characterisation of a strained silicon cold electron bolometer (CEB), operating on a 350 mK stage, designed for absorption of millimetre-wave radiation. The silicon cold electron bolometer utilises Schottky contacts between a superconductor and an n{sup ++} doped silicon island to detect changes in the temperature of the charge carriers in the silicon, due to variations in absorbed radiation. By using strained silicon as the absorber, we decrease the electron-phonon coupling in the device and increase the responsivity to incoming power. The strained silicon absorber is coupled to a planar aluminium twin-slot antenna designed to couple to 160?GHz and that serves as the superconducting contacts. From the measured optical responsivity and spectral response, we calculate a maximum optical efficiency of 50% for radiation coupled into the device by the planar antenna and an overall noise equivalent power, referred to absorbed optical power, of 1.1×10{sup ?16}?W?Hz{sup ?1/2} when the detector is observing a 300?K source through a 4?K throughput limiting aperture. Even though this optical system is not optimized, we measure a system noise equivalent temperature difference of 6?mK?Hz{sup ?1/2}. We measure the noise of the device using a cross-correlation of time stream data, measured simultaneously with two junction field-effect transistor amplifiers, with a base correlated noise level of 300?pV?Hz{sup ?1/2} and find that the total noise is consistent with a combination of photon noise, current shot noise, and electron-phonon thermal noise.

  9. 2300 SYSTEM Conditioning Amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    2300 SYSTEM Signal Conditioning Amplifier 2310 Instruction Manual Vishay Micro-Measurements P date of shipment. Coverage of computers, cameras, rechargeable batteries, and similar items, sold on non-rechargeable batteries and similar consumable items is limited to the delivery of goods free from

  10. History of Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  11. Stabilization of a cold cathode electron beam glow discharge for surface treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Stabilization of a cold cathode electron beam glow discharge for surface treatment N. Mingolo and C that the reproducibility of electron beam pulses generated by a high power, cold cathode glow discharge is greatly improved cathode high voltage glow discharges can generate powerful electron beams for materials processing.1

  12. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash anealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  13. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash annealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  14. Electrochimica Acta 53 (2007) 610621 Non-isothermal cold start of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) engine in a sub-freezing environment, referred to as "cold start", remainsElectrochimica Acta 53 (2007) 610­621 Non-isothermal cold start of polymer electrolyte fuel cells of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and to delineate intricate interactions between ice formation

  15. Optical storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold atomic ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Shengwang

    Optical storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold atomic ensemble storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold 85 Rb atomic ensemble. By varying the optical depth (OD) from 0 to 140, we observe that the optimal storage effi- ciency has a saturation value

  16. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF 40 mm, 6.5 T, COLLARED, COLD-IRON MODEL MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, C.

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF 40 MM, 6.5 T, COLLARED, COLD-IRONAND P,E RFORMANCE OF 40 MM, 6.5 T, COLLARED, COLD-IRON MODELmagnet winding is 1.574 inches (40 mm), which is the same as

  17. Experimental study of quantum chaos with cold atoms Pascal Szriftgiser a,*, Hans Lignier a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delande, Dominique

    Experimental study of quantum chaos with cold atoms Pascal Szriftgiser a,*, Hans Lignier a , Jean-rotor; Dynamical localization; Quantum chaos; Cold atoms 1. Introduction The kicked rotor is a paradigmatic simple system for studies of classical and quantum chaos. Due to its simplicity­­a particle rotating

  18. Pulsed discharge nozzle cavity ringdown spectroscopy of cold polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulsed discharge nozzle cavity ringdown spectroscopy of cold polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions absorption spectra of the naphthalene (C10H8 ) and acenaphthene (C12H10) cations have been measured environment. The direct absorption spectra of two out of four bands measured of the gas-phase cold naphthalene

  19. Supplementary Information -Rotational state-changing cold collisions of hydroxyl ions with helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    1 Supplementary Information - Rotational state-changing cold collisions of hydroxyl ions of hydroxyl anions are coupled by a simple two-level rate model 1 that is fit enter through small entrance and exit electrodes. Rotational state-changing cold collisions of hydroxyl

  20. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Ultra-cold Atoms and Strongly Interacting Photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Ultra-cold Atoms and Strongly Interacting Photons Monday, 11 June 2012 Phenomena in Ultra-cold Atoms and Strongly Interacting Photons Tuesday, 12 June 2012 (continued) 11:00 ­ 11 2012 9:00 - 9:45 "Quantum dynamics of strongly interacting spins and photons'" Mikhail Lukin, Harvard

  1. Nutrient Removal in a Cold-Region Wastewater Stabilization Pond: Importance of Ammonia Volatilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockne, Karl J.

    Nutrient Removal in a Cold-Region Wastewater Stabilization Pond: Importance of Ammonia through a three pond wastewater stabilization system WWSP was measured over the course of a year in a cold%, with most of the removal occurring in the primary pond. Algal carbon requirements were met by a combination

  2. A Review of Cold Fronts with Prefrontal Troughs and Wind Shifts DAVID M. SCHULTZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, David

    A Review of Cold Fronts with Prefrontal Troughs and Wind Shifts DAVID M. SCHULTZ Cooperative with a pressure trough and a distinct wind shift at the surface. Many cold fronts, however, do not conform to this model--time series at a single surface station may possess a pressure trough and wind shift in the warm

  3. Alfven wave tomography for cold magnetohydrodynamic plasmas I. Y. Dodin and N. J. Fisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ARTICLES Alfve´n wave tomography for cold magnetohydrodynamic plasmas I. Y. Dodin and N. J. Fisch; accepted 12 December 2001 Alfve´n wave propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of quasistatic plasma density perturbations. The Alfve´n waves are shown not to affect the plasma density

  4. Cold Climate Heat Pump Projects at Purdue University & the Living Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Cold Climate Heat Pump Projects at Purdue University & the Living Lab at the new Herrick Labs West Lafayette, Indiana 11/10/2011 1 IEA Heat Pump Program Executive Committee Meeting ASHRAE Headquarters, Atlanta, GA November 9, 2011 #12;Cold Climate Heat Pump April 1, 2010 ­ March 30, 2012 PIs

  5. ccsd-00021119,version1-17Mar2006 Light transport in cold atoms and thermal decoherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00021119,version1-17Mar2006 Light transport in cold atoms and thermal decoherence G. Labeyrie, we investigate experimentally and the- oretically how coherent transport of light inside a cold motivated by astrophysical purposes, wave transport in opaque media was first analyzed through a detailed

  6. Light Transport in Cold Atoms and Thermal Decoherence G. Labeyrie,1,* D. Delande,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light Transport in Cold Atoms and Thermal Decoherence G. Labeyrie,1,* D. Delande,2 R. Kaiser,1 experimentally and theoretically how coherent transport of light inside a cold atomic vapor is affected motivated by astrophysical purposes, wave transport in opaque media was first analyzed by means

  7. Light transport in cold atoms and thermal decoherence G. Labeyrie,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delande, Dominique

    Light transport in cold atoms and thermal decoherence G. Labeyrie,1, D. Delande,2 R. Kaiser,1 and theoreti- cally how coherent transport of light inside a cold atomic vapour is affected by the residual, wave transport in opaque media was first analyzed by means of a detailed balance of energy transfers

  8. Interpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy, Water Resour. ResInterpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy Michael Manga and James W. Kirchner Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University

  9. Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate J. Cattiaux,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codron, Francis

    Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate J. Cattiaux,1 R. Vautard,1 C. Cassou,2 P spells over Northern and Western Europe. This somehow unusual winter with respect to the most recent ones. Yiou, V. MassonDelmotte, and F. Codron (2010), Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming

  10. Test Comparability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Christine; Shulenburger, David E.

    2010-01-01

    stream_size 3106 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Test Comparability ChangeJuly (2).pdf.txt stream_source_info Test Comparability ChangeJuly (2).pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Test Comparability 2010 by Christine Keller and David Shulenburger This work has been made available by the University of Kansas Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Communication and Copyright. Please share...

  11. Optimization and analysis of experimental parameters for polarization gradient cooling of cold cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Zhonghua; Zhao, Yanting; Chang, Xuefang; Yang, Yonggang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2013-01-01

    We systematically investigate the dependence of cold cesium atomic temperature in polarization gradient cooling (PGC) on experimental parameters, which contain change modes of cooling laser, interaction time, cooling laser frequency and its intensity. We find that the SR mode of cooling laser is the best for PGC, comparing SS, RS, RR modes. We put forward a statistical explanation and an exponential decay function to explain the variation of cold atomic temperature with the time. The heating effect is observed when the cooling laser intensity is lower than the saturation intensity of cold atoms. After optimization, the lowest temperature of cold cesium atoms is observed to be about 4uK with the number of 2x10^9 and a density of 5x10^10/cm^3. The optimization processes and analyses of controllable experimental parameters are also meaningful for other cold atomic systems.

  12. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12 Values usedFuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”

  13. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12 Values usedin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells,” Electrochimica Acta, 53,

  14. The Massive Goldstone (Higgs) Mode in Two-Dimensional Ultra-cold Atomic Lattice Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Longxiang; Endres, Manuel; Deng, Youjin; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    We discuss how to reveal the massive Goldstone mode, often referred to as the Higgs amplitude mode, near the Superfluid-to-Insulator quantum critical point (QCP) in a system of two-dimensional ultra-cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices. The spectral function of the amplitude response is obtained by analytic continuation of the kinetic energy correlation function calculated by Monte Carlo methods. Our results enable a direct comparison with the recent experiment [M. Endres, T. Fukuhara, D. Pekker, M. Cheneau, P. Schau{\\ss}, C. Gross, E. Demler, S. Kuhr, and I. Bloch, Nature 487, 454-458 (2012)], and demonstrate a good agreement for temperature shifts induced by lattice modulation. Based on our numerical analysis, we formulate the necessary conditions in terms of homogeneity, detuning from the QCP and temperature in order to reveal the massive Goldstone resonance peak in spectral functions experimentally. We also propose to apply a local modulation at the trap center to overcome the inhomogeneous broadening c...

  15. AROUND THE RING WE GO: THE COLD, DENSE RING OF MOLECULAR GAS IN NGC 1614

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Iono, Daisuke [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Peck, Alison [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Matsushita, Satoki, E-mail: sliwak@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.ca, E-mail: d.iono@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: apeck@alma.cl, E-mail: satoki@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-20

    We present high-resolution archival Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 and J = 6-5 and HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 observations and new CARMA {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614. The high-resolution maps show the previously identified ring-like structure while the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 map shows extended emission that traces the extended dusty features. We combined these new observations with previously published Submillimeter Array {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 2-1 observations to constrain the physical conditions of the molecular gas at a resolution of 230 pc using a radiative transfer code and a Bayesian likelihood analysis. At several positions around the central ring-like structure, the molecular gas is cold (20-40 K) and dense (>10{sup 3.0} cm{sup –3}). The only region that shows evidence of a second molecular gas component is the ''hole'' in the ring. The {sup 12}CO-to-{sup 13}CO abundance ratio is found to be greater than 130, more than twice the local interstellar medium value. We also measure the CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor, ?{sub CO}, to range from 0.9 to 1.5 M {sub ?} (K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}){sup –1}.

  16. The genome of the polar eukaryotic microalga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea reveals traits of cold adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, Guillaume; Agarkova, Irina; Grimwood, Jane; Kuo, Alan; Brueggeman, Andrew; Dunigan, David D.; Gurnon, James; Ladunga, Istvan; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Proschold, Thomas; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Weeks, Donald; Tamada, Takashi; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Van Etten, James L.

    2012-02-13

    Background Little is known about the mechanisms of adaptation of life to the extreme environmental conditions encountered in polar regions. Here we present the genome sequence of a unicellular green alga from the division chlorophyta, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C-169, which we will hereafter refer to as C-169. This is the first eukaryotic microorganism from a polar environment to have its genome sequenced. Results The 48.8 Mb genome contained in 20 chromosomes exhibits significant synteny conservation with the chromosomes of its relatives Chlorella variabilis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The order of the genes is highly reshuffled within synteny blocks, suggesting that intra-chromosomal rearrangements were more prevalent than inter-chromosomal rearrangements. Remarkably, Zepp retrotransposons occur in clusters of nested elements with strictly one cluster per chromosome probably residing at the centromere. Several protein families overrepresented in C. subellipsoidae include proteins involved in lipid metabolism, transporters, cellulose synthases and short alcohol dehydrogenases. Conversely, C-169 lacks proteins that exist in all other sequenced chlorophytes, including components of the glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchoring system, pyruvate phosphate dikinase and the photosystem 1 reaction center subunit N (PsaN). Conclusions We suggest that some of these gene losses and gains could have contributed to adaptation to low temperatures. Comparison of these genomic features with the adaptive strategies of psychrophilic microbes suggests that prokaryotes and eukaryotes followed comparable evolutionary routes to adapt to cold environments.

  17. Prefibrillar transthyretin oligomers and cold stored native tetrameric transthyretin are cytotoxic in cell culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soergjerd, Karin; Klingstedt, Therese [IFM- Department of Chemistry, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Lindgren, Mikael [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kagedal, Katarina [Division of Experimental Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, S-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hammarstroem, Per [IFM- Department of Chemistry, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail: perha@ifm.liu.se

    2008-12-26

    Recent studies suggest that soluble, oligomeric species, which are intermediates in the fibril formation process in amyloid disease, might be the key species in amyloid pathogenesis. Soluble oligomers of human wild type transthyretin (TTR) were produced to elucidate oligomer properties. Employing ThT fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of pyrene-labeled TTR, chemical cross-linking, and electron microscopy we demonstrated that early formed soluble oligomers (within minutes) from A-state TTR comprised on the average 20-30 TTR monomers. When administered to neuroblastoma cells these early oligomers proved highly cytotoxic and induced apoptosis after 48 h of incubation. More mature fibrils (>24 h of fibrillation) were non-toxic. Surprisingly, we also found that native tetrameric TTR, when purified and stored under cold conditions (4 deg. C) was highly cytotoxic. The effect could be partially restored by increasing the temperature of the protein. The cytotoxic effects of native tetrameric TTR likely stems from a hitherto unexplored low temperature induced rearrangement of the tetramer conformation that possibly is related to the conformation of misfolded TTR in amyloigogenic oligomers.

  18. Galactic Sun's motion in the Cold Dark Matter, MOdified Newtonian Dynamics and MOdified Gravity scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2009-08-19

    We numerically integrate the equations of motion of the Sun in Galactocentric Cartesian rectangular coordinates for -4.5 Gyr <= t <= 0 in Newtonian mechanics with two different models for the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halo, in MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and in MOdified Gravity (MOG) without resorting to CDM. The initial conditions used come from the latest kinematical determination of the 3D Sun's motion in the Milky Way (MW) by assuming for the rotation speed of the Local Standard of Rest (LSR) the recent value \\Theta_0=268 km s^-1 and the IAU recommended value \\Theta_0=220 km s^-1; the Sun is assumed located at 8.5 kpc from the Galactic Center (GC). For \\Theta_0=268 km s^-1 the birth of the Sun, 4.5 Gyr ago, would have occurred at large Galactocentric distances (12-27 kpc depending on the model used), while for \\Theta_0=220 km s^-1 it would have occurred at about 8.8-9.3 kpc for almost all the models used. The integrated trajectories are far from being circular, especially for \\Theta_0=268 km s^-1, and differ each other with the CDM models yielding the widest spatial extensions for the Sun's orbital path.

  19. Regulatory Networks Controlling Plant Cold Acclimation or Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomashow, Mike

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Mike Thomashow of Michigan State University gives a presentation on on "Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011. «

  20. Regulatory Networks Controlling Plant Cold Acclimation or Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thomashow, Mike

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Mike Thomashow of Michigan State University gives a presentation on on "Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011. «

  1. Test Automation Ant JUnit Test Automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Test Automation Ant JUnit Test Automation Mohammad Mousavi Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Software Testing 2012 Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Ant JUnit Outline Test Automation Ant JUnit Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Ant JUnit Why? Challenges of Manual Testing

  2. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  3. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  4. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  5. Diesel Engine Idling Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordon Fielding

    2006-02-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program Office goal to minimize diesel engine idling and reduce the consumption of millions of gallons of diesel fuel consumed during heavy vehicle idling periods, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted tests to characterize diesel engine wear rates caused by extended periods of idling. INL idled two fleet buses equipped with Detroit Diesel Series 50 engines, each for 1,000 hours. Engine wear metals were characterized from weekly oil analysis samples and destructive filter analyses. Full-flow and the bypass filter cartridges were removed at four stages of the testing and sent to an oil analysis laboratory for destructive analysis to ascertain the metals captured in the filters and to establish wear rate trends. Weekly samples were sent to two independent oil analysis laboratories. Concurrent with the filter analysis, a comprehensive array of other laboratory tests ascertained the condition of the oil, wear particle types, and ferrous particles. Extensive ferrogram testing physically showed the concentration of iron particles and associated debris in the oil. The tests results did not show the dramatic results anticipated but did show wear trends. New West Technologies, LLC, a DOE support company, supplied technical support and data analysis throughout the idle test.

  6. Abstracts of papers presented at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on quantitative Biology: DNA and chromosomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitles DNA & Chromosomes. The meeting was held June 2--June 9, 1993 at Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

  7. Hauptseminar im Sommersemester 2013 mit Aufenthalt in Helsinki zum Thema ,,Socialism Dtente Transition: Sources to Cold War Studies"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubart, Christoph

    ­ Transition: Sources to Cold War Studies" In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Aleksanteri Institute der Universität ­ Transition: Sources to Cold War Studies" unter der Leitung von Natali Stegmann in englischer Sprache statt

  8. Landauer, Kubo, and microcanonical approaches to quantum transport and noise: A comparison and implications for cold-atom dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwolak, Michael

    I. INTRODUCTION Experimental investigations of transport phenomena in ultra-cold atoms confined implemented in mesoscopic physics, is naturally appealing for studying transport phenomena in ultra- coldLandauer, Kubo, and microcanonical approaches to quantum transport and noise: A comparison

  9. Cold Fusion Production and Decay of Neutron-Deficient Isotopes of Dubnium and Development of Extraction Systems for Group V Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Jacklyn M.

    2008-01-01

    of transfermium elements in cold fusion reactions." Physical1. Introduction Part I: Cold Fusion Production and Decay of1.2. Hot versus Cold Fusion 1.3. Excitation Functions 1.3.1.

  10. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  11. Cold dark matter halos in Multi-coupled Dark Energy cosmologies: structural and statistical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The recently proposed Multi-coupled Dark Energy (McDE) scenario - characterised by two distinct Cold Dark Matter (CDM) particle species with opposite couplings to a Dark Energy scalar field - introduces a number of novel features in the small-scale dynamics of cosmic structures, most noticeably the simultaneous existence of both attractive and repulsive fifth-forces. Such small-scale features are expected to imprint possibly observable footprints on nonlinear cosmic structures, that might provide a direct way to test the scenario. In order to unveil such footprints, we have performed the first suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of McDE cosmologies, covering the coupling range $|\\beta |\\leq 1$. We find that for coupling values corresponding to fifth-forces weaker than standard gravity, the impact on structure formation is very mild, thereby showing a new type of screening mechanism for long-range scalar interactions. On the contrary, for fifth-forces comparable to or stronger than standard gravity a n...

  12. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  13. Air Source Heat Pumps for Cold Climate Applications: Recent U. S. R&D Results from IEA HPP Annex 41

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D; Groll, Dr. Eckhard A.; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Air source heat pumps are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low efficiency and heating capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. This article describes selected R&D activities aimed at improving their cold weather performance.

  14. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: One-dimensional soil thaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport Freezing and thawing a b s t r a c t Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have of powerful simulators of cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport have emerged in recent years

  15. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  16. Testing the CMB Data for Systematic Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffiths, L M; Griffiths, Louise M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Under the assumption that the concordance Lambda-cold dark matter (CDM) model is the correct model, we test the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data for systematic effects by examining the band pass temperature residuals with respect to this model. Residuals are analysed as a function of angular scale l, galactic latitude, frequency, calibration source, instrument type and several other variables that may be associated with potential systematic effects. Our main result is that we find no significant systematic errors associated with these variables. However, we do find marginal evidence for a trend associated with galactic latitude indicative of galactic contamination.

  17. Warm and cold fermionic dark matter via freeze-in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E. E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uni-muenster.de

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-in mechanism of dark matter production provides a simple and intriguing alternative to the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we analyze whether freeze-in can be used to account for the dark matter in the so-called singlet fermionic model. In it, the SM is extended with only two additional fields, a singlet scalar that mixes with the Higgs boson, and the dark matter particle, a fermion assumed to be odd under a Z{sub 2} symmetry. After numerically studying the generation of dark matter, we analyze the dependence of the relic density with respect to all the free parameters of the model. These results are then used to obtain the regions of the parameter space that are compatible with the dark matter constraint. We demonstrate that the observed dark matter abundance can be explained via freeze-in over a wide range of masses extending down to the keV range. As a result, warm and cold dark matter can be obtained in this model. It is also possible to have dark matter masses well above the unitarity bound for WIMPs.

  18. Cold dark matter cosmology conflicts with fluid mechanics and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl H. Gibson

    2006-10-23

    Cold dark matter hierarchical clustering (CDMHC) cosmology based on the Jeans 1902 criterion for gravitational instability gives predictions about the early universe contrary to fluid mechanics and observations. Jeans neglected viscosity, diffusivity, and turbulence: factors that determine gravitational structure formation and contradict small structures (CDM halos) forming from non-baryonic dark matter particle candidates. From hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD) cosmology, viscous-gravitational fragmentation produced supercluster (10^46 kg), cluster, and galaxy-mass (10^42 kg) clouds in the primordial plasma with the large fossil density turbulence (rho_o ~ 3x10-17 kg m-3) of the first fragmentation at 10^12 s, and a protogalaxy linear and spiral clump morphology reflecting maximum stretching near vortex lines of the plasma turbulence at the 10^13 s plasma-gas transition. Gas protogalaxies fragmented into proto-globular-star-cluster mass (10^36 kg) clumps of protoplanet gas clouds that are now frozen as earth-mass (10^24-^25 kg) Jovian planets of the baryonic dark matter, about 30,000,000 rogue planets per star. Observations contradict the CDMHCC prediction of large explosive Population III first stars at 10^16 s, but support the immediate gentle formation of small Population II first stars at 10^13 s in globular-star-clusters from HGD.

  19. Compressor Selection and Equipment Sizing for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In order to limit heating capacity degradation at -25 C (-13 F) ambient to 25%, compared to the nominal rating point capacity at 8.3 C (47 F), an extensive array of design and sizing options were investigated, based on fundamental equipment system modeling and building energy simulation. Sixteen equipment design options were evaluated in one commercial building and one residential building, respectively in seven cities. The energy simulation results were compared to three baseline cases: 100% electric resistance heating, a 9.6 HSPF single-speed heat pump unit, and 90% AFUE gas heating system. The general recommendation is that variable-speed compressors and tandem compressors, sized such that their rated heating capacity at a low speed matching the building design cooling load, are able to achieve the capacity goal at low ambient temperatures by over-speeding, for example, a home with a 3.0 ton design cooling load, a tandem heat pump could meet this cooling load running a single compressor, while running both compressors to meet heating load at low ambient temperatures in a cold climate. Energy savings and electric resistance heat reductions vary with building types, energy codes and climate zones. Oversizing a heat pump can result in larger energy saving in a less energy efficient building and colder regions due to reducing electric resistance heating. However, in a more energy-efficient building or for buildings in warmer climates, one has to consider balance between reduction of resistance heat and addition of cyclic loss.

  20. Herschel Reveals Massive Cold Clumps in NGC 7538

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fallscheer, C; Di Francesco, J; Martin, P G; Hennemann, M; Hill, T; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Motte, F; Men'shchikov, A; Andre, Ph; Ward-Thompson, D; Griffin, M; Kirk, J; Konyves, V; Rygl, K L J; Sauvage, M; Schneider, N; Anderson, L D; Benedettini, M; Bernard, J -P; Bontemps, S; Ginsburg, A; Molinari, S; Polychroni, D; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Roussel, H; Testi, L; White, G; Williams, J P; Wilson, C D; Wong, M; Zavagno, A

    2013-01-01

    We present the first overview of the Herschel observations of the nearby high-mass star-forming region NGC 7538, taken as part of the Herschel imaging study of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS) Key Programme. These PACS and SPIRE maps cover an approximate area of one square degree at five submillimeter and far-infrared wavebands. We have identified 780 dense sources and classified 224 of those. With the intention of investigating the existence of cold massive starless or class 0-like clumps that would have the potential to form intermediate- to high-mass stars, we further isolate 13 clumps as the most likely candidates for followup studies. These 13 clumps have masses in excess of 40 M_sun and temperatures below 15 K. They range in size from 0.4 pc to 2.5 pc and have densities between 3x10^3 cm^-3 to 4x10^4 cm^-3. Spectral energy distributions are then used to characterize their energetics and evolutionary state through a luminosity-mass diagram. NGC 7538 has a highly filamentary structure, previously unseen i...

  1. HERSCHEL REVEALS MASSIVE COLD CLUMPS IN NGC 7538

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallscheer, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, P. G.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Hill, T.; Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.; Men'shchikov, A.; Andre, Ph.; Konyves, V.; Sauvage, M.; Griffin, M.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Benedettini, M.; Schneider, N.; Anderson, L. D. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS and others

    2013-08-20

    We present the first overview of the Herschel observations of the nearby high-mass star-forming region NGC 7538, taken as part of the Herschel imaging study of OB young stellar objects (HOBYS) Key Programme. These PACS and SPIRE maps cover an approximate area of one square degree at five submillimeter and far-infrared wavebands. We have identified 780 dense sources and classified 224 of those. With the intention of investigating the existence of cold massive starless or class 0-like clumps that would have the potential to form intermediate- to high-mass stars, we further isolate 13 clumps as the most likely candidates for follow-up studies. These 13 clumps have masses in excess of 40 M{sub Sun} and temperatures below 15 K. They range in size from 0.4 pc to 2.5 pc and have densities between 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. Spectral energy distributions are then used to characterize their energetics and evolutionary state through a luminosity-mass diagram. NGC 7538 has a highly filamentary structure, previously unseen in the dust continuum of existing submillimeter surveys. We report the most complete imaging to date of a large, evacuated ring of material in NGC 7538 which is bordered by many cool sources.

  2. Underground Searches for Cold Relics of the Early Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Baudis

    2005-03-24

    We have strong evidence on all cosmic scales, from galaxies to the largest structures ever observed, that there is more matter in the universe than we can see. Galaxies and clusters would fly apart unless they would be held together by material which we call dark, because it does not shine in photons. Although the amount of dark matter and its distribution are fairly well established, we are clueless regarding its composition. Leading candidates are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which are 'cold' thermal relics of the Big Bang, ie moving non-relativistically at the time of structure formation. These particles can be detected via their interaction with nuclei in deep-underground, low-background detectors. Experiments dedicated to observe WIMP interactions for the first time reach sensitivities allowing to probe the parameter space predicted by supersymmetric theories of particle physics. Current results of high sensitivity direct detection experiments are discussed and the most promising projects of the future are presented. If a stable new particle exists at the weak scale, it seems likely to expect a discovery within this decade.

  3. Evaluation of Laboratory Conditioning Protocols for Warm-Mix Asphalt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Fan 1990-

    2012-10-26

    ) and off-site Plant Mixed Laboratory Compacted (PMLC) specimens were selected, and their effects on mixture properties were evaluated. Mixture stiffness evaluated in a dry condition using the Resilient Modulus (MR) test (ASTM D-7369) was the main parameter...

  4. Pseudo one-dimensional analysis of polymer electrolyte fuel cell cold-start

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yun [NON LANL; Mishlera, Jeff [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the electrochemical kinetics, oxygen transport, and solid water formation in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. Following [Yo Wang, J. Electrochem. Soc., 154 (2007) B1041-B1048], we develop a pseudo one-dimensional analysis, which enables the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction and temperature variations on cell performance during cold-start. The oxygen profile, starvation ice volume fraction, and relevant overpotentials are obtained. This study is valuable for studying the characteristics of PEFC cold-start.

  5. Meso and microscale features of the lower portion of cold fronts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beniura, Hideo

    1962-01-01

    to Fig. 1 (After Petterssen, 1961). Figure 3. Figure 4. Advancing mass of cold air (After Prandtl, 19S2), Tower network and its location relative to Dallas and Amon Carter Field. Figure 5. The sectional surface chart for 1200 GMT, 22 November 1961... the ground will usually have an upward component. Bergeron mentions the figure of 1 to 4 km above the sur'face as the lower edge of the descending air, In 1910 Schmidt studied a laboratory model of a cold front in which the analog between cold and wsxm...

  6. Test of Two NB Superstructure Prototypes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekutowicz, J.

    2004-04-16

    An alternative layout of the TESLA linear collider [1], based on weakly coupled multi-cell superconducting structures (superstructures), significantly reduces investment cost due to a simplification in the RF system of the main accelerator. In January 1999, preparation of the beam test of the superstructure began in order to prove the feasibility of this layout. Progress in the preparation was reported frequently in Proceedings of TESLA Collaboration Meetings. Last year, two superstructures were installed in the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac at DESY to experimentally verify: methods to balance the accelerating gradient in a weakly coupled system, the stability of the energy gain for the entire train of bunches in macro-pulses and the damping of Higher Order Modes (HOMs). We present results of the first cold and beam test of these two Nb prototypes.

  7. HOT+COLD : physical and atmospheric phenomena in the Antarctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Eric Randall

    2014-01-01

    Utopias have historically been perceived as instruments of societal change, while prior manifestations have normally been attributed to emerging cultural conditions or evolving ethical views, however one of the most pertinent ...

  8. Verifying Test Hypotheses -HOL/TestGen Verifying Test Hypotheses -HOL/TestGen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verifying Test Hypotheses - HOL/TestGen Verifying Test Hypotheses - HOL/TestGen An Experiment in Test and Proof Thomas Malcher January 20, 2014 1 / 20 #12;Verifying Test Hypotheses - HOL/TestGen HOL/TestGen Outline Introduction Test Hypotheses HOL/TestGen - Demo Verifying Test Hypotheses Conclusion 2 / 20 #12

  9. Summary of Granulation Matrix Testing for the Plutonium Immobilization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, C.C.

    2001-10-19

    In FY00, a matrix for process development testing was created to identify those items related to the ceramic process that had not been fully developed or tested and to help identify variables that needed to be tested. This matrix, NMTP/IP-99-003, was jointly created between LLNL and SRTC and was issued to all affected individuals. The matrix was also used to gauge the progress of the development activities. As part of this matrix, several series of tests were identified for the granulation process. This summary provides the data and results from the granulation testing. The results of the granulation matrix testing were used to identify the baseline process for testing in the PuCTF with cold surrogates in B241 at LLNL.

  10. Testing of GFL Geosiphon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2001-07-10

    A full-scale, transparent replica of a GeoSiphon was constructed in the TFL to test a new concept, using a solar powered vacuum pump to remove accumulated gases from the air chamber. It did not have a treatment cell containing iron filings as do the actual TNX GeoSiphons in the field, but it was accurate in all other respects. The gas generation that is observed in an actual GeoSiphon was simulated by air injection at the inlet of the TFL GeoSiphon. After facility shakedown, three stages of testing were conducted: verification testing, parametric testing and long term testing. In verification testing, the TFL GeoSiphon was used to reproduce a particular test at TNX in which the water flowrate decreased gradually as the result of air accumulation at the crest of a siphon without an air chamber. For this test the vacuum pump was not used and the air chamber was initially filled with air rather than water. Agreement between data from the TNX GeoSiphon and the TFL GeoSiphon was good, which gave confidence that the TFL GeoSiphon was a good hydraulic representation of the TNX GeoSiphon. For the remaining tests, the solar powered vacuum pump and air chamber were used. In parametric testing, steady state runs were made for water flowrates ranging from 1 gpm to 19 gpm, air injection rates ranging from 0 to 77 standard cc/min and outfall line angles ranging from vertical to 60 degrees from vertical. In all cases, the air chamber and vacuum pump removed nearly all of the air and the GeoSiphon operated without problems. In long term testing, the GeoSiphon was allowed to run continuously for 21 days at one set of conditions. During this time the solar cell kept the storage battery fully charged at all times and the control circuit for the vacuum pump operated reliably. The solar panel was observed to have a large excess capacity when used with the vacuum pump. With two changes, the concept of using a solar powered vacuum pump attached to an air chamber should be ready for long term use in the field. Those changes are to insulate the air chamber of the GeoSiphon so it will not freeze in the winter and to make the tank from steel rather than transparent plastic.

  11. Calculation of natural convection test at Phenix using the NETFLOW++ code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochizuki, H.; Kikuchi, N.; Li, S.

    2012-07-01

    The present paper describes modeling and analyses of a natural convection of the pool-type fast breeder reactor Phenix. The natural convection test was carried out as one of the End of Life Tests of the Phenix. Objective of the present study is to assess the applicability of the NETFLOW++ code which has been verified thus far using various water facilities and validated using the plant data of the loop-type FBR 'Monju' and the loop-type experimental fast reactor 'Joyo'. The Phenix primary heat transport system is modeled based on the benchmark documents available from IAEA. The calculational model consists of only the primary heat transport system with boundary conditions on the secondary-side of IHX. The coolant temperature at the primary pump inlet, the primary coolant temperature at the IHX inlet and outlet, the secondary coolant temperatures and other parameters are calculated by the code where the heat transfer between the hot and cold pools is explicitly taken into account. A model including the secondary and tertiary systems was prepared, and the calculated results also agree well with the measured data in general. (authors)

  12. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  13. Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G. [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

  14. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  15. Cold collisions of highly rotationally excited CO{sub 2} with He: The prospects for cold chemistry with super-rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Qady, W. H.; Forrey, R. C.; Yang, B. H.; Stancil, P. C.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2011-11-15

    Building on recent advances in ultrafast lasers and methods to slow molecules, an experiment is proposed to produce translationally cold CO{sub 2} super-rotors (j{approx}200) by combining an optical centrifuge with helium-buffer-gas cooling. Quantum mechanical calculations of the complex scattering length for He-CO{sub 2} collisions demonstrate that the efficiency of rotational quenching decreases rapidly with increasing rotational excitation j in the ultracold regime. Extrapolating to helium cryogenic temperatures, rotational quenching is predicted to remain inefficient up to {approx}1 K, allowing for the possible creation of a beam of translationally cold, rotationally hot molecules.

  16. EM’s December Newsletter Recaps Cold War Cleanup Accomplishments in 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Dec. 19, EM completed demolition of the 4.8 million-square-foot Building K-25 at Oak Ridge, a milestone that capped a busy and successful 2013 for the Cold War cleanup program.

  17. Cold War love : producing American liberalism in interracial marriages between American soldiers and Japanese women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    Justice: Americanization of Japanese War Crimes at the Endof the Post-Cold War. ” Journal of Asian American Studies256. Berry, Nicholas O. War and the Red Cross: The Unspoken

  18. The Origins of Korean Adoption: Cold War Geopolitics and Intimate Diplomacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, E

    2015-01-01

    Klein, Christina. 2003. Cold War Orientalism: Asia in theJanuary. ––––. 1953a “First Korean War Baby Brought Here byRace and the Post-World-War-II Translation of ‘American. ’”

  19. Cooled electronic system with thermal spreaders coupling electronics cards to cold rails

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2013-07-23

    Liquid-cooled electronic systems are provided which include an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket or removal of the card from the socket. A liquid-cooled cold rail is disposed at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader couples the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The thermally conductive extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  20. Henrikson: Prehistoric Cold Storage on the Snake River Plain: Archaeological Investigations at Bobcat Cave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Dennis L

    1997-01-01

    Cold Storage on the Snake River Plain: Archaeologicaland Owl Cave on the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Reported toresponses to it in the Snake River Plain re- gion. This