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1

NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas Commonly Found in Energy Control Systems Experts at the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) discovered some common areas of vulnerability in the energy control systems assessed between late 2004 and early 2006. These vulnerabilities ranged from conventional IT security issues to specific weaknesses in control system protocols. The paper "Lessons Learned from Cyber Security Assessments of SCADA and Energy Management Systems" describes the vulnerabilities and recommended strategies for mitigating them. It should be of use to asset owners and operators, control system vendors, system integrators, and third-party vendors interested in enhancing the security characteristics of current and future products.

2

DOE NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec Conference DOE NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec Conference More than 150 energy sector leaders-including nearly 100 asset owners and operators-gathered at the 2009 EnergySec Annual Summit in Seattle, WA, on Sept. 23-24, where researchers from the Department of Energy's National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program gave a four-hour demonstration and presentation of their Roadmap-related control systems security work. DOE NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec Conference More Documents & Publications DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan Security is Not an Option DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan

3

National SCADA Test Bed | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cybersecurity » Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity Cybersecurity » Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity » National SCADA Test Bed National SCADA Test Bed Created in 2003, the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource that draws on the integrated expertise and capabilities of the Argonne, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to address the cybersecurity challenges of energy delivery systems. Core and Frontier Research The NSTB core capabilities combine a network of the national labs' state-of-the-art operational system testing facilities with expert research, development, analysis, and training to discover and address critical security vulnerabilities and threats the energy sector faces. NSTB offers testing and research facilities, encompassing field-scale control

4

DOE NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at DOE NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec Conference DOE NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec Conference October 1, 2009 - 1:26pm Addthis More than 150 energy sector leaders-including nearly 100 asset owners and operators-gathered at the 2009 EnergySec Annual Summit in Seattle, WA, on Sept. 23-24, where researchers from the Department of Energy's National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program gave a four-hour demonstration and presentation of their Roadmap-related control systems security work. EnergySec is an information sharing forum with more than 230 utility members representing 75 energy companies across the nation. Its fifth annual conference drew asset owners, vendors, and government

5

DOE NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec Conference  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec Conference NSTB Researchers Demonstrate R&D Successes to Asset Owners at EnergySec Conference October 1, 2009 More than 150 energy sector leaders-including nearly 100 asset owners and operators-gathered at the 2009 EnergySec Annual Summit in Seattle, WA, on Sept. 23-24, where researchers from the Department of Energy's National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program gave a four-hour demonstration and presentation of their Roadmap-related control systems security work. EnergySec is an information sharing forum with more than 230 utility members representing 75 energy companies across the nation. Its fifth annual conference drew asset owners, vendors, and government representatives for presentations and discussions on NERC CIP standards, collaborative industry efforts

6

DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan This document presents the National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan, a coherent strategy for improving the cyber security of control systems in the energy sector. The NSTB Program is conducted within DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), which leads national efforts to modernize the electric grid, enhance the security and reliability of the energy infrastructure, and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. The Plan covers the planning period of fiscal year 2008 to 2013. DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan More Documents & Publications DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan

7

National SCADA Test Bed Enhancing control systems security in the energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SCADA Test Bed Enhancing control systems security in the SCADA Test Bed Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector National SCADA Test Bed Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector Improving the security of energy control systems has become a national priority. Since the mid-1990's, security experts have become increasingly concerned about the threat of malicious cyber attacks on the vital supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and distributed control systems (DCS) used to monitor and manage our energy infrastructure. Many of the systems still in use today were designed to operate in closed, proprietary networks. National SCADA Test Bed Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector More Documents & Publications NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas Transmission and Distribution World March 2007: DOE Focuses on Cyber

8

U.S. DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Supports | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Supports U.S. DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Supports U.S. DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Supports To help advance the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed's (NSTB) efforts to enhance control system security in the energy sector, DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) recently awarded a total of nearly $8 million to fund five industry-led projects: Hallmark Project. (PDF 789 KB) Will commercialize the Secure SCADA Communications Protocol (SSCP), which marks SCADA messages with a unique identifier that must be authenticated before the function is carried out, ensuring message integrity. (Lead: Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories; Partners: Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, CenterPoint Energy) Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES) (PDF

9

Transportation Safeguards & Security Test Bed (TSSTB) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Safeguards and Security Test Bed May 30, 2013 The Transportation Safeguards and Security Test Bed consists of a test-bed vehicle and a monitoringlaboratorytraining...

10

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Title CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-3553E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Lasseter, Robert H., Joseph H. Eto, Ben Schenkman, John Stevens, Harry T. Volkommer, David Klapp, Ed Linton, Hector Hurtado, and Joyashree Roy Journal IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Volume 26 Start Page 325 Issue 1 Date Published 01/2011 Keywords distributed energy resources (der) Abstract CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. Keywords: CHP, UPS, distributed generation, intentional islanding, inverters, microgrid, CERTS, power vs. frequency droop, voltage droop.

11

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Abstract--. CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations,

12

Microsoft Word - Utilities Form Consortium to Fund SCADA Testing_v3.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ABB and Energy Utilities Form Consortium to Fund SCADA/EMS Cyber Security ABB and Energy Utilities Form Consortium to Fund SCADA/EMS Cyber Security Assessment at National SCADA Test Bed Twelve utilities have formed a consortium with ABB, a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system vendor, to privately fund advanced research and testing through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB), announced a recent article in the journal Transmission & Distribution World. The utilities, located in the United States and Australia, will fund SCADA system assessments at NSTB testing facilities at Idaho National Laboratory. The consortium began taking shape last fall at an ABB User Group meeting, where ABB and some of its energy management system (EMS) customers asked other ABB system users to join in on

13

National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector (September 2009) National SCADA Test Bed - Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector...

14

Microsoft Word - OE NSTB MYP_FINAL 052108.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Multi-Year Plan Program Multi-Year Plan DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan i Contents 1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................1 1.1 The Control Systems Security Imperative .................................................................1 1.2 Challenges to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector.....................................3 1.3 Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector .......................................5 1.4 Security Partners ........................................................................................................6 1.5 Federal Role ...............................................................................................................6

15

Post Combustion Test Bed Development  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assessment methodology and slip-stream testing platform enables the comprehensive early-stage evaluation of carbon capture solvents and sorbents utilizing a breadth of laboratory experimental capability as well as a testing platform at a nearby 600 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant.

Cabe, James E.; King, Dale A.; Freeman, Charles J.

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

Moving Bed, Granular Bed Filter Development Program: Option 1, Component Test Facility. Task 3, Test plan  

SciTech Connect

In the base contract, Combustion Power Co. developed commercial designs for a moving granular-bed filter (GBF). The proposed filter is similar to previous designs in terms of its shape and method of filtration. The commercial designs have scaled the filter from a 5 ft diameter to as large as a 20 ft diameter filter. In Task 2 of the Moving Bed-Granular Filter Development Program, all technical concerns related to the further development of the filter are identified. These issues are discussed in a Topical Report which has been issued as part of Task 2. Nineteen issues are identified in this report. Along with a discussion of these issues are the planned approaches for resolving each of these issues. These issues will be resolved in either a cold flow component test facility or in pilot scale testing at DOE`s Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located at Southem Company Services` Wilsonville facility. Task 3 presents a test plan for resolving those issues which can be addressed in component test facilities. The issues identified in Task 2 which will be addressed in the component test facilities are: GBF scale-up; effect of filter cone angle and sidewall materials on medium flow and ash segregation; maximum gas filtration rate; lift pipe wear; GBF media issues; mechanical design of the gas inlet duct; and filter pressure drop. This document describes a test program to address these issues, with testing to be performed at Combustion Power Company`s facility in Belmont, California.

Haas, J.C.; Purdhomme, J.W.; Wilson, K.B.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

E-Print Network 3.0 - architecture test bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

test bed Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: architecture test bed Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Web-Based Test Bed for Fingerprint Image...

18

EEB Hub: A Test Bed for Nationwide Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EEB Hub: A Test Bed for Nationwide Energy Efficiency Wednesday, May 1, 2013 11:00 a.m. - 12:00 p 2011, became the executive director of the Energy Efficient Buildings (EEB) HUB through the US

Hall, Sharon J.

19

DoD ESTCP Energy Test Bed Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ESTCP Energy Test Bed Project ESTCP Energy Test Bed Project EW-201016 "High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Controls" 23 May 2012 Dr. Jim Galvin ESTCP Program Manager for Energy & Water ESTCP Energy Test Bed Project Location 2 3 Boiler Efficiency Improvement Demo Oxygen Sensor Servo Controls * 90% of boilers lack automated controls * State of the art automated controls sense only oxygen * Demonstrated prototype sensed oxygen and carbon monoxide Prototype CO Sensor Key Findings Boiler Before Demo 4 * Size: 25 MMBtu * Age: 30 years * Fuel: Natural Gas or Oil * Demo performed by United Technologies Research Center * Technology demonstrated: Fireye PPC4000 (Oxygen trim control) * Upgraded PPC4000 tested as a prototype 5 Three Phased TestTest Phase 1: Existing Legacy System (baseline)

20

Characterization of a solar-powered fluidyne test bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Liquid piston Stirling engines (sometimes termed fluidyne engines) have been studied extensively and applied in a variety of energy conversion applications. They are attractive for low capital costs and simplicity of construction. In addition, their operation as external combustion engines allows for flexibility in primary energy sources which is a distinct advantage when a low-cost or free source of heat can be paired with their minimal construction costs. Disadvantages of these devices include relatively low efficiency and low power density. A solar-powered fluidyne test bed was constructed and tested extensively. The test bed was composed of a fluidyne engine constructed from copper pipe and plastic tubing coupled with a Fresnel lens for concentrating solar energy. The test bed was instrumented with temperature, pressure, and position sensors. The concentrated solar energy from the Fresnel lens provided ample power to operate the test bed, and tests were run in a wide variety of conditions. Temperature, pressure, and volume phasing along with indicated work are presented and discussed for operation of the engine with no externally imposed load.

Jackson W. Mason; James W. Stevens

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Factorial tests on process operating conditions and bed fines on the circulating fluid bed performance  

SciTech Connect

A cold-flow circulating fluid bed (CFB) was operated using coke breeze with a packed-bed standpipe over a range of riser and standpipe air flows. The bed materials were selected to simulate solids flow in a CFB gasifier (carbonizer) but are generally relevant to most CFB processes. CFB tests were conducted primarily in the transport mode with sufficient gas velocity to achieve a uniform axial riser pressure profiles over most of the riser height. The independent variables tested included the riser gas velocity, aeration at the base of the standpipe, and concentration of fines (average particle size). The solids inventory and riser outlet pressure were maintained constant. Factorial tests were conducted in randomized order and in duplicate to provide and an unbiased estimate of the error. Fines were tested as a blocked variable. The gas velocity, standpipe aeration, and relative amount of fine particles were all found to be significant factors affecting both the riser solids holdup and solids flux. The riser pressure drop and mass circulation increased at the higher level of fines contrary to some earlier reports in the literature. The riser pressure drop was fitted using the general linear model (GLM), which explained more than 98% of the variation within the data, while a GLM for the mass circulation rate explained over 90%. The uncertainty of process operating variables was characterized independently through a series of duplicated flow proving experiments.

Shadle, L.J.; Spenik, James; Sarra, Angela; Ontko, J.S.

2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

22

An adaptable, low cost test-bed for unmanned vehicle systems research.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? An unmanned vehicle systems test-bed has been developed. The test-bed has been designed to accommodate hardware changes and various vehicle types and algorithms. The (more)

Goppert, James M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne experimental test-bed Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

experimental test-bed Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: airborne experimental test-bed Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 National Airborne...

24

DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan DOEOE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan This document is designed to help guide and strengthen the DOEOE...

25

WindTurbineGenerator Introduction of the Renewable Micro-Grid Test-Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction of the Renewable Micro-Grid Test-Bed Dr. Wenxin Liu Smart Micro-grid and Renewable Technology University Topology of the Overall Experimental Platform Photo of the Micro-grid Test-bed Overview of the Micro-grid Test-Bed Cubicle #1: Main & PV Simulator PV Simulator: 3kW, 0~200V, 18A Unidirectional

Johnson, Eric E.

26

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating small energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of small generating sources. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation; 2) an approach to electrical protection within the microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications. The techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protections system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust and under all conditions, including difficult motor starts. The results from these test are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations involving microgrids that involve one or mroe of the CERTS Microgrid concepts.

Eto, Joseph H.; Eto, Joseph H.; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Klapp, Dave; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Stevens, John; Volkommer, Harry

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

27

Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

L C Lai; H S Ong; Y X Che; N Q Do; X J Ong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that are soluble in NaOH scrubbing solution for iodine analysis. But when NOx and H2O are not present, then the majority of the uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent is in the form of methyl iodide. Methyl iodide adsorption efficiencies have been high enough so that initial DFs exceed 1,000 to 10,000. The methyl iodide mass transfer zone depths are estimated at 4-8 inches, possibly deeper than mass transfer zone depths estimated for I2 adsorption on AgZ. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

Jantzen, C

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

31

The design of a fluidized bed for testing of a robotic burrowing device which mimics razor clams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reviews the design of a fluidized bed test setup for testing digging kinematics of RoboClam, a burrowing device based on Atlantic Razor Clams. This test bed allows for in-lab testing in an environment covered ...

Dorsch, Daniel Scott

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Microsoft Word - Wireless Test Bed named NUF_INL version.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department of Energy Designates the Wireless Test Bed as a National User Facility IDAHO FALLS - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently designated Idaho National...

33

Design and Development of a Low-Cost Test-Bed for Undergraduate Education in UAVs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design and Development of a Low-Cost Test-Bed for Undergraduate Education in UAVs D. Jung, E. J for the development of a low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) test-bed for educational purposes. The objective) and graduate students (secondarily) in UAV research. The complete design and development of all hardware

Tsiotras, Panagiotis

34

Test research of bed ash coolers for a 50 MWe CFB boiler  

SciTech Connect

CFB boilers have been developed and commercialized in China. As one of the main auxiliaries of FBC boilers, the bed ash cooler plays an important role in regular operation of the boilers. A 50 MWe 2-shaped CFB boiler will be put into operation in North China. Many kinds of bed ash cooling systems for this boiler had been designed and compared. Then the optimum bed ash coolers were determined and made. Experimental research and pilot-scale test for the bed ash coolers were also carried out. The result indicates that the bed ash cooler can be operated reliably and can meet the demand for cooling bed ash of the 50 MWe CFB boiler. The test data are very useful for further improving the performance of ash coolers.

Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Lin, Z.J.; Liu, D.C. [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China). National Lab. of Coal Combustion; Hu, L.L.; Xie, P.J.; Yan, H.X.; Liu, M.C. [Hubei Boiler Auxiliary Factory, Jingshan, Hubei (China)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Influence of temperature on characters of thermoelectric generators based on test bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to achieve the energy recovery of the coolant heat for internal combustion engine (ICE) using the thermoelectric generation (TEG) technology, one test bed for studying the influence of temperature on the characters of thermoelectric generators ...

Zongzheng Ma, Xinli Wang, Anjie Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

SciTech Connect: Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionaliz...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

transfer zone may be as short as 0.5 inches under the sorption conditions of the first test. Only a small fraction of the iodine sorbed on Bed 1 was desorbed during the purge...

37

The Design and Tests in a Three Interconnected Fluidized Bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen production based on chemical looping combustion can obtain clean hydrogen with near zero emission of carbon dioxide. This technique can be auto-thermal, making it very promising for hydrogen production. In this paper, the interconnected fluidized ... Keywords: chemical looping combustion, hydrogen production Interconnected fluidized beds

Junjiao Zhang; Jingzhou Jiang; Qiang Lu; Changqing Dong; Teng Zhang; Xinglei Liu; Zhiyong Liang; Yongping Yang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Test study of salty paper mill waste in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Pyropower Inc. has supplied a 73.7 kg/s bubbling fluidized bed boiler to MacMillan Bloedel's Powell River paper mill (now Pacifica Paper). The BFB boiler was designed to fire a fuel mixture of a mill effluent sludge and a hog fuel (bark) that is contaminated with seawater. Due to its very high alkali content and low ash content, the fuel is prone to cause problems such as agglomeration in the fluidized bed. Foster Wheeler and MacMillan Bloedel took a proactive approach to quantify likely problems and to identify solutions. A 200 hour-long test program was carried out at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in Livingston, New Jersey with the Powell River feedstock. This paper provides the project background, an outline of the test facility, test matrix, fuel and bed material characteristics, followed by a test process overview. A summary of fuel alkali related agglomeration mechanism in fluidized bed is also included. The paper offers further observations on in-bed alkali accumulation as well as examinations of different types of bed material agglomerates found during the tests. A recommended boiler operating strategy for preventing agglomeration in the BFB boiler developed based on the test results is described. These recommendations have been successfully implemented during the start up of the boiler. The boiler has been in operation since November 1997. Boiler performance tests completed in April 1998 have demonstrated all guaranteed process conditions.

Wu, S.; Sellakumar, K.M.; Chelian, P.K.; Bleice, C.; Shaw, I.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

New Zero Net-Energy Facility: A Test Bed for Home Efficiency | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Zero Net-Energy Facility: A Test Bed for Home Efficiency Zero Net-Energy Facility: A Test Bed for Home Efficiency New Zero Net-Energy Facility: A Test Bed for Home Efficiency September 17, 2012 - 2:34pm Addthis Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency Kathleen Hogan joined representatives from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and state and local elected officials to celebrate the opening of the new zero net-energy residential test laboratory. | Photo courtesy of NIST. Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency Kathleen Hogan joined representatives from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and state and local elected officials to celebrate the opening of the new zero net-energy residential test laboratory. | Photo courtesy of NIST. David Lee Residential Program Supervisor, Building Technologies Program

40

Test plan: Hydraulic fracturing and hydrologic tests in Marker Beds 139 and 140  

SciTech Connect

Combined hydraulic fracturing and hydrological measurements in this test plan are designed to evaluate the potential influence of fracture formation in anhydrite Marker Beds 139 and 140 on gas pressure in and gas flow from the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with time. The tests have the further purpose of providing comparisons of permeabilities of anhydrite interbeds in an undisturbed (virgin) state and after fracture development and/or opening and dilation of preexisting partially healed fractures. Three sets of combined hydraulic fracturing and hydrological measurements are planned. A set of trial measurements is expected to last four to six weeks. The duration of each subsequent experiment is anticipated to be six to eight weeks.

Wawersik, W.R.; Beauheim, R.L.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gen-set A1, utility connected Test a single line-to-groundgen-set B1, utility connected Test a single line-to-groundsets (A1+B1), utility connected Test a single line-to-ground

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Comparison of two wireless ad hoc routing protocols on a hardware test-bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These protocols are tested predominately using software simulation. Very few implementations have demonstratedComparison of two wireless ad hoc routing protocols on a hardware test-bed Shweta Bhandare (DSR) protocol and our Energy Aware Dynamic Source Routing protocol (EADSR). The implementation

Brown, Timothy X.

43

2012 SG Peer Review - LANL Smart Grid Technology Test Bed - Scott Backhaus, LANL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Test Bed Technology Test Bed Scott Backhaus Los Alamos National Laboratory June 8, 2012 December 2008 Smart Grid Technology Test Bed Objectives Life-cycle Funding ($K) Technical Scope - Create and demonstrate a replicable DER control system-focus on small electrical utilities and co-operatives - Integration of renewables - Planning of DER portfolios - Assess economic DER value - Development/characterization of DER - Commercial HVAC - Run-of-river hydro  Model predictive control (MPC) of diverse portfolios of distributed resources  Optimal/controllable modification of the statistics of PV variability  Data-driven models for control of HVAC in large commercial buildings  Models/control of run-of-river hydro-river impacts 2 FY10-11 FY12 FY13 Request FY14 Request 350 300 400 400

44

2012 SG Peer Review - CERTS Microgrid Test Bed - Joe Eto, LBNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Peer Peer Review Meeting Peer Review Meeting The CERTS Microgrid Test Bed g Joe Eto Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 7 June 2012 The CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Objective To lower the cost and improve the performance of clusters of smaller distributed energy resources and loads when operated in an integrated manner when operated in an integrated manner, i.e., as microgrids Life-cycle Funding Summary ($K) Prior to FY12, FY13, Out-year(s) Technical Scope The CERTS Microgrid Test Bed is being expanded through the addition of new hardware elements: 1) a CERTS- compatible conventional synchronous generator ; 2) an FY 12 , authorized , requested y ( ) 2500K 1000K 1000K 2500K energy management system relying on software as a service (SaaS) for dispatch; 3) a commercially available, stand-alone

45

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of AEPSC. DTC Registered Procedure CERTS Microgrid Test PlanTarget Group: Assigned Procedure Review Date: 23 Feb. 2008document is to establish procedures for testing of the CERTS

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Microsoft Word - OPSAID-NSTB-report-NOV07-final-v1.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SANDIA REPORT SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-7552 Unlimited Release Printed November 2007 OPSAID Initial Design and Testing Report Steven A. Hurd, Jason E. Stamp, and Adrian R. Chavez Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. OPSAID Initial Design and Testing Report 2 Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of

47

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Test Bed for a Wireless Network on Small UAVs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Test Bed for a Wireless Network on Small UAVs, Boulder, CO 80303 Small (10kg) UAVs are low-cost low-risk candidates for emerging UAV applications. Examples include multi-UAV swarming, flocking, and sensing operations; or, as a communication relay

Brown, Timothy X.

48

Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit: National SCADA Test Bed  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit: National SCADA Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit: National SCADA Test Bed May 2008 Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit: National SCADA Test Bed May 2008 This project of the cyber security audit and attack detection toolkit is adding control system intelligence to widely deployed enterprise vulnerability scanners and security event managers While many energy utilities employ vulnerability scanners and security event managers (SEM) on their enterprise systems, these tools often lack the intelligence necessary to be effective in control systems. This two-year project aims to integrate control system intelligence into widely deployed vulnerability scanners and SEM, and to integrate security incident detection intelligence into control system historians. These upgrades will

49

Dynamic Tests and Results in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor with Warm Flue Gas Recycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic Tests and Results in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor with Warm Flue Gas Recycle ... Dynamic step change tests concerning the coal feed rate and coal type were conducted. ... In the dynamic tests, the oxygen concentration in the flue gas fluctuates in the form of a sinusoidal wave because of the fast volatile combustion and the delay in the char ignition. ...

Jian-xin Zhou; Zhuang Shao; Feng-qi Si; Zhi-gao Xu

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

50

CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVEWASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAMREFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANICDESTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble fractions of the product solids. Radioanalytical measurements were performed on the Tank 48H feed material and on the dissolved products in order to estimate retention of Cs-137 in the process. All aspects of prior crucible scale testing with simulant Tank 48H slurry were demonstrated to be repeatable with the actual radioactive feed. Tetraphenylborate destruction was shown to be >99% and the final solid product is sodium carbonate crystalline material. Less than 10 wt% of the final solid products are insoluble components comprised of Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn containing sludge components and Ti from monosodium titanate present in Tank 48H. REDOX measurements on the radioactive solid products indicate a reducing atmosphere with extremely low oxygen fugacity--evidence that the sealed crucible tests performed in the presence of a reductant (sugar) under constant argon purge were successful in duplicating the pyrolysis reactions occurring with the Tank 48H feed. Soluble anion measurements confirm that using sugar as reductant at 1X stoichiometry was successful in destroying nitrate/nitrite in the Tank 48H feed. Radioanalytical measurements indicate that {approx}75% of the starting Cs-137 is retained in the solid product. No attempts were made to analyze/measure other potential Cs-137 in the process, i.e., as possible volatile components on the inner surface of the alumina crucible/lid or as offgas escaping the sealed crucible. The collective results from these crucible scale tests on radioactive material are in good agreement with simulant testing. Crucible scale processing has been shown to duplicate the complex reactions of an actual fluidized bed steam reformer. Thus this current testing should provide a high degree of confidence that upcoming bench-scale steam reforming with radioactive Tank 48H slurry will be successful in tetraphenylborate destruction and production of sodium carbonate product.

Crawford, C

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Testing and verification of granular-bed filters for the removal of particulate and alkalis. Eleventh quarterly project report, April 1, 1983-June 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation with Ducon, Inc. and Burns and Roe, Inc. are conducting a test and evaluation program of a Granular-Bed Filter (GBF) for gas-cleaning applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion processes. This work is funded by DOE PRDA for Exploratory Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation of Systems or Devices for Hot Gas Clean-up. This report describes the status of the testing of the subpilot scale GBF unit under simulated Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) conditions through Phase IV and the design of a bench-scale, single-bed cylindrical element that will be utilized in Test Phase V.

None

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Test bed for a high throughput supersonic chemical oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports the development of a test bed for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser based on a high throughput jet flow singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The system provides vertical singlet oxygen extraction followed by horizontal orientation of subsequent subsystems. This design enables the study of flow complexities and engineering aspects of a distributed weight system as an input for mobile and other platform-mounted systems developed for large scale power levels. The system under consideration is modular and consists of twin SOGs, plenum and supersonic nozzle modules, with the active medium produced in the laser cavity. The maximal chlorine flow rate for the laser is {approx}1.5 mole s{sup -1} achieving a typical chemical efficiency of about 18%. (lasers)

Singhal, Gaurav; Mainuddin; Rajesh, R; Varshney, A K; Dohare, R K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, V K; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Avinash C; Arora, B S; Chaturvedi, M K; Tyagi, R K; Dawar, A L

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Real-Time Building Energy Simulation Using EnergyPlus and the Building Controls Test Bed  

SciTech Connect

Most commercial buildings do not perform as well in practice as intended by the design and their performances often deteriorate over time. Reasons include faulty construction, malfunctioning equipment, incorrectly configured control systems and inappropriate operating procedures (Haves et al., 2001, Lee et al., 2007). To address this problem, the paper presents a simulation-based whole building performance monitoring tool that allows a comparison of building actual performance and expected performance in real time. The tool continuously acquires relevant building model input variables from existing Energy Management and Control System (EMCS). It then reports expected energy consumption as simulated of EnergyPlus. The Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is used as the software platform to provide data linkage between the EMCS, an EnergyPlus model, and a database. This paper describes the integrated real-time simulation environment. A proof-of-concept demonstration is also presented in the paper.

Pang, Xiufeng; Bhattachayra, Prajesh; O'Neill, Zheng; Haves, Philip; Wetter, Michael; Bailey, Trevor

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

RESOURCE ASSESSMENT & PRODUCTION TESTING FOR COAL BED METHANE IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN  

SciTech Connect

The geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky have completed the initial geologic assessment of their respective parts of the Illinois Basin. Cumulative thickness maps have been generated and target areas for drilling have been selected. The first well in the Illinois area of the Illinois Basin coal bed methane project was drilled in White County, Illinois in October 2003. This well was cored in the major coal interval from the Danville to the Davis Coals and provided a broad spectrum of samples for further analyses. Sixteen coal samples and three black shale samples were taken from these cores for canister desorption tests and were the subject of analyses that were completed over the following months, including desorbed gas volume, gas chemical and isotope composition, coal proximate, calorific content and sulfur analyses. Drilling programs in Indiana and Kentucky are expected to begin shortly.

Cortland Eble; James Drahovzal; David Morse; Ilham Demir; John Rupp; Maria Mastalerz; Wilfrido Solano

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Hydraulic fracturing tests in anhydrite interbeds in the WIPP, Marker Beds 139 and 140  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing tests were integrated with hydrologic tests to estimate the conditions under which gas pressure in the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM (WIPP) will initiate and advance fracturing in nearby anhydrite interbeds. The measurements were made in two marker beds in the Salado formation, MB139 and MB140, to explore the consequences of existing excavations for the extrapolation of results to undisturbed ground. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the pressure-time records in two injection boreholes and several nearby hydrologic observation holes. Data interpretations were aided by post-test borehole video surveys of fracture traces that were made visible by ultraviolet illumination of fluorescent dye in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The conclusions of this report relate to the upper- and lower-bound gas pressures in the WIPP, the paths of hydraulically and gas-driven fractures in MB139 and MB140, the stress states in MB139 and MB140, and the probable in situ stress states in these interbeds in undisturbed ground far away from the WIPP.

Wawersik, W.R., Carlson, L.W., Henfling, J.A., Borns, D.J., Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howard, C.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M., [INTERA Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Poster: Building a test-bed for wireless sensor networking for under-water oil and gas installations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Initially we are building a laboratory in a large water tank. Later we will cooperate with an oil and gasPoster: Building a test-bed for wireless sensor networking for under-water oil and gas@ifi.uio.no 1 Introduction and background When the oil and gas industry moves its production facilities

Zhou, Shengli

57

Evaluating preproduction prototypes of new energy-efficiency products in realistic test beds is an essential step before market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

enables more cost-effective determination of energy-saving opportunities and ongoing verification. · The greatest barrier preventing wider use of geothermal (ground-source) heat pumps is high initial cost. Two 3Evaluating preproduction prototypes of new energy-efficiency products in realistic test beds

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

58

Project CRAFT: A Test Bed for Demonstrating the Real Time Acquisition and Archival of WSR-88D Base  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the long-term needs for WSR-88D base data archival, and in light of the compelling need for real time. The initial test bed of six radars, located in and around Oklahoma, has been delivering real time base data to substantial improvements in the identification and short-term warning of hazardous local weather (e.g., Crum

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

59

Technical letter report: Submerged bed scrubber sediment resuspension testing for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

SciTech Connect

During-vitrification operations in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), some feed components will be vented from the melter to the melter offgas cleaning equipment. The current HWVP reference process for melter off.-gas treatment includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS) to provide the first stage of off-gas scrubbing and quenching. During most melter/off-gas test runs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with the Pilot Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), no significant quantities of sedimentation were accumulated in the SBS scrub tank. However, during test run SF-12, conducted at West Valley, approximately 6 in. of sedimentation accumulated in the scrub tank. This raised concerns that a similar accumulation could occur with the HWVP SBS, If such an accumulation rate occurred during a sustained melter run, the SBS would soon cease to function. To alleviate the potential for sedimentation buildup, the HWVP SBS design includes a sparge ring at the bottom of the scrub tank. The sparge ring will be operated intermittently to prevent buildup of solids which could interfere with circulation with the SBS Scrub tank. This report presents the results of testing conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the HWVP sparge ring design. Section 2 contains-the conclusions and recommendations; Section 3 summarizes the objectives; Section 4 describes the equipment and materials used; Section 5 gives the experimental approach; and Section 6 discusses the results. The appendices contain procedures for sediment resuspension testing and particle size distribution data for silica and sediment.

Schmidt, A.J.; Herrington, M.G.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A Modular Building Controls Virtual Test Bed for the Integrations of Heterogeneous Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) that is currently under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An earlier prototype linked EnergyPlus with controls hardware through embedded SPARK models and demonstrated its value in more cost-effective envelope design and improved controls sequences for the San Francisco Federal Building. The BCVTB presented here is a more modular design based on a middleware that we built using Ptolemy II, a modular software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to couple to Ptolemy II a prototype version of EnergyPlus,MATLAB/Simulink or other simulation programs for data exchange during run-time. In future work we will also implement a BACnet interface that allows coupling BACnet compliant building automation systems to Ptolemy II. We will present the architecture of the BCVTB and explain how users can add their own simulation programs to the BCVTB. We will then present an example application in which the building envelope and the HVAC system was simulated in EnergyPlus, the supervisory control logic was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and Ptolemy II was used to exchange data during run-time and to provide realtime visualization as the simulation progresses.

Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the implementation of the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB). The BCVTB is a software environment that allows connecting different simulation programs to exchange data during the time integration, and that allows conducting hardware in the loop simulation. The software architecture is a modular design based on Ptolemy II, a software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. The BCVTB provides additions to Ptolemy II that allow the run-time coupling of different simulation programs for data exchange, including EnergyPlus, MATLAB, Simulink and the Modelica modelling and simulation environment Dymola. The additions also allow executing system commands, such as a script that executes a Radiance simulation. In this article, the software architecture is presented and the mathematical model used to implement the co-simulation is discussed. The simulation program interface that the BCVTB provides is explained. The article concludes by presenting applications in which different state of the art simulation programs are linked for run-time data exchange. This link allows the use of the simulation program that is best suited for the particular problem to model building heat transfer, HVAC system dynamics and control algorithms, and to compute a solution to the coupled problem using co-simulation.

Wetter, Michael

2010-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

62

Damage measurements on the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed  

SciTech Connect

The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center) Variable-Speed Test Bed turbine is a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind machine that can be run in either fixed-speed or variable-speed mode. In the variable-speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load bank to maximize the turbine`s power coefficient. At rated power, a second control loop that uses blade pitch to maintain rotor speed essentially as before, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator power or (optionally) generator torque. In this paper, the authors will use this turbine to study the effect of variable-speed operation on blade damage. Using time-series data obtained from blade flap and edge strain gauges, the load spectrum for the turbine is developed using rainflow counting techniques. Miner`s rule is then used to determine the damage rates for variable-speed and fixed-speed operation. The results illustrate that the controller algorithm used with this turbine introduces relatively large load cycles into the blade that significantly reduce its service lifetime, while power production is only marginally increased.

Sutherland, H.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlin, P.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Microsoft Word - AGA12 TestPlan 2-6-07.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AGA 12, Part 2 AGA 12, Part 2 Performance Test Plan U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector NSTB Mark Hadley, Kristy Huston Pacific Northwest National Laboratories November 2006 Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Bill Rush and Aakash Shah of the Gas Technology Institute as well as the members of the NERC Control Systems Security Working Group and Sandia National Laboratory for their contributions towards the development of this test plan. NSTB AGA 12, Part 2 Performance Test Plan i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Under the guidance and sponsorship of DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed a test plan for AGA 12, Part 2 compliant

64

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review Control Systems Security Project Summaries National SCADA Test Bed NSTB Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector Arlington, Virginia October 18, 2006 NSTB VISUALIZATION AND CONTROLS PROGRAM PEER REVIEW, SESSION B WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2006 PROGRAM MANAGER - HANK KENCHINGTON Table of Contents SCADA/EMS Cyber Security Assessments (INL)......................................................................... 1 Cyber Security Assessment of Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol Implementations (SNL, INL, PNNL) .............................................................................................

65

Resource Assessment & Production Testing for Coal Bed Methane in the Illinois Basin  

SciTech Connect

In order to assess the economic coal bed methane potential of the Illinois Basin, the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky performed a geological assessment of their respective parts of the Illinois Basin. A considerable effort went into generating cumulative coal thickness and bed structure maps to identify target areas for exploratory drilling. Following this, the first project well was drilled in White County, Illinois in October 2003. Eight additional wells were subsequently drilled in Indiana (3) and Kentucky (5) during 2004 and 2005. In addition, a five spot pilot completion program was started with three wells being completed. Gas contents were found to be variable, but generally higher than indicated by historical data. Gas contents of more than 300 scf/ton were recovered from one of the bore holes in Kentucky. Collectively, our findings indicate that the Illinois Basin represents a potentially large source of economic coal bed methane. Additional exploration will be required to refine gas contents and the economics of potential production.

Cortland Eble; James Drahovzal; David Morse; Ilham Demir; John Rupp; Maria Mastalerz; Wilfrido Solano

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Microsoft Word - FY09 Work Plan_External.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

sector sector NSTB National SCADA Test Bed U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan (REVISED 07/31/2009) A plan of work for the National Laboratories that form the National SCADA Test Bed: Argonne National Laboratory Idaho National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sandia National Laboratories Fiscal Year 2 0 0 9 Work Plan NSTB FY 2009 Work Plan i FOREWORD The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) created the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) program with the mission to reduce the risk of energy disruptions due to cyber attack on control systems. So far the program's projects have

67

DOE/ID-Number  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

INL/EXT-08-13979 INL/EXT-08-13979 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector NSTB National SCADA Test Bed Common Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Observed in Control System Assessments by the INL NSTB Program November 2008 November 2008 INL/EXT-08-13979 Common Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Observed in Control System Assessments by the INL NSTB Program November 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 http://www.inl.gov Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Under DOE Idaho Operations Office Contract DE-AC07-05ID14517 Common Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Observed in Control System Assessments by the INL NSTB

68

4 ESS switch electromagnetic pulse assessment. Volume 1. Test-bed design installation, and baselining. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The content of this report is defined by paragraph 3/1 of the Statement of Work for contract DCA100-88-C-0027. This report documents Task 1 and 2, Test-Bed Design, Installation, and Baselining of the 4 ESS Switch Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Assessment Program. ATT has engineered an operational digital 4 ESS switch for the purpose of testing the susceptibility of 4 ESS switch systems to high-altitude EMP. The switch is installed in two specially designed trailers that are transparent to electro-magnetic radiation and is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where current-injection testing and further performance baselining is presently underway. Batteries, air conditioning, and spare parts are housed in two additional trailers. ATT Bell Laboratories has developed and implemented a test system for generating current pulses, monitoring the pulses, generating calls, and measuring switch performance. Digital traffic has been successfully generated and switched for three signaling systems: Multifrequency (MF); Common Channel Signaling System 7 (CCS7); and Q.931 (used on direct Integrated Services Digital Network connections). Due to problems in acquiring properly engineered signaling-translation software, however, the CCS7 and Q.931 signaling systems have not yet been implemented with a full complement of trunk assignments. Subsequent tasks will entail further baselining, provisioning of backup methods for the operating software, and current-injection testing of the switch.

Not Available

1989-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

69

Single Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) Test Results of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Forms used for LAW Immobilization  

SciTech Connect

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One such immobilization technology being considered is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) tests at various flow rates have been conducted with the granular products fabricated using these two methods. Results show that the materials exhibit a relatively low forward dissolution rate on the order of 10-3 g/(m2d) with the material made in the laboratory giving slightly higher values.

Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Strandquist, Sara C.; Dage, DeNomy C.; Brown, Christopher F.

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

70

Extractors manual for Fluidized-Bed Combustion Data Base System: Test Data Data Base. [FBC; planning  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology is rapidly emerging as an acceptable alternative to conventional coal-fired boiler technology. To satisfy the engineering public's need for experimental data and to assist in the study of technical uncertainties in FBC technology, the Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the development of a data system to store the results of Government-sponsored research. To capture the results of Government-sponsored FBC research programs, documents have been written for the TDDB and MPDB to specify the data that contractors need to report and the procedures for reporting them. The FBC documents identify and define the data that need to be reported for FBC projects so that the data entered into the TDDB and MPDB will meet the needs of the users of the FBC data system. This document addresses what information is needed and how it must be formatted so that it can be entered into the TDDB for FBC. The level of detail needed to satisfy the wide variety of potential users' needs is the primary consideration in determining the types and amounts of data to be stored. The TDDB was designed so that data could be stored at any level of detail. 3 figs., 26 tabs.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Operation of a test bed axial-gap brushless dc rotor with a superconducting stator  

SciTech Connect

A variable-speed axial-gap motor with a stator consisting of four liquid helium cooled superconducting electromagnets (two pole pairs) was built and proof tested up to 608 rpm in November 1990 as a tool for joint industry-laboratory evaluation of coils fabricated from high-temperature oxide superconductors. A second rotor was fabricated with improved materia winding configuration, and wire type, and the drive system was modified to eliminate current spiking. The modified motor was characterized to design speed, 188 rad/s (1800 rpm), to acquire a performance baseline for future comparison with that of high-temperature superconducting (HIS) wire. As it becomes commercially available, HTS wire will replace the low-temperature electromagnet wire in a stator modified to control wire temperatures between 4 K and 77 K. Measurements of the superconducting electromagnetic field and locked rotor torque as functions of cryocurrent and dc current through two phases of the rotor, respectively, provided data to estimate power that could be developed by the rotor. Back emf and parasitic mechanical and electromagnetic drag torques were measured as functions of angular velocity to calculate actual rotor power developed and to quantify losses, which reduce the motor`s efficiency. A detailed measurement of motor power at design speed confirmed the developed power equation. When subsequently operated at the 33-A maximum available rotor current, the motor delivered 15.3 kill (20.5 hp) to the load. In a final test, the cryostat was operated at 2500 A, 200 A below its critical current. At rotor design current of 60 A and 2500 A stator current, the extrapolated developed power would be 44.2 kill (59.2 hp) with 94% efficiency.

McKeever, J.W.; Sohns, C.W.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Campbell, V.W.; Hickey, M.H.; Ott, G.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bailey, J.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Use of the LEDA Facility as an ADS High-Power Accelerator Test Bed  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) was built to generate high-current proton beams. Its successful full-power operation and testing in 1999-2001 confirmed the feasibility of a high-power linear accelerator (linac) front end, the most technically challenging portion of such a machine. The 6.7-MeV accelerator operates reliably at 95-mA CW beam current with few interruptions orjaults, and qualiJes as one of the most powerful accelerators in the world. LEDA is now available to address the needs of other programs. LEDA can be upgraded in a staged fashion to allow for full-power accelerator demonstrations. The proposed post-h!FQ accelerator structures are 350-MHz superconducting spoke cavities developed for the AAA /APT program. The superconducting portion of the accelerator is designed for a IOO-mA proton beam current. Superconducting cavities were chosen because of the signijkant thermal issues with room-temperature structures, the larger superconducting cavity apertures, and the lower operating costs ('because of improved electrical efficiency) of a superconducting accelerator. Since high reliability is a major issue for an ADS system, the superconducting design architecture alIows operation through faults due to the failure of single magnets or superconducting cavities. The presently installed power capacity of 13 MVA of input ACpower is capable of supporting a 40-MeVproton beam at 100 mA. (The input power is easily expandable to 25 MVA, allowing up to 100-MeV operation). Operation at 40-MeV would provide a complete demonstration of all of the critical accelerator sub-systems ofa full-power ADS system.

Garnett, R. W. (Robert W.); Sheffield, R. L. (Richard L.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to date and how they compare to testing performed on LAW glasses. Other details about vitreous waste form durability and impacts of REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) on durability are given in Appendix A. Details about the FBSR process, various pilot scale demonstrations, and applications are given in Appendix B. Details describing all the different leach tests that need to be used jointly to determine the leaching mechanisms of a waste form are given in Appendix C. Cautions regarding the way in which the waste form surface area is measured and in the choice of leachant buffers (if used) are given in Appendix D.

Jantzen, C

2008-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

74

Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Option 2 Program: Development and testing of zinc titanate sorbents  

SciTech Connect

One of the most advantageous configurations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system is coupling it with a hot gas cleanup for the more efficient production of electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner. In conventional gasification cleanup systems, closely heat exchangers are necessary to cool down the fuel gases for cleaning, sometimes as low as 200--300{degree}F, and to reheat the gases prior to injection into the turbine. The result is significant losses in efficiency for the overall power cycle. High-temperature coal gas cleanup in the IGCC system can be operated near 1000{degree}F or higher, i.e., at conditions compatible with the gasifier and turbine components, resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for IGCC power systems in which mixed-metal oxides are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this contract is to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical durability of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Zinc ferrite was studied under the base program of this contract. In the next phase of this program novel sorbents, particularly zinc titanate-based sorbents, are being studied under the remaining optional programs. This topical report summarizes only the work performed under the Option 2 program. In the course of carrying out the program, more than 25 zinc titanate formulations have been prepared and characterized to identify formulations exhibiting enhanced properties over the baseline zinc titanate formulation selected by the US Department of Energy.

Ayala, R.E.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

E-Print Network 3.0 - agitated fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

testing of manure digestion system has been initiated. The new TAMU fluidized bed gasifier... of the fluidized bed gasifier. Activity this quarter: a. The assembly of the new...

76

E-Print Network 3.0 - agitation fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

testing of manure digestion system has been initiated. The new TAMU fluidized bed gasifier... of the fluidized bed gasifier. Activity this quarter: a. The assembly of the new...

77

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

utility, allowing for demand-side management arrangements.resource planning, demand-side management, and building

Lasseter, R. H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distributed energy resources small power generatorsdistributed energy resources portfolio includes not only generators

ETO, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

integration. In combined-heat-and-power applications, thetested three combined-heat- and-power units to incorporate

Eto, Joe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

integration. In combined-heat-and-power applications, thetested three combined-heat- and-power units to incorporate

ETO, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Evaluation of fluid bed heat exchanger optimization parameters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainty in the relationship of specific bed material properties to gas-side heat transfer in fluidized beds has inhibited the search for optimum bed materials and has led to over-conservative assumptions in the design of fluid bed heat exchangers. An experimental program was carried out to isolate the effects of particle density, thermal conductivity, and heat capacitance upon fluid bed heat transfer. A total of 31 tests were run with 18 different bed material loads on 12 material types; particle size variations were tested on several material types. The conceptual design of a fluidized bed evaporator unit was completed for a diesel exhaust heat recovery system. The evaporator heat transfer surface area was substantially reduced while the physical dimensions of the unit increased. Despite the overall increase in unit size, the overall cost was reduced. A study of relative economics associated with bed material selection was conducted. For the fluidized bed evaporator, it was found that zircon sand was the best choice among materials tested in this program, and that the selection of bed material substantially influences the overall system costs. The optimized fluid bed heat exchanger has an estimated cost 19% below a fin augmented tubular heat exchanger; 31% below a commercial design fluid bed heat exchanger; and 50% below a conventional plain tube heat exchanger. The comparisons being made for a 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h waste heat boiler. The fluidized bed approach potentially has other advantages such as resistance to fouling. It is recommended that a study be conducted to develop a systematic selection of bed materials for fluidized bed heat exchanger applications, based upon findings of the study reported herein.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Microsoft Word - 0500808_110205 2-6-07 rev.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SCADA Test Bed SCADA Test Bed A Summary of Control System Security Standards Activities in the Energy Sector U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector NSTB Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability October 2005 NSTB A Summary of Control System Security Standards Activities in the Energy Sector i ABSTRACT This document is a compilation of the activities and initiatives concerning control system security that are influencing the standards process in the development of secure communication protocols and systems. Also contained in this report is a comparison of several of the sector standards, guidelines, and technical reports, demonstrating standards

84

Multi-stage biomass gasification in Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG): Test operation of animal-waste-derived biomass and parametric investigation at low temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the design, construction and operation of an Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG) are introduced in detail. ICFG design provides a multi-stage gasification process, with bed material acting as the medium for char combustion and heat exchange by its internal circulation. And it is used for the steam gasification of animal waste at low temperature in view of producing fuel gas. The effects of pressure balance, pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature and steam/feedstock ratio on the gasifier performance (e.g. product gas yield, gas composition, tar content) are also discussed. Hydrogen-rich and low-tar product gas can be produced from the low-calorific feedstock, in the properly designed process together with high-performance catalyst.

Xianbin Xiao; Duc Dung Le; Kayoko Morishita; Shouyu Zhang; Liuyun Li; Takayuki Takarada

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991  

SciTech Connect

This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

17 - Fluidized bed gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The chapter describes the state-of-the-art of fluidized bed gasification of solid fuels, starting from the key role played by hydrodynamics, and its strong correlation with physical and chemical phenomena of the process and operating performance parameters of the reactor. The possible configurations of fluidized bed gasification plants are also assessed, and an analysis of the main methods for syngas cleaning is reported. Finally, the chapter describes some of the most interesting commercial experiences. The analysis indicates that the gasification of biomass and also of municipal and industrial solid wastes appear to be the most interesting sectors for the industrial development and utilization of fluidized bed gasifiers.

U. Arena

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 fuel fuel feed air products air fuel Retort) products Underfeed Combustion fuel feed air #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 required #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Overfeed Bed fuel motion products air

Hallett, William L.H.

88

Tenth annual fluidized bed conference  

SciTech Connect

The proceedings of the Tenth Annual Fluidized Bed Conference is presented. The Conference was held November 14-15, 1994 in Jacksonville, FL and covered such topics as: opportunity fuels, the fluid bed market, bubbling fluid bed retrofitting, waste fuel-based circulating fluidized-bed project, construction permits for major air pollution sources, fluidized bed residues, uses for fluidized bed combustion ash, ash pelletization, sorbents for FBC applications, refractory maintenance, and petroleum coke. A separate abstract and indexing have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Staged fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, R.G.

1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

90

Microsoft Word - NSTB_AMI_SecurityConsiderationsV4.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-7327 Unlimited Release Printed November 2007 Advanced Metering Infrastructure Security Considerations Raymond C. Parks Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. Advanced Metering Infrastructure Security Considerations 2 Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of

91

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPEs technology refines coal by employing a novel catalyst to crack the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild catalytic gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPEs catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to fluidize the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A PdCu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Fluidized Bed Fuel Cell Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... smoothed the electrolyte flow through the bed. The mesh acted as bed support and electrical contactor to the beads. In the case of the hydrogen peroxide electrode the nickel mesh ... at the top 'of the bed for the hydrogen peroxide electrode and close to the contactor for the methanol electrode. In both cases polarization measurements were carried out at 20 ...

T. BERENT; I. FELLS; R. MASON

1969-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

93

Moving granular-bed filter development program. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Advanced, coal-based, power plants, such as IGCC and Advanced-PFBC, are currently nearing commercial demonstration. These power plant technologies require hot gas filtration as part of their gas cleaning trains. Ceramic barrier filters are the major filter candidates being developed for these hot gas cleaning applications. While ceramic barrier filters achieve high levels of particle removal, concerns exist for their reliability and operability in these applications. An alternative hot gas filtration technology is the moving granular bed filter. An advanced, moving granular bed filter has been conceived, and early development activities performed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center. This document reports on the Base Contract tasks performed to resolve the barrier technical issues for this technology. The concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF) has a concurrent downward, gas and bed media flow configuration that results in simplified features and improved scaleup feasibility compared to alternative designs. Two modes of bed media operation were assessed in the program: once-through using pelletized power plant waste as bed media, and recycle of bed media via standleg and pneumatic transport techniques. Cold Model testing; high-temperature, high-pressure testing; and pelletization testing using advanced power plant wastes, have been conducted in the program. A commercial, economic assessment of the SMGBF technology was performed for IGCC and Advanced-PFBC applications. The evaluation shows that the barrier technical issues can be resolved, and that the technology is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters.

Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as bed hot spots. Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed hot spots. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from. Multiple high and high-high alarm levels should be used, with appropriate corrective actions for each level.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect

Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

97

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

98

Fluidized bed boiler feed system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

100

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Determining average bed temperature of nonisothermal fixed-bed hydrotreater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Employing three catalysts in three parallel pilot-scale fixed-bed reactors, hydrotreating experiments were performed in both isothermal and ascending temperature modes to investigate kinetics and to determine a representative bed temperature. Assuming 1.5th-order for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 1st-order for both hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and mild hydrocracking (MHC), kinetic parameters were obtained from the isothermal mode operation. With the activation energies from isothermal operations, equivalent isothermal temperatures (EITs) in the ascending mode operations were established for specific HDS, HDN and MHC. Employing 19 thermocouple readouts in the catalyst beds and applying an Arrhenius-type rate equation containing the same activation energy, the representative bed temperature was determined. The temperature so determined is called kinetic EIT. The kinetic EIT was found to be the best to represent the nonisothermal bed temperature. The kinetic EIT has been applied to monitoring the catalyst activity in commercial hydrotreating units.

Sok Yui; John Adjaye

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT  

SciTech Connect

Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Powers Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: scale up of gas to solid heat transfer high temperature finned surface design the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas-to-solids heat transfer. A stress test rig was built and tested to provide validation data for a stress model needed to support high temperature finned surface design. Additional cold flow model tests and MTF tests were conducted to address mechanical and process design issues. This information was then used to design and cost a commercial CMB design concept. Finally, the MBHE was reconfigured into a slice arrangement and tested for an extended duration at a commercial CFB plant.

Jukkola, Glen

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

ABB and Energy Utilities Form Consortium to Fund SCADA/EMS Cyber Security  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Energy Utilities Form Consortium to Fund SCADA/EMS Cyber and Energy Utilities Form Consortium to Fund SCADA/EMS Cyber Security Assessment at National SCADA Test Bed ABB and Energy Utilities Form Consortium to Fund SCADA/EMS Cyber Security Assessment at National SCADA Test Bed Twelve utilities have formed a consortium with ABB, a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system vendor, to privately fund advanced research and testing through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB), announced a recent article in the journal Transmission & Distribution World. ABB and Energy Utilities Form Consortium to Fund SCADA/EMS Cyber Security Assessment at National SCADA Test Bed More Documents & Publications Security is Not an Option ABB SCADA/EMS System INEEL Baseline Summary Test Report (November 2004)

104

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

National SCADA Test Bed | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

be run locally to provide hardware supply chain assurances, to large-scale high-performance computing services that can statistically analyze systems of systems to identify...

106

National SCADA Test Bed Fact Sheet  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PROTECTING ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE BY IMPROVING THE SECURITY OF CONTROL SYSTEMS PROTECTING ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE BY IMPROVING THE SECURITY OF CONTROL SYSTEMS Improving the security of energy control systems has become a national priority. Since the mid-1990's, security experts have become increasingly concerned about the threat of malicious cyber attacks on the vital supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and distributed control systems (DCS) used to monitor and manage our energy infrastructure. Many of the systems still in use today were designed to operate in closed, proprietary networks. Increasing use of common software and operating systems and connection to public telecommunication networks and the Internet have made systems more reliable and efficient-but also more

107

A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland J. L. Bamber 1 ,al. : A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland Howat, I. M.al. : A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland Fig. 3. (a)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Simulation of a High Efficiency Multi-bed Adsorption Heat Pump  

SciTech Connect

Attaining high energy efficiency with adsorption heat pumps is challenging due to thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. The multi-bed concept described here effectively transfers heat from beds being cooled to beds being heated, which enables high efficiency in thermally driven heat pumps. A simplified lumped-parameter model and detailed finite element analysis are used to simulate the performance of an ammonia-carbon sorption compressor, which is used to project the overall heat pump coefficient of performance. The effects of bed geometry and number of beds on system performance are explored, and the majority of the performance benefit is obtained with four beds. Results indicate that a COP of 1.24 based on heat input is feasible at AHRI standard test conditions for residential HVAC equipment. When compared on a basis of primary energy input, performance equivalent to SEER 13 or 14 are theoretically attainable with this system.

TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Humble, Paul H.; Sweeney, J. B.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Test plan: Sealing of the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ), including Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and the overlying halite, below the repository horizon, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Small-scale seal performance test-series F  

SciTech Connect

This test plan describes activities intended to demonstrate equipment and techniques for producing, injecting, and evaluating microfine cementitious grout. The grout will be injected in fractured rock located below the repository horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These data are intended to support the development of the Alcove Gas Barrier System (AGBS), the design of upcoming, large-scale seal tests, and ongoing laboratory evaluations of grouting efficacy. Degradation of the grout will be studied in experiments conducted in parallel with the underground grouting experiment.

Ahrens, E.H.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Utilization of ash from fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect

Combustion ash from a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler contains not only carbon, but also silica alumina, quicklime as a sorbent, and a calcium sulfate by-product. These substances react chemically during fluidized bed combustion, and with the addition of water, they start an ettringite reaction and solidify. We determined the conditions necessary for producing hard solids through the study of the composition, curing methods, and characteristics of the solidified ash. We then used two types of road base material, crushed stone and solidified ash from an FBC boiler, to construct a test road at a site with a great deal of heavy traffic. Construction began in 1985, and since then, periodic tests have been performed to evaluate the performance of the road base materials. The testing of the manufacturing techniques centered on the amount and manner that water was added to the mixture and the curing methods of the mixture. Additional testing focused on the handling of the ash powder, the mixtures, and the solidified ash. Since 1991, under the sponsorship of MITI, the Center for Coal Utilization, in conjunction with Naruto Salt Mfg., Ltd., Nippon Hodo Co., Ltd., and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has used the referenced results to undertake a joint research and development project aimed at the eventual practical application of the technology. In 1993, a pilot facility to solidify ash with the fluidized bed boiler of 75 t/h capacity was completed. At present, all the discharged ash from the pilot facility is being solidified, and experiments on solidification and road base application techniques are underway. Actual road base tests are also in progress, and we are continuing research to meet the national certification requirements for road base materials.

Takada, Tomoaki [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Akashi (Japan)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

Twelfth annual fluidized bed conference  

SciTech Connect

The Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Fluidized Bed Conference held November 11-13, 1996 in Pittsburgh, PA are presented. Information is given on: owner`s discussions; new aspects and field upgrades in fluidized bed boilers; manufacturer`s perspectives; fuel considerations; FBC ash reclassification; and beneficial uses of FBC ash. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Aspen Plus simulations of fluidised beds for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a technology able to generate energy whilst managing CO2 emissions. A system composed by two interconnected fluidised beds is often used in CLC: the two fluidised beds are employed for carrying out the oxidation and reduction reactions of the metal oxide employed as oxygen carrier. In this work, a model to implement fluidised bed systems in Aspen Plus is presented. Depending on the hydrodynamic regimes, two different models are considered: one of the two fluidised beds, called the fuel reactor, is modelled according to the two-phase theory (i.e. emulsion and bubble phase) whilst the other bed, called the air reactor, is assumed to operate in the fast fluidisation regime. Kinetic equations for heterogeneous gas/solid reactions are also considered in the model. Simulation tests for each fluidised bed are carried out, and comparisons are made with experimental data from the literature. A comparison with the largely used Gibbs reactor model is carried out showing the advantages of using the models developed here. In addition, the net heat duty of the whole process is calculated and the role of the main variables that affect the process is investigated.

Rosario Porrazzo; Graeme White; Raffaella Ocone

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface mobility-Hames, and Thomas P. Quinn Abstract: Bed scour, egg pocket depths, and alteration of stream-bed surfaces by spawning chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) were measured in two Pacific Northwest gravel-bedded streams. Close

Montgomery, David R.

114

Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Corporation is developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant technology that will enable this type of plant to operate with net plant efficiencies in the range of 43 to 46 percent (based on the higher heating value of the coal), with a reduction in the cost of electricity of at least 20 percent. A three-phase program is under way. Its scope encompasses the conceptual design of a commercial plant through the process of gathering needed experimental test data to obtain design parameters.

Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Corporation is developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant technology that will enable this type of plant to operate with net plant efficiencies in the range of 43 to 46 percent (based on the higher heating value of the coal), with a reduction in the cost of electricity of at least 20 percent. A three-phase program is under way. Its scope encompasses the conceptual design of a commercial plant through the process of gathering needed experimental test data to obtain design parameters.

Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effect of bed medium moisture on {alpha}-pinene removal by biofilters  

SciTech Connect

In this study, laboratory scale continuous flow bioifilters were used to determine the effect of bed medium moisture on biofilter performance when treating off-gases containing {alpha}-pinene. Biofilters were packed using a proprietary wood waste bed medium and were operated at a flow rate of 700 ml of air per min, yielding an empty bed residence time of 2 minutes. For the bed medium moisture levels tested, a biofilter bed held at 100% moisture on a dry weight basis demonstrated the best overall {alpha}-pinene removal results. Volumetric productivity and percent removal were higher, while the time to reach maximum removal efficiency was decreased compared to biofilters operated at 40, 60 and 80% bed medium moisture. Results indicate that control of moisture in a biofilter is important for maximum removal of {alpha}-pinene.

Lee, B.D.; Apel, W.A.; Cook, L.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nichols, K.M. [Weyerhaeuser, Federal Way, WA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Adaptive higher order numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in fluidized beds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adaptive higher order numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in fluidized beds Ch. Nagaiah1 adaptive numerical results of heat and mass transfer in fluidized beds using higher order time stepping injection. The numerical results are tested with different time stepping methods for different spatial grid

Magdeburg, Universität

118

Great lakes fluidized-bed combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A program was conducted to design, construct, and operate an industrial fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler demonstration plant with a capacity of 50,000 lb/h steam. The following were the objectives of the program: (1) to extend the fluidized bed boiler design by employing natural circulation cooling; (2) to design, build, operate, test, and demonstrate a fluidized bed boiler that could burn high sulfur coal in an environmentally acceptable manner; and (3) to obtain sufficient data for industry to make an objective appraisal of fluidized bed coal burning boilers. Following a five-year design, development, and construction effort, the demonstration plant was first operated in June of 1981. Initial operation identified several equipment and operating problems, particularly in the areas of the fuel preparation and fuel feed systems. Unit operation and availability steadily improved, culminating in a 30-day continuous run ending in May 1982. Following shutdown, major problem areas such as bed tube failures were addressed by C-E and rectified prior to the start of the test program. Shakedown/testing operation commenced on August 12, 1983. The objectives for the test program were to establish the unit operating conditions required to optimize SO/sub 2/ removal and combustion efficiency for different operating modes, and to evaluate the long-term performance of components which are essential for reliable FBC operation. A total of 23 tests were run from February 16, 1984 to April 19, 1984. The test results demonstrated that FBC is an environmentally and commercially sound technology. Specificially, the required sulfur removal, low NO/sub x//CO emissions and high combustion efficiencies can be readily achieved. This report identifies the effects of recycle, excess air, Ca/S mole ratio, and overfire air on combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and emissions. 6 refs., 97 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Advanced atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion design - spouted bed  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Spouted-Fluidized Bed Boiler that is an advanced atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (FBC). The objective of this system design study is to develop an advanced AFBC with improved performance and reduced capital and operating costs compared to a conventional AFBC and an oil-fired system. The Spouted-Fluidized Bed (SFB) system is a special type of FBC with a distinctive jet of air in the bed to establish an identifiable solids circulation pattern. This feature is expected to provide: reduced NO/sub x/ emissions because of the fuel rich spout zone; high calcium utilization, calcium-to-sulfur ratio of 1.5, because of the spout attrition and mixing; high fuel utilization because of the solids circulation and spout attrition; improved thermal efficiency because of reduced solids heat loss; and improved fuel flexibility because of the spout phenomena. The SFB was compared to a conventional AFBC and an oil-fired package boiler for 15,000 pound per hour system. The evaluation showed that the operating cost advantages of the SFB resulted from savings in fuel, limestone, and waste disposal. The relative levelized cost for steam from the three systems in constant 1985 dollars is: SFB - $10 per thousand pounds; AFBC - $11 per thousand pounds; oil-fired - $14 per thousand pounds. 18 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Shirley, F.W.; Litt, R.D.

1985-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

120

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occur in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed  

SciTech Connect

Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S. [IIT Roorkee, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters  

SciTech Connect

Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters  

SciTech Connect

Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Bed management in a Critical Care Unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......can also be approach using a stochastic...150 BED MANAGEMENT IN A CRITICAL...of Decision Sciences and Information Management, Catholic University...bed-occupancy management and planning...Improving the Sipp approach for staffing......

J. D. Griffiths; V. Knight; I. Komenda

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Eleventh annual fluidized bed conference  

SciTech Connect

The Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Fluidized Bed Conference are presented. The Conference was held November 14-15, 1995 in Allentown, Pennsylvania and discussed the following topics: third and fourth generation systems; fuel considerations; and FBC energy and environmntal regulatory issues. A separate abstract was entered into the Energy Science and Technology Database for each of the 19 papers presented at the conference.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review With mounting evidence suggesting an increased probability that malicious attacks may be launched against energy control systems, there is a critical need to understand specific cyber vulnerabilities and corresponding mitigation strategies. This need is being addressed by SCADA/ Energy Management System (EMS) Cyber Security Assessments conducted at the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) facility at INL and at on-site field installations of control systems. Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review More Documents & Publications DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan Vulnerability Analysis of Energy Delivery Control Systems - 2011

127

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Error message Error message The page you requested does not exist. For your convenience, a search was performed using the query Flash2009 19. You are here Home » Page not found Page not found Oops! The page you are looking for doesn't seem to be available. Did you find a broken link? Tell us and we'll fix it. Or maybe you meant to go somewhere else? Use the search box or links below to help guide you. Enter terms Flash2009 19 Search Showing 2401 - 2410 of 9,640 results. Page National SCADA Test Bed Created in 2003, the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource that draws on the integrated expertise and capabilities of the Argonne, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos... http://energy.gov/oe/technology-development/energy-delivery-systems-cybersecurity/national-scada-test-bed

128

untitled  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

sector control centers across the nation, sector control centers across the nation, such as this one at Kansas City Power & Light, benefi t from the system security assessments performed through National SCADA Test Bed industry partnerships. Energy sector owners, operators and system vendors team up to boost control system security with National SCADA Test Bed. By Matt Tani, Automation Editor THE POTENTIAL FOR VULNERABILITIES IN THE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS THAT MONITOR AND CONTROL OUR ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE has increased steadily since the mid-1990s. As control systems became increasingly in- terconnected with other control and corporate data networks, the potential for cy- ber intrusion grew as well. When the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the National SCADA [supervisory control and data acquisition] Test Bed (NSTB)

129

Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fluidized bed Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: . Environmental chamber...

131

Uniform retorting of an anisotropic shale bed  

SciTech Connect

In situ oil shale retorts have typically been designed for the fracturing event to produce a rubble bed having uniform cross-sectional rubble properties. This uniform rubble bed approach strived to produce constant void fraction and particle size distribution within all regions of the rubble bed. Ideally, these isotropic rubble beds have uniform flow of oxidants, retorting and combustion products. However, edge effects during the blast event typically produce channeling at the retort walls during processing, reducing the rubble sweep and the local yield. Second generation in situ retorts are addressing uniform retorting within the rubble bed rather than the uniformity of rubble bed properties. Here, the blast design produces and anisotropic rubble bed with varying particle size distribution and void fraction normal to the direction of flow. This paper describes a laboratory experiment in which a highly-instrumented, 100 kg bed of shale with zones of differing particle size and void was retorted. Shale particle size and void were varied over the retort cross-section so that a retorting front would move at a constant velocity downward through the rubble bed. The bed was designed using data from numerous pressure drop measurements on uniform shale beds of varying shale particle size distribution and void. Retorting of the bed showed a uniform retorting front and a yield comparable with that achieved in isotropic shale beds. We present thermal data and offgas, oil and shale analyses (allowing material and energy balance closures) and compare these data to previous vertical retorting experiments on uniform and non-uniform beds of shale. This experiment verifies that uniform retorting fronts can be achieved in correctly designed anisotropic beds of shale and validates the concept of uniform retorting in order increase the oil recovery in second generation retorts. 20 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

Bickel, T.C.; Cook, D.W.; Engler, B.P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Zboray, James A. (Irvine, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Battery using a metal particle bed electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

Evans, James V. (Piedmont, CA); Savaskan, Gultekin (Albany, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Building a Raised Bed Garden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

need, and are less likely to wet foliage. However, they do have some disadvantages. Emitters are prone to clogging unless the water used is very clean, and if emitters are installed under mulch it is difficult to spot problems. Emitters are also... this flexibility as your plantings mature. If you choose drip or trickle irrigation, determine the length of the hose and the number of emitters you will need. Drip tape with 12-inch emitter spacing is best for vegetables. Beds should be divided into watering zones...

Files, Priscilla J.; Dainello, Frank J.; Arnold, Michael A.; Welsh, Douglas F.

2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

135

Circulating fluidised-bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

Steam generators with circulating fluidized-bed combustion systems (CFBC) are characterized by a high degree of environmental comparability and a wide acceptance for FBC boiler plants involving a wide fuel spectrum which ranges from dried brown coal to high-ash coal and low-volatile bituminous coal as well as wood waste and bark. These plants incorporate a variety of CFBC systems. The choice in favor of different system options was not motivated by the inherent fuel properties but has evolved from the progressive advancement in power station FBC technology. The article elucidates several FBC system variants.

Rettemeier, W.; von der Kammer, G. (Steinmueller (L.u.C.) GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany, F.R.))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts to find a combustion process able to control pollutant emissions without external emission controls (such as scrubbers). The...

137

Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Zeng, Li-Wen (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Particle Receiver Integrated with Fludized Bed  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bed CONTACTS Partnering Organizations: * Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. * Massachusetts Institute of Technology For more information, visit the project page at:...

139

Granular Dynamics in Pebble Bed Reactor Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pebble bed reactor, Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.the AVR reactor, Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 121,Operating Experience, Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.

Laufer, Michael Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Conductivity tracer studies for a fluidized-bed bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

An automated conductivity tracer test was developed to measure the residence time distribution (RTD) of a cometabolic fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBBR). The FBBR contained sand-core bioparticles grown with phenol and it provided high (70% to 80%) removal of trichloroethene (TCE) at short (3 minute) detention times. The tracer test apparatus was constructed with off-the-shelf components controlled with a PC-based data acquisition system. Non-disruptive hydrodynamic testing was obtained during normal operation of the FBBR. The conductivity of injected brine pulses was monitored at the reactor inlet and outlet. Dispersion numbers and detention times were computed by fitting the advection-dispersion model to the tracer curves. Typical dispersion numbers attributed to the fluidized-bed of bioparticles ranged from 0.07 to 0.11. In simplified modeling of the FBBR, dispersion was found to have little effect on TCE removal. Based on the dispersion of brine pulses, it was determined that phenol feed pulses injected at inhibitory concentrations over 2 g/L would be rapidly dispersed in the biological bed to non-inhibitory concentrations.

Leung, S.Y.; Segar, R.L. Jr. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Calculating bed load transport in steep boulder bed channels E. M. Yager,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculating bed load transport in steep boulder bed channels E. M. Yager,1,2 J. W. Kirchner,1 and W: Yager, E. M., J. W. Kirchner, and W. E. Dietrich (2007), Calculating bed load transport in steep boulder, more mobile sediment and large, relatively immobile boulders that are often arranged into cascades

Kirchner, James W.

142

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000 F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent development at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric?s Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

Bed management in a Critical Care Unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with the variability in demand for the services that...adequate facilities on demand can lead to serious consequences...how improvements in bed management may be achieved by distinguishing...task of ensuring that demand for hospital services...equipment at each bed-side is around 60,000......

J. D. Griffiths; V. Knight; I. Komenda

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Tanning bed use, deviance regulation theory, and source factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tanning bed use, especially among young, white females, has become a serious health problem in the United States. Those who use tanning beds value a tanned appearance; thus, one possible way to get individuals to stop using tanning beds...

Head, Katharine J.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Ordered bed modular reactor design proposal  

SciTech Connect

The Ordered Bed Modular Reactor (OBMR) is a design as an advanced modular HTGR in which the annular reactor core is filled with an ordered bed of fuel spheres. This arrangement allows fuel elements to be poured into the core cavity which is shaped so that an ordered bed is formed and to be discharged from the core through the opening holes in the reactor top. These operations can be performed in a shutdown shorter time. The OBMR has the most of advantages from both the pebble bed reactor and block type reactor. Its core has great structural flexibility and stability, which allow increasing reactor output power and outlet gas temperature as well as decreasing core pressure drop. This paper introduces ordered packing bed characteristics, unloading and loading technique of the fuel spheres and predicted design features of the OBMR. (authors)

Tian, J. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing 100084 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

Jantzen, C

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

148

Fluidized-bed gasification of an eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The current conceptual HYTORT process design for the hydroretorting of oil shales employs moving-bed retorts that utilize shale particles larger than 3 mm. Work at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in progress to investigate the potential of high-temperature (1100 to 1300 K) fluidized-bed gasification of shale fines (<3 mm size) using steam and oxygen as a technique for more complete utilization of the resource. Synthesis gas produced from fines gasification can be used for making some of the hydrogen needed in the HYTORT process. After completing laboratory-scale batch and continuous gasification tests with several Eastern oil shales, two tests with Indiana New Albany shale were conducted in a 0.2 m diameter fluidized-bed gasification process development unit (PDU). A conceptual gasifier design for 95% carbon conversion was completed. Gasification of 20% of the mined shale can produce the hydrogen required by the HYTORT reactor to retort 80% of the remaining shale. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Fluidized bed heat treating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

150

Bed and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we describe bed (nest) and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla...) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, south-eastern Gabon. During an eight-month study 44 bed...

Yuji Iwata; Chieko Ando

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Test plan: Sealing of the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ), including Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and the overlying halite, below the repository horizon, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. [Cementitious grout into fractured WIPP rock  

SciTech Connect

This test plan describes activities intended to demonstrate equipment and techniques for producing, injecting, and evaluating microfine cementitious grout. The grout will be injected in fractured rock located below the repository horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These data are intended to support the development of the Alcove Gas Barrier System (AGBS), the design of upcoming, large-scale seal tests, and ongoing laboratory evaluations of grouting efficacy. Degradation of the grout will be studied in experiments conducted in parallel with the underground grouting experiment.

Ahrens, E.H.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

NETL: Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC) Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC) Project No.: DE-FE0009448 Oxy-PFBC Layout. Oxy-PFBC Layout. Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is developing an oxy-fired pressurized fluidized bed combustor (Oxy-PFBC). Pressurized combustion with oxygen enables high efficiency through staged combustion, which results in reduced oxygen use, as well as through recovery of high quality heat from exhaust water vapor. In addition, the process can result in reduced costs for utilization or storage of CO2 because the CO2 is available at increased pressure, reducing compression requirements. Overall, pressurized fluidized bed combustion can result in electricity production from coal with near-zero emissions. PWR will be testing a novel process for pressurized oxy-combustion in a

153

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 28950 of 31,917 results. 41 - 28950 of 31,917 results. Download DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS http://energy.gov/cio/downloads/doe-cyber-security-ebk-minimum-core-competency-training-requirements-0 Page Administrative Records Schedules Administrative Records Schedules NOTE: Most of the files below are in PDF, you will need Acrobat® Reader(tm) to view these files. http://energy.gov/cio/administrative-records-schedules Photo Gallery Students Earn Street Cred With the EcoCAR Challenge http://energy.gov/photos/students-earn-street-cred-ecocar-challenge Page U.S. DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Supports To help advance the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed's (NSTB) efforts to enhance control system security in the energy sector, DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy...

154

Tube construction for fluidized bed combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

De Feo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Fluid-bed combustion of solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

For over ten years combustion Power Company has been conducting experimental programs and developing fluid bed systems for agencies of the federal government and for private industry and institutions. Many of these activities have involved systems for the combustion of solid waste materials. Discussed here will be three categories of programs, development of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fired fluid beds, development of wood waste fired fluid beds, and industrial installations. Research and development work on wood wastes has led to the design and construction of two large industrial fluid bed combustors. In one of these, a fluid bed is used for the generation of steam with a fuel that was previously suited only for landfill. Rocks and inerts are continuously removed from this combustor using a patented system. The second FBC is designed to use a variety of fuels as the source of energy to dry hog fuel for use in a high performance power boiler. Here the FBC burns green hog fuel, log yard debris, fly ash (char) from the boiler, and dried wood fines to produce a hot gas system for the wood dryer. A significant advantage of the fluidized bed reactor over conventional incinerators is its ability to reduce noxious gas emission and, finally, the fluidized bed is unique in its ability to efficiently consume low quality fuels. The relatively high inerts and moisture content of solid wastes pose no serious problem and require no associated additional devices for their removal.

Vander Molen, R.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fluidized bed combustor and tube construction therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

De Feo, Angelo (Passaic, NJ); Hosek, William (Morris, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Characterization of Biofilm in 200W Fluidized Bed Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated groundwater beneath the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington is currently being treated using a pump and treat system to remove organics, inorganics, radionuclides, and metals. A granular activated carbon-based fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been added to remove nitrate, hexavalent chromium and carbon tetrachloride. Initial analytical results indicated the microorganisms effectively reduced many of the contaminants to less than cleanup levels. However shortly thereafter operational upsets of the FBR include carbon carry over, over production of microbial extracellular polymeric substance (biofilm) materials, and over production of hydrogen sulfide. As a result detailed investigations were undertaken to understand the functional diversity and activity of the microbial community present in the FBR over time. Molecular analyses including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the microbial community extracted from the biofilm within the bed and from the inoculum, to determine functional dynamics of the FBR bed over time and following operational changes. Findings from these analyses indicated: 1) the microbial community within the bed was completely different than community used for inoculation, and was likely from the groundwater; 2) analyses early in the testing showed an FBR community dominated by a few Curvibacter and Flavobacterium species; 3) the final sample taken indicated that the microbial community in the FBR bed had become more diverse; and 4) qPCR analyses indicated that bacteria involved in nitrogen cycling, including denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria, were dominant in the bed. These results indicate that molecular tools can be powerful for determining functional diversity within FBR type reactors. Coupled with micronutrient, influent and effluent chemistry evaluations, a more complete understanding of the balance between system additions (nutrients, groundwater) and biology can be achieved, thus increasing long-term predictions of performance. These analyses uniquely provide information that can be used in optimizing the overall performance, efficiency, and stability of the system both in real time as well as over the long-term, as the system design is altered or improved and/or new streams are added.

Lee, Michelle H.; Saurey, Sabrina D.; Lee, Brady D.; Parker, Kent E.; Eisenhauer, Emalee ER; Cordova, Elsa A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

158

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Treatment of trichloroethene (TCE) with a fluidized-bed bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBBR`s) offer a promising alternative to existing treatment technologies for the treatment of water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The objective of this research was to test a laboratory-scale FBBR for removal of trichloroethene (TCE) from groundwater and to study the FBBR kinetic behavior so that field-scale treatment systems could be designed. Phenol was selected as the growth substrate for biofilm-forming microorganisms enriched from activated-sludge because phenol induces enzymes capable of cometabolizing TCE and lesser chlorinated ethenes. The biofilm forming microorganisms were identified as Pseudomonas putida, a common soil bacterium. Experiments with a conventional, single-pass FBBR addressed TCE removal as effected by changes in TCE loading, phenol loading, and media type. In this study, TCE removal using quartz filter sand and garnet filter sand as the biofilm attachment media was measured. Removal ranged from 20 to 60% and was not affected by the media type. Also, removal was not affected by inlet TCE concentration over the range of 100 to 500 {micro}g/L provided the phenol loading was decreased with increasing TCE loading. The FBBR was capable of complete phenol removal at an inlet concentration of 20 to 25 mg/L and an empty-bed contact time of 2.7 minutes. However, the empty-bed contact time was insufficient to sustain greater than 40 to 50% removal of TCE in a nutrient-amended groundwater.

Foeller, J.R.; Segar, R.L. Jr. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

Chapter 14 - Coal bed methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary Methane adsorbed to the surface of coal is a very old issue with some new commercial ramifications. This explosive gas has made underground coal mines dangerous both from the risk of explosion and the possibility of an oxygen-poor atmosphere that wouldn't support life. The miner's main concern with coal bed methane (CBM) has been how to get rid of it. Techniques to deal with CBM in mines have ranged from the classic canary in a cage to detect an oxygen-poor atmosphere to huge ventilation fans to force the replacement of a methane-rich environment with outside air, to drilling CBM wells in front of the coal face to try to degas the coal prior to exposing the mine to the CBM. All these techniques have met with some amount of success. None of the techniques to prevent CBM from fouling the air in an underground mine has been totally successful. With the CBM's unique method of gas storage, the preponderance of the gas is available only to very low coalface pressures. The coalface pressure is set by a combination of flowing wellhead pressure and the hydrostatic head exerted by standing liquid within the well bore. Effective compression strategies can lower the wellhead pressure to very low values. Effective deliquification techniques can reduce or remove the backpressure caused by accumulated liquid. CBM's economic impact is briefly explained in this chapter.

James F. Lea; Henry V. Nickens; Mike R. Wells

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Technologies » Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid, provides more effective chemical reactions and heat transfer. Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts to find a combustion process able to control pollutant emissions without external emission controls (such as scrubbers). The technology burns fuel at temperatures of 1,400 to 1,700 degrees F, well below the threshold where nitrogen oxides form (at approximately 2,500 degrees F, the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the

162

Biomass Gasification in Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dual fluidized bed gasification technology is prospective because it produces high...2...dilution even when air is used to generate the required endothermic heat via in situ combustion. This study is devoted ...

Toshiyuki Suda; Takahiro Murakami

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Distribution of bed material in a Horizontal Circulating Fluidised Bed boiler.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A conventional circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler has a limitation due to the height of the furnace, when implemented in smaller industrial facilities. The design (more)

Ekvall, Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of its relatively recent application to coal fired steam production, fluid beds have been uti lized in industry for over 60 years. Beginning in Germany in the twenties for coal gasification, the technology was applied to catalytic cracking of heavy... system cost), use of minimum excess air required, and maintaining the min"imum reactor temperature neces sary to sustain combustion. For superautogenous fuels, where incineration. only is desired, minimum capital cost is achieved by using direct bed...

Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

166

An examination of the exothermic nature of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ashes from nine operational periods at the 183 \\{MWe\\} CFBC boiler at Point Aconi were examined for exothermic behaviour. Bed ashes and fly ashes were investigated using a Parr 1455 solution calorimeter. Limited tests were also carried out with additional samples from Point Aconi and from the 160 \\{MWe\\} TVA Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion boiler to evaluate the effects of particle size and aging on exothermic behaviour. For the Point Aconi ashes, heat release from the bed ash ranged from 11 to 52 J/g, and the maximum heat release rates ranged from 0.06 to 0.17 J/g/s. For the fly ash heat release varied from 114 to 187 J/g and the maximum heat release rates ranged from 0.8 to 1.9 J/g/s. In the fly ash samples, 50% or more of available CaO was converted to Ca(OH)2, while for the bed ash a third or less of the CaO was converted to Ca(OH)2. The exothermicity of the bed ash is directly proportional to the CaO content of the ash. However, this is not true for the fly ash. The exothermic behaviour of fresh FBC ash appeared to be greatly reduced by exposure in air over a 48-h period. Another conclusion of this work is that particle size effects the exothermic behaviour.

E.J Anthony; L Jia; M Caris; F Preto; S Burwell

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

An examination of the exothermic nature of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues  

SciTech Connect

Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ashes from nine operational periods at the 183 MWe CFBC boiler at Point Aconi were examined for exothermic behavior. Bed ashes and fly ashes were investigated using a Parr 1455 solution calorimeter. Limited tests were also carried out with additional samples from Point Aconi and from the 160 MWe TVA Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion boiler to evaluate the effects of particle size and aging on exothermic behavior. For the Point Aconi ashes, heat release from the bed ash ranged from 11 to 52 J/g, and the maximum heat release rates ranged from 0.06 to 0.17 g/s. For the fly ash heat release varied from 114 to 187 J/g and the maximum heat release rates ranged from 0.8 to 1.9 J/s. In the fly ash samples, 50% or more of available CaO was converted to Ca(OH)[sub 2], while for the bed ash a third or less of the CaO was converted to Ca(OH)[sub 2]. The exothermicity of the bed ash is directly proportional to the CaO content of the ash. However, this is not true for the fly ash. The exothermic behavior of fresh FBC ash appeared to be greatly reduced by exposure in air over a 48-h period. Another conclusion of this work is that particle size effects the exothermic behavior.

Anthony, E.J.; Jia, L.; Caris, M.; Preto, F.; Burwell, S. (Natural Resources Canada, Nepean, Ontario (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Effect of sediment pulse grain size on sediment transport rates and bed mobility in gravel bed rivers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of sediment pulse grain size on sediment transport rates and bed mobility in gravel bed] Sediment supply to gravel bed river channels often takes the form of episodic sediment pulses, and there is considerable interest in introducing sediment pulses in stream restorations to alter bed surface grain size

Venditti, Jeremy G.

169

Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds S. Troesch***, A systems by local authorities. This will result in a large increase of the quantity of sludge from septic to treat this sludge because they may have reached their nominal load or they are not so numerous in rural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Microsoft Word - OPSAID-NSTB-report-NOV07-final-v1.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities ...20 1 Introduction 9 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Process control systems (PCS) are very important for critical infrastructure...

173

Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

Salvador, Louis A. (Greensburg, PA); Andermann, Ronald E. (Arlington Heights, IL); Rath, Lawrence K. (Mt. Pleasant, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA); Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Fluidized bed combustion picks up steam  

SciTech Connect

Industrial interest in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) continues, although the technology has been slow to enter the marketplace. Two FBC pilot plants funded by DOE and one commercial size project are in operation. FBC designs and commercial warranties are already available from the boiler industry, but 1981 was the first year to see significant numbers of privately-funded orders, now numbering 38 out of 50 boilers. Manufacturers are working on a universal boiler able to accept any fuel, but potential users are wary of new technology without a long-term demonstration of reliability and economics. There is interest in second generation designs, a new shallow-bed design suitable for retrofitting, and circulating bed types that decouple the combustion system from the heat removal system. (DCK)

Lawn, J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric fluidized bed Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

conditions... in a fluidized bed coater. The bed relative humidity and the droplet size of the coating aerosol were predicted... Fluidized bed coating ... Source: Groningen,...

177

Experimental Investigation into a Packed Bed Thermal Storage Solution for Solar Gas Turbine Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High temperature thermal storage in randomly packed beds of ceramic particles is proposed as an effective storage solution for Solar Gas Turbine (SGT) cycles in the near term. Numerical modelling of these systems allows for optimised thermal storage designs, but such models must be validated against experimental data. In this work an experimental test programme was conducted to generate high temperature heat transfer data for a packed bed operating over the temperature ranges 350-900C and 600-900C. These are representative of two potential SGT cycles. Flue gas from a 45kW LPG burner was used to heat a packed bed of Denstone ceramic pebbles and the testing procedure involved preheating the system to achieve the desired temperature ranges. The fluid and solid temperature profiles in the packed bed were measured in the axial and radial dimensions and are compared to a numerical model with reasonable agreement. Potential modifications to the test facility are described and future testing plans outlined.

P. Klein; T.H. Roos; T.J. Sheer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Effects of sediment supply on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of sediment supply on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers John M. Buffington1 and David R published data from flume studies, we test a new approach for quantifying the effects of sediment supply (i to sediment supply is evaluated relative to a theoretical prediction of competent median grain size (D50). We

179

Model for attrition in fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

A model developed to predict the particle-size distribution and amount of fines generated during the attrition of particles in fluidized beds agrees well with experimental data for siderite iron ore and lignite char. Certain parameters used in the model are independent of particle size, orifice size, system pressure, bed weight, and attrition time, thus making the model suitable for scale-up purposes. Although the analysis was limited to a single jet with the attrition occurring at room temperature, the model can be extended to multi-jet, high-temperature operations.

Chen, T.P.; Sishtla, C.I.; Punwani, D.V.; Arastoopour, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Mathematical modeling of fluidized bed reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III-B. Bubbling Bed Model (BBM). 26 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER III-8-1. BBM with Constant Bubble Size III-B-2. BBM with Variable Bubble Size III-C. Countercurrent Backmixing Model (CCBM). Page 28 29 30 III-C-1. CCBM with Constant... IV NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. IV-A. Langmuir-Hinshelwood Type of Kinetics. IV-B. First Order Kinetics . 57 IV-B-1. Davidson and Harrison Model (DHM) . . 57 IV-8-2. Bubbling Bed Model (BBM). IV-B-3. Countercurrent Backmixing Model (CCBM...

Nasif, Nilufer Havva

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evaluating the fluidized bed combustion options  

SciTech Connect

The proceedings from a conference on fluidized bed combustion are now available. The book discusses the immediate availability of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology as a practical, environmentally sound option for burning all grades of coal, wood, wood wastes, and biomass. The economics and technical fundamentals of atmospheric FBC are explained for the benefit of owners and managers of industrial boilers, boiler operators, architects/engineers, boiler manufacturers, and fuel suppliers. More than 15 FBC experts have contributed their expertise and experiences to the book.

Sheahan, R.T. (ed.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

break switch Back-to back SCR switch T51 CB52 T52 CB53 Relay28 SCR Switch OpeningIt is a 480V, 400A thyristor (SCR) switch with controller, a

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat distribution system, such as steam and chilled water pipes, and the energy lossesheat distribution system, such as steam and chilled water pipes, and the energy lossesheat distribution system, such as steam and chilled water pipes, and the energy losses

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Mini-Grids: Effective Test-Beds for GRID Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe a computing environment that we call a mini- GRID. This represents a hetereogeneous group of ... on a temporary basis as required. The mini-GRID displays the hetero- geneity and some of the complexi...

John Brooke; Martyn Foster; Stephen Pickles; Keith Taylor

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Multi-Source Hydronic Heat Pump System Performance Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pump unit) with a central chilled water storage tank. The MSHHP system uses significantly less energy than a conventional HVAC system, and lowers peak demand by shifting required electrical energy consumption to lower-cost, off-peak and mid-peak rates...

Meckler, M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In addition to generators, the distributed energy resourcesIn addition to generators, the distributed energy resourcesdistributed energy resources small power generators

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

load banks, power and control circuitry, protective relaying, and data-load banks, power and control circuitry, protective relaying, and data-load banks, power and control circuitry, protective relaying, and data-

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an Inverter-Based Combined Heat and Power Module for Specialan Inverter-Based Combined Heat and Power Module for Specialan Inverter-Based Combined Heat and Power Module for Special

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Network architecture test-beds as platforms for ubiquitous computing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The computers disappear, but where do they go? Where does the code that creates a user experience run, and how does it know enough...predominantly on analytical results, simulations from programs such as ns2 (see http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ ), or network...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

CMI Unique Facility: Pilot-Scale Separations Test Bed Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Idaho National Laboratory Noting that the CMI Grand Challenges include separating rare earth elements from each other, the Critical Materials Institute established a pilot-scale...

191

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Ecological Services, San Ramon, California; 2. Southern California Edison (SCE) Electric Vehicleand Ecological Services, San Ramon, California; 2. Southern California Edison (SCE) Electric Vehicle

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Modelling of trickle-bed reactors at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that it is very difficult to reproduce the same flow pattern from bed to bed, Lee and Smith present a criterion for negligible inter- and intraphase transport effects. For exothermic reactions, this criterion is (RL/k C )(p /s ) & P/(1-1)) b L L p p (22.... This is valid for reactions such as hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation, which are only slightly exothermic. Most models assume a non-volatile liquid phase. Since the models reviewed were tested against reaction systems at ambient conditions...

Collins, George Michael

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Fluidized bed combustor 50 MW thermal power plant, Krabi, Thailand. Feasibility study. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of a study prepared by Burns and Roe for the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand to examine the technical feasibility and economic attractiveness for building a 50 MW Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion lignite fired power plant at Krabi, southern Thailand. The study is divided into seven main sections, plus an executive summary and appendices: (1) Introduction; (2) Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology Overview; (3) Fuel and Limestone Tests; (4) Site Evaluation; (5) Station Design and Arrangements; (6) Environmental Considerations; (7) Economic Analysis.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2004 through September 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have started. Second, the design if the component parts of the CFBC system have been reviewed and finalized so that the drawings may be released to the manufacturers during the next quarter. Third, the experiments for solid waste (chicken litter) incineration have been conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). This is in preparation for testing in the simulated fluidized-bed combustor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion  

SciTech Connect

A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Combustion of paper deinking solids in a pilot-scale fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Pressed solids from two commercial deinking operations were incinerated in a pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor. Test parameters included usage of support fuel (dry wood pellets or propane) and supply of overfire air. Stable combustion was achieved for a wide range of feedstock moisture contents (43% and 68%) and bed temperatures (700--1,000 C). Overfire air was varied from 0% to 60% of the total air, and the use of overfire air greatly improved burnout of CO in most cases. NO[sub x] emissions increased when overfire air was used and were in the range of 200 ppm to 275 ppm at 3% O[sub 2]. Ash from the deinking solids did not fuse at temperatures below 1,200 C, and no clinkers were formed in the bed during the trials. The ash consists mainly of kaolinite and contains insignificant quantities of heavy metals.

Douglas, M.A. (ABB Combustion Systems, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada)); Latva-Somppi, J.; Tran, H.N. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Razbin, V.V. (Canada Center for Mineral And Energy Technology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Friedrich, F.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages -- namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects -- brief descriptions of these are also included.

Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

METAL FILTERS FOR PRESSURIZED FLUID BED COMBUSTION (PFBC) APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. As part of the demonstration effort, SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field-tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous commercial metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions.

M.A. Alvin

2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Bed load equation evaluation based on alluvial river data, India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rate of bed load transport in weight per unit width for ... material has been computed by collecting the field data of Tapi River, in the monsoon season ... of this paper is to estimate the bed load carried b...

S. M. Yadav; B. K. Samtani

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Design of a Pilot Plant Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article presents the design principles for a biomass fluidized bed gasifier pilot plant. The fluidized bed gasifier has a nominal capacity of 400 kg ... most important parameters for the performance of the gasifier

K. Maniatis; V. Vassilatos; S. Kyritsis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Current Status and Challenges within Fluidized Bed Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluidized-bed technology is rapidly expanding. Today, more than 600 large (20+ MWth) FBC boilers with a total installed thermal capacity of ... beds (BFBC). The size of the boilers has increased steeply; the larg...

Mikko Hupa

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Fluidized bed gasification of agricultural residue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

studied to develop a process which can convert organic waste matter into fuel gas. Hammond et al. (1974) described a fixed bed gasifier which operated at 1800 F (1256 K) and atmos- pheric pressure. When woodchips were used as the feed material...

Groves, John David

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Bed Bugs: Clinical Relevance and Control Options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the treatment of field infestations...95) and cedar oil. The modes of...Best Yet cedar oil can kill all bed...the control of field infestations...complexes, as the gas cannot be tightly...Insecticides The cost to develop and...insects during spray operations. In laboratory...

Stephen L. Doggett; Dominic E. Dwyer; Pablo F. Peas; Richard C. Russell

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Bed Bugs: Clinical Relevance and Control Options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...assist those who cannot pay the high price of control, bed bugs are set to...antigen and bronchial asthma in Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 21 : 735-746...Doggett, SL . 2009. Identification natural history, p 13-22. InSL Doggett...

Stephen L. Doggett; Dominic E. Dwyer; Pablo F. Peas; Richard C. Russell

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 14, [January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The material wastage tests were continued to analyze erosion phenomena under the simulated erosion conditions of in-bed tubes in fluidized bed combustors. AISI 1018 steel and three thermal sprayed coating specimens were tested at an elevated temperature (300{degrees}C) using nozzle type erosion tester. Bed ashes retrieved from the operating biomass-fired boiler were used for erodent particles at a particle loading of 375 g, at particle impact angle of 30{degrees}, at particle velocity 60 m/s for exposure periods of 4 hours. The specimens were water-cooled on the backside. The material wastage of specimens was determined by thickness measurements. Test results can be seen that the cooled specimen had greater material wastage than that of the uncooled specimens. In addition, all of thermal-sprayed coating specimens for both cooled and uncooled specimens could reduce the erosion wastage rates as compared with 1018 steel. Among the three thermal-sprayed coatings, a DS-105 specimen of high velocity oxygen fuel spraying exhibited the lowest erosion wastage rate. When tested a higher particle velocity (60 m/s), but at the same elevated temperature (300{degrees}C), the material wastage rate of all three coatings was about 6 to 18 times higher than that of the material wastage at a low particle velocity (2.5 m/s).

Lee, Seong W.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Failure Analysis of Bed Coil Tube in an Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology is being used in thermal power plants for steam generation. FBC plants are more flexible than conventional plants ... fuels may be used for firing. The FBC technology...

M. Venkateswara Rao; S. U. Pathak

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Forecasting Hospital Bed Availability Using Simulation and Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forecasting Hospital Bed Availability Using Simulation and Neural Networks Matthew J. Daniels is a critical factor for decision-making in hospitals. Bed availability (or alternatively the bed occupancy in emergency departments, and many other important hospital decisions. To better enable a hospital to make

Kuhl, Michael E.

210

Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion system. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Research is presented on erosion and corrosion of fluidized bed combustor component materials. The characteristics of erosion of in-bed tubes was investigated. Anti-corrosion measures were also evaluated.

Lee, Seong W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Sorbent utilization prediction methodology: sulfur control in fluidized-bed combustors  

SciTech Connect

The United States Government has embarked on an ambitious program to develop and commercialize technologies to efficiently extract energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. One of the more promising new technologies for steam and power generation is the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. In this process, coal is burned in a fluidized bed composed mainly of calcined limestone sorbent. The calcium oxide reacts chemically to capture the sulfur dioxide formed during the combustion and to maintain the stack gas sulfur emissions at acceptable levels. The spent sulfur sorbent, containing calcium sulfate, is a dry solid that can be disposed of along with coal ash or potentially used. Other major advantages of fluidized-bed combustion are the reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions because of the relatively low combustion temperatures, the capability of burning wide varieties of fuel, the high carbon combustion efficiencies, and the high heat-transfer coefficients. A key to the widespread commercialization of fluidized-bed technology is the ability to accurately predict the amount of sulfur that will be captured by a given sorbent. This handbook meets this need by providing a simple, yet reliable, user-oriented methodology (the ANL method) that allows performance of a sorbent to be predicted. The methodology is based on only three essential sorbent parameters, each of which can be readily obtained from standardized laboratory tests. These standard tests and the subsequent method of data reduction are described in detail.

Fee, D.C.; Wilson, W.I.; Shearer, J.A.; Smith, G.W.; Lenc, J.F.; Fan, L.S.; Myles, K.M.; Johnson, I.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Microwave short-pulse bed-level detector. Annual report, January 1-December 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

A short-pulse microwave system for measuring the bed-level within a fluidized-bed combustor, has been designed, built, and laboratory tested on static beds. The system is a short-pulse radar which operates in the frequency region of 6.75 to 10.95 GHz as a time-domain measurement system. Laboratory measurements of static bed-levels, for smooth and corrugated surfaces of metal plates and limestone sand, agree to an average of 2.0% of the actual heights. Additionally, the system was tested with a dielectric thermal protector, which did not compromise the accuracy of the measurements. Analytical models have been formulated to provide insight into the operation of the system on a wide range of simulated targets without the necessity of performing expensive and difficult laboratory experiments. Two formulations have been used to describe electromagnetic scattering by a rough surface as a function of frequency: the space harmonic model and the physical optics model. A reconstruction technique has been devised which uses the scattering models and the spectrum of the transmitted pulse to synthesize the reflected pulse. The data generated by the models compare well to previously published data and to experimental results.

Balanis, C.A.; Delauder, D.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Institutional Fuel Distributor Program Info State Montana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and water right holders for damage to land and to water quality and availability that is attributable to the development of coal bed methane wells. The Act aims to provide for

215

Fluidized bed combustion of a high-sulphur eastern Canadian coal  

SciTech Connect

A high-sulphur bituminous coal from Nova Scotia has been tested in a pilot scale FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustor) and an industrial FBC boiler. A comprehensive pilot plant program involved 28 tests at a nominal bed temperature of 850/sup 0/C (1560/sup 0/F) and fluidizing velocities of 1.2, 2.1 and 3 m/s (4,7 and 10 ft/sec) with and without fly ash recycle. Two different sizes of limestone were used for sulphur sorption. The industrial boiler trials involved two tests at 65% and 100% MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating). Pilot scaling results indicate that high combustion efficiencies are achievable. Sulphur capture of over 80% (meeting the SO/sub 2/ emission standard of 705 ng/J or 1.64 lbs/MBTU input) is possible with a Ca/S molar ratio <3 with fly ash recycle.

Desai, D.L.; Anthony, E.J.; Friedrich, F.D.; Razbin, V.V.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. [Kentort II process  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of April 1, 1992 through June 30, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The raw oil shale sample for the program was mined, prepared, characterized and stored this quarter. The shale that was chosen was from the high-grade zone of the Devonian Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The shale was mined and then transported to the contractor's crushing facility where it was crushed, double-screened, and loaded into 85 55-gal barrels. The barrels, containing a total of 25-30 tons of shale, were transported to the (CAER) Center for Applied Energy Research where the shale was double-screened, analyzed and stored. A major objective of the program is the study of solid-induced secondary coking and cracking reactions. A valved fluidized bed reactor has been the primary apparatus used for this study prior to this quarter, but two additional techniques have been initiated this quarter for the study of other aspects of this issue. First, the two-stage hydropyrolysis reactor at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, was used to study the coking tendency of shale oil vapors under a wide range of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis conditions. This work enabled us to examine secondary reactions under high pressure conditions (up to 150 bar) which were previously unavailable. Second, the development of a fixed bed reactor system was initiated at the CAER to study the coking and cracking characteristics of model compounds. A fixed bed apparatus was necessary because the conversion of model compounds was too low in the fluidized bed apparatus.

Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Robl, T.L.; Hower, J.C.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Coal Bed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE R. Stanton (rstanton@usgs.gov; 703-648-6462) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 R. Flores (rflores@usgs.gov; 303-236-7774) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 P.D. Warwick (pwarwick@usgs.gov; 703-648-6469) H. Gluskoter (halg@usgs.gov; 703-648-6429) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 G.D. Stricker (303-236-7763) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Introduction Geologic sequestration of CO 2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO

218

Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

An innovative bed temperature-oriented modeling and robust control of a circulating fluidized bed combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion systems are increasingly used as superior coal burning systems in power generation due to their higher efficiency and lower emissions. However, because of their non-linearity and complex behavior, it is difficult to build a comprehensive model that incorporates all the system dynamics. In this paper, a mathematical model of the circulating fluidized bed combustion system based on mass and energy conservation equations was successfully extracted. Using these correlations, a state space dynamical model oriented to bed temperature has been obtained based on subspace method. Bed temperature, which influences boiler overall efficiency and the rate of pollutants emission, is one of the most significant parameters in the operation of these types of systems. Having dynamic and parametric uncertainties in the model, a robust control algorithm based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI) have been applied to control the bed temperature by input parameters, i.e. coal feed rate and fluidization velocity. The controller proposed properly sets the temperature to our desired range with a minimum tracking error and minimizes the sensitivity of the closed-loop system to disturbances caused by uncertainties such as change in feeding coal, while the settling time of the system is significantly decreased.

Aboozar Hadavand; Ali Akbar Jalali; Parviz Famouri

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Role of Pulverized Coal Ash against Agglomeration, Fouling, and Corrosion in Circulating Fluidized-Bed Boilers Firing Challenging Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanisms of fouling and corrosion in biomass combustion have been extensively studied for a long time, and although the basic aspects are well-accepted, the complexity of the details are not yet fully understood. ... (5) In an earlier study, Foster Wheeler tested the effectiveness of different alternative bed materials to counteract the agglomeration induced by high-alkali biomass. ... Figure 4 show SEM/EDX analysis complemented with phase composition calculations (Noran System, NSS 2.3) of loopseal samples from combustion tests, where bed material included both PC-ash and sand. ...

Vesna Barii?; Kari Peltola; Edgardo Coda Zabetta

2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

223

Energy Sector Stakeholders Attend the Department of Energy¬タルs 2010 Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Peer Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sector Stakeholders Attend the Department of Energy's Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Sector Stakeholders Attend the Department of Energy's Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Peer Review July 29, 2010 The Department of Energy conducted a Peer Review of its Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) Research and Development Program on July 20-22, during which 28 R&D projects were presented for review by industry stakeholders. More than 65 energy sector stakeholders came to network, present, and learn about DOE projects, while more than 20 joined in by webinar. The CEDS program's national lab, academic, and industry partners-including the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) partners and Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure for the Power Grid (TCIPG) project- presented DOE-supported efforts involving secured SCADA communications and smart grid applications,

224

Vulnerability Analysis of Energy Delivery Control Systems - 2011 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vulnerability Analysis of Energy Delivery Control Systems - 2011 Vulnerability Analysis of Energy Delivery Control Systems - 2011 Vulnerability Analysis of Energy Delivery Control Systems - 2011 Cybersecurity for energy delivery systems has emerged as one of the Nation's most serious grid modernization and infrastructure protection issues. Cyber adversaries are becoming increasingly targeted, sophisticated, and better financed. The energy sector must research, develop and deploy new cybersecurity capabilities faster than the adversary can launch new attack tools and techniques. The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE) National Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed (NSTB) program is to enhance the reliability and resiliency of the Nation's energy infrastructure by reducing the risk

225

Energy-Sector Stakeholders Attend the Department of Energy's  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy-Sector Stakeholders Attend the Department of Energy's Energy-Sector Stakeholders Attend the Department of Energy's Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Peer Review Energy-Sector Stakeholders Attend the Department of Energy's Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Peer Review August 15, 2011 - 1:12pm Addthis The Department of Energy conducted a Peer Review of its Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) Research and Development Program on July 20-22, during which 28 R&D projects were presented for review by industry stakeholders. More than 65 energy sector stakeholders came to network, present, and learn about DOE projects, while more than 20 joined in by webinar. The CEDS program's national lab, academic, and industry partners-including the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) partners and Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure for the Power Grid (TCIPG)

226

Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.'' which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. [times] 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. [times] 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F. (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Experimental determination of agglomeration tendency in fluidized bed combustion of biomass by measuring slip resistance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A method by measuring the slip resistance between particles was used to determine the agglomeration tendency in fluidized bed combustion of biomass. Solid particles were taken from different stages of biomass combustion in a fluidized bed and loaded into a bench-scale test apparatus with two concentric cylinders. A precision variable frequency motor and a torque sensor were employed to measure the torque driven by the inner cylinder at a constant speed, which is directly related to the slip resistance of the solid particles. The measurement results showed significant difference in the slip resistance of the bed solids taken from different stages of biomass combustion at different operating temperatures. A strong correlation was found between the onset of agglomeration and increase in the slip resistance, especially near the onset of agglomeration, due to the build-up of molten biomass ashes, presence of liquid bridges between particles and formation of incipient agglomerates. With further validation, the method developed in the present study can potentially be used to quantify agglomeration tendency in a fluidized bed reactor and characterize the dynamic process of agglomeration.

Chunjiang Yu; Zifeng Tang; Leiyun Zeng; Chen Chen; Bin Gong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson  

SciTech Connect

Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

EIS-0289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project 289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project EIS-0289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project SUMMARY This EIS assesses environmental issues associated with constructing and demonstrating a project that would be cost-shared by DOE and JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority) under the Clean Coal Technology Program. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD December 7, 2000 EIS-0289: Record of Decision JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project, Jacksonville, Duval County, FL June 1, 2000 EIS-0289: Final Environmental Impact Statement JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project August 1, 1999 EIS-0289: Draft Environmental Impact Statement JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor

231

Improving the performance of the Y-12 fluidized bed contactors: Final report on investigations at the University of Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Recent tests at The University of Tennessee in Knoxville (UT) have demonstrated improved fluidization performance in a mockup of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fluidized bed with a modified gas distributor. Combining the modified distributor with the recently developed fluidization intensity module is expected to result in substantial operational improvements for the fluidized beds in Building 9212 at Y-12. Important additional benefits coming from the improved operation of the Y-12 fluidized beds will be a reduction in the consumption of reactant gases, a reduction in scrubber waste production, and a reduced need for manual cleaning of the particulate removal system. UT tests have also demonstrated that the tapered wall design traditionally used for the Y-12 fluidized beds does not provide a sufficient improvement in fluidization quality to justify the continued use of this design in place of a more conventional straight-wall configuration. The straight-wall design for replacement beds is expected to result in substantial equipment cost savings. Other operating scenarios that could potentially be used to reduce reactant gas consumption and scrubber waste production have also been considered. These scenarios are documented here for future reference.

Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Methanol synthesis in a trickle bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kinetic models for methanol synthesis under the assumption that the rate limiting step was the reaction between an adsorbed CO molecule and two adsorbed H2 molecules. The experiment was conducted over a Cu/ZnO/Cr~03 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor... to account for the large degree of initial deactivation. However, Rozovskii (1980) claimed the opposite and stated that methanol is made from carbon dioxide and no methanol is produced from Hz/CO mixtures over the Cu/ZnO/Alz03 catalyst. Liu et al. (1984...

Tjandra, Sinoto

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Particle Receiver Integrated with Fludized Bed  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This fact sheet describes a project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program to NREL which features a particle receiver with a fluidized bed. The research team is working to develop a technology that uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as a heat-transfer fluid and separated, stable, solid particles as a thermal energy storage medium. This project provides a pathway for CSP plants to increase their solar-to-electric conversion efficiency and reduce costs in the areas of solar collection from the solar field to the receiver, energy conversion systems, and thermal energy storage.

234

Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

Sadler, III, Leon Y. (Tuscaloosa, AL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Based on Pressurized Fluidized Bed Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enviropower Inc. has developed a modern power plant concept based on an integrated pressurized fluidized bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC)....

Kari Salo; J. G. Patel

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Potential Acceptance and Disposition of German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Fuel Environmental Assessment Maxcine Maxted, DOE-SR Used Nuclear Fuel...

237

Growth and flowering of bedding plants grown in landscape bed amended with hydrophilic polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field study one incorporated hydrophilic polymers into field plots of bedding plants including 25, 50, 75, or 1 00 lb/1 00oft2 . Data recorded during the growing season included flower number, visual rating, soil moisture and temperature, and plant...

Boatright, Jennifer Lynn

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Bed-inventory Overturn Mechanism for Pant-leg Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A numerical model was established to investigate the lateral mass transfer as well as the mechanism of bed-inventory overturn inside a pant-leg circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which are of great importance to maintain safe and efficient operation of the CFB. Results show that the special flow structure in which the solid particle volume fraction along the central line of the pant-leg CFB is relative high enlarges the lateral mass transfer rate and make it more possible for bed inventory overturn. Although the lateral pressure difference generated from lateral mass transfer inhibits continuing lateral mass transfer, providing the pant-leg CFB with self-balancing ability to some extent, the primary flow rate change due to the outlet pressure change often disable the self-balancing ability by continually enhancing the flow rate difference. As the flow rate of the primary air fan is more sensitive to its outlet pressure, it is easier to lead to bed inventory overturn. While when the solid particle is easier to c...

Wang, Zhe; Yang, Zhiwei; West, Logan; Li, Zheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

What is a bed bug? Bed bugs are small, oval, reddish brown, non-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zippers. Thus, experts recommend using hard luggage that closes tight. ·Protectyourclothes. Seal your clothes inside air-tight bags. ·Protectyourluggage. Never set your luggage on the bed or on a couch. Put. ·Treatyourluggagebeforeyoustoreit. After you have unpacked, vacuum your luggage thoroughly. Also, if it is hot outside, you can seal

Almor, Amit

240

Combustion of textile residues in a packed bed  

SciTech Connect

Textile is one of the main components in the municipal waste which is to be diverted from landfill for material and energy recovery. As an initial investigation for energy recovery from textile residues, the combustion of cotton fabrics with a minor fraction of polyester was investigated in a packed bed combustor for air flow rates ranging from 117 to 1638 kg/m{sup 2} h (0.027-0.371 m/s). Tests were also carried out in order to evaluate the co-combustion of textile residues with two segregated waste materials: waste wood and cardboard. Textile residues showed different combustion characteristics when compared to typical waste materials at low air flow rates below 819 kg/m{sup 2} h (0.186 m/s). The ignition front propagated fast along the air channels randomly formed between packed textile particles while leaving a large amount of unignited material above. This resulted in irregular behaviour of the temperature profile, ignition rate and the percentage of weight loss in the ignition propagation stage. A slow smouldering burn-out stage followed the ignition propagation stage. At air flow rates of 1200-1600 kg/m{sup 2} h (0.272-0.363 m/s), the bed had a maximum burning rate of about 240 kg/m{sup 2} h consuming most of the combustibles in the ignition propagation stage. More uniform combustion with an increased burning rate was achieved when textile residues were co-burned with cardboard that had a similar bulk density. (author)

Ryu, Changkook; Phan, Anh N.; Sharifi, Vida N.; Swithenbank, Jim [Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC), Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Proceedings of the 1987 international conference on fluidized bed combustion: FBC comes of age  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on fluidized-bed combustors. Topics considered at the conference included fluidized bed boilers for utility applications, coal-fired systems, boiler retrofit, demonstration programs, atmospheric fluidized bed applications at the Tennessee Valley Authority, pressurized fluidized bed applications, waste disposal, adsorbents, fluid mechanics in fluidized beds, hydrodynamics, desulfurization, environmental issues, and advanced concepts.

Mustonen, J.P.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Experimental investigation into the incineration of wool scouring sludges in a novel rotating fluidised bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main purpose of this research was to investigate the possibility of incineration of wool scouring sludges in a novel vertical axis rotating fluidised bed (RFB). A small-scale RFB was designed and constructed with an internal diameter (ID) of 200 mm and height of 50 mm to carry out the experiments. In phase one of the experiments, a cold test was conducted to investigate the fluidisation performance of the RFB, which eventually led to the optimisation of the operating parameters, i.e., sand particle size, rotation speed and bed loading (bed thickness) which ensures complete fluidisation and minimum particle elutriation. Sand particle size of 0.5 to 0.6 mm, rotation speed of 200 to 400 rpm and bed loading of 1 kg (equivalent to bed thickness of 27 mm) were found optimal. These information generated were useful for the second phase of the experiments, which was the hot test, in investigating the possibility of incinerating wool scouring sludges in the RFB. Nine wool sludges from different process routes generated from the wool scouring industries were analysed for their compositions. Most of these sludges were highly moist, had high volatile matter and high ash content with low level of fixed carbon. These characteristics made incineration difficult. Hence, the effect of varying the moisture content, rotation speed and sludge feed rate on the incineration of the three selected sludges were studied in the hot test. With 5% support methane, all sludges with a maximum moisture up to 70% as-received could be successfully burned in the RFB at rotating speeds of 200 and 300 rpm. The combustion was found to be intense with a high efficiency due to the good turbulence and mixing in the RFB. The combustion gases produced, i.e., CO, CO2 and \\{NOx\\} were reasonably low due to the high combustion intensity and efficiency. To study the dynamics of the bed and freeboard region in the RFB, the velocity flow field was simulated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to generate information of the flow pattern. The special advantages of swirling flow would benefit the gas combustion in the RFB. The experimental results obtained have suggested that the incineration was successful and the ash particles elutriated were fine due to the good mixing and turbulence in the RFB. This also reflects the RFB as an effective incinerator.

W.Y Wong; Y Lu; V.S Nasserzadeh; J Swithenbank; T Shaw; M Madden

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

An analysis of ilmenite particles used as bed material for combustion of biomass in a CFB boiler.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Combustion of biomass in a fluidized bed boiler with silica sand as bed material is related to problems such as agglomeration of bed material and (more)

Corcoran, Angelica

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 2, [January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This technical report summarizes the research work performed and the progress achieved during the period of January 1, 1993 to March 31, 1993. The prototype dust collector as a part of the exhaust system was designed and fabricated to perform the well-controlled test in the bench-scale FBC system. The instrumentation for flow-measuring has been conducted in the system, which includes the minimum fluidization velocity and bed-pressure drop, mean gas velocity, calculation of particle terminal velocity and its operating range, and static pressure distribution in the system. The bubble velocity was also predicted. The project has been progressing well. Future efforts will be concentrated on instrumentation for erosion-measuring. In addition to that, instrumentation for flow-measuring will be continued to support the erosion-measuring. Theoretical analysis and modeling on in-bed tube erosion will be initiated along with the experimental results. Experience and observation of in-bed tube erosion will be predicted.

Lee, Seong W.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Parametric performance studies on fluidized-bed heat exchangers. Task I. Fouling characteristics. Yearly technical progress report, 28 July 1981-31 July 1982  

SciTech Connect

Analyses and experiments are being performed in this program to investigate the heat transfer performance of single and multi-stage shallow fluidized beds for application to the recovery of heat from sources such as waste heat, and coal combustion or coal gasification. The work, which is an extension of that done previously under contracts EC-77-C-03-1433 and DE-AC03-79-ET11348, consists of three tasks. In Task 1, tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of liquid condensate fouling on fluidized bed heat exchanger performance. Liquid condensates used in these tests were water and glycerol (which is more viscous than water). The tests showed that fluidized bed heat exchanger performance is degraded by condensation within the bed and the degradation is caused by bed particles adhering to the heat exchanger surface, not by particle agglomeration. Liquid condensate did not continuously build up within the bed. After a period of dry-out, heat transfer equal to that obtained prior to condensation was again obtained. 8 figures, 1 table.

None

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan; William M. Goodman

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Heat exchanger materials for fluidized bed coal combustors  

SciTech Connect

The 4500-h test in the FluiDyne AFBC tells us three things: (1) ferritic and austenitic superheater alloys perform well to approximately 590/sup 0/C (1100/sup 0/F), (2) high-temperature alloys can perform well at approximately 870/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F), and (3) they also may fail miserably at approximately 870/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F). Additional studies are clearly needed to develop a fundamental understanding of corrosion mechanisms in AFBC and to determine the envelope of safe operating conditions, which will depend upon alloy sensitivity, the oxygen and sulfur activities, and the many parameters that affect mixing and homogeneity within an operating AFBC. Ultimately long-term tests for periods to 20,000 h will be needed to assure the operability of in-bed heat exchanger and structural materials for the anticipated lifetime of a plant. Good design and well-controlled operations will yield good material performance in AFBC. The key to reliable material usage is operation within the safe envelope. Results from the present experiment suggest that this envelope is large for utility steam systems but smaller for high-temperature tubes and uncooled components in AFBC.

Godfrey, T G; Copper, R H; DeVan, J H; Drake, K R

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Garruto, Edward J. (Wayne, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Theory of free surface flow over rough seeping beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...horizontal bed is assumed to be rough consisting of sediment...the other hand, in the rough flow regime (Re *70...the introduction, the set of equations (3.2...turbulent flow over a rough planar sand bed. The...The flow conditions were set in such a way that sediment...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Trickle - Bed reactor simulation using a process simulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study deals with a multiple reaction system in both gas and liquid phases considering the effect of gas-liquid mass transfer limitations in a trickle-bed reactor where the catalytic hydrotreating of gas oil reaction is being carried out. ... Keywords: Trickle - bed reactor, hydrogenation, reactor model, user-added unit operation

E. Verruschi; J. Freitez; Y. Gonzalez; C. G. Dassori

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Development of Catalytic Tar Decomposition in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass gasification in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG) using Ni/Ah03 as tar ... as catalyst in a lab-scale fluidized bed gasifier with catalyst fixed bed. The new catalyst...

Xianbin Xiao; Due Dung Le; Kayoko Morishita

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

FBC (fluidized-bed combustors) engineering correlations for estimating the combustion efficiency of a range of fuels  

SciTech Connect

Simplified engineering correlations are presented for estimating the combustion efficiency of a wide range of fuel types in fluidized bed boilers. The correlations are presented in such a way that they can be applied to various boiler designs, including both bubbling and circulating beds. Major emphasis is placed on minimizing the boiler design and operating details required, thereby enhancing the usefulness of these methods as screening tools. The impact of fuel type is addressed by making use of the fuel characterization parameters measured by the Babcock and Wilcox Company for the Electric Power Research Institute. It is demonstrated that the methods described give combustion efficiency estimates that agree well with typical observations from some well-documented fluidized bed combustion test facilities. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Daw, C.S.; Chandran, R.R.; Duqum, J.N.; Perna, M.A.; Petrill, E.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) More Documents & Publications Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) SRS Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

254

Methods of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed an apparatus for forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the apparatus includes a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile, and the bottom portion configured to contain a bed of particles; and a gas inlet configured to produce a column of gas to carry entrained particles therein. There is disclosed a method of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the method includes positioning particles within a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile; producing a column of gas directed upwardly through a gas inlet; carrying entrained particles in the column of gas to produce a fountain of particles over the fluidized bed of circulating particles and subside in the particle bed until being directed inwardly into the column of gas within the curvilinear profile.

Marshall, Douglas W. (Blackfoot, ID)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

255

Two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration with in situ neutralization for radioactive mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

A two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration process is proving successful at incinerating hazardous wastes containing nuclear material. The process operates at 550{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C in its two stages. Acid gas neutralization takes place in situ using sodium carbonate as a sorbent in the first stage bed. The feed material to the incinerator is hazardous waste-as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-mixed with radioactive materials. The radioactive materials are plutonium, uranium, and americium that are byproducts of nuclear weapons production. Despite its low temperature operation, this system successfully destroyed poly-chlorinated biphenyls at a 99.99992% destruction and removal efficiency. Radionuclides and volatile heavy metals leave the fluidized beds and enter the air pollution control system in minimal amounts. Recently collected modeling and experimental data show the process minimizes dioxin and furan production. The report also discusses air pollution, ash solidification, and other data collected from pilot- and demonstration-scale testing. The testing took place at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a US Department of Energy facility, in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.

Wade, J.F.; Williams, P.M.

1995-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

256

Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Indiana New Albany shale in batch and continuous units  

SciTech Connect

Work is being conducted at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for the production of oil from Eastern oil shales. The PFH process, using smaller particle sizes than the moving-bed hydroretorting process, offers higher oil yields and greater reactor mass fluxes through higher selectivity of organic carbon to oil and shorter residence times, respectively. Batch PFH tests have been conducted to study the effects of shale preheat time (15 to 30 min) and temperature (25{degree} to 320{degree}C), retorting temperature (450{degree} to 710{degree}C), hydrogen pressure (2.8 to 7.0 MPa), particle size (65 to 330 microns), and residence time (5 to 30 min) on the product yields from Indiana New Albany shale. Oil yield has been found to increase with increasing hydrogen pressure. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Roosmagi, C. (USDOE Laramie Energy Technology Center, WY (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Development of a topping combustor for advanced concept pressurized fluidized-bed combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

A project team consisting of Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Gilbert/Commonwealth and the Institute of Gas Technology, are developing a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed System. Foster Wheeler is developing a carbonizer (a partial gasifier) and a pressurized fluidized bed combustor. Both these units operate at a nominal 1600{degrees}F (870{degrees}C) for optimal sulfur capture. Since this temperature is well below the current combustion turbine combustor outlet operating temperature of 2350{degrees}F (1290{degrees}C), to reach commercialization, a topping combustor and hot gas cleanup (HGCU) equipment must be developed. Westinghouse`s efforts are focused on the development of the high temperature gas cleanup equipment and the topping combustor. This paper concentrates on the design and test of the topping combustor, which must use a low heating value syngas from the carbonizer at approximately 1600{degrees}F and 150 to 210 psi.

Domeracki, W.F.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, agglomerates which formed in the FBC at Montana-Dakota Utilities (Heskett Station Unit 2 located in Bismarck, ND) were analyzed by x-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) for mineral determination; bulk chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy; and polished sections were made for optical and scanning electron microscopy. Polarized-light microscopy was performed using a Zeiss research microscope. Individual mineral grains were analyzed using an ARL electron microprobe and a JOEL 840 scanning electron microscope. The agglomerate was found in the mechanical dust collector and was about ten centimeters in diameter with a dark-colored core and a greenish rim. The sample had voids up to ten millimeters in size; however, the agglomerate was hard to break apart. Bulk compositionally, the agglomerate consists primarily of calcium, silica, and alumina with relatively high abundances of iron (8 to 9 wt %), magnesium (5 to 9 wt %) and sodium (3 to 4 wt %). It is likely that the ``root`` cause of this agglomerate originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed. Because fluidized bed combustors work below the ash fusion temperature of coal ash, aluminosilicates (clays) in the ash probably became ``sticky`` due to fluxing reactions with pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) and perhaps alkalies (Na). This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerate. Because of the size of the deposit, the bed particles probably agglomerated in the dust collector.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - abundance bed net Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

s00723-007-0002-7 Summary: Applied Magnetic Resonance Noninvasive Measurements of Gas Exchange in a Three- Dimensional Fluidized Bed... -fluidized bed of solid par- ticles....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing bed net Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for: assessing bed net Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Modeling decadal bed material sediment flux based on stochastic Michael Bliss Singer and Thomas Dunne Summary: ; published...

262

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of Minnesota Collection: Engineering 16 POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF INCINERATION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS Summary: POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF INCINERATION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS...

263

Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications  

SciTech Connect

To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 {mu}m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871{degrees}C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750{degrees}C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750{degrees}C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications  

SciTech Connect

To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 [mu]m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871[degrees]C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750[degrees]C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750[degrees]C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Fluidized bed combustion of low-rank coals: (Task 4. 1)  

SciTech Connect

Results obtained in the second year of a second three-year program are described. Two 1000-hour tests were completed to evaluate corrosion/erosion effects on boiler materials. The coals tested were Kentucky {number sign}9 from the Pyro mine and Gibbons Creek, Texas, lignite. Of the variety of stainless and carbon steels tested, several meet commercial requirements despite a wide range in ash compositions of the test coals. In Fluidized Bed Combustion characterization, the River King Illinois {number sign}6 and Jacobs Ranch, Wyoming, subbituminous coals were extensively tested under a wide range of operating conditions and with and without limestone addition. The Jacobs Ranch coal was also successfully and satisfactorily fired as a coal/water fuel slurry. The low-rank coal slurry provided excellent ignition and combustion efficiency, and without ash agglomeration or accumulation. Continued progress was made in expanding the data base on FBC of low- rank coals. 11 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.

Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Zobeck, B.J.; Kalmanovitch, D.P.; Potas, T.A.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Pebble-bed pebble motion: Simulation and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Pebble bed reactors (PBR) have moving graphite fuel pebbles. This unique feature provides advantages, but also means that simulation of the reactor requires understanding the typical motion and location of the granular flow of pebbles. This report presents a method for simulation of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. A new mechanical motion simulator, PEBBLES, efficiently simulates the key elements of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. This model simulates gravitational force and contact forces including kinetic and true static friction. It's used for a variety of tasks including simulation of the effect of earthquakes on a PBR, calculation of packing fractions, Dancoff factors, pebble wear and the pebble force on the walls. The simulator includes a new differential static friction model for the varied geometries of PBRs. A new static friction benchmark was devised via analytically solving the mechanics equations to determine the minimum pebble-to-pebble friction and pebble-to-surface friction for a five pebble pyramid. This pyramid check as well as a comparison to the Janssen formula was used to test the new static friction equations. Because larger pebble bed simulations involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and long periods of time, the PEBBLES code has been parallelized. PEBBLES runs on shared memory architectures and distributed memory architectures. For the shared memory architecture, the code uses a new O(n) lock-less parallel collision detection algorithm to determine which pebbles are likely to be in contact. The new collision detection algorithm improves on the traditional non-parallel O(n log(n)) collision detection algorithm. These features combine to form a fast parallel pebble motion simulation. The PEBBLES code provides new capabilities for understanding and optimizing PBRs. The PEBBLES code has provided the pebble motion data required to calculate the motion of pebbles during a simulated earthquake. The PEBBLES code provides the ability to determine the contact forces and the lengths of motion in contact. This information combined with the proper wear coefficients can be used to determine the dust production from mechanical wear. These new capabilities enhance the understanding of PBRs, and the capabilities of the code will allow future improvements in understanding.

Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Fluidized bed pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and corn stover were pyrolyzed in a bench scale fluidized-bed reactor to examine the influence of storage time on thermochemical converting of these materials. The influence of storage on the thermochemical conversion of the biomass feedstocks was assessed based on pyrolysis product yields and chemical and instrumental analyses of the pyrolysis products. Although char and gas yields from corn stover feedstock were influenced by storage time, hybrid poplar and switchgrass were not significantly affected. Liquid, char, and gas yields were feedstock dependent. Total liquid yields (organic+water) varied from 58%-73% depending on the feedstock. Char yields varied from 14%-19% while gas yields ranged from 11%-15%. The chemical composition of the pyrolysis oils from hybrid polar feedstock was slightly changed by storage, however, corn stover and switchgrass feedstock showed no significant changes. Additionally, stored corn stover and hybrid poplar pyrolysis oils showed a significant decrease in their higher heating values compared to the fresh material.

Besler, S.; Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

The fluid bed market: Status, trends, & outlook  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology has become a major commercial competitor for conventional solid fuel combustion systems. Since the mid-1980s, independent power producers (IPPs) and cogenerators in particular, pursuing opportunities created by PURPA, have led the way in deploying FBC boilers for electric power and cogeneration plants in the United States. Circulating FBC (CFBC) boilers became the predominant FBC choice for coal-, coke-, and coal waste-fired projects with unit capacities typically in the range of 300,000-600,000 lb/hr (35-70 MW (nominal)). Utility-type reheat units in the 115-165 MW (net) range are now in operation in the United States and Europe. A 250 MW CFBC unit is under construction for 1995 startup in France, and another is scheduled for 1998 startup in Pennsylvania. A 350 MW bubbling FBC boiler is being commissioned now in Japan. Several other CFBC projects that would employ 150-250 MW CFBC units are in various stages of planning in the United States, Puerto Rico, Europe, and Asia.

Simbeck, D.R.; Johnson, H.E.; Wilhelm, D.J. [SFA Pacific, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Decades' worth of transuranic waste from Los Alamos is being laid to rest at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico March 25, 2013 Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Depending on the impurities embedded within it, the salt from WIPP can be anything from a reddish, relatively opaque rock to a clear crystal like the one shown here. Ordinary salt effectively seals transuranic waste in a long-term repository Transuranic waste, made of items such as lab coats and equipment that have been contaminated by radioactive elements heavier than uranium, is being shipped from the Los Alamos National Laboratory to a long-term storage

271

Computational Analysis of Fluid Flow in Pebble Bed Modular Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a Generation IV reactor under consideration by Department of Energy and in the nuclear industry. There are two categories of HTGRs, namely, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and Prismatic reactor. Pebble...

Gandhir, Akshay

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

272

Initial Design of a Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a steam hydro gasification and reforming process.study on biomass Air-steam gasification in a fluidized bed.limestone calcination on the gasification processes in a BFB

Yun, Minyoung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Design and Operation of CFB Boilers with Low Bed Inventory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the challenges and problems of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology are summarized and analyzed. In order to resolve the problems in CFB boiler application, design principals a...

Jun Su; Xiaoxing Zhao; Jianchun Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Initial Design of a Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluidized bed gaisifers (CFB) (Figure 1.6) 1.3.1. Bubblingbed gasifiers (BFB and CFB) have great features for SH.employed for the SHR design. CFB enables a circulation of

Yun, Minyoung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

MCNP4B Modeling of Pebble-Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The applicability of the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B to the neutronic modeling of pebble-bed reactors was investigated. A modeling methodology was developed based on an analysis of critical experiments carried out at the ...

Lebenhaft, Julian Robert

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Fluid Beds: At Last, Challenging Two Entrenched Practices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTOR, JOURNAL...FLUIDIZED COAL COMBUSTOR, COMBUSTION...NONCATALYTIC GAS-SOLID REACTIONS...PARTICLES AT HIGH VELOCITIES...SATIJA, S, PRESSURE-FLUCTUATIONS...gasoline has a higher octane number...to convert natural gas to gasoline...

Arthur M. Squires; Mooson Kwauk; Amos A. Avidan

1985-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

277

Electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) applied to bubbling fluid beds  

SciTech Connect

These presentation visuals illustrate the apparatus and method for applying Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) to bubbling fluid beds to their solid fraction and bubble properties. Results are compared to estimated values.

Weber, J., Mei, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16.............................................................................................21 Coal and Methane Production

Maxwell, Bruce D.

279

Spectral Analysis of Thinning Beds Using Ground Penetrating Radar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to image internal dune structures. The results showed anomalous features at merging beds and contacts between interfaces. The results directly influence sedimentological and geomorphological interpretations of internal dune structure and can be used...

Francese, Renee Rose

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

280

Simulation of biomass gasification in a dual fluidized bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass gasification with steam in a dual-fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG) was simulated with ASPEN Plus. ... that the content of char transferred from the gasifier to the combustor decreases from 22.5...2 concentra...

Jie He; Kristina Gransson; Ulf Sderlind

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Fluidized Bed Technology- An R&D Success Story  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In the early 1990s, POWER magazine called the development of fluidized bed coal combustors "the commercial success story of the last decade in the power generation business." The success, perhaps...

282

MODULAR PEBBLE BED REACTOR PROJECT UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Annual Report Page ii MODULAR PEBBLE BED REACTOR ABSTRACT This project is developing a fundamental. Publication of an archival journal article covering this work is being prepared. · Detailed gas reactor Abstract

283

Test Automation Test Automation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Test Automation Test Automation Mohammad Mousavi Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Software Testing 2013 Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Outline Test Automation Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Why? Challenges of Manual Testing Test-case design: Choosing inputs

Mousavi, Mohammad

284

Research paper Early diagenetic carbonate bed formation at the sedimentwater interface triggered  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, chemical, and C and O stable isotope data allow us to infer that the beds formed during synsedimentary exhibit two or three carbonate beds in the vicinity of Wimereux city (3 beds at Wimereux-North and 2 beds Formation, Wheatleyensis+Pectinatus ammonite zones, see below) represents a low-energy shelf facies

285

EXPERIMENT AND NEURAL NETWORK MODEL OF PRIMARY FRAGMENTATION OF OIL SHALE IN FLUIDIZED BED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the fluidized bed temperature is an important factor of primary fragmentation of oil shale, and

Zhigang Cui; Xiangxin Han; Xiumin Jiang; Jianguo Liu

286

The backflow cell model for fluidized bed catalytic reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the backmixing of gas in a small fluidized bed with high length to diameter rati. o is relatively small. Hence, it was recommended. that reaction rate studies in fluidized bed reactors be correlated on the basis oi' piston flow~ neglecting mixing. Nay (19...) points out that the straight line obtained on plotting the results of Gilliland's ex- periment on a paper with semilogarithmic coordinates, can be used to characterize the residence time distribution introduced by Danckwerts (6). A steep slope, he...

Ganapathy, E. V

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

287

Performance characterization of a packed bed electro-filter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by A JAY NARAYANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Safety Engineering PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by AJAY NARAYANAN Approved as to style and content by: John P. Wagn (Ch ' of the Com ittee) Aydin Akgerman (Member) Ri ard B...

Narayanan, Ajay

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

288

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Evapotranspiration Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-compartment septic tank Loam soil Crushed stone Evapotranspiration bed Wick On-site wastewater treatment systems Evapotranspiration bed Bruce Lesikar Extension Agricultural Engineering Specialist The Texas A&M University System ET systems..., synthetic or concrete liner. A liner is required if the surrounding soil is very permeable, such as in sandy gravel or karst limestone. Unlined systems can be used in highly impermeable soils such as heavy clays. In unlined systems, wastewater is disposed...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Kinetic parameter estimation using nonisothermal trickle-bed reactor data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KINETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING NONISOTHERMAL TRICKLE-BED REACTOR DATA A Thesis by MICHAEL ALLEN MENSIK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering KINETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING NONISOTHERMAL TRICKLE-BED REACTOR DATA A Thesis by MICHAEL ALLEN MENSIK Approved as to style and content by: A. ger n (Chairman of Comm ee) R. G. Antho...

Mensik, Michael Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

290

Fluidized-bed retrofit a practical alternative to FGD  

SciTech Connect

A comparison is made between the costs of flue-gas desulphurization retrofit to a 112 MW pf-fired boiler, fluidized-bed combustion retrofit to the boiler, and a new fluidized-bed boiler. Breakdowns are given for capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the busbar cost of energy for a 20 year unit life. The analysis shows that fbc is a viable option for the retrofit of many existing boilers from both a technical and economic viewpoint.

Stringfellow, T.E.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology  

SciTech Connect

Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy & Geoenvironmental Engineering

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Design and testing of a microvalve capable of precisely controlling low fluidic flow rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of the design, manufacture, and testing for a gas flow regulating microvalve is presented herein. The microvalve project served as a test bed for new micromachining techniques and for exploration of MEMS devices ...

Daniel, Cody R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

The fluidized bed combustion ash management puzzle  

SciTech Connect

As the electric and industrial power generation industry upgrades and expands, the amount of coal and other solid fuels also expands. With increased environmental controls, the introduction of a competitive market for power, and the increased interest in opportunity fuels will increase the usage of Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) boilers in the power industry. The combustion of these solid fuels will generate combustion ashes. Power generators, including FBC boilers owners, have traditionally looked to landfills for the disposal of their ash. With the tighter environmental controls being placed on landfills at the federal and state level, power generators are beginning to see constantly escalating tipping fees which now make the landfill option less attractive. In some instances, landfills are beginning to refuse to accept ash regardless of the tipping fee. In view of this, the power generators are now struggling to find a place to store or dispose of the ash that is produced by their power boiler. Other disposal alternatives such as backhaul to the mine and beneficial reuse are now being considered. Either alternative presents its own set of technical and environmental variables to be considered in developing an effective ash management plan. To be effective, these plans need to incorporate an aggressive, yet realistic, role to support beneficial reuse of the ash. Many applications exist for reuse of the various types of ash. The applications for conventional ashes such as those from pulverized coal boilers and stoker fired boilers are mature and more commonplace. The uses for FBC ash are not as well researched and demonstrated and therefore the marketing opportunities for FBC ash continue to require development. FBC boiler owners and operators must be willing to accept the challenges posed in developing these reuse applications for FBC ash for the market to accept the applications for FBC ash and allow the full value of the FBC ash to be realized.

Fitzgerald, H.B. [ReUse Technology, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Tempestites in a teapot? Condensation-generated shell beds in the Upper Ordovician, Cincinnati Arch, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Skeletal concentrations in mudstones may represent local facies produced by storm winnowing in shallow water, or time-specific deposits related to intervals of diminished sediment supply. Upper Ordovician (Katian) of the Cincinnati region is a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate succession including meter-scale cycles containing a shelly limestone-dominated phase and a mudstone-dominated phase. The tempestite proximality model asserts that shell-rich intervals originated by winnowing of mud from undifferentiated fair-weather deposits. Thus shell beds are construed as tempestites, while interbedded mudstones represent either fair-weather or bypassed mud. Meter-scale cycles are attributed to sea-level fluctuation or varying storm intensity. Alternatively, the episodic starvation model argues, on the basis of petrographic, taphonomic, and stratigraphic evidence, that, despite widespread evidence for storms or other turbulence events (e.g. tsunamis), winnowing alone could not generate shell beds where none had previously existed. Instead, variations in sediment supply are construed as the principal cause of shelly-mudstone cycles. Shell-rich deposits accrue during periods of siliciclastic sediment starvation and relatively shell-free mud accumulates during periods of sediment influx. Tempestite proximality and episodic starvation models lead to contrasting predictions about proximal-to-distal facies patterns. These are: (i) large versus small volumes of distally-deposited, bypassed mud; (ii) proximal grainstones and distal packstones versus distal grainstones and proximal packstones; and (iii) proximal versus distal amalgamation and condensation of shell beds. In this paper, these predictions are tested by (i) comparing meter-scale cycles from different horizons and depositional environments through the lower Cincinnatian succession (Kope through McMillan Formations representing deep subtidal through intertidal environments), and (ii) correlating intervals and individual meter-scale cycles from the Fairview Formation of the Cincinnati Arch (shallow subtidal) north and west into the Maquoketa Shale (deep subtidal) in subsurface of Ohio and Indiana. Both approaches show patterns consistent with episodic starvation, not winnowing, including: (i) small differences in stratigraphic thickness indicate small volumes of bypassed mud; (ii) discrete distal deep-water grainstones that splay proximally into bundles of thinner shallow-water packstones alternating with shelly muds show that grainstones formed from a lack of, rather than removal of mud; and (iii) distal shell?bed amalgamation and condensation (and corresponding proximal splaying) of shell beds shows a proximal source of mud. Thus, winnowing by storms or other turbulence events did not generate shell beds or cycles from undifferentiated sediments despite abundant evidence for storm deposition. High-resolution correlations imply that the shell-bed and mud-bed hemicycles reflect simultaneous basin-wide changes in sedimentary style rather than contemporaneous facies belts that track sea level. In this sense, shell-rich and mud-rich hemicycles are non-Waltherian facies.

Benjamin F. Dattilo; Carlton E. Brett; Thomas J. Schramm

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

A cold model experimental study on the flow characteristics of bed material in a fluidized bed bottom ash cooler in a CFB boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cold model experimental study on the flowing characteristics of bed material between a fluidized bed ash cooler and a furnace of CFB boiler were discussed in this paper. The research results showed that flowing...

Xiaofeng Lu; Yourong Li

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Influence of mean gas residence time in the bubbling fluidised bed on the performance of a 100-kW dual fluidised bed steam gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the influence of mean gas residence time in the bubbling fluidised bed, ? f..., on the performance of a pilot scale 100kW dual fluidised bed gasifier was experimentally investigate...

W. L. Saw; S. S. Pang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Effects of vapor-liquid equilibrium on wetting efficiency in hydrodesulfurization trickle-bed reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the hydrogen was allowed to flow through the reactor tube. The liquid pump was started and the flow rate measured by monitoring the level in the feed tank. The gas flow rate was measured using a wet test meter installed downstream of the gas/liquid separator...EFFECTS OF VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM ON WETTING EFFICIENCY IN HYDRODESULFURIZATION TRICKLE-BED REACTORS A Thesis by ANNA LISA MILLS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Mills, Anna Lisa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this contract continues to be the demonstration of high fuel gas desulfurization of high temperature fuel gas desulfurization and particulate removal using a moving bed process with regenerable metal oxide sorbent. The fuel gas source for test operation is a fixed bed, air blown gasifier located at GE Corporate Research and Development in Schenectady, New York. The demonstration project also includes the design, construction, installation and test operation of a gas turbine simulator which includes a modified GE MS6000 type gas turbine combustor and a film cooled, first stage LM 6000 nozzle assembly. The hot gas cleanup (HGCU) system and the gas turbine simulator have been designed to operate with the full 8000 lb/hr fuel gas flow from the gasification of 1800 lb/hr of coal at 280 psig and 1000 to 1150 F. An advanced formulation of zinc ferrite as well as zinc titanate have been used as the regenerable metal oxide sorbents in testing to date. Demonstration of halogen removal as well as characterization of alkali and heavy metal concentrations in the fuel gas remain objectives, as well. Results are discussed.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this contract continues to be the demonstration of high fuel gas desulfurization of high temperature fuel gas desulfurization and particulate removal using a moving bed process with regenerable metal oxide sorbent. The fuel gas source for test operation is a fixed bed, air blown gasifier located at GE Corporate Research and Development in Schenectady, New York. The demonstration project also includes the design, construction, installation and test operation of a gas turbine simulator which includes a modified GE MS6000 type gas turbine combustor and a film cooled, first stage LM 6000 nozzle assembly. The hot gas cleanup (HGCU) system and the gas turbine simulator have been designed to operate with the full 8000 lb/hr fuel gas flow from the gasification of 1800 lb/hr of coal at 280 psig and 1000 to 1150 F. An advanced formulation of zinc ferrite as well as zinc titanate have been used as the regenerable metal oxide sorbents in testing to date. Demonstration of halogen removal as well as characterization of alkali and heavy metal concentrations in the fuel gas remain objectives, as well. Results are discussed.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Effects of scale-up on oil and gas yields in a solid-recycle bed oil shale retorting process  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed pyrolysis of oil shale in a non-hydrogen atmosphere has been shown to significantly increase oil yield in laboratory-scale reactors compared to the Fischer assay by many workers. The enhancement in oil yield by this relatively simple and efficient thermal technique has led to the development of several oil shale retorting processes based on fluidized bed and related technologies over the past fifteen years. Since 1986, the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) has been developing one such process, KENTORT II, which is mainly tailored for the Devonian oil shales that occur in the eastern U.S. The process contains three main fluidized bed zones to pyrolyze, gasify, and combust the oil shale. A fourth fluidized bed zone serves to cool the spent shale prior to exiting the system. The autothermal process utilizes processed shale recirculation to transfer heat from the combustion to the gasification and pyrolysis zones. The CAER is currently testing the KENTORT II process in a 22.7-kg/hr process-development unit (PDU).

Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Vego, A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

The influence of multiple tubes on the tube-to-bed heat transfer in a fluidised bed L.M. Armstrong, S. Gu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for flow prediction in the past without heat transfer modelling. In the present study, a two-fluid EulerianThe influence of multiple tubes on the tube-to-bed heat transfer in a fluidised bed L.M. Armstrong Keywords: CFD Heat transfer Fluidised bed Eulerian a b s t r a c t There have been few studies modelling

305

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification C.M. Jantzen and E.M. Pierce November 18, 2010 2 Participating Organizations 3 Incentive and Objectives FBSR sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form has been identified as a promising supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW Objectives: Reduce the risk associated with implementing the FBSR NAS waste form as a supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW Conduct test with actual tank wastes Use the best science to fill key data gaps Linking previous and new results together 4 Outline FBSR NAS waste form processing scales FBSR NAS waste form data/key assumptions FBSR NAS key data gaps FBSR NAS testing program 5 FBSR NAS Waste Form Processing

306

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 16. Gasification of 2-inch Minnesota peat sods  

SciTech Connect

A single, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scubber used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the sixteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific test report describes the gasification of two-inch Minnesota peat sods, which began on June 24, 1985 and was completed on June 27, 1985. 4 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Neural Network Based Montioring and Control of Fluidized Bed.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop chaos analysis and neural network-based modeling techniques and apply them to the pressure-drop data obtained from the Fluid Bed Combustion (FBC) system (a small scale prototype model) located at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)-Morgantown. The second goal was to develop neural network-based chaos control techniques and provide a suggestive prototype for possible real-time application to the FBC system. The experimental pressure data were collected from a cold FBC experimental set-up at the Morgantown Center. We have performed several analysis on these data in order to unveil their dynamical and chaotic characteristics. The phase-space attractors were constructed from the one dimensional time series data, using the time-delay embedding method, for both normal and abnormal conditions. Several identifying parameters were also computed from these attractors such as the correlation dimension, the Kolmogorov entropy, and the Lyapunov exponents. These chaotic attractor parameters can be used to discriminate between the normal and abnormal operating conditions of the FBC system. It was found that, the abnormal data has higher correlation dimension, larger Kolmogorov entropy and larger positive Lyapunov exponents as compared to the normal data. Chaotic system control using neural network based techniques were also investigated and compared to conventional chaotic system control techniques. Both types of chaotic system control techniques were applied to some typical chaotic systems such as the logistic, the Henon, and the Lorenz systems. A prototype model for real-time implementation of these techniques has been suggested to control the FBC system. These models can be implemented for real-time control in a next phase of the project after obtaining further measurements from the experimental model. After testing the control algorithms developed for the FBC model, the next step is to implement them on hardware and link them to the experimental system. In this report, the hardware implementation issues of the control algorithms are also discussed.

Bodruzzaman, M.; Essawy, M.A.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Advances in mathematical modeling of fluidized bed gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of solid fuel into the gas which contains mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen. In gasification, fluidized bed technology is widely used due to its various advantageous features which include high heat transfer, uniform and controllable temperature and favorable gassolid contacting. Modeling and simulation of fluidized bed gasification is useful for optimizing the gasifier design and operation with minimal temporal and financial cost. The present work investigates the different modeling approaches applied to the fluidized bed gasification systems. These models are broadly classified as the equilibrium model and the rate based or kinetic model. On the other hand, depending on the description of the hydrodynamic of the bed, fluidized bed models may also be classified as the two-phase flow model, the EulerEuler model and the EulerLagrange model. Mathematical formulation of each of the model mentioned above and their merits and demerits are discussed. Detail reviews of different model used by different researchers with major results obtained by them are presented while the special focus is given on EulerEuler and EulerLagrange CFD models.

Chanchal Loha; Sai Gu; Juray De Wilde; Pinakeswar Mahanta; Pradip K. Chatterjee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Six years of ABB-CE, petcoke and fluid beds  

SciTech Connect

Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) has constructed twenty circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers and 2 bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boilers throughout North America. The units were designed to fire a wide range of fuels from anthracite culm to coals, lignites and biomasses. Based on fuels economics, some plants have decided to use petroleum coke as a replacement or supplemental fuel. The fluid bed boiler can inherently handle a wide range of fuel types without requiring modification or down-rating. ABB-CE units have a significant amount of petroleum coke operating experience firing 100% petroleum coke with no supplemental fuel ranging from the first commercial CFB unit at New Brunswick Power to the largest CFB unit at Texas New Mexico Power. Petroleum coke is also being co-fired with anthracite culm at the Scott Paper CFB. The world`s largest operating BFB, the 160 MWe unit at TVA`s Shawnee plant, has also been co-firing petroleum coke. The ability of the fluidized bed technology to fire low volatile fuels such as petroleum cokes, efficiently and in an environmentally acceptable manner will result in the use of this technology as a preferred means of power generation. This report gives a brief description of the petroleum coke firing experiences with ABB-CE fluid bed steam generators over the last six years.

Tanca, M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds  

SciTech Connect

The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Johanson, Edwin S. (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Simulation of petcoke gasification in slagging moving bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical model for simulation of moving bed petcoke gasifiers was developed. The model introduces a new feed characterization method, gas-phase resistance and volatilization models. The model is validated using reported data for a slagging gasifier. Effect of feed oxygen-to-coke and steam-to-coke ratios and feed coke rates on gasification performance was examined. Slagging zone moving bed gasifier operation with very high petcoke fluxes of over 4000 kg/m2/h was possible with high petcoke conversion. Peak gas temperatures exceeded 1500 C. Fluxes higher than 5000 kg/m2/h are limited by an approach to fluidization of small particles in the combustion zone. The moving bed gasifier performance was found superior to performance of an entrained flow gasifier (EFG) with respect to energy efficiency and oxygen consumption.

Soumitro Nagpal; T.K. Sarkar; P.K. Sen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis.

Robert B Finkelman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Lateral solids dispersion coefficient in large-scale fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

The design of fuel feed ports in a large-scale fluidized bed combustor depends on the fuel characteristics and lateral solids mixing. However, the reported values of the effective lateral solids dispersion coefficient (D{sub sr}) are scattered in the broad range of 0.0001-0.1 m{sup 2}/s. With the aim of predicting D{sub sr} in wider fluidized beds which is difficult to measure directly or deduce from experimental results in lab-scale facilities, a computational method is proposed. It combines the Eulerian-Granular simulation and fictitious particle tracing technique. The value of D{sub sr} is calculated based on the movement of the tracers. The effect on D{sub sr} of bed width (W) ranging from 0.4 m up to 12.8 m at different levels of superficial gas velocity (U{sub 0}) is investigated. It is found that increasing W whilst maintaining U{sub 0}, D{sub sr} initially increases markedly, then its increase rate declines, and finally it stays around a constant value. The computed values of D{sub sr} are examined quantitatively and compared with a thorough list of the measured D{sub sr} in the literature since 1980s. Agreed with the measurements performed in the pilot-scale fluidized beds, the value of D{sub sr} in wider facilities at higher fluidizing velocities is predicted to be around the order of magnitude of 0.1 m{sup 2}/s, much higher than that in lab-scale beds. Finally, the effect of D{sub sr} on the distribution of fuel particles over the cross section in fluidized beds with the specified layout of feed ports is discussed. (author)

Liu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaoping [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Considerations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weinstein & Travers: APFBC Repowering Considerations Weinstein & Travers: APFBC Repowering Considerations paper 970563 Page 1 of 35 Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Considerations Richard E. Weinstein, P.E. Parsons Power Group Inc. Reading, Pennsylvania eMail: Richard_E_Weinstein@Parsons.COM / phone: 610 / 855-2699 Robert W. Travers, P.E. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Germantown, Maryland eMail: Robert.Travers@HQ.DOE.GOV / phone: 301 / 903-6166 Weinstein & Travers: APFBC Repowering Considerations paper 970563 Page 2 of 35 Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Repowering Considerations ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................................................................................................

319

Refractory experience in circulating fluidized bed combustors, Task 7  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of an investigation into the status of the design and selection of refractory materials for coal-fueled circulating fluidized-bed combustors. The survey concentrated on operating units in the United States manufactured by six different boiler vendors: Babcock and Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, Foster Wheeler, Keeler Dorr-Oliver, Pyropower, and Riley Stoker. Information was obtained from the boiler vendors, refractory suppliers and installers, and the owners/operators of over forty units. This work is in support of DOE's Clean Coal Technology program, which includes circulating fluidized-bed technology as one of the selected concepts being evaluated.

Vincent, R.Q.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Control of thermal processes in a fluidized bed combustor (FBC)  

SciTech Connect

Heat and mass balance equations for the transient process of a fluidized bed furnace are described. The equations involve heat release from char and volatiles combustion, heat consumption during moisture evaporation, and heating of char and circulating particles. Calculations and experimental data for steady-state and unsteady conditions are compared. The results show that the height of the dense bed, the excess-air ratio and kinetic features of the fuel affect the rate of the transient process. The time constant for a disturbance by a change of the air flow rate was found to be smaller than the one for a change of the fuel input.

Munts, V.A.; Filippovskij, N.F.; Baskakov, A.P.; Pavliok, E.J. [Ural State Technical Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Heat Power Dept.; Leckner, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Influence of partial wetting on trickle-bed reactor performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was started once the hydrogen flow rate stabilized. The time required for 4he first drop to appear at the vapor/liquid separator ranged from ]0 ? 40 minutes, depending on the liquid flow rate. The liquid flow rate was measured by monitoring the liquid level..., conversion with we4t, ing efficiency . 23 25 Experiment, al apparatus 6. Cross sect, ion of experimental trickle-bed reactor 7. Approach to steady stale 8. Catalyst, bed axial temperature profiles Change in the exit conversion with liquid flow rate...

Ruecker, Craig Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

322

Neutronic analysis of pebble-bed cores with transuranics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(ORNL). This Department of Energy sponsored center is authorized to collect, maintain, analyze, and distribute computer software and data sets in the area of radiation transport and safety. The full-core VHTR pebble-bed model was developed... II.A SCALE 5.0 The 3D full-core pebble-bed VHTR model was initially built using SCALE version 5.0. The modular code system is developed and maintained by ORNL and is readily validated and accepted for use in thermal reactor analysis around...

Pritchard, Megan Leigh

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Effective thermal conductivity of packed beds of spheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of N are known only for certain types of regular packing, however, an empirical relation for m ) 0. 3 is given as N = 11. 6(l ? m) (22) When a load is applied to a bed of spheres, the contact area between spheres is determined using the Hertz... the authors compared their analytical solutions to has consistently dealt with beds of materials which have a very low thermal conductivity compared to that of the brass and aluminum spheres. These materials have been solid and hollow glass spheres, ceramic...

Duncan, Allen Buchanan

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

A case history of a fixed bed, coal-derived oil hydrotreater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the apparent shrinkage in the worldwide supply of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, upgrading of coal-derived liquids to synthetic crude oils will eventually emerge as a commercial entity. Although the Char-Oil-Energy Development (COED) Project has been shelved in the short term, information about the reaction engineering of the upgrading of coal-derived liquids by hydrotreatment in the COED Process should be relevant to upgrading technologies for other coal liquefaction processes. The COED Process was developed by FMC Corporation and the Office of Coal Research (now DOE) in the late 1960's and early 1970's. The process produced a synthetic crude oil, medium Btu gas and char by multi-stage, fluidized bed pyrolysis of coal. The raw coal-tar produced by pyrolysis was upgraded to synthetic crude oil by catalytic, fixed-bed hydrotreatment. Raw coal-tar has different properties from petroleum-derived oils, and upgrading by hydrotreatment is not an off-the-shelf technology. A 30 barrel per day fixed-bed hydrotreater was constructed and operated at the COED pilot plant site. The pilot plant hydrotreater design was based on conventional petroleum residua hydrotreatment technology together with bench-scale hydrotreatment tests performed by ARCO in the 1960's utilizing coal-tars produced in a process development unit. The pilot plant hydrotreater did operate for about four years providing valuable information about the reaction engineering of the hydrotreatment process as well as providing numerous samples for applications studies performed by other DOE contractors and interested potential users of the COED syncrude. Of note, 50,000 gallons of COED syncrude were supplied to the U.S. Naval Ship Engineering Center for shipboard testing in the boilers of the U.S.S. Johnston on November 1516th, 1973. This paper deals with the reaction engineering of the guard chamber and fixed-bed hydrotreatment reactors at the COED facility. Of major importance is the study of the role of the feedstock (pyrolysis coal-tar) properties and their effects on the catalysts utilized in the reactors. A working kinetic model has been derived that could allow a designer to optimize a particular set of design parameters and a plant operator to determine catalyst life. A quantitative comparison has been made of the effect of metals content of coal-derived oils and petroleum resids on catalyst deactivation.

Marvin I. Greene

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

A low emission technology -- low cost coal water mixture fired fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, low cost coal water mixture (CWM) FBC technology is described. Low cost CWM may be coal washery sludge or the mixture of water and coal crashed easily. This technology is featured by agglomerate combustion of low cost MM. Experimental results in 0.5MW FBC test rig are reported. lie effects of bed temperate excess air, staged combustion on combustion and emission performance has been studied. The comparison combustion tests by using dry coal and CWM we made ha 0.5MW FBC test rig. Also coal washery sludge of different origins are also tested in the test rig. Based on the test rig comments a demonstration AFBC boiler with capacity of 35 T/H steam for utility application (6 MW) is designed. The design features will be presented in this paper Both the operation experience of test rig and demonstration unit show the developed low cost CWM FBC technology is of high combustion efficiency and low emission. This technology is being commercialized and applied in China in top priority by Chinese government.

Jianhua Yan; Xuguang Jiang; Yong Chi [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

Laboratory Experiments and Hydrodynamic Modeling of a Bed Leveler Used to Level the Bottom of Ship Channels after Dredging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study was conducted to ascertain the impacts of bed leveling, following ship channel dredging operations, and to also investigate the hydrodynamic flow field around box bed levelers. Laboratory experiments were conducted with bed levelers...

Paul, Ephraim Udo

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

327

Practical and Regulatory Challenges in Controlling Trace Element Inputs to Soils from Land Application of Fluidized Bed Combustion Residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 165 MWe circulating fluidized bed boiler at the Nova Scotia Power Inc. ( ... largest fluidized bed unit. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) allows the burning of high sulphur (...in situ capture of S (removal of ...

M. Hope-Simpson; W. Richards

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Phase shift method to estimate solids circulation rate in circulating fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

While solids circulation rate is a critical design and control parameter in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor systems, there are no available techniques to measure it directly at conditions of industrial interest. Cold flow tests have been conducted at NETL in an industrial scale CFB unit where the solids flow has been the topic of research in order to develop an independent method which could be applied to CFBs operating under the erosive and corrosive high temperatures and pressures of a coal fired boiler or gasifier. The dynamic responses of the CFB loop to modest modulated aeration flows in the return leg or standpipe were imposed to establish a periodic response in the unit without causing upset in the process performance. The resulting periodic behavior could then be analyzed with a dynamic model and the average solids circulation rate could be established. This method was applied to the CFB unit operated under a wide range of operating conditions including fast fluidization, core annular flow, dilute and dense transport, and dense suspension upflow. In addition, the system was operated in both low and high total solids inventories to explore the influence of inventory limiting cases on the estimated results. The technique was able to estimate the solids circulation rate for all transport circulating fluidized beds when operating above upper transport velocity, U{sub tr2}. For CFB operating in the fast fluidized bed regime (i.e., U{sub g}< U{sub tr2}), the phase shift technique was not successful. The riser pressure drop becomes independent of the solids circulation rate and the mass flow rate out of the riser does not show modulated behavior even when the riser pressure drop does.

Ludlow, James Christopher [U.S. DOE (retired); Panday, Rupen [REM; Shadle, Lawrence J. [U.S. DOE

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Measurement and analysis of truck vibration levels as a function of packages locations in truck bed and suspension  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract During transport, due to vibration fruits and vegetables could be damaged. The vibration levels that transfer to fruits and vegetables may depend not only on vehicle characteristics (speed and suspension) and the road characteristics but also on the position of boxes packed in truck bed. The purpose of this research was to determine and analyze the vibration that occurs during truck transport as a function of box position and fruit position within the truck bed. For this purpose, two commercial trucks were used (with leaf-spring suspension and air-ride suspension). Test controllable factors includes: height positions of the container column (Bottom, Middle and Up), position of the container along the truck-bed (front axle and rear axle) and depth of fruit inside the container (Down and Top). The obtained values of the power spectral density were used to survey the effect of container positions on fruit vibration. RMS values were also obtained for different positions. The results showed that the power spectral density (PSD) was dependent on the position along the floor of the trucks. Higher vibration levels were recorded for fruits on top of the column. As the fruit height within a box increased, the vibration levels increased. ANOVA test results indicated that the considered factors significantly affected PSD values (Average PSD in the range of 0.15Hz and peak PSD) and root mean square of acceleration (P<0.05).

Behnam Soleimani; Ebrahim Ahmadi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalously high bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that alternates low-R oil-saturated sand beds and high... in thinly bedded formations Jordan G. Mimoun1 , Carlos Torres-Verdin2 , and William E. Preeg3 ABSTRACT We... have...

331

Modularity of the MIT Pebble Bed Reactor for use by the commercial power industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor is a small high temperature helium cooled reactor that is being considered for both electric power and hydrogen production. Pebble bed reactors are being developed in South Africa, China and ...

Hanlon-Hyssong, Jaime E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - arrester beds Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 > >> 1 Joint initiation in bedded clastic rocks David T. McConaughy1 Summary: arrest lines and at bed boundaries. The hackle marks converge on a location from which the joint......

333

The Agglomeration in the Fluidized Bed Boiler During the Co-Combustion of Biomass with Peat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The formation of bed material coatings during the co-combustion of peat and biomass is caused by iron, calcium, aluminum ... Thus the bed material agglomeration during peat and biomass co-combustion is due to the...

Ritva E. A. Heikkinen; Mika E. Virtanen

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Contraction scour in compound channels with cohesive soil beds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bridge scour, which is the removal of bed materials from near the bridge foundations, is observed to be the most predominant cause of bridge failures in the United States. Scour in cohesive soils is greatly different from scour in cohesionless soils...

Israel Devadason, Benjamin Praisy

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

336

Contraction scour in compound channels with cohesive soil beds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bridge scour, which is the removal of bed materials from near the bridge foundations, is observed to be the most predominant cause of bridge failures in the United States. Scour in cohesive soils is greatly different from scour in cohesionless soils...

Israel Devadason, Benjamin Praisy

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor Andrew C Kadak Massachusetts Institute For 1150 MW Combined Heat and Power Station Oil Refinery Hydrogen Production Desalinization Plant VHTR/Graphite Discrimination system Damaged Sphere ContainerGraphiteReturn FuelReturn Fresh Fuel Container Spent Fuel Tank #12

338

DMEC-1 Pressurized Circulating Fluidized-Bed Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The DMEC-1 project will demonstrate the use of Pyropower`s PYROFLOW pressurized circulating fluidized bed technology to repower an existing coal fired generating station. This will be the first commercial application of this technology in the world. The project is now in budget period 1, the preliminary design phase.

Kruempel, G.E.; Ambrose, S.J. [Midwest Power, Des Moines, IA (United States); Provol, S.J. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Model for boiling and dryout in particle beds. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Over the last ten years experiments and modeling of dryout in particle beds have produced over fifty papers. Considering only volume-heated beds, over 250 dryout measurements have been made, and are listed in this work. In addition, fifteen models to predict dryout have been produced and are discussed. A model is developed in this report for one-dimensional boiling and dryout in a porous medium. It is based on conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy. The initial coupled differential equations are reduced to a single first-order differential equation with an algebraic equation for the upper boundary condition. The model includes the effects of both laminar and turbulent flow, two-phase friction, and capillary force. The boundary condition at the bed bottom includes the possibility of inflowing liquid and either an adiabatic or a bottom-cooled support structure. The top of the bed may be either channeled or subcooled. In the first case the channel length and the saturation at the base of the channels are predicted. In the latter case, a criterion for penetration of the subcooled zone by channels is obtained.

Lipinski, R. J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Secular Sediment Waves, Channel Bed Waves, and Legacy Sediment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Secular Sediment Waves, Channel Bed Waves, and Legacy Sediment L. Allan James* Geography Department, University South Carolina Abstract The concept of sediment waves is reviewed and clarifications are proposed for nomenclature con- cerning vertical channel responses to large fluvial sediment fluxes over a period of a decade

James, L. Allan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Isolated thermocouple amplifier system for stirred fixed-bed gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensing system is provided for determining the bed temperature profile of the bed of a stirred, fixed-bed gasifier including a plurality of temperature sensors for sensing the bed temperature at different levels, a transmitter for transmitting data based on the outputs of the sensors to a remote operator's station, and a battery-based power supply. The system includes an isolation amplifier system comprising a plurality of isolation amplifier circuits for amplifying the outputs of the individual sensors. The isolation amplifier circuits each comprise an isolation operational amplifier connected to a sensor; a first "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the application of power from the power supply to the isolation amplifier; an output sample and hold circuit connected to the transmitter; a second "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the transfer of the output of the isolation amplifier to the sample and hold circuit; and a timing and control circuit for activating the first and second capacitor circuits in a predetermined timed sequence.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Moisture Transport in Silica Gel Packed Beds: II. Experimental Study  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed to obtain the transient response of a thin adiabatic packed bed of silica gel after a step change in inlet air conditions, comparisons are made with predictions using a solid-side resistance model and a pseudo-gas-side controlled model and better agreement obtained with the former model.

Pesaran, A. A.; Mills, A. F.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Fire spread probabilities for experimental beds composed of mixedwood boreal forest fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that fire spread was largely determined by the heat sink, heat of combustion, and fuel bed depth. We found

Johnson, Edward A.

344

Parametric Investigation of the Performance of Solar Heating Systems with Rock Bed Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of solar air collector domestic heating systems with rock bed storage, as obtained from theoretical analysis, is...

W. L. Dutre; J. Vanheelen

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Gasification and its emission characteristics for dried sewage sludge utilizing a fluidized bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of these parameters were, therefore, investigated through a series of experiments with a fluidized bed gasifier.

Seong-Wan Kang; Jong-In Dong; Jong-Min Kim

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

An assessment of waste fuel burning in operating circulating fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC), today's fastest growing boiler technology, has the flexibility to burn a wide range of fuels, including many waste fuels, while satisfying all present and anticipated environmental regulations. The first generation of FBC--atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC)--concentrated on ''bubbling'' fluidized bed designs. These systems have inherent limitations and experienced several problems. In response to these problems, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology was developed.

Gendreau, R.J.; Raymond, D.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Fluid-bed studies of olefin production from methanol  

SciTech Connect

With newly developed technology, conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons represents the final link in the production of premium transportation fuels from coal or natural gas. The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process has been developed. The more readily scaled fixed-bed version is the heart of the New Zealand Gas-to-gasoline complex, which will produce 14,000 BPD high octane gasoline from 120 million SCFD gas. The fluid-bed version of the process, which is also available for commercial license, has a higher thermal efficiency and possesses substantial yield and octane advantages over the fixed-bed. Successful scale-up was completed in 1984 in a 100 BPD semi-works plant near Cologne, West Germany. The project funded jointly by the U.S. and German governments and an industrial consortium comprised of Mobil; Union Rheinsche Braunkohlen Kraftstoff, AG; and Uhde, GmbH. The 100 BPD MTG project was extended recently to demonstrate a related fluid bed process for selective conversion of methanol to light olefins (MTO). The products of the MTO reaction make an excellent feed to the commercially available Mobile-Olefins-to-Gasoline-and-Distillate process (MOGD) which selectively converts olefins to premium transportation fuels . A schematic of the combined processes is shown. Total liquid fuels production is typically greater than 90 wt% of hydrocarbon in the feed. Distillate/gasoline product ratios from the plant can be adjusted over a wide range to meet seasonal demands. This paper describes the initial scale-up of the MTO process from a micro-fluid-bed reactor (1-10 grams of catalyst) to a large pilot unit (10-25 kilograms of catalyst).

Socha, R.F.; Chang, C.D.; Gould, R.M.; Kane, S.E.; Avidan, A.A.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of DOE/METC's AFBC activities is to establish an engineering technology base by 1990, from which the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors can build and operate coal-fired AFBC systems. These systems will be capable of economically generating process steam, direct and indirect heat, and onsite electric power from coals of all ranks and sulfur contents in an environmentally acceptable manner. First-generation atmospheric fluidized-bed technology is considered commercial; a number of US boiler manufacturers are offering commercial units. However, many of these first units are products of empirical design and offer marginal gains in economics, performance, and reliability over conventional systems. In order to resolve the remaining technical issues and to broaden the market, DOE is pursuing advanced concepts. Development of this second-generation AFBC technology is directed toward small industrial, commercial, and residential applications. Penetration of these potential markets will require: (1) a 20 to 30% reduction in capital and operating costs over first-generation technology; (2) significant improvements in performance and reliability; and (3) compliance with existing and proposed New Source Performance Standards for environmental emissions. Current AFBC activities address: industrial operations, advanced concepts, and technology development. Four AFBC demonstration projects were active in FY 1984. The development of AFBC technology is directly supported by the evaluation of five advanced concepts by the M.W. Kellogg Company (circulating-bed FBC), Battelle Columbus Laboratories (spouted-bed FBC), Aerojet Energy Conversion Company (moving-bed FBC), Howard University (staged cascade FBC), and Arthur D. Little, Inc. (pulsed-bed FBC). These concepts may improve the economics and performance. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Not Available

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

On interfacial instability as a cause of transverse subcritical bed Jeremy G. Venditti,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On interfacial instability as a cause of transverse subcritical bed forms Jeremy G. Venditti,1. J. Bennett (2006), On interfacial instability as a cause of transverse subcritical bed forms, Water, 1997]. Ideas about the initiation of the dominant subcritical flow-transverse bed forms (ripples, dunes

Venditti, Jeremy G.

350

Biomass Gasification:? Produced Gas Upgrading by In-Bed Use of Dolomite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When some calcined dolomite (OCaOMg) is used in the bed of a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type the raw gas produced is cleaner than when only silica sand is used in it as fluidizing medium. In-bed dolomite changes the product distribution at the ...

Ana Olivares; Mara P. Aznar; Miguel A. Caballero; Javier Gil; Eva Francs; Jos Corella

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE INTERFACE THERMAL CONDUCTANCE OF A LITHIUM METATITANATE PEBBLE BED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, CA 90095 aliabousena@engineering.ucla.edu The thermal properties of the lithium ceramics pebble beds will help to create a reliable database of the thermal properties of the lithium ceramics pebble beds. I heat is transferred from the hot lithium ceramic pebble beds to the coolant. The thermal properties

Abdou, Mohamed

352

The Nature of Saltation and of 'Bed-Load' Transport in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...transported by a stream and a 'bed-load' has long remained undefined...light on the nature of bed-load transport. In particular, it has been shown that bed-load transport, by saltation, occurs...in the existing experimental data. The theoretical variation is...

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Evidence for detrital remanent magnetization carried by hematite in Devonian red beds from Spitsbergen; palaeomagnetic implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Regional bedding of the Wood say Formation red beds (136/8) and...composed of disintegrated red sandstones from Dicksonfjorden...titanomaghemite withm red bed deposits indicates...emphasized that the Wood Bay Forma- tion sandstone...Digico balanced flux-gate spinner, a single......

R. Lvlie; T. Torsvik; M. Jelenska; M. Levandowski

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model John S. Halow National Energy of this type of model to describe the dynamics of voids in bubbling fluidized beds. The model considers vertical interactions between neighboring bubbles in fluidized beds. Emergent collective behavior is shown

Tennessee, University of

355

Modeling forced poolriffle hydraulics in a boulder-bed stream, southern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling forced pool­riffle hydraulics in a boulder-bed stream, southern California Lee R. Harrison in boulder-bed channels. Here, we use a high-resolution two-dimensional flow model to investigate­riffle sequence in a boulder-bed stream. Model output indicates that at low discharge, a peak zone of shear stress

Keller, Ed

356

Experimental investigation of fluidized bed chemical looping combustion of Victorian brown coal using hematite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An experimental investigation on chemical looping combustion (CLC) of Victorian brown coal is carried out in a fluidized bed of hematite. The aim of this study is to understand the feasibility of Victorian brown coal CLC as very little technical information is currently available on the process using these coals. The in situ CLC experiments are first performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA results show good performance of hematite as oxygen carrier over five multiple re-dox cycles under CO2 gasification environment. Therefore, further investigation is performed using a bench-scale fluidized bed that operates in a batch mode cyclically with reduction in CO2 environment, and oxidation in air. Several tests have been conducted to assess the impact of different temperatures, particle size of hematite and CO2 concentration in a flowing fluidizing gas medium. It is observed that the hematite particles of 100150?m performed best with respect to carbon conversions that show an increasing trend with increasing temperature and CO2 concentration in the fluidizing gas.

Chiranjib Saha; Sankar Bhattacharya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual bed photosystem. Task 2 report; Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This work is an investigation into the use of photocatalytic particles in a dual bed configuration, so as to effect the solar-driven decomposition of water to its constituent elements, particularly hydrogen. The system envisioned would consist of two modules, each consisting of a shallow, flat, sealed container, in which micron-sized photocatalytic particles are immobilized. An aqueous solution containing a redox mediator is pumped between the two chambers. Different photoparticles and catalysts are chosen for their respective modules so as to effect oxidative water-splitting in one vessel to evolve oxygen gas, and reductive water-splitting in the other to evolve hydrogen. This is a direct photoconversion scheme that breaks down the energetic requirement for water decomposition into a 2-photon process, and enables separate production of hydrogen and oxygen. Titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, and indium phosphide, InP, were employed as photoparticles in the O{sub 2}- and H{sub 2}-evolving beds, respectively. Platinum catalysts were evaluated to prompt H{sub 2}-evolution. Calculations on the energy band structure of free and immobilized particles provided guidance as to how the microstructure of the particles should be configured. A series of redox mediators, spanning a range of redox potentials, were tested. While many electron donors facilitated H{sub 2}-evolution, only the most oxidizing ones enabled O{sub 2}-evolution. A single redox couple, capable of charge exchange in both modules, is desirable to avoid system design complexity.

Linkous, C.A.; McKaige, G.T.; Slattery, D.K.; Ouellette, A.J.A.; Austin, B.C.N.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, February 1-July 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.

Cole, W. E.; DeSaro, R.; Griffith, J.; Joshi, C.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Characterization of Solid Emissions from Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Two Czech Lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In fluidized-bed combustion, particles of coal burn within the bed of vigorously moving smaller inert particles with bed temperatures between 1000 and 1300 K. Due to intense heat transfer from the burning particle to bed particles and percolating gas, the temperature of a particle is on average 200 K above that of the bed (29, 30). ... Two lignites from the Centrum mine and the Vrany open pit mine (North Bohemian Coal Basin) were used in this study. ... The reactor is equipped with a supplementary natural gas burner, a feeding system, and measuring and control peripherals. ...

Ji? Smolk; Jaroslav Schwarz; Vclav Vesel; Ivana Skorov; Jan Kuc?era; Vladimr Havrnek

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is estimated to be $132,000. The gas processing costs are estimated to be $2.05 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($0.055 per Mcf) of gas injected into and withdrawn from the facility based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost. In Phase II of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine mechanical properties of salt at low temperature. This was followed by thermomechanical finite element simulations to evaluate the structural stability of the cavern during refrigerated storage. The high thermal expansion coefficient of salt is expected to result in tensile stresses leading to tensile failure in the roof, walls, and floor of the cavern as it is cooled. Tensile fracturing of the cavern roof may result in loss of containment of the gas and/or loss of integrity of the casing shoe, deeming the conversion of this facility not technically feasible.

JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Grate assembly for fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A grate assembly for a coal gasifier of a moving-bed or fixed-bed type is provided for crushing agglomerates of solid material such as clinkers, tailoring the radial distribution of reactant gases entering the gasification reaction zone, and control of the radial distribution of downwardly moving solid velocities in the gasification and combustion zone. The clinker crushing is provided by pinching clinkers between vertically oriented stationary bars and angled bars supported on the upper surface of a rotating conical grate. The distribution of the reactant gases is provided by the selective positioning of horizontally oriented passageways extending through the grate. The radial distribution of the solids is provided by mounting a vertically and generally radially extending scoop mechanism on the upper surface of the grate near the apex thereof.

Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method device and material for performing adsorption wherein a fluid mixture is passed through a channel in a structured adsorbent bed having a solid adsorbent comprised of adsorbent particles having a general diameter less than 100 um, loaded in a porous support matrix defining at least one straight flow channel. The adsorbent bed is configured to allow passage of a fluid through said channel and diffusion of a target material into said adsorbent under a pressure gradient driving force. The targeted molecular species in the fluid mixture diffuses across the porous support retaining layer, contacts the adsorbent, and adsorbs on the adsorbent, while the remaining species in the fluid mixture flows out of the channel.

Liu, Wei (Richland, WA)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

363

Controlled waste-oil biodegradation at existing drying beds  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Facility to determine if sludge drying beds at a sewage treatment plant could be used as controlled waste oil biodegradation plots has been completed. A greenhouse-like enclosure would be constructed over three 9.1 meter by 21.3 meter beds to allow for year-round use, and any waste oil runoff would be collected by existing leachate piping. It has been determined that this proposed facility could dispose of existing radioactive waste oil generation (7200 liters/year) from the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP); however, it would be inadequate to handle radioactive waste oils from the new Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) as well. The study reviewed nuclear criticality constraints, biodegradation technology, and the capital cost for an enclosed biodegradation facility.

Hary, L.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

A future for nuclear energy: pebble bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pebble Bed Reactors could allow nuclear plants to support the goal of reducing global climate change in an energy hungry world. They are small, modular, inherently safe, use a demonstrated nuclear technology and can be competitive with fossil fuels. Pebble bed reactors are helium cooled reactors that use small tennis ball size fuel balls consisting of only 9 grams of uranium per pebble to provide a low power density reactor. The low power density and large graphite core provide inherent safety features such that the peak temperature reached even under the complete loss of coolant accident without any active emergency core cooling system is significantly below the temperature that the fuel melts. This feature should enhance public confidence in this nuclear technology. With advanced modularity principles, it is expected that this type of design and assembly could lower the cost of new nuclear plants removing a major impediment to deployment.

Andrew C. Kadak

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A free radical equilibrium in the fluidized bed retort  

SciTech Connect

The solid-recycle fluidized bed retort has been used to study gas phase local equilibria in an oil shale pyrolyzer. In the LLNL pilot scale retort, light gases, methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene, form in a ratio that is inconsistent with equilibration, and they are not equilibrated when recycled. However, in a variety of fluidized bed retorting experiments, the free radical precursors of these gases come to a steady state that requires a transient free radical equilibrium. The steady state is established very rapidly, without need for gas recycle. The 1- and 2-butyl free radicals have been investigated as representative intermediates. The steady state mechanism extends to the entire homologous series of free radicals, and offers a means to achieve improved liquid product yield. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Coburn, T.T.; Droege, M.W.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Fluidized bed combustor and removable windbox and tube assembly therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a housing having a chamber therein with a top having a discharge for the gases which are generated in the chamber and a bottom with a discharge for heated fluid. An assembly is arranged in the lower portion of the chamber and the assembly includes a lower plate which is mounted on a support flange of the housing so that it is spaced from the bottom of the chamber and defines a fluid plenum between it and the bottom of the chamber for the discharge of heated fluid. The assembly includes a heat exchanger inlet plenum having tubes therethrough for the passage of fluidizer air and a windbox above the heat exchanger plenum which has a distributor plate top wall. A portion of the chamber above the top wall defines a fluidized bed.

DeFeo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Fluidized bed combustor and removable windbox and tube assembly therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a housing having a chamber therein with a top having a discharge for the gases which are generated in the chamber and a bottom with a discharge for heated fluid. An assembly is arranged in the lower portion of the chamber and the assembly includes a lower plate which is mounted on a support flange of the housing so that it is spaced from the bottom of the chamber and defines a fluid plenum between it and the bottom of the chamber for the discharge of heated fluid. The assembly includes a heat exchanger inlet plenum having tubes therethrough for the passage of fluidizer air and a windbox above the heat exchanger plenum which has a distributor plate top wall. A portion of the chamber above the top wall defines a fluidized bed.

DeFeo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

370

Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

371

Four Rivers second generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Project  

SciTech Connect

Air Products has been selected in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Round V program to build, own, and operate the first commercial power plant using second generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology. The four Rivers Energy Project (Four Rivers) will produce up to 400,000 lb/hr steam, or an equivalent gross capacity of 95 MWe. The unit will be used to repower an Air Products chemicals manufacturing facility in Calvert City, Kentucky.

Holley, E.P.; Lewnard, J.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (United States); von Wedel, G. [LLB Lurgi Lentjes Babcock Energietechnik (GmbH); Richardson, K.W. [Foster Wheeler Energy Corp. (United States); Morehead, H.T. [Westinghouse Electric Corp. (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani in greenhouse bedding plant production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Comm!ttee) (Robert E. Pettit) (Member) (David id. Reed) (Member) "7~+ (Grant Yest) (Head of. Depart tment) Deceriber 1983 ABSTRACT Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani in greenhouse bedding plant production. IDecember 1983) John... iviichael Brown B. S, East Texas State University. Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr . A . E . Nightingale . Isolates of Trichoderma harzianum, T. hamatum, and Gliocladium spp. capable of inhibiting the growth of Rhizoctonia solani, which may cause...

Brown, John Michael

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Guthrie, Stephen E. (Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Livermore, CA); Wally, Karl (Lafayette, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

376

MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed  

In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numerical results show that CFD can predict the complex gassolids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.

Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-Francois; Shahnam, Mehrdad

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

377

Experimentalnumerical design of a biomass bubbling fluidized bed gasifier for paper sludge energy recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the application of a comprehensive approach to the design of small scale sustainable distributed generation systems with special focus on energy recovery from paper production process sludge. The methodology integrates a detailed fluid-dynamic analysis tool with preliminary experimental analysis on a laboratory scale to guide the design of a prototype bubbling fluidized bed gasifier in the 85kW power range fitting with small and medium size paper production industries. Preliminary tests show stable operation even for this rather small power scale, and deviation from chemical equilibrium concentration in agreement with literature available data. Energy content in the sludge may be recovered along with a significant reduction of residual volume and mass. The concept may then be used to increase the overall sustainability of paper production.

S. Cordiner; G. De Simone; V. Mulone

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Evaluation and demonstration of the chemically active fluid bed. Final report May 75-Jul 81  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of the operation of a 17-MW Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) demonstration unit, retrofitted to a natural gas boiler. The CAFB process gasifies high-sulfur, high-metals-content liquid and solid fuels. Residual oil, lignite, and bituminous coal were gasified separately or together between November 1979 and June 1981. Design and operational areas where upgrading would be beneficial were identified. Continuous monitors were used to measure boiler flue gas emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, oxygen, CO2, and opacity. Periodic manual emission tests were conducted for particulate, SO2, and NOx, using EPA reference methods. Emissions of these three criteria pollutants were generally lower than New Source Performance Standards for utility boilers, although occasionally excessive particulate and SO2 emissions were observed. NOx emissions were consistently lower than those from natural gas combustion. Results of detailed chemical analyses and biological assays are reported.

Sommer, R.E.; Werner, A.S.; Kowszun, Z.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Assessment of sorbent reactivation by water hydration for fluidized bed combustion application  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) solid residues currently represents one of the major issues in FBC design and operation, and contributes significantly to its operating cost. This issue has triggered research activities on the enhancement of sorbent utilization for in situ sulfur removal. The present study addresses the effectiveness of the reactivation by liquid water hydration of FB spent sorbents. Two materials are considered in the study, namely the bottom ash from the operation of a full-scale utility FB boiler and the raw commercial limestone used in the same boiler. Hydration-reactivation tests were carried out at temperatures of 40{sup o}C and 80{sup o}C and for curing times ranging from 15 minutes to 2d, depending on the sample. The influence of hydration conditions on the enhancement of sulfur utilization has been assessed. A combination of methods has been used to characterize the properties of liquid water-hydrated materials

Fabio Montagnaro; Piero Salatino; Fabrizio Scala; Yinghai Wu; Edward J. Anthony; Lufei Jia [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario del Monte di Sant'Angelo, Naples (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning Finned tube adsorber bed Specific cooling power Adsorber bed to adsorbent mass ratio a b s t r a c t Adsorber bed design strongly affects the performance of waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems (ACS

Bahrami, Majid

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Reply to comment by Claude Michel on ``A general power equation for predicting bed load transport rates in gravel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reply to comment by Claude Michel on ``A general power equation for predicting bed load transport Michel on ``A general power equation for predicting bed load transport rates in gravel bed rivers of our transport equation. [2] Although some bed load transport data exhibit non- linear trends in log

382

Modeling of Sediment Bed Behavior for Critical Velocity in Horizontal Piping  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares results from a predictive tool for modeling transport of a multiphase mixture (solids in a liquid) in a pipeline, (up to and including plugging) with experiments performed to support the Hanford sites Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The treatment of high-level waste at the DOE Office of River Protections WTP will involve the transfer of high solid content suspensions through pipelines. Pipeline plugging was identified as a significant potential issue by a panel of external experts. In response to their concerns an experimental effort was initiated at PNNL to determine the critical velocities for a variety of operating conditions. A computational method has been developed to predict the dynamic behavior of a sediment bed in response to the surrounding suspension flow. The flow field is modeled using a lattice kinetics method, similar to the lattice Boltzmann method, which scales very well on highly parallel computers. Turbulent quantities are calculated using a k-epsilon RANS model. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a process simulation capability for a wide range of applications. Solids are represented using two different continuum fields. The suspended solids are treated as passive scalars in the flow field, including terms for hindered settling and Brownian diffusion. Normal stresses created by the irreversible collisions of particles during shearing are added to the pressure tensor. The sediment bed interface is represented using a continuum phase field with a diffuse interface. The bed may change with time due to settling, erosion and deposition through convection. The erosion rates are calculated using the local shear stress obtained from the turbulence model. The method is compared with data from the PNNL pipeline experiments conducted at PNNL (Poloski et al. 2008). The experimental flow loop consists of 3-inch schedule 40 piping with instrumentation for determining flow rate and pressure gradient. The simulant test particles ranged in density from 2.5 to 8 g/cc while the nominal particle size ranged from 10 to 100 ?m. At the beginning of each test, the slurry flow velocity was nominally set to 8 ft/sec. The flow was incrementally ramped down, and a steady-state pressure gradient was obtained at each flow condition. A rise in pressure gradient as the flow rate drops indicates that the pipe cross-sectional area is beginning to fill with sediment. This point is referred to as the critical velocity. Visualization information is provided using Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT). The paper will show favorable comparison of results with data.

Rector, David R.; Stewart, Mark L.; Poloski, Adam P.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Combustion of palm kernel shell in a fluidized bed: Optimization of biomass particle size and operating conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work presents a study on the combustion of palm kernel shell (PKS) in a conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina sand as the bed material to prevent bed agglomeration. Prior to combustion experiments, a thermogravimetric analysis was performed in nitrogen and dry air to investigate the effects of biomass particle size on thermal and combustion reactivity of PKS. During the combustion tests, the biomass with different mean particle sizes (1.5mm, 4.5mm, 7.5mm, and 10.5mm) was burned at a 45kg/h feed rate, while excess air was varied from 20% to 80%. Temperature and gas concentrations (O2, CO, CxHy as CH4, and NO) were recorded along the axial direction in the reactor as well as at stack. The experimental results indicated that the biomass particle size and excess air had substantial effects on the behavior of gaseous pollutants (CO, CxHy, and NO) in different regions inside the reactor, as well as on combustion efficiency and emissions of the conical FBC. The CO and CxHy emissions can be effectively controlled by decreasing the feedstock particle size and/or increasing excess air, whereas the NO emission can be mitigated using coarser biomass particles and/or lower excess air. A cost-based approach was applied to determine the optimal values of biomass particle size and excess air, ensuring minimum emission costs of burning the biomass in the proposed combustor. From the optimization analysis, the best combustion and emission performance of the conical FBC is achievable when burning PKS with a mean particle size of about 5mm at excess air of 4050%. Under these conditions, the combustor can be operated with high (99.499.7%) combustion efficiency, while controlling the gaseous emissions at acceptable levels. No evidence of bed agglomeration was found in this conical FBC using alumina as the bed material for the entire time period of experimental tests.

Pichet Ninduangdee; Vladimir I. Kuprianov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 3, [April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of during the period of April 1, 1993 to June 30, 1993. The erosion test was conducted in the bench-scale FBC model along with the preparation of the test particles/tube specimens. The effect of the tube-to-distributor (T-to-D) clearance was discussed on the tube specific weight loss for low, medium, and high superficial velocities. Electrostatic impact probes for measuring the particle-surface collision frequency were designed to verify the some of the measurement and to identify the primary erosion points. The erosion models were briefly to understand the phenomena of in-bed erosion. The project has been progressing well. Instrumentation for the erosion-measuring will be continued: to measure the tube weight loss under different operating conditions. Development of the electrostatic probes will be continued and implemented for measuring the particle-tube collision frequency in the bench-scale FBC model.

Lee, Seong W.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

1 -SUBTIDAL 2 -INTERTIDAL RB ROCK UB UNCONSOLIDATED AB AQUATIC BED RF -REEF OW -OPEN WATER/ AB AQUATIC BED RF REEF RS ROCKY SHORE US -UNCONSOLIDATED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M - MARINE 1 - SUBTIDAL 2 - INTERTIDAL RB ­ ROCK UB ­ UNCONSOLIDATED AB ­ AQUATIC BED RF - REEF OW - OPEN WATER/ AB ­ AQUATIC BED RF­ REEF RS ­ ROCKY SHORE US - UNCONSOLIDATED BOTTOM BOTTOM Unknown Bottom ­ UNCONSOLIDATED AB ­ AQUATIC RF ­ REEF OW - OPEN WATER/ AB ­ AQUATIC RF­ REEF SB ­ STREAMBED RS - ROCKY US

Gray, Matthew

386

Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Currently, several candidates for secondary waste immobilization at the Hanford site in the State of Washington, USA are being considered. To demonstrate the durability of the product in the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the site, a series of tests have been performed one of the candidate materials using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system. The material that was tested was the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) granular product and the granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix. The FBSR product is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals mostly nepheline, sodalite, and nosean. The PUF test method allows for the accelerated weathering of materials, including radioactive waste forms, under hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that most likely will be present at the IDF. The experiments show a trend of decreasing tracer release as a function of time for several of the elements released from the material including Na, Si, Al, and Cs. However, some of the elements, notably I and Re, show a steady release throughout the yearlong test. This result suggests that the release of these minerals from the sodalite cage occurs at a different rate compared with the dissolution of the predominant nepheline phase.

Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Rod, Kenton A.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.; Pierce, Eric M.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Chapter 9 - Brake Testing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter describes and explains the role and methods of experimental testing in the design and verification of brakes and their components. It starts by discussing the increasing capability of computer-based predictive techniques, which can simulate many aspects of brake operation and save time and cost compared with previous methods of experimental evaluation. Preparation, procedures, instrumentation, data acquisition and results analysis, interpretation and reporting for experimental testing ranging from whole vehicle braking performance on a test track to component performance and material thermophysical properties in the laboratory, are explained and discussed. By the end of the chapter the design and operation of test rigs including inertia dynamometers for full-size brakes, scale rigs for small-sample friction and wear measurement, machines for cyclic loading and material property measurement, etc. are described. The importance of careful preparation of the friction pair (bedding-in and burnishing) for brake performance testing and the evaluation of variability by repeat testing is emphasised.

Andrew Day

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure high-temperature thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA unit) using limestone and dolomite. The results suggest that half-calcined dolomite is much more reactive than uncalcined limestone. Also, temperature in the range of 800 to 950 C did not significantly affect the sulfidation reaction rates for both limestone and dolomite.

Abbasian, J.; Chowdiah, P.; Hill, A.H.; Rue, D.M. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx}2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. The PGM consists of a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) reactor together with a recycle cyclone and a particulate removing barrier filter. Coal, air, steam, and possibly sand are fed to the bottom of the PCFB reactor and establish a relatively dense bed of coal/char in the bottom section. As these constituents react, a hot syngas is produced which conveys the solids residue vertically up through the reactor and into the recycle cyclone. Solids elutriated from the dense bed and contained in the syngas are collected in the cyclone and drain via a dipleg back to the dense bed at the bottom of the PCFB reactor. This recycle loop of hot solids acts as a thermal flywheel and promotes efficient solid-gas chemical reaction.

Unknown

2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

390

Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds. Annual report, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled ``Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.`` which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. {times} 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. {times} 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Sulfur removal in advanced two-stage fluidized-bed combustion. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between, hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter, the high-pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA) unit was installed and the shakedown process was completed. Several tests were conducted in the HPTGA unit to establish the operating procedure and the repeatability of the experimental results. Sulfidation by conducting the baseline sulfidation tests. The results are currently being analyzed.

Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R.; Rue, D.M. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Appalachian basin coal-bed methane: Elephant or flea  

SciTech Connect

Historically, interest in the Appalachian basin coal-bed methane resource extends at least over the last 50 years. The Northern and Central Appalachian basins are estimated to contain 61 tcf and 5 tcf of coal-bed methane gas, respectively. Development of this resource has not kept pace with that of other basins, such as the Black Warrior basin of Alabama of the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico and Colorado. Without the benefit of modern completion, stimulation, and production technology, some older Appalachian basin coal-bed methane wells were reported to have produced in excess of 150 used here to characterize some past projects and their results. This work is not intended to comprise a comprehensive survey of all Appalachian basin projects, but rather to provide background information from which to proceed for those who may be interested in doing so. Several constraints to the development of this resource have been identified, including conflicting legal rights of ownership of the gas produced from the coal seams when coal and conventional oil and gas rights are controlled by separate parties. In addition, large leaseholds have been difficult to acquire and finding costs have been high. However, the threshold of minimum economic production may be relatively low when compared with other areas, because low-pressures pipelines are available and gas prices are among the highest in the nation. Interest in the commercial development of the resource seems to be on the increase with several projects currently active and more reported to be planned for the near future.

Hunt, A.M. (Dames and Moore, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

396

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

Crispin, Larry G. (Akron, OH); Weitzel, Paul S. (Canal Fulton, OH)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

Siu, Stanley C. (Castro Valley, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries.

Lopez, Peter C. (Espanola, NM); Rodriguez, Patrick J. (Espanola, NM); Pereyra, Ramiro A. (Medanales, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Combustion of Cattle Manure in a Fluidized Bed Combustor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Experiments were conducted with -20 to +20 percent excess air and at bed temperatures ranging from 600?C (1112?F) to 800?C (1472?F). Experimental data revealed that the gasification efficiencies ranged from 90 to 98 percent, while the combustion... of manure (A, B, C, 0, E, and F) were obtained. The gasification and partial oxidation results for manure A, B, and C (supplied by Hill Feed Yard and Biocon Division of Anderson Peat Company) were reported in references [6 and BJ. The thermochemical...

Annamalai, K.; Colaluca, M. A.; Ibrahim, M. Y.; Sweeten, J. M.

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401

Experimental study of fluidized bed combustion of feedlot manure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characteristics 2. 2 Gasification 2. 3 Combustion CHAPTER III OBJECTIVES CHAPTER IV THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS 4. 1 General Facility Layout 4. 2 Air Flow System 4. 3 Bed Chamber 4. 4 Fuel Feed System 1V V1 1X 12 14 19 21 21 23 25 25 TABLE... on the combustor performance. In the present research work, literature review is carried out on combustion and gasification of feedlot manure results (chapter II). Chapter III lists out the objectives and the tasks of this research work. The experimental setup...

Madan, Ajit M.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

402

Exergy analysis of a rock bed thermal storage system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a thermodynamic procedure is presented to analyse energy and exergy balances of a rock bed thermal storage system. The thermal behaviour is described by means of a control volume that includes three subsystems: the solar collectors, the fluid distribution system and the storage chamber. Solar-to-thermal energy conversion was obtained by means of a solar collector at a fixed airflow rate. The final purpose of the method is to determine how well the thermodynamic modelling fits the real data obtained experimentally from the prototype under normal operating conditions.

J.J. Navarrete-Gonzalez; J.G. Cervantes-de Gortari; E. Torres-Reyes

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Evaluation and selection of circulating fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect

The use of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers to generate steam on an industrial scale is increasing. The reasons for this growth include high combustion efficiency, fuel flexibility, and inherent emissions control capability, particularly with regards to control of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}). However, CFB boiler technology is unique, with operating performance, and construction features that differ significantly from those used in conventional pulverized coal (PC) and stoker-fired boiler technology. An overview of these features is presented by the author.

Marcinek, F.T. (Charles B. Tibbits and Associates, Seattle, WA (US))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

The SEI facility for fluid-bed wood gasification  

SciTech Connect

In mid 1985, construction was begun on the world's largest fluidized bed, wood gasification plant at the clay processing plant in Quincy, Fla. In March 1986, the plant was purchased by Southern Electric International (SEI). This paper describes how SEI coordinated the redesign of many of the plant systems and supervised the completion of construction and startup. In late 1986, the gasifier plant was sold. SEI remains involved as the operations and maintenance contractor on-site and is now responsible for design changes and equipment maintenance.

Bullpitt, W.S.; Rittenhouse, O.C. (Southern Electric International, Inc. North Atlanta, GA (US)); Masterson, L.D. (Southern Electric International Quincy, FL (US))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object is disclosed. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries. 4 figs.

Lopez, P.C.; Rodriguez, P.J.; Pereyra, R.A.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

407

Analysis of stream bed sediments of Four Mile Creek  

SciTech Connect

Until 1988, solutions containing nitric acid, odium hydroxide, low levels of radionuclides (mostly tritiated water) and some metals were discharged to unlined seepage basins at the F and H Areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of normal operations. The basins are now being closed according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCA). As part of the closure, a Part B Post-Closure Care Permit is being prepared. The Part B permit requires information on contaminant concentrations in stream bed sediments in the adjacent Four Mile Creek, which are reported herein. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Haselow, J.S.

1990-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

408

Three-dimensional CFD simulation of hydrodynamics in an interconnected fluidized bed for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A hydrodynamic model of an interconnected fluidized bed for chemical looping combustion was established based on the EulerianEulerian two-fluid model with the kinetic theory of granular flow. The effect of the drag model on the computational results was investigated and detailed hydrodynamics were predicted in the three-dimensional circulating fluidized bed (composed of a riser, bubbling bed, pot-seal and cyclone). Both qualitative and quantitative results indicated that the drag model had a significant effect on the flow behavior. The Gidaspow and the Syamlal & O'Brien drag models both produced accurate predictions in this study. The pressure balance of an interconnected fluidized bed revealed that the pressure in the bubbling bed was lower than that in the pot-seal and the riser, whilst still being higher than the pressure in the cyclone. The riser and bubbling bed were individually operated in fast and bubbling fluidization regions. The three distinct regions identified from the bottom to the top of the riser were: entrance region, bulk region and exit region. The solids volume fraction was higher in the near-wall region but lower in the center region for both the riser and bubbling bed. The coupled characteristics of the fluidized bed were predominantly identified by the strong effect of operational gas velocity in the riser on the hydrodynamics in the bubbling bed.

Yanjun Guan; Jian Chang; Kai Zhang; Baodong Wang; Qi Sun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

E-Print Network 3.0 - avr pebble bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the lithium ceramics pebble beds... have a significant impact on the temperature profile of the Helium Cooled Pebble ... Source: Abdou, Mohamed - Fusion Science and...

410

Numerical and experimental study of hydrodynamics in a compartmented fluidized bed oil palm shell biomass gasifier.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Numerical and experimental studies of hydrodynamic parameters of fluidized beds formed by either a single component system or a binary mixture in a pilot plant (more)

Wee, Siaw Khur

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

E-Print Network 3.0 - autologous microcirculatory beds Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

S. Popel, Marcos Intaglietta and Paul C. Johnson Summary: and after dextran infusion as with the FCD determinations. A manual map of the microcirculatory bed guided... ,...

412

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted packed bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WASTES Summary: consolidation of the solid refuse bed took place as a result of gasification. The bulk density of the hand-packed... involving acidic bio leachate production...

413

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Biomass Thermochemcial Conversion to Biofuels: Advances in Modeling and Summary: gasification in fluidized bed reactors will be presented. This includes the development of...

414

E-Print Network 3.0 - achieve high bed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

validation of our reacting bed modelling code (FLIC) has... predictions. Our new gasification concept offers the prospect of ... Source: Columbia University - Waste-to-Energy...

415

Sorption of anionic surfactants on a fixed bed of rubber granules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of a fixed-bed adsorber (FBR) column for the removal of anionic surfactants from aquatic environments has been studied. Waste tyre rubber granules were used as the adsorbent material, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, as the adsorbate. The FBR column design parameters were evaluated using the column breakthrough data at different bed depths. The Bohert and Adams model was used with the bed depth service time approach for the design of the column. The bed efficiency obtained was 90.97%.

Paritosh Das Purakayastha; Anjali Pal; Manas Bandyopadhyay

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

IGNITION PROCESSES AND FLAME SPREADING IN A GRANULAR SOLID PROPELLANT BED.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Understanding the detailed ignition, flame spreading, and combustion processes inside of a granular solid propellant bed is vital for accurate internal ballistic modeling and development (more)

Colletti, Alexander

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Performance Characteristics of Fluidized Bed Syngas Methanation over Ni-Mg/Al2O3 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The performance characteristics of isothermal fluidized bed syngas methanation for substitute natural gas is investigated over a self-made Ni-Mg/Al2O3 catalyst. Via atmospheric methanation in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor it was clarified that the CO conversion varied in 5% when changing the space velocity in 40-120Lg-1h-1 but the conversion increased obviously by raising the superficial gas velocity from 4 to 12.4cms-1. The temperature 823K is suitable for syngas methanation while obvious deposition of uneasy-oxidizing C? occurs on the catalyst at temperatures around 873K. From kinetic aspect, the lowest reaction temperature is suggested to be 750K when the space velocity is 60Lg-1h-1. Raising the H2/CO ratio of the syngas increased proportionally the CO conversion and CH4 selectivity, showing that at enough high H2/CO ratios the active sites on the catalyst are sufficient for CO adsorption and in turn the reaction with H2 for forming CH4. Introducing CO2 into the syngas feed increased H2 consumption but suppressed water gas shift and Boudouard reactions. The ratio of CO2/CO in syngas should be better below 0.52 because varying the ratio from 0.52 to 0.92 resulted in negligible increases in the H2 conversion and CH4 selectivity but decreased the CH4 yield. Introducing steam into the feed gas affected little the CO conversion but decreased the selectivity to CH4. The tested Ni-Mg/Al2O3 catalyst manifested good stability in structure and activity even in syngas containing water vapor.

Jiao Liu; Dianmiao Cui; Jian Yu; Fabing Su; Guangwen Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

DEVELOPMENT OF COAL BED METHANE UTILIZING GIS TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

During the second half of the 1990's, Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period were the advancements in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technologies generating terra-bytes of new data for the oil and gas industry. Coupled to these accelerating initiatives are many environmental concerns relating to production wastes and water table depletion of fresh water resources. It is these concerns that prompted a vital need within the industry for the development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and mitigation strategies utilizing GIS technologies for efficient environmental protection in conjunction with effective production of CBM. This was accomplished by developing a framework to take advantage of a combination of investigative field research joined with leading edge GIS technologies for the creation of environmentally characterized regions of study. Once evaluated these regions had BMP's developed to address their unique situations for Coal Bed Methane production and environmental protection. Results of the project will be used to support the MBOGC's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement as required by the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) and by the BLM for NEPA related issues for acreage having federally owned minerals.

J. Daniel Arthur

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Fluidized-bed retrofit a practical alternative to FGD  

SciTech Connect

When SO/sub 2/ emissions from an existing utility boiler must be reduced, retrofitting for fluidized-bed combustion may be an attractive alternative. In addition to reducing atmospheric pollutants during combustion, FBC retrofits allow simultaneous burning of a wide range of low-cost fuels. Also, since new components are incorporated in the steam generator rather than added on as pollution-control equipment, they extend the use of the plant beyond its normal life expectancy. There are five types of fossil-fuel-fired boilers used by utilities (pulverized coal, cyclone, stoker, oil, and gas), and literally hundreds of designs. Not all of these designs lend themselves to FBC retrofit, and much depends on the size and age of the boiler. Units that are not structurally sound or that have extensive internal corrosion are generally not suitable. Boilers over 150 MW usually have complicated water circuitry and small furnace plan areas, and may not have enough space to accommodate the fluidized bed. Other important considerations are: Water/steam-circulation design, Furnace bottom-to-grade clearance, Air-heater type and arrangement, Boiler support, Type of particulate-control device, Fan capacity, Space available in the boiler island for alterations.

Stringfellow, T.E.; Nolte, F.S.; Sage, W.L.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

BACNET AND ANALOG/DIGITAL INTERFACES OF THE BUILDING CONTROLS VIRTUAL TEST BED  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6E 6E BacNet and Analog/Digital Interfaces of the Building Controls Virtual Testbed Thierry Stephane Nouidui, Michael Wetter, Zhengwei Li, Xiufeng Pang, Prajesh Bhattachayra, Philip Haves November 2011 DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Test-bed for Sensor Network Management Protocols J. Abdo, N.D. Georganas, H. Mouftah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equipped with a MICA2 node with ID0. 1. INTRODUCTION Current advancements in sensor technologies, coupled of technological advancements into our daily life. The line separating the digital world and the real word of Information Technology and Engineering University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada {jabdo, mouftah

Ottawa, University of

422

A Modular Building Controls Virtual Test Bed for the Integrations of Heterogeneous Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Martin Otter, Proceedings of the 2nd Modelica con- ference.Modelica Association and Deutsches Zen- trum fur Luft- und

Wetter, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of the 2nd Modelica conference, pages 551 55Germany, March 2002. Modelica Association and Deutschesand Sven Erik Matts- son. Modelica for embedded systems. In

Wetter, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

AHEM Lab Opens Doors to New Technology Test Bed at NREL (Fact...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NREL's AHEM Laboratory is configured as a home of the future-complete with demand-response- enabled appliances, an entertainment center, lighting controls, a home office,...

425

INITIAL TEST BED FOR VERY HIGH EFFICIENCY SOLAR CELLS Allen Barnett  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

multiple benefits, including increased theoretical efficiency, new architectures that circumvent material/cost choices. An integrated optical/solar cell allows efficiency improvements while retaining low area costs, multiple-junction III-Vs for the high and low energy photons while circumventing existing cost drivers

Honsberg, Christiana

426

National SCADA Test Bed- Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector (September 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Improving the security of energy control systems has become a national priority. Since the mid-1990s, security experts have become increasingly concerned about the threat of malicious cyber...

427

Real-Time Building Energy Simulation Using EnergyPlus and the Building Controls Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and diffuse solar radiation. High quality sensors were usedsensors were installed to provide the measurements for outdoor air dry bulb and relative humidity, wind speed and direction, direct normal solar

Pang, Xiufeng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

The AMES Wholesale Power Market Test Bed: A Computational Laboratory for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Training Hongyan Li, Student Member, IEEE, and Leigh Tesfatsion, Member, IEEE Abstract--Wholesale power for the systematic study of restructured wholesale power markets operating over AC transmission grids subject: central administration by an independent market operator; a two-settlement system consisting of a bid

Tesfatsion, Leigh

429

Leaching behavior and possible resource recovery from air pollution control residues of fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

Ash residues are generated at several points during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW), i.e., in cyclones, electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Such residues are of a complex physical and chemical nature and are often enriched in soluble salts and heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and Zn. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of MSW is a relatively new technique and very little information is available about the leaching behavior of its residues. In this study, the total elemental composition, mineralogy and leaching behavior of cyclone and bag-house filter ashes from a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler fired with municipal solid waste have been investigated. In addition, the possibilities of recovery heavy metals from these ashes were studied. The long-term leaching behavior of the ash constituents was evaluated using a two-step batch leaching test known as the CEN-test, whereas short and medium term leaching behavior was evaluated using a Column test. The extraction of elements from cyclone and filter ashes with various acidic solutions was also investigated. The leaching behavior of acid washed ashes was evaluated using the CEN test. The cyclone ash was mainly composed of aluminosilicate minerals, whereas the filter ash consisted of chlorides and hydroxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals. The concentration of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb was higher in the filter ash than in the cyclone ash. The leached amounts of sulfates and Pb from the cyclone ash decreased with leaching test contact time, indicating the formation of secondary mineral phases. Large amounts of chlorides, sulfates, Ca, Cu and Pb were leached from the filter ash. Acid extraction removed large amounts ({gt}50%) of Zn, Pb and Cu from the filter ash and approximately 56% of the total amount of Zn present in the cyclone ash. An efficient removal of heavy metal species from these types of ashes can probably be achieved by application of a recycling or multi-step process.

Abbas, Z.; Andersson, B.A.; Steenari, B.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. 2. Results and Recommendations for Scaling Up  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. ... Once the existence of segregation in the bed of the gasifier with the particles' sizes used for coal and for the CaO in the preliminary tests are confirmed and analyzed, the particle size of the coal was increased to 0.4?2.0 ... In general small differences in d. readily lead to segregation while quite differently sized particles are fairly easily mixed. ...

Jose Corella; Jose M. Toledo; Gregorio Molina

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales. Progress report, July--September 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, initiated in October 1987 is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with seven other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, the University of Nevada, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the eighth program quarter from July 1 through September 30, 1989.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M. [and others

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales. Progress report, October--December 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, initiated in October 1987 is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with seven other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, the University of Nevada, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the fifth program quarter from October 1 through December 31, 1988.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M. [and others

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Proppant flowback control in coal bed methane wells: experimental study and field application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Proppant flowback after fracturing coal bed methane (CBM) wells is a very common challenge which results in fracture pinching out, noticeable well productivity decrease, downhole and surface facility damage, etc. In this paper, fibre was studied as a low-cost and environmentally friendly additive to control proppant flowback in CBM well fracturing operation. Two kinds of glass fibre (short fibre and long fibre) are selected. Extensive experimental studies have been conducted to test the effects of fibre concentration and fibre control length exerting on the critical proppant flowback rate. The optimal fibre combination is 1:2 as the mass ratio of long fibre to short fibre. And fibre control length is 225 mm in a 300 mm tube. An optimisation model is also presented to optimise the fibre concentration and fibre control length in the field application. So the in-situ fracturing design can be conducted by repeating fracture propagation and proppant transport simulations and parameters optimisations. The experimental results and the optimisation model were applied in CBM well fracturing in Hancheng area in China. 23 tested wells have achieved a significant increase of gas production and decrease of workover times than the 9 offset ones without fibre-added sand. [Received: 22 October 2012; Accepted: 3 April 2013

Kai Zhu; Dali Guo; Xiaohui Zeng; Shuguang Li; Chuanqing Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS  

SciTech Connect

A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

436

Bedding and Within-Pen Location Effects on Feedlot Pen Runoff Quality Using a Rainfall Simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and 1999. Bedding had a significant (P # 0.05) effect on NH4­N concentration and load in 1999, SO4 load in 1998, SO4 concentration and load in 1999, and total coliforms in both years; where these three reactive phosphorus (DRP), total P, and NH4­N concentrations and loads at the bedding pack location in wood

Selinger, Brent

437

Using Ilmenite To Reduce the Tar Yield in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, ilmenite was used as the catalytic material in the Chalmers 24 MWth dual fluidized bed gasifier to decrease the yield of tar. ... Indirect gasification, using the Dual Fluidized Bed (DFB) concept, has been identified as being suitable for medium- to large-scale production units. ... catalytic reactors, the implementation of specific reaction media such as supercrit. ...

Anton Larsson; Mikael Israelsson; Fredrik Lind; Martin Seemann; Henrik Thunman

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

438

EXPERIMENTAL & NUMERICAL STUDY OF CERAMIC BREEDER PEBBLE BED THERMAL DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXPERIMENTAL & NUMERICAL STUDY OF CERAMIC BREEDER PEBBLE BED THERMAL DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR Zhiyong involved in ceramic breeder pebble bed thermal deformation are complex. First, unlike solid material.25 and 0.63 mm) at temperatures of 700-800ºC. The experimental results show that the thermal deformation

Abdou, Mohamed

439

Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on Almonds with a Fluidized Bed Atmospheric Pressure Plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigated the use of a fluidized bed atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) as a possible pasteurization methodInactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on Almonds with a Fluidized Bed Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Kalyani Narayanan1, Nathan M. Anderson2, Gregory J. Fleischman2 and Susanne Keller2 1Institute

Heller, Barbara

440

Influence of bed materials on methanogenic characteristics and immobilized microbes in anaerobic digester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports and discusses the effects of bed materials on the performance of methanogenic fluidized bed reactors with acetic acid as the sole organic substrate. Four bed materials (carbon filter, rock wool, loofah sponge and polyurethane foam) were evaluated and compared for their methanogenic characteristics and immobilized microbes. The present results indicated that the characteristics of the bed materials for immobilization had a significant influence on the methane production. The loofah sponge and polyurethane foam were suggested to be suitable for the bed material in anaerobic digestion. The best methane yield was obtained from the loofah reactor among the four kinds of bed materials. The main cellular morphologies present in the biofilms of the four different materials on the colonization were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The microphotographs indicated that the biofilm was primarily composed of coccus, diplococci-shaped Methanosarcina-like cells, long rods of Methanobacterium and coccobacillus of Methanobrevibacter-like bacteria. The morphologies observed from the microscopic analysis indicated that the different bed materials could provide specific conditions for the adherence of distinct microorganism types. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis was conducted to compare the immobilized archaeal population. The results of the 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis indicated that the major immobilized methanogens were Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina mazei in all the bed materials. A similar clone distribution was observed with the loofah sponge and the carbon felt.

Yingnan Yang; Chika Tada; Md Shohidullah Miah; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Tatsuo Yagishita; Shigeki Sawayama

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Tar Reduction by Primary Measures in an Autothermal Air-Blown Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

mean size (?m) ... When some calcined dolomite (CaOMgO) is used in the bed of a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type the raw gas produced is cleaner than when only silica sand is used in it as fluidizing medium. ...

Manuel Campoy; Alberto Go?mez-Barea; Diego Fuentes-Cano; Pedro Ollero

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fast Kinetics of Fe2+ Oxidation in Packed-Bed Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...protein/ml liquid vol of reactor YPlS Yield of product...material was also used for analysis of the total protein...of the packed-bed reactors. Several experimen...effect. The system reliability was evalu- ated with...ion-exchange resin packed-bed reactor by switching the inlet...

Sergei I. Grishin; Olli H. Tuovinen

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Non-convex flux functions and compound shock waves in sediment beds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-convex flux functions and compound shock waves in sediment beds Gert Bartholomeeusen1 , Hans De of Engineering Science, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK gilliane.sills@eng.ox.ac.uk Summary. Sediment layers in sediment beds and the numerical modelling of the sedimentation process using an experimentally obtained

De Sterck, Hans

445

Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment S. Troesch.troesch@cemagref.fr, dirk.esser@sint.fr Abstract Sludge drying reed beds have been used for dewatering and mineralization of sludge since the beginning of the 90's, but their insufficient performances in terms of Dry Matter [DM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOROF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR F Iis fed into a hydro-gasifier reactor. One such process was

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Optimal control of a time-varying catalytic fixed bed reactor with catalyst deactivation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper deals with the linear-quadratic control problem for a time-varying partial differential equation model of a catalytic fixed-bed reactor. The classical Riccati equation approach, for time-varying infinite-dimensional systems, is extended to ... Keywords: catalyst deactivation, fixed bed reactor, infinite dimensional time-varying system, linear quadratic optimal control

L. Mohammadi; I. Aksikas; J. F. Forbes

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report  

SciTech Connect

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

1996-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

449

User converts gas boiler to fluidized bed to save $1. 5M  

SciTech Connect

Retrofitting a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system may allow Clayton Foods Inc. to reduce its annual fuel bill by $1.5 million when the system comes on line in 1986. The system will burn low-grade, high-sulfur coal instead of natural gas, and should pay back the $4.1 million investment in under five years. The dual bed design separates the chemical processes of combustion and desulfurization into two chambers, which allows smaller-sized combustors that achieve high efficiencies in less time than conventional, single-bed fluidized bed boilers. Possible limitations prevent other manufacturers from making the dual-bed system. The Wormser unit is the only retrofit application of this technology in an industrial setting.

Springer, N.

1985-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

450

Modelling Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Kinetics for Removal of Trace Levels of Divalent Cations in Ultrapure Water  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchanger resin fluid film mass transfer coefficients and the ionic diffusivities from which they are derived are often measured by use of ion exchange resin columns. Such tests, usually run dynamically using short resin beds, are often performed using relatively high (ppm) concentrations of ions to accurately measure output concentrations as a function of flow rate. The testing described herein was performed to determine fluid film ionic diffusivities for cationic concentrations typical of ultrapure water ({le}ppb levels) containing ppm levels of ammonia. Effective ionic diffusivities at these low ionic concentrations and high pHs were needed to complete a computer model (SIMIX) to be used in ion exchange simulations. SIMIX is a generalized multicomponent ion exchange model designed to simulate the removal of divalent cations from ultrapure water.

B. Widman

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Gas temperature profiles at different flow rates and heating rates suffice to estimate kinetic parameters for fluidised bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

Experimental work on estimation kinetic parameters for combustion was conducted in a bench-scale fluidised bed (FB: 105x200mm). Combustion medium was obtained by using an electrical heater immersed into the bed. The ratio of heating rate (kJ/s) to molar flow rate of air (mol/s) regulated by a rheostat so that the heat of combustion (kJ/mol) can be synthetically obtained by an electrical power supply for relevant O{sub 2}-feedstock concentration (C{sub 0}). O{sub 2}-restriction ratio ({beta}) was defined by the ratio of O{sub 2}-feedstock concentration to O{sub 2}-air concentration (C{sub O{sub 2}-AIR}) at prevailing heating rates. Compressed air at further atmospheric pressure ({approx_equal}102.7kPa) entered the bed that was alumina particles (250{mu}m). Experiments were carried out at different gas flow rates and heating rates. FB was operated with a single charge of (1300g) particles for obtaining the T/T{sub 0} curves, and than C/C{sub 0} curves. The mathematical relationships between temperature (T) and conversion ratio (X) were expressed by combining total energy balance and mass balance in FB. Observed surface reaction rate constants (k{sub S}) was obtained from the combined balances and proposed model was also tested for these kinetic parameters (frequency factor: k{sub 0}, activation energy: E{sub A}, and reaction order: n) obtained from air temperature measurements. It was found that the model curves allow a good description of the experimental data. Thus, reaction rate for combustion was sufficiently expressed. (author)

Suyadal, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ankara University, 06100-Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Modeling the resolution of inexpensive, novel non-seismic geophysical monitoring tools to monitor CO2 injection into coal beds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plasynski, S. , 2008, Advancing Coal-Based Power Generationto monitor CO 2 injection into Coal Beds as a part of theanalysis for CO 2 movement in coal beds was based on the

Gasperikova, E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction. 1 fig.

Halow, J.S.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

454

Thermal conductivity of Permian Basin bedded salt at elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of thermal conductivity were made on five core samples of bedded rock salt from the Permian Basin in Texas. The sample size was 100 mm in diameter by 250 mm in length. Measurements were conducted under confining pressures ranging from 3.8 to 31.0 MPa and temperatures from room temperature to 473 K. Conductivity showed no dependence on confining pressure, but showed a monotonic, negative temperature dependence. Four of the five samples showed conductivities clustered in a range of 5.6 +- 0.5 W/m.K at room temperature, falling to 3.6 +- 0.3 W/m.K at 473 K. These values are approximately 20% below the values for pure halite, reflecting perhaps the 5 to 20% non-halite component of the samples. The fifth sample showed a conductivity vs temperature dependence much like that of halite. 19 references, 4 figures.

Durham, W.B.; Boro, C.O.; Beiriger, J.M.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

Halow, John S. (Waynesburg, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Dual-Bed Gasification of Petcoke: Model Development and Validation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dual-Bed Gasification of Petcoke: Model Development and Validation ... A series of sensitivity analyses is performed with regard to a conventional gasifier fed by petcoke, and the effects of residence time and oxygen/carbon mass ratio in the feed are investigated over three process variables: char conversion at the gasifier exit, temperature at the gasifier exit, and amount of useful syngas (H2 and CO) produced, in terms of N?m3 per ton of petcoke. ... Different from most literature publications, such as refs 5 and 6, where coal and/or petcoke gasification models are checked against available data, with respect to the syngas composition obtained, and to the process cold gas efficiency, one of the purposes of our paper is to correlate experimental data to a parameter that is important both for simulation and for reactor design: the value of the residence time of the gasifier. ...

Maria Sudiro; Carlos Zanella; Alberto Bertucco; Luigi Bressan; Marco Fontana

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Proliferation resistant fuel for pebble bed modular reactors  

SciTech Connect

We show that it is possible to denature the Plutonium produced in Pebble Bed Modular Reactors (PBMR) by doping the nuclear fuel with either 3050 ppm of {sup 237}Np or 2100 ppm of Am vector. A correct choice of these isotopes concentration yields denatured Plutonium with isotopic ratio {sup 238}Pu/Pu {>=} 6%, for the entire fuel burnup cycle. The penalty for introducing these isotopes into the nuclear fuel is a subsequent shortening of the fuel burnup cycle, with respect to a non-doped reference fuel, by 41.2 Full Power Days (FPDs) and 19.9 FPDs, respectively, which correspond to 4070 MWd/ton and 1965 MWd/ton reduction in fuel discharge burnup. (authors)

Ronen, Y.; Aboudy, M.; Regev, D.; Gilad, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on performing the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system and determining the system economics.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits

2001-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

459

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on completing the biofuel characterization and the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

460

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology  

SciTech Connect

Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Offices (NE-ID) and State of Idahos top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62%. The process achieved about a 90% turnover of the starting bed. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. Results of product performance testing conducted by SRNL will be reported separately by SRNL.

Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "test bed nstb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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461

Task II: evaluation of heat-exchanger and turbine materials for use in a coal-fired fluidized-bed-combustion environment. Final report, July 1, 1976-July 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Specific alloys were tested as in-bed and above-bed heat exchanger materials in the fireside environment of a pressurized fluidized bed coal combustor (PFBCC). Corrosion conditions on the alloys exposed to normal and very low oxygen pressures in the presence of calcium sulfate deposits were simulated. Bayonet-type specimen probes of selected alloys were exposed in the Exxon Miniplant at probe control temperatures representative of conventional steam, advanced steam, helium and liquid metal energy conversion cycles. Corrosion/erosion testing of the air cooled, welded samples consisted of a 117-hour shakedown run followed by an incremental 1000-hour exposure. Metallurgical analyses were run on removed specimens. The test matrix for in-bed and above-bed exposure was: 1050/sup 0/F (566/sup 0/C): 2.25 Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-1Mo steels (in-bed only); 1200/sup 0/F (649/sup 0/C): 304 SS and Incoloy-800; 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C): Incoloy-800 and Hastelloy-X; and 1600/sup 0/F (871/sup 0/C); Hastelloy-X and Haynes-188. Subscale sulfides formed in most of the alloys. The most severe corrosion was noted in the ferritic 2.25Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-1Mo steels at a nominal control temperature of 1050/sup 0/F (566/sup 0/C) and in Hastelloy-X at 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C) exposed in-bed. The best overall behavior of in-bed alloys was observed for Incoloy-800, which had a maximum metal loss of about .007 in (.18 mm) in 1117 hours of exposure at both 1200/sup 0/F (649/sup 0/C) and 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C) but averaged more nearly .001 in (.025 mm) to .002 in (.051 mm) and in Haynes-188 which showed maximum wall thinning of less than .003 in (.076 mm) at 1600/sup 0/F (871/sup 0/C) in the longest time exposure.

Not Available

1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

462

Mechanical models of fracture reactivation and slip on bedding surfaces during folding of the asymmetric anticline at Sheep Mountain, Wyoming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechanical models of fracture reactivation and slip on bedding surfaces during folding June 2008 Accepted 5 June 2008 Available online 13 June 2008 Keywords: Fold Fracture reactivation Bed methods to investigate the reactivation of fractures (opening and shearing) and the development of bedding

Borja, Ronaldo I.

463

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Experimental Study and Computational Simulations of Key Pebble Bed Thermo-mechanics Issues for Design and Safety  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and computational study, consisting of modeling and simulation (M&S), of key thermal-mechanical issues affecting the design and safety of pebble-bed (PB) reactors was conducted. The objective was to broaden understanding and experimentally validate thermal-mechanic phenomena of nuclear grade graphite, specifically, spheres in frictional contact as anticipated in the bed under reactor relevant pressures and temperatures. The contact generates graphite dust particulates that can subsequently be transported into the flowing gaseous coolent. Under postulated depressurization transients and with the potential for leaked fission products to be adsorbed onto graphite 'dust', there is the potential for fission products to escape from the primary volume. This is a design safety concern. Furthermore, earlier safety assessment identified the distinct possibility for the dispersed dust to combust in contact with air if sufficient conditions are met. Both of these phenomena were noted as important to design review and containing uncertainty to warrant study. The team designed and conducted two separate effects tests to study and benchmark the potential dust-generation rate, as well as study the conditions under which a dust explosion may occure in a standardized, instrumented explosion chamber.

Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Cogliati, Joshua; Ougouag, Abderrafi

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

465

The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994  

SciTech Connect

This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Sulfur removal in advanced two-staged pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. A pressurized TGA unit has been purchased by IGT for use in this project.

Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R.; Rue, D.M.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Application of debris-bed dryout data to CONACS-1 modeling  

SciTech Connect

CONACS-1 (the first version of the DOE Containment Analysis Code System) which is currently under development requires extension of existing debris-bed dryout data to the wide range of conditions possible in an accident sequence. While there has been much effort on modeling of debris-bed dryout from first principles, there is no definitive model for beds of irregularly shaped particles of wide size distribution and for beds of varying heights. Existing debris-bed heat-transfer data with real materials are for the most part limited to dryout as a function of bed depth for adiabatic conditions of atmospheric pressure. These data must be extrapolated with the use of appropriate theoretical models based on experimentation with simulant materials to the ocnditions under consideration in the containment analysis. The data base selected for CONACS-1 is from measurements of dryout for beds of 100 to 1000 ..mu..m UO/sub 2/ with the sodium phase Joule heated. This particle size range which is typical for debris from fuel-coolant interactions is the most reasonable to use.

Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.; Pedersen, D.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

BANNING DL

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

469

Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

1981-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

470

Co-Gasification of Wood and Lignite in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixts. of coal and biomass were co-gasified in a jetting, ash-agglomerating, fluidized-bed, pilot scale-sized gasifier to provide steady-state operating data for numerical simulation verification. ... Downstream cleaning of gas by catalytic cracking and/or scrubbing is complex and/or expensive for small to medium gasification plants, so conversion of tar within the gasifier is preferred. ... Kern, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Hofbauer, H. Gasification of lignite in a dual fluidized bed gasifier - Influence of bed material particle size and the amount of steam. ...

Stefan Kern; Christoph Pfeifer; Hermann Hofbauer

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Steam Gasification of Cellulose with Cobalt Catalysts in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic performance of Co/MgO catalysts for the treatment of tar derived from cellulose steam gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier of 22 mm i.d. and 500 mm height was investigated by means of two different methods:? hot gas cleaning in a fixed bed reactor after the fluidized bed gasifier (secondary method) and treatment inside the gasifier with catalyst as a fluidizing medium (primary method). ... From this perspective, developing a more effective catalyst is essential for scaling down the plant size while still facilitating high and stable catalytic performance. ... At 720-760, space-times 0.10-0.20 s, catalyst sizes <1.0 ...

Kazuhiko Tasaka; Takeshi Furusawa; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

472

Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boi