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1

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 States had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of MTBE in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some State laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). AEO2006 assumes that all State MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

4

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

Information Center

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S.1766  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

SR/OIAF/2002-06 Release date: March 2002 This report analyzes the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766.

6

Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

7

Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In response to a Congressional request, EIA examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

Joanne Shore

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

MTBE Production Economics  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE Production MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne market) of MTBE rose from $1.00 per gallon to over $1.60 per gallon. This represented an increase in the price premium for MTBE over the wholesale price of conventional gasoline from its normal (1995 though 2000 average) $0.26 per gallon to $0.60 per gallon. The MTBE

9

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

Information Center

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

11

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

Information Center

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans Background As a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90), the year-round use of reformulated gasoline (RFG) has been required in cities with the worst smog problems since 1995 (Figure 1). One of the requirements of RFG specified by CAAA90 is a 2- percent oxygen requirement, which is met by blending "oxygenates," 1 including methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol, into the gasoline. MTBE is the oxygenate used in almost all RFG outside of the Midwest. Ethanol is currently used in the Midwest as an oxygenate in RFG and as an octane booster and volume extender in conventional gasoline. Several years ago, MTBE was detected in water supplies scattered throughout the country, but predominantly in areas using RFG. MTBE from RFG was apparently

13

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Outlook Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans Tancred Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Supply and Demand 3. Ethanol Supply 4. Gasoline Supply 5. Gasoline Prices A. Long-Term Equilibrium Price Analysis B. Short-Term Price Volatility 6. Conclusion 7. Appendix A. Estimating MTBE Consumption by State 8. Appendix B. MTBE Imports and Exports 9. Appendix C. Glossary of Terms 10. End Notes 11. References 1. Summary The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year. Three impending State bans on MTBE blending could significantly affect gasoline

14

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

02/22/2006 02/22/2006 Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006 Summary In 2005, a number of petroleum companies announced their intent to remove methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from their gasoline in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline, and perceived potential for increased liability exposure due to the elimination of the oxygen content requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG) included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EIA's informal discussions with a number of suppliers indicate that most of the industry is trying to move away from MTBE before the 2006 summer driving season. Currently, the largest use of MTBE is in RFG consumed on the East Coast outside of

15

Two US markets, or one? How the MTBE-gasoline relationship is evolving  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Energy Detente features the price sensitivity of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. Data is presented for US wholesale gasoline prices vs. MTBE for the 20-month period beginning in June 1994 and ending in January 1996, and the data is discussed. Also contained in this issue is the refining netback data and the fuel price/tax data for the period ending January 5, 1996.

1996-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

16

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

MTBE movements between Texas Gulf Coast plants to be enhanced  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co. (Teppco), Houston, has begun construction of its shuttle pipeline, a 10-mile, 6 and 8-in. line to move methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) between producers and refiners along the Houston Ship Channel. Funding for the project has been approved, rights-of-way are secured, and procurement of materials is under way, according to Teppco. The line will flow from the western edge of Shell's refinery eastward to storage facilities of Teppco's Baytown terminal. The shuttle pipeline anticipates the US requirement for oxygenated gasolines that takes effect Nov. 1. Approximately 70% of the available US merchant capacity for MTBE is located along the shuttle's path, Teppco says.

Not Available

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

18

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a plantation about 15-year-old in the Les Cedres area, near Montreal (45820H N, 73854H W). Trees in open

Bandettini, Peter A.

19

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

20

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical feedstock for production of a range of important industrial chemicals, primarily acetic acid, formaldehyde, methyl methacrylate and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Radiation Chemistry of MTBE in Aqueous Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Aqueous Solution Stephen P. Mezyk, Jace Jones, William J. Cooper, Thomas Tobien, Michael G. Nickelsen, J. Wesley Adams, Kevin E. O'Shea, David M....

23

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

24

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Period-Unit: Download Series History ... 51: 64: 59: 70: 70: 62: 2009-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 41: 44: 49: 61: 49: 50: 2004-2013: Other ...

25

U.S. Oxygenate Production - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History; Fuel Ethanol: 855: 877: 891: 868: 849: 852: 1981-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 48: 55: 54: 51 ...

26

35461,"AECTRA REFG & MKTG",1,152,"MOTOR GAS, OTHER FINISHED"...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE)",2809,"SANFRANCISCO, CA","CALIFORNIA",5,515,"KOREA, REPUBLIC OF",32,0,0,"WICKLAND OIL CO","SELBY TERM","CA","CALIFORNIA",5...

27

Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Development of Supported Polymeric Liquid Membrane Technology for Aqueous MTBE Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) as a gasoline additive has generated a serious, widespread groundwater contamination problem in California. This study evaluated the use of supported polymeric liquid membrane technology in the remediation of MTBE contaminated groundwater.

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

29

FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

1989-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

30

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

31

MTBE Production Economics - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... MTBE production declined from 210,000 barrels per day in October 2000, to ... the United States use this process ... ethane and propane) ...

32

MTBE Prices Responded to Natural Gas Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: On top of the usual factors impacting gasoline prices, natural gas has had some influence recently. MTBE is an oxygenate used in most of the RFG consumed in the U.S. Generally, it follows gasoline prices and its own supply/demand balance factors. But this winter, we saw it respond strongly to natural gas prices. MTBE is made from methanol and isobutylene, which in turn come from methane and butane. Both methane and butane come from natural gas streams. Until this year, the price of natural gas has been so low that it had little effect. But the surge that occurred in December and January pulled MTBE up . Keep in mind that about 11% MTBE is used in a gallon of RFG, so a 30 cent increase in MTBE is only about a 3 cent increase in the price of RFG. While we look ahead at this summer, natural gas prices should be

33

Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In October 2003, EIA published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those States for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two States over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

Information Center

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Nation’s Natural Gas Demand. ” Washington DC, 1999.Effects of MTBE Ban on Natural Gas Demand Ethanol Tax CreditEffects of MTBE Ban on Natural Gas Demand Ethanol Tax Credit

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

Information Center

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from MTBE- to ethanol-blended RFG on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

Joanne Shore

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

37

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

39

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

40

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependence of ether synthesis, particularly unsymmetric methylisobutylether (MIBE), was carried out over the Nafion-H microsaddles (MS) catalyst. The principal product formed under the rather severe reaction conditions of 1100 psig pressure and temperatures in the range of 123--157{degree}C was the expected MIBE formed directly by coupling the methanol/isobutanol reactants. In addition, significantly larger quantities of the dimethylether (DME) and hydrocarbon products were observed than were obtained under milder reaction conditions. Deactivation of the Nafion-H MS catalyst was determined by periodically testing the catalyst under a given set of reaction conditions for the synthesis of MIBE and MTBE from methanol/isobutanol = 2/1, i.e. 123{degree}C, 1100 psig, and total GHSV = 248 mol/kg cat/hr. After carrying out various tests over a period of 2420 hr, with intermittant periods of standing under nitrogen at ambient conditions, the yields of MIBE and MTBE had decreased by 25% and 41%, respectively. In order to gain insight into the role of the surface acidity in promoting the selective coupling of the alcohols to form the unsymmetric ether, the strengths of the acid sites on the catalysts are still being probed by calorimetric titrations in non-aqueous solutions. 11 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; DeTavernier, S.; Johannson, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Characterizing MTBE Cometabolism and Propane Metabolism by Mycobacterium austroafricanum JOB5.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Characterizing MTBE Cometabolism and Propane Metabolism by Mycobacterium austroafricanum JOB5. (Under the direction of Michael R. Hyman.) Cometabolic transformations are unable to support cell growth.… (more)

House, Alan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Assessment of Summer RBOB Supply for NY & CT  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut May 5, 2004 In October 2003, EIA published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) 1 that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those States for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two States over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline. As discussed on our earlier report, the NY and CT bans on MTBE mainly affect reformulated gasoline (RFG), which in recent years has been provided by domestic refineries on the East Coast (PADD 1) and imports. Our recent findings indicate that

43

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

44

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

45

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

46

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

47

U.S. Exports to Venezuela of MTBE (Thousand Barrels per Day)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports to Venezuela of MTBE (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2005: 9: 10: 18: 9: 7: 8: 21: 2006: 18: 11: 20: 26 ...

48

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Condensed version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an equivalent quantity (in energy terms), oil imports, sinceworld oil price times the equilibrium quantity of importsquantities of ethanol and MTBE were used there would be no impact on US oil

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Condensed version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an equivalent quantity (in energy terms), oil imports, sinceworld oil price times the equilibrium quantity of importsquantities of ethanol and MTBE were used there would be no impact on US oil imports.

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans October 2003 Office of Oil and Gas Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Contacts and Acknowledgments This report was prepared by the Office of Oil and Gas of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under the direction of John Cook, Director, Petroleum Division. Questions concerning the report may be directed to Joanne Shore (202/586-4677),

51

Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Attached garages have been identified as important sources of indoor residential air pollution. However, the literature lacks information on how the proximity of cars to the living area affects indoor concentrations of gasoline-related compounds, and the origin of these pollutants. We analyzed data from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study and evaluated 114 residences with cars in an attached garage, detached garage or carport, or without cars. Results indicate that homes with cars in attached garages were affected the most. Concentrations in homes with cars in detached garages and residences without cars were similar. The contribution from gasoline-related sources to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to be dominated by car exhaust, or a combination of tailpipe and gasoline vapor emissions. Residing in a home with an attached garage could lead to benzene exposures ten times higher than exposures from commuting in heavy traffic.

Corsi, Dr. Richard [University of Texas, Austin; Morandi, Dr. Maria [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston; Siegel, Dr. Jeffrey [University of Texas, Austin; Hun, Diana E [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

PURIFICATION OF ETHER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>A process for removing peroxides from ethers by sorption on a strong- base anion exchange resin in its hydroxyl form is described. Incorporation of the resin for storage is also covered. (AEC)

Feinstein, R.N.

1961-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Appendix A - Acronyms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A - ACRONYMS A - ACRONYMS AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials CNG Compressed Natural Gases CVO Commercial Vehicle Operation DOE Department of Energy DOT Department of Transportation E85 85% Ethanol, 15% Gasoline EPA Environmental Protection Agency ExFIRS Excise Files Information Retrieval System ExSTARS Excise Summary Terminal Activity Reporting System FHWA Federal Highway Administration FTA Federation of Tax Administrators GAO General Accounting Office HTF Highway Trust Fund IFTA International Fuel Tax Agreement IM Interstate Maintenance IRS Internal Revenue Service LNG Liquid Natural Gases LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gases M85 85% Methanol, 15% Gasoline MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether NHS National Highway System ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory STP Surface Transportation Program

54

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U interested in fuel comparisons Thousands each year Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) National gasoline survey Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association 23 cities throughout the U.S. Summer of 1988

55

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst; the kinetics for this catalyst; reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors; and to simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. A hydrogen-lean synthesis gas with a ratio of H{sub 2}/CO of 0.5 to 1.0 is produced from the gasification of coal, lignite, or biomass. Isobutylene is a key reactant in the synthesis of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and of isooctanes. MTBE and isooctanes are high octane fuels used to blend with low octane gasolines to raise the octane number required for modern automobiles. The production of these two key octane boosters is limited by the supply of isobutylene. MTBE, when used as an octane enhancer, also decreases the amount of pollutants emitted from the exhaust of an automobile engine.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

Dombek, B.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

58

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

SciTech Connect

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

59

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

60

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by pure cultures of butane-degrading bacteria. Appl.of K s values for MTBE by butane- degrading bacteria (52).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Input 1,184,435 1,522,193 1,850,204 2,166,784 2,331,109 2,399,318 2005-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,445 5,686 6,538 7,810 10,663 2008-2012 Pentanes Plus 2,012 474 1,808 1,989 2,326 4,164 2005-2012 Liquid Petroleum Gases 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2008-2012 Normal Butane 2,943 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2005-2012 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 1,518,748 1,844,518 2,160,246 2,323,299 2,388,655 2008-2012 Oxygenates/Renewables 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Fuel Ethanol 131,810 182,772 232,677 273,107 281,507 287,433 2005-2012

62

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Input 206,541 217,867 212,114 216,075 219,783 208,203 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 891 352 376 196 383 1,397 2008-2013 Pentanes Plus 261 301 313 67 287 393 2005-2013 Liquid Petroleum Gases 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2008-2013 Normal Butane 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2005-2013 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 205,650 217,515 211,738 215,879 219,400 206,806 2008-2013 Oxygenates/Renewables 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Fuel Ethanol 24,163 25,526 24,804 25,491 25,970 24,116 2005-2013

63

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - International  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

international energy module (IEM) consists of four submodules (Figure 4) that perform the following functions: international energy module (IEM) consists of four submodules (Figure 4) that perform the following functions: world oil market submodule—calculates the average annual world oil price (imported refiner acquisition cost) that is consistent with worldwide petroleum demand and supply availability crude oil supply submodule—provides im- ported crude oil supply curves for five crude oil quality classes petroleum products supply submodule—pro- vides imported refined product supply curves for eleven types of refined products oxygenates supply submodule—provides imported oxygenates supply curves for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and methanol. Figure 4. International Energy Module Structure The world oil price that is generated by the world oil market submodule is used by all the modules of NEMS as well as the other submodules of IEM. The import supply curves for crude oils, refined products, and oxygenates are used by the petroleum market module.

64

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Exports Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

65

The Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving isobutene, methanol, MTBE, and n-butane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a new method, called the Reaction Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo (RGEMC) method for the computer simulation of the phase equilibria for multicomponent mixtures, given an intermolecular potential model for the constituent molecular species. The approach treats the phase equilibrium conditions as a special type of chemical reaction, and incorporates knowledge of the pure-substance vapor pressure data into the simulations. Unlike macroscopic thermodynamic-based approaches like the Wilson and the UNIFAC approximations, no experimental information concerning the mixtures is required. In addition to the PTxy phase equilibrium data, the volumetric properties of the mixture are calculated. We developed intermolecular potential models based on the OPLS potential models of Jorgensen, and used the RGEMC method to predict phase equilibrium data for the binary systems isobutene+MTBE and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n-butane. The predictions are excellent, ...

Martin Lísal; William R. Smith; Ivo Nezbeda

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

Howe, Gregg A. (East Lansing, MI); Itoh, Aya (Tsuruoka, JP)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

67

Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, R.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

69

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

70

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group VIII metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite-supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted ruthenium catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in a slurry reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The April 1990 Alternative Fuels Proposal to the Department of Energy involved the development of new technology, based on the liquid phase process, for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, fuel additives, and fuel intermediates. The objective of this work was to develop a slurry reactor based process for the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The isobutene can serve as a feedstock for the high octane oxygenated fuel additive methyl tertiary-butyl either (MTBE). Alumina catalysts were investigated because of their wide use as a dehydration catalyst. Four commercially available alumina catalysts (Catapal B, Versal B, Versal GH, and Al-3996R) were evaluated for both activity and selectivity to the branched olefin. All four catalysts demonstrated conversions greater than 80% at 290 C, while conversions of near 100% could be obtained at 330 C. The reaction favors low pressures and moderate to low space velocities. A yield of 0.90 mole isobutene per mole reacted isobutanol or better was obtained at conversions of 60--70% and higher. From 75 to 98% conversion, the four catalysts all provide isobutene yields ranging from 0.92 to 0.94 with the maximum occurring around 90% conversion. At low conversions, the concentration of diisobutyl ether becomes significant while the concentration of linear butenes is essentially a linear function of isobutanol conversion. Doping the catalyst with up to 0.8 wt % potassium showed a modest increase in isobutene selectivity; however, this increase was more than offset by a reduction in activity. Investigations using a mixed alcohols feed (consistent with isobutanol synthesis from syngas) demonstrated a small increase in the C4 iso-olefin selectivity over that observed for a pure isobutanol feed. 55 refs.

Latshaw, B.E.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

Tyson, K.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The feasibility of ethanol production in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural interests across Texas are looking at the possibility of an ethanol industry in Texas. Continued conflict in the Middle East, the ban of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in California, and low commodity prices have all lead to increased interest in ethanol throughout the state of Texas. There have been several ethanol feasibility studies conducted. Most studies have been focused in other states, and only one incorporated risk on input and output prices. Very little research has been done in Texas. Previous studies are typically for a generic location and only looked at ethanol production from corn. This study looks at four different plant sizes in three different regions using corn and grain sorghum. This study incorporates risk on input prices (corn, grain sorghum, natural gas, and electricity) and the output prices of ethanol and dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). The regions that were analyzed in the study are the Texas Panhandle, the Central Texas region, and the Southeast Texas region. The results indicate that the only plants expected to generate a positive net present value (NPV) were the larger grain sorghum based plants in the Texas Panhandle. The smaller sorghum based plants in the Panhandle did not have a positive NPV. The only other plants that were close to having a positive net present value were the grain sorghum plants in the Central Texas Region. Sorghum in the Southeast Texas Region was not feasible. Using corn as the feedstock was not as feasible in any region. The results of a sensitivity analysis show that a small increase in the net income in the form of increased revenue or reduced costs would make all the plants profitable.

Herbst, Brian Keith

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Multipodal coordination of a tetracarboxylic crown ether with NH 4 + : A vibrational spectroscopy and computational study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elucidation of the structural requirements for molecular recognition by the crown ether (18–crown–6)-2

Paola Hurtado; Francisco Gámez; Said Hamad; Bruno Martínez–Haya; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity under milder reaction ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Yoshimi Akaike

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

77

The interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have studied the interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) in order to model the effects of surface structure and humidity on the bonding and decomposition of perfluoroalkyl ether lubricants with metal surfaces. In order to understand the interactions on Ru(100), we have first investigated the interactions of each of these adsorbates alone on the clean surface. The interactions of water with Ru(100) have been studied using both thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). From these studies we conclude that a small amount of water dissociates on this surface (5--10% of a monolayer), but water is adsorbed in a predominantly molecular form on this surface with an increasing degree of hydrogen-bonding with increasing coverage. The effects of hydrogen and oxygen coadsorption on the interactions of water with this surface have also been studied using TDS. Finally, the interactions of coadsorbed water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) have been investigated using TDS.

Leavitt, P.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

78

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured and initial investigations at low DME blend ratios (around 5-10 vol%) will begin shortly. They have also performed viscosity measurements on diesel fuel, DME and 50-50 blends of DME in diesel. These tests have verified that DME has a much lower viscosity than the diesel fuel and that the viscosity of the blended fuel is also much lower than the diesel base fuel. This has implications for the injection and atomization of the DME/diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Interactions between Ether Phospholipids and Cholesterol as Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Cholesterol and ether lipids are ubiquitous in mammalian cell membranes, and their interactions are crucial in ether lipid mediated cholesterol trafficking. We report on cholesterol s molecular interactions with ether lipids as determined using a combination of small-angle neutron and Xray scattering, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A scattering density profile model for an ether lipid bilayer was developed using MD simulations, which was then used to simultaneously fit the different experimental scattering data. From analysis of the data the various bilayer structural parameters were obtained. Surface area constrained MD simulations were also performed to reproduce the experimental data. This iterative analysis approach resulted in good agreement between the experimental and simulated form factors. The molecular interactions taking place between cholesterol and ether lipids were then determined from the validated MD simulations. We found that in ether membranes cholesterol primarily hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroup phosphate oxygen, while in their ester membrane counterparts cholesterol hydrogen bonds with the backbone ester carbonyls. This different mode of interaction between ether lipids and cholesterol induces cholesterol to reside closer to the bilayer surface, dehydrating the headgroup s phosphate moiety. Moreover, the three-dimensional lipid chain spatial density distribution around cholesterol indicates anisotropic chain packing, causing cholesterol to tilt. These insights lend a better understanding of ether lipid-mediated cholesterol trafficking and the roles that the different lipid species have in determining the structural and dynamical properties of membrane associated biomolecules.

Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Mostofian, Barmak [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Dimethyl ether (DME): a clean fuel of the 21st century and catalysts for it  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is a substitute of LNG and light oil. DME burns without particulate matters and SOx, so DME is a clean fuel. DME is a storage and carrier of hydrogen. For these usages, useful catalysts such as DME steam reforming catalysts and DME ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by a sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. The reason was ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Development of single type copper alumina catalysts for hydrogen production from dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. Aiming at ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi; Atsushi Ban

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Title Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 50 Pagination 1139-1147 Keywords ionic conductivity, plasticizer, polyacrylate ethers, single ion conductor Abstract Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li);

86

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

87

Quantum ether: photons and electrons from a rotor model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an example of a purely bosonic model -- a rotor model on the 3D cubic lattice -- whose low energy excitations behave like massless U(1) gauge bosons and massless Dirac fermions. This model can be viewed as a ``quantum ether'': a medium that gives rise to both photons and electrons. It illustrates a general mechanism for the emergence of gauge bosons and fermions known as ``string-net condensation.'' Other, more complex, string-net condensed models can have excitations that behave like gluons, quarks and other particles in the standard model. This suggests that photons, electrons and other elementary particles may have a unified origin: string-net condensation in our vacuum.

Michael Levin; Xiao-Gang Wen

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

88

MTBE (Oxygenate) Imports from OPEC  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

89

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Area of Entry by Area of Entry Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Bonded Aircraft Fuel Other Bonded Aircraft Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Bonded, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Other, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 2000 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, 0.31 to 1.00% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Greater than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

90

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In AEO2009, E10a gasoline blend containing 10 percent ethanolis assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California RFG, as opposed to the 5.7-percent blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7-percent blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0 percent oxygen content under the CAA provisions in effect at that time

Information Center

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Inputs & Utilization Inputs & Utilization Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline.

93

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

Collum, David B.

94

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas containing oxygen gas considering of biomass gasfication gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis from syngas. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity with long ... Keywords: DME, biomass, catalyst, clean fuel, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, gasification gas, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Akane Arase

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

98

Modeling the Nanophase Structural Dynamics of Phenylated Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) Membranes as a Function of Hydration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvated phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) membranes in the presence of hydronium ions were modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The characterization of the nanophase structure and dynamics of such membranes was carried out as a function of the water content lambda, where lambda is the number of water molecules per sulfonate group, for lambda values of 3.5, 6, 11, 25, and 40. Analysis of pair correlation functions supports the experimental observation of membrane swelling upon hydration as well the increase in water and hydronium ion diffusion with increasing lambda. While the average number of hydrogen bonds between hydronium ions and sulfonate groups is dramatically affected by the hydration level, the average lifetime of the hydrogen bonds remains essentially constant. The membrane is found to be relatively rigid and its overall flexibility shows little dependence on water content. Compared to Nafion, water and ion diffusion coefficients are considerably smaller at lower hydration levels and room temperature. However, at higher lambda values of 25 and 40 these coefficients are comparable to those in Nafion at a lambda value of 16. This study also shows that water diffusion in Ph-SPEEKK membranes at low hydration levels can be significantly improved by raising the temperature with important implications for proton conductivity.

Lins, Roberto D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

99

2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

Soloway, Albert H. (Worthington, OH); Barth, Rolf F. (Columbus, OH); Anisuzzaman, Abul K. (Columbus, OH); Alam, Fazlul (Anaheim, CA); Tjarks, Werner (Columbus, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 27,197 26,722 26,923 26,320 25,564 27,995 1981-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 628 784 836 842 527 636 2004-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 25,209 24,689 24,786 24,186 23,810 26,040 2004-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 523 404 487 460 431 473 2004-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 450 432 430 432 415 429 2004-2013 West Coast (PADD 5)

102

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Research Article Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a New Biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2011 Jiang Dayong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether is developed. This fuel has one more ester group than the traditional biodiesel. The fuel was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR and P 1P H NMR analyses. Engine test results show that when a tested diesel engine is fueled with this biodiesel in place of 0 # diesel fuel, engine-out smoke emissions can be decreased by 25.0%–75.0%, CO emissions can be reduced by 50.0%, and unburned HC emissions are lessened significantly. However, NOx emissions generally do not change noticeably. In the area of combustion performance, both engine in-cylinder pressure and its changing rate with crankshaft angle are increased to some extent. Rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has a much higher cetane number and shorter ignition delay, leading to autoignition 1.1 ? CA earlier than diesel fuel during engine operation. Because of certain amount of oxygen contained in the new biodiesel, the engine thermal efficiency is improved 13.5%–20.4 % when fueled with the biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. 1.

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Liu Shuguang; Guo Hejun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

107

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Performances of Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a Novel Biodiesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has been developed, which has one more ester group than traditional biodiesel. It was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR, 1H NMR analyses. ... Keywords: component, rapeseed oil monoester, synthesis, exhaust emissions, combustion performances

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Wang Wenguo; Han Qilong

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

MTBE Prices Responded to Natural Gas Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

On top of the usual factors impacting gasoline prices, natural gas has had some influence recently. ... Both methane and butane come from natural gas streams.

112

U.S. MTBE (Oxygenate) Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Singapore : 2005-2005: Taiwan : 2004-2004-= No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company ...

113

MTBE (Oxygenate) Imports from Non OPEC  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

114

MTBE (Oxygenate) Imports from Korea, South  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

115

Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

Semelsberger, T. A. (Troy A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites  

SciTech Connect

Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pH{sub i}in vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pH{sub i} of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pH{sub i} in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pH{sub i} may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

Louisse, Jochem, E-mail: jochem.louisse@wur.n [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bai Yanqing [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); Verwei, Miriam; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de [TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Blaauboer, Bas J. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Alkaline-side extraction of technetium from tank waste using crown ethers and other extractants  

SciTech Connect

The chemical development of a new crown-ether-based solvent-extraction process for the separation of (Tc) from alkaline tank-waste supernate is ready for counter-current testing. The process addresses a priority need in the proposed cleanup of Hanford and other tank wastes. This need has arisen from concerns due to the volatility of Tc during vitrification, as well as {sup 99}Tc`s long half-life and environmental mobility. The new process offers several key advantages that direct treatability--no adjustment of the waste composition is needed; economical stripping with water; high efficiency--few stages needed; non-RCRA chemicals--no generation of hazardous or mixed wastes; co-extraction of {sup 90}Sr; and optional concentration on a resin. A key concept advanced in this work entails the use of tandem techniques: solvent extraction offers high selectivity, while a subsequent column sorption process on the aqueous stripping solution serves to greatly concentrate the Tc. Optionally, the stripping solution can be evaporated to a small volume. Batch tests of the solvent-extraction and stripping components of the process have been conducted on actual melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste as well as simulants of MVST and Hanford waste. The tandem process was demonstrated on MVST waste simulants using the three solvents that were selected the final candidates for the process. The solvents are 0.04 M bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (abbreviated di-t-BuCH18C6) in a 1:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M (an isoparaffinic kerosene); 0.02 M di-t-BuCH18C6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar M and pure TBP. The process is now ready for counter-current testing on actual Hanford tank supernates.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.; Presley, D.J.; Armstrong, V.S.; Haverlock, T.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sachleben, R.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The lightness of being: mass, ether, and unification of the forces  

SciTech Connect

How can an electron be both a wave and a particle? At the same time? Because it is a quantum field. That key insight seems to be underappreciated, given the awe and mysticism that permeate most nontechnical discussions of modern physics. Perhaps the root of the problem is that most popularizations of quantum mechanics and of particle physics shy away from quantized fields, the natural language for microscopic phenomena. In 'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces', Frank Wilczek confronts quantum field theory head on, demystifying not only wave-particle duality but also the origin of mass for hadrons (that is, everyday matter). Wilczek is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at MIT and a co-recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. His research has spanned almost all aspects of theoretical particle physics, with significant forays into condensed-matter physics and dense nuclear matter (condensed quark matter, one might say). Recurring themes are the richness of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the alluring ideas of unification. His breadth and depth make him a sought after speaker for colloquia and public lectures. Wilczek also contributes an occasional Reference Frame column to 'Physics Today'. The material in 'The Lightness of Being' reflects the scope of the author's research. The book consists of three parts: the quantum fields of QCD (the ether that makes mass), gravitation (the ether that feels mass), and unification. Part 1, which traces notions of mass from Isaac Newton's time through theoretical and computational results of the past 40 years, is the most substantial and original; it is rich, modern, and rooted in observed phenomena. Part 2 continues in the same vein as it connects gravity, also an observed phenomenon, to QCD. Part 3 is more conventional, for a popularization of particle physics, in its focus on speculative ideas that (still) await direct experimental tests. Readers of 'Physics Today' will know that Wilczek can write with wit, grace, and an uncanny facility for using lightweight language to express heavy-duty ideas. They will find much of that kind of writing in 'The Lightness of Being'. Wilczek addresses subtle ideas with vim and vigor. He avoids some of the jargon of quantum field theory; for example, he calls the vertex in a Feynman diagram a hub. In more ambitious terminology, he refers to space-filling, everfluctuating quantum fields--be they electrons, quarks, gluons, or gravity--as 'the Grid'. The term is supposed to be short and familiar, evoking the ubiquitous electric grid (and soon-to-beubiquitous computing grid). It also, for the expert, cleverly alludes to lattice gauge theory. Indeed, after vividly explaining how the dynamics of QCD and the constraints of Heisenberg uncertainty conspire to create mass from the Grid, Wilczek emphasizes that the picture is backed by lattice QCD computations of 'heroic' proportions. Unfortunately, too much of 'The Lightness' is laden with clunky affectation: silly names (a pulsed electron accelerator is called the 'ultrastroboscopic nanomicroscope'), sophomoric jokes ('hadron' is 'not a typo'), references to pop culture (Wilczek might have called quantum fields 'the Matrix, but the sequels tarnished that candidate'), and many pointless footnotes. In a public lecture the audience may guffaw at such jokes, but on the printed page they fall flat. Wilczek explains physics so well that the inappropriate humor is the biggest unexplained puzzle of the book. It is fine to be silly, even crude, as long as the reader's path to understanding is made easier. A joke can inform with an unexpected perspective or simply give the mind a pause to refresh. Some of the humor achieves such aims, but too many gags impede the pace of the otherwise fine exposition. Three appendices, a glossary, and a set of endnotes are crisp and sober. They are excellent. 'The Lightness of Being' is not unbearable, but it is weighed down with too much clutter to rank as a masterpiece. It's a pity: Wilczek's best writing--some of it in this book--is l

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Stocks Total Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

122

Annual Energy Outlook 2005-Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AD AD Associated-dissolved (natural gas) AEO2004 Annual Energy Outlook 2004 AEO2005 Annual Energy Outlook 2005 Altos Altos Partners AMT Alternative Minimum Tax ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Btu British thermal unit CAFE Corporate average fuel economy CAMR Clean Air Mercury Rule CARB California Air Resources Board CBECS Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (EIA) CBO Congressional Budget Office CCCC Climate Change Credit Corporation CH 4 Methane CHP Combined heat and power CO 2 Carbon dioxide CTL Coal-to-liquids DB Deutsche Bank, A.G. E85 Fuel containing a blend of 70 to 85 percent ethanol and 30 to 15 percent gasoline by volume EEA Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. EIA Energy Information Administration EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE Ethyl tertiary butyl ether EVA Energy Ventures Analysis, Incorporated FERC

123

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Weekly Supply Estimates Weekly Supply Estimates Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

124

Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Homepage Homepage ACEEE American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy AD Associated-dissolved (natural gas) AEO Annual Energy Outlook AGA American Gas Association ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge API American Petroleum Institute BRP Blue Ribbon Panel Btu British thermal unit CAAA90 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CARB California Air Resources Board CCAP Climate Change Action Plan CDM Clean Development Mechanism CECA Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act CIDI Compression ignition direct injection CO Carbon monoxide DBAB Deutsche Banc Alex. Brown DOE U.S. Department of Energy DRI Standard & PoorÂ’s DRI EIA Energy Information Administration EOR Enhanced oil recovery EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE Ethyl tertiary butyl ether

125

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Imports & Exports Imports & Exports Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

126

Annual Energy Outlook 1999 - Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

acronyms.gif (3491 bytes) acronyms.gif (3491 bytes) AD - Associated/dissolved natural gas AEO98 - Annual Energy Outlook 1998 AEO99 - Annual Energy Outlook 1999 AFVs - Alternative-fuel vehicles AGA - American Gas Association API - American Petroleum Institute BTAB - BT Alex Brown CAAA90 - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CCAP - Climate Change Action Plan CDM - Clean Development Mechanism CFCs - Chlorofluorocarbons CNG - Compressed natural gas CO - Carbon monoxide CO2 - Carbon dioxide DOE - U.S. Department of Energy DRI - DRI/McGraw-Hill EIA - Energy Information Administration EOR - Enhanced oil recovery EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT - Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE - Ethyl tertiary butyl ether EU - European Union FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission GDP - Gross domestic product

127

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Synthesis of Cyclic Aza-Ether Compounds and Studies of Their Use as Anion Receptors in Non-Aqueous Lithium Halide Salt Solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of new anion receptors, based on cyclic aza-ether compounds, have been synthesized. In all of these cyclic aza-ether compounds, the electron-withdrawing group CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} was attached to each of the nitrogen atoms. When used as additives, all of them can significantly increase the ionic conductivity of lithium halide salts in THF solutions. This is due to the complexation between these compounds and halide anions. Ionic conductivity studies show that the complexation behavior is related to both the ring structure of the cyclic compounds and the characteristics of the halide anions. X-ray diffraction data show that the diffraction patterns of the complex crystals are different from the pure cyclic aza-ether compounds. New Bragg peaks representing a large d-spacing ({approx}15 {angstrom}) are observed for the complex crystals which provides a clear evidence for complexation.

Lee, H. S.; Sun, X.; Yang, X. Q.; McBreen, J.; Callahan, J. H.; Choi, L. S.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m{sup 2}/gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation both as feed. The operation condition is 150 deg. C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

Widayat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia); Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia)

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

132

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

133

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

134

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers  

SciTech Connect

Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

Wai, C.M.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Electrochemical Investigation of Li–Al Anodes in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 500 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of 0.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 30.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 100 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 280 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

Zhou, Y.N.; Yang, X.; Wang, X.J.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Haas, O.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Electrochemical Investigation of Li-Al Anodes in Oligo (ethylene glycol) Dimethyl ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 5 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of .48 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 3.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 1 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 28 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

Y Zhou; X Wang; H Lee; K Nam; X Yang; O Haas

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Heat Capacity Uncertainty Calculation for the Eutectic Mixture of Biphenyl/Diphenyl Ether Used as Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty at 95% confidence for the experimental values of heat capacity of the eutectic mixture of biphenyl/diphenyl ether (Therminol VP-1) determined from 300 to 370 degrees C. Twenty-five samples were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain the sample heat flow as a function of temperature. The ASTM E-1269-05 standard was used to determine the heat capacity using DSC evaluations. High-pressure crucibles were employed to contain the sample in the liquid state without vaporizing. Sample handling has a significant impact on the random uncertainty. It was determined that the fluid is difficult to handle, and a high variability of the data was produced. The heat capacity of Therminol VP-1 between 300 and 370 degrees C was measured to be equal to 0.0025T+0.8672 with an uncertainty of +/- 0.074 J/g.K (3.09%) at 95% confidence with T (temperature) in Kelvin.

Gomez, J. C.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Mehos, M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G. [Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Weberstrasse 5, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Maas, U. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

U.S. Exports to Chile of MTBE (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 2000's: 21: 627: 930: 1,110: 2010's: 1,040: 1,115: 1,327-

142

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the world. Price of crude oil. Wellhead price of naturalfor natural gas. Supply of crude oil. Supply of natural gas.to an increased demand for crude oil. Ethanol also has lower

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Montgomery. “Social Cost of Imported Oil and U.S. ImportCredit Change in Re?ning Cost, Oil Import Bill, and ConsumerCredit Change in Re?ning Cost, Oil Import Bill, and Consumer

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasoline Elasticity Natural Gas Supply Elasticity NaturalReduced demand for natural gas Supply of Imports Ethanol &alternative scenarios for natural gas supply and demand. By

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

purchasing natural gas imports at a lower price. Natural gasin the price of natural gas imports is a net bene?t to thesocial cost of natural gas imports was consid- erably less

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

U.S. Exports to Venezuela of MTBE (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2005: 271: 297: 551: 258: 223: 254: 663: 2006: 553: 311: 613: 766: 408: 755: 878: 1,099: 687: 775: 397: 488 ...

147

MTBE Pipeline Stocks by Type - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

148

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equivalent quantity (in energy terms) since oil imports areU.S. oil imports calculated equilibrium quantity of importsworld oil price times the equilibrium quantity of imports

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ethanol and MTBE A Comparison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmentally Sound Economic DevelopmentThe Institute for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR) is a nonprofit research and educational organization that provides technical assistance and information on environmentally sound economic development strategies. Since 1974, ILSR has worked with citizen groups, governments and private businesses in developing policies that extract the maximum value from local resources.

Irshad Ahmed; David Morris; Irshad Ahmed; David Morris

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and W.D. Montgomery. Oil Prices, Energy Security, and Importnew equilibrium world oil price and level of U.S. imports.to estimate the changes in oil prices that would result from

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

analytical agency within the Department of Energy. ... their facilities as well, ... making changes to meet the requirements. The switchover to ethanol based-RFG,

152

Supply Impact of Losing MTBE and Using Ethanol  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presented by: Joanne Shore Presented to: OPIS National Supply Summit San Antonio, Texas October 2002

Information Center

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3 h (358.3 {+-} 12.4 mOsm/L) relative to 45 min post hyperosmotic injection (325.1 {+-} 11.4 mOsm/L). Impaired osmoregulation in PBDE-treated animals could not be attributed to decreased levels of plasma vasopressin. Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation in late adulthood. - Highlights: > We examined whether PBDE exposure could impact osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. > Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. > PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation.

Shah, Ashini [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Coburn, Cary G. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Leon-Olea, Martha [Neuromorfologia Funcional, Direccion de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Mexico City (Mexico); Gaertner, Mark [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S. [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Curras-Collazo, Margarita C., E-mail: margarita.curras@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Electrochemical Investigation of Al–Li/LixFePO4 Cells in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight, 500 g mol{sup -1} (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}), was investigated as an electrolyte in experimental Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. More than 60 cycles were achieved using this electrolyte in a Li-ion cell with an Al-Li alloy as an anode sandwiched between two Li x FePO{sub 4} electrodes (cathodes). Charging efficiencies of 96-100% and energy efficiencies of 86-89% were maintained during 60 cycles at low current densities. A theoretical investigation revealed that the specific energy can be increased up to 15% if conventional LiC{sub 6} anodes are replaced by Al-Li alloy electrodes. The specific energy and the energy density were calculated as a function of the active mass per electrode surface (charge density). The results reveal that for a charge density of 4 mAh cm{sup -2} about 160 mWh g{sup -1} can be reached with Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} batteries. Power limiting diffusion processes are discussed, and the power capability of Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells was experimentally evaluated using conventional electrolytes.

Wang, X.J.; Zhou, Y.N.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Yang, X.Q.; Haas, O.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Legislation & Regulations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

leg_reg.gif (4810 bytes) Climate Change Action Plan Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act Tier 2 Vehicle Emissions and Gasoline Sulfur Standards California Ban of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Low-Emission Vehicle Program Introduction Because analyses by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) are required to be policy-neutral, the projections in this Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) are based on Federal, State, and local laws and regulations in effect on July 1, 1999. The potential impacts of pending or proposed legislation, regulations, and standards and sections of existing legislation for which funds have not been appropriated are not reflected in the projections. Federal legislation incorporated in the projections includes the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which adds 4.3 cents per gallon to the Federal tax on highway fuels [1]; the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987; the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90); the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT); the Outer Continental Shelf Deep Water Royalty Relief Act of 1995; the Tax Payer Relief Act of 1997; and the Federal Highway Bill of 1998, which includes an extension of the ethanol tax credit. AEO2000 assumes the continuation of the ethanol tax credit through 2020.

157

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 10.5 Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Fuel Consumption, 1992-2010 Year Alternative and Replacement Fuels 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Compressed Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Methanol, 85 Percent (M85) 3 Methanol, Neat (M100) 4 Ethanol, 85 Percent (E85) 3,5 Ethanol, 95 Percent (E95) 3 Elec- tricity 6 Hydro- gen Other Fuels 7 Subtotal Oxygenates 2 Bio- diesel 10 Total Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether 8 Ethanol in Gasohol 9 Total Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use 11 (number) 1992 NA 23,191 90 4,850 404 172 38 1,607 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1993 NA 32,714 299 10,263 414 441 27 1,690 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994 NA 41,227 484 15,484 415 605 33 2,224 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1995 172,806 50,218 603 18,319 386 1,527

158

Densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine + triethylene glycol monomethyl ether from 25 C to 70 C and N-methyldiethanolamine + ethanol mixtures at 40 C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies done on the absorption and desorption of acid gases (CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S) from natural gas, petroleum, and ammonia synthesis streams have shown that aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) can be used effectively for the selective removal of H{sub 2}S. This paper reports the measured values of the density and viscosity of binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEGMME) at five temperatures in the range 25 C to 70 C over the whole concentration range. The authors also report the density and viscosity of the binary mixture MDEA + ethanol at 40 C. The results are compared with data for aqueous mixtures and other alkanolamines when these are available. The derived excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were correlated as a function of composition. The Grunberg-Nissan interaction energy constants are also reported.

Henni, A.; Maham, Y.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chakma, A.; Mather, A.E.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

160

Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available.

Jackson, D.

1992-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006 - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

increased liability exposure due to the elimination of the oxygen content requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG) included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

162

U.S. Net Imports from Chile of MTBE (Thousand Barrels per Day)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 2000's: 0-2-3-3: 2010's-3-3-4-

163

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Long version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

58 Natural Gas Supply andalternative scenarios for natural gas supply and demand. Bya wide range for natural gas supply and demand elasticities,

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Condensed version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demand and prices. NATURAL GAS SUPPLY AND DEMAND D N = A N *= B N * P, N eN S N Natural gas supply is a function of therest of the world Supply of natural gas in region X where X

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Condensed version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technical Appendices, Refinery Modeling Task 3: SupplyStates is produced in refineries and merchant plants fromand other problems in the refinery. Separate storage tanks

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Long version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

22 4.4.1 RefineryStates is produced in refineries and merchant plants fromand other problems in the refinery. Separate storage tanks

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Long version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an equivalent quantity (in energy terms), oil imports, sinceworld oil price times the equilibrium quantity of importsDG Quantity of Gasoline Figure 3: Social Cost of Higher Oil

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Long version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an equivalent quantity (in energy terms), oil imports, sinceQuantity of Gasoline Figure 3: Social Cost of Higher Oil Importsworld oil price times the equilibrium quantity of imports

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

170

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China  

SciTech Connect

In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Development of alternative fuels from coal derived syngas. Topical report: Task 2.2, Demonstration of a one-step slurry-phase process for the production of dimethyl ether/methanol mixtures at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit  

SciTech Connect

This report documents engineering, modification, and operations efforts of demonstration of dimethyl-ether/methanol coproduction in a slurry-phase reactor, carried out in a 2-ft diameter bubble column reactor. Equipment modifications made it possible to remove the product DME and by-product CO{sub 2} from the reactor effluent. Coproduction of dimethyl-ether (DME) and methanol (MeOH) was accomplished in the slurry reactor by physically mixing two different catalysts. The catalyst used to produce MeOH from syngas was manufactured by BASF (type S3-86); the catalyst used to convert MeOH to DME was Catapal {gamma}-alumina. Ratio of MeOH to DME catalysts determined the selectivity towards DME. The demonstration sought to study effect of cocatalyst ratio on product selectivity. Three different proportions of DME catalyst were examined: 0, 6.6, and 19.3 wt % alumina. At each catalyst proportion, the plant was operated at two different gas space velocities. Some process variables were maintained at fixed conditions; most important variables included: reactor temperature (482F), reactor pressure (750 psig), and reactor feed gas composition (35% H{sub 2}, 51% CO,13% CO{sub 2} 1% other, nominal-molar basis).

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Huber, and MO McLinden, NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version ...

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

173

Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... RF Hafer, Viscosity of Fluorinated Propane Isomers. ... EW Lemmon, An Equation of State for the ... Dense Fluids, Plenum Press, New York and London ...

2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

174

Venezuela Gasoline Production & Demand  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Change and Uncertainty Today’s gasoline imports essential to meet ... Refinery-based MTBE production and some merchant MTBE facilities will be ...

175

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. The conversion of coal gasification products to commercially valuable alcohols will provide an important new market for current and future gasification plants. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. The support for the active metal sulfide is a layered mixed oxide (hydrotalcite) capable of interaction with the metal sites for catalysis of carbon monoxide reductions. These catalysts have a high surface area, are highly porous, and have basic and acidic functionality. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group 8 metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted Ru catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl-ether. Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

[Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test stand is an asset which provides an ongoing research capability dedicated to the testing of alternative fuels for aircraft engines. The test stand is now entirely functional with the exception of the electronic ignition unit which still needs adjustments.

NONE

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Why sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sequence ethene and vinyl sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains? Mycobacteria are known for causing human and animal diseases but they are also important degraders of hard-to-break-down water contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). So far the handful of bacterial species representing the Mycobacterium genus that have been sequenced all break down PAHs. In this project, researchers focus on the genomes of mycobacterial species isolated from soil, freshwater and marine environments that use the alkene compounds ethene and vinyl chloride as carbon sources. Chlorinated ethene compounds are difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater but necessary because of their toxicity. Additionally these compounds reduce the ozone levels in the atmosphere.

178

APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

180

Weekly Petroleum Status Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Annual report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our engine studies have concentrated on 2 areas of interest to autoignition and emissions from engines. In the first, we investigated the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the reactivity and autoignition behavior of 87 PRF. In the second study, we continued work on the effects of blending ethers on the reactivity and autoignition of a primary reference fuel blend, 87 PRF, with emphasis placed on the chemical interactions between ethers and the baseline fuel. The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the reactivity and autoignition behavior of 87 PRF were examined in our research engine under motored conditions at compression ratios of 5.2 and 8.2. The most significant conclusions of our study are: (1) nitric oxide does interact with the hydrocarbon oxidation at conditions typically experienced by the end gas in a fired engine; (2) the effect is complex and, depending on the reaction environment, the same concentration of NO can produce dramatically different results. These results are particularly important given the fact that residual fractions and recycled exhaust gases in spark ignited engines typically result in about 200--600 ppm of NO in the unburned charge. The octane enhancing ethers, MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and DIPE, were blended into 87 PRF at a constant 0 atom fraction of 1.94% in the fuel mixtures and the mixtures were tested under motored conditions at our new compression ratio of 8.2. This new compression ratio allows studies on autoignition behaviors of 87 PRF with and without ethers. The results showed that, when using 87 PRF/ether mixtures, reactivity was significantly reduced as indicated by the higher inlet temperature required to initiate reactivity, significantly lower maximum CO concentration and the significantly higher inlet temperature required for autoignition.

Cernansky, N.P.

1994-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

182

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

SciTech Connect

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

183

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL AND ETHER ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

essential oil from R. rugosum was investigated for further development and application. The chemical and class composition of the oils are presented in Table 1.

184

Direct Dimethyl Ether Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Portable Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Kosek, C. Cropley, and A. LaConti, in Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering

185

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4: April 21, 4: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on AddThis.com... Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE

186

VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Catalytic reforming followed as a means of upgrading the octane of gasoline range materials principally): Catalytic reforming, Isomerization, Alkylation, Catalytic polymerization, MTBE and Hydrotreating. The last Distillation Visbreaking Hydrotreating Hydrocracking Thermal Reforming Alkylation MTBE Catalytic Reform ing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 December 2011 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst,

188

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

September 2013 September 2013 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst,

189

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 86-018-1758, Robbins and Myers, Incorporated, Moyno Products Division, Springfield, Ohio. [Vitiligo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to a request from Robbins and Myers, Inc., an investigation was made of a possible health hazard at its Moyno Products Division, Springfield, Ohio. A case of vitiligo, possibly related to working with rubber products in pump manufacture was identified by a dermatologist. Uncured and cured rubber was found to contain 2,4-di-tertiary-butyl-phenol (DTBP) (0.01 to 0.03%) and para-tertiary-butyl-phenol (too low to quantitate). This class of compounds has been associated with vitiligo. Medical survey and examinations revealed four cases of active vitiligo. Its presence was significantly associated with highest exposure to rubber. Rubber department workers had a 22-fold higher risk for the condition compared to other employees. Comparing the four observed cases with an expected 1.1 cases (Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) yielded a standardized morbidity ratio of 3.6. The authors conclude that exposure to DTBP in rubber is the cause of vitiligo in these workers. Recommendations include testing rubber samples for contaminants, modification of work practices, and medical screening of exposed workers.

O'Malley, M.A.; Mathias, C.G.T.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

191

U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propylene (Nonfuel Use) Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Grade Butane Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products

192

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

193

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

194

Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

initiated ignition in methane-propane mixtures”, Combustiontemperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive:detonation in ethylene and propane mixtures”, Combustion and

Saxena, Priyank

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Direct Detection of Products from the Pyrolysis of 2-Phenethyl Phenyl Ether Mark W. Jarvis,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Pyrolysis." In Biomass Handbook; C. W. Hall, ed. Gordon and Breach: New York, 1989; pp. 379-385. (with Pyrolysis of Biomass Derived Volatile Matter." In Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion; R. P. "Biomass Pyrolysis. A Review of the Literature - Part 1: Carbohydrate Pyrolysis." In Advances in Solar

Dean, Anthony M.

196

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will controlled by diffusion in the biofilm near the outlet of the reactor. A fundamental parameter and control in bioreactors equipped with some degree of instrumentation, fundamental knowledge for the proper handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals, Volume III. Volatile

197

The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

Hadder, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McNutt, B.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

McGrath, James E. (Blacksburg, VA); Park, Ho Bum (Austin, TX); Freeman, Benny D. (Austin, TX)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

199

Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include wood framing with plywood underlying the floor, twowith low-VOC paint. The plywood subfloor was covered with

Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, weed-eater, shovel, and a rake. A chipper, compost bin, or a large rented trash dumpster may be useful

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Measurements of flatflame velocities of diethyl ether in air Fiona Gillespiea,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is being drawn towards bioderived fuels, the most common of which is bioethanol. Bioethanol. %; however, bioethanol is produced primarily from food sources (corn, sugarcane, etc.) and its energy output to allow a sufficient flow of oxygen through the burner plate. Bronkhorst conversion coefficient factors

202

A New Biarylphosphine Ligand for the Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers under Mild Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new bulky biarylphosphine ligand (L8) has been developed that allows the Pd-catalyzed C–O cross-coupling of a wide range of aryl halides and phenols under milder conditions than previously possible. A direct correlation ...

Salvi, Luca

203

Methods and techniques for disruption-free network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

areas. The National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) Survey reports MTBE content (as. The content of MTBE is seasonal, particularly in OXY areas, and can vary in many locations. However, NIPER. Using NIPER data, areas of the country where NAWQA has sampled surface and ground water were classified

Bonaventure, Olivier

204

Microsoft Word - BingQuestionOne1004.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban September 2002 ii Energy Information Administration/Supply Impacts of An MTBE Ban Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Oil and Gas of the Energy Information Administration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler@eia.doe.gov), Director, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, or Joanne Shore (202/586-4677, joanne.shore@eia.doe.gov), Team Leader, Petroleum Division. 1 Energy Information Administration/Supply Impacts of An MTBE Ban Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban On June 17, 2002, Senator Jeff Bingaman, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested (Appendix A) that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) provide analysis of eight factors related to the Senate-passed fuels

205

Children's residential exposures to flame retardants, pesticides and pesticide degradation products, and the relationship of pesticides with autonomic nervous system functioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diphenyl ethers: a flame-retardant additive in severaldiphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Neurotoxicology. 28,diphenyl ethers: a flame-retardant additive in several

Quiros Alcala, Lesliam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

petroleum petroleum Alcohol: The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2))n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate: The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high-octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation: A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of anacid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product alkylate, an isoparaffin, has high octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to

207

@Title = Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms (Revised January 2010) Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH 3 - (CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, an

208

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical compounds composed of chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group: CH 3 -(CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., metha- nol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures contain- ing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alco- hols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and "... any other fuel the Secretary determines, by

209

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2)) n -OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydro- gen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar

210

PSADEFS.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Definitions Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH 3 - (CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usu- ally refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gaso- line. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, buty- lene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, an isoparaffin, has high octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to improve the antiknock

211

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Final report, August 26, 1993--August 26, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Motivated by the goal of finding improved catalysts for low- temperature conversion of light alkanes into fuel components or precursors of fuel components, the researchers have investigated sulfated zirconia and promoted sulfated zirconia for conversion of butane, propane, and ethane. Catalyst performance data for sulfated zirconia promoted with iron and manganese show that it is the most active noncorrosive, nonhalide catalyst known for n-butane isomerization, and it is an excellent candidate catalyst for new low- temperature n-butane isomerization processes to make isobutane, which can be converted by established technology into methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). Various transition metals have been found to work as promoters of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization. The combination of iron and manganese is the best known combination of promoters yet discovered. The iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is also a catalyst for conversion of propane and of ethane. Ethane is converted into ethylene and butanes in the presence of the iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia; propane is also converted into butane, among other products. However, the activities of the catalyst for these reactions are orders of magnitude less than the activity for n-butane conversion, and there is no evidence that the catalyst would be of practical value for conversion of alkanes lighter than butane. The product distribution data for ethane and propane conversion provide new insights into the nature of the catalyst and its acidity. These data suggest the involvement of Olah superacid chemistry, whereby the catalyst protonates the alkane itself, giving carbonium ions (as transition states). The mechanism of protonation of the alkane may also pertain to the conversion of butane, but there is good evidence that the butane conversion also proceeds via alkene intermediates by conventional mechanisms of carbenium ion formation and rearrangement.

Gates, B.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

Aggregation behavior of hexaoxyethyleneglycol myristate and hexaoxyethyleneglycol mono (1-methyltridecane) ether and dynamics of their micelles in aqueous solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The title surfactants have similar critical micelle concentrations and cloud temperatures. Their micellar solutions have been investigated by time resolved fluorescence quenching in the range 2--25 c. The micelle aggregation numbers of both surfactants do not differ much, and increase with temperature. Aggregation numbers are large, suggesting anisotropic micelles, and the results show that the micelles are polydisperse. Fast intermicellar exchange of material becomes detectable on the fluorescence timescale ([approximately]1 [mu]s) above T [approx] 10 C, i.e., some 35--40 C below the cloud temperature of the solution. This exchange probably occurs via micelle collisions with temporary merging. Overall the behavior of these two surfactants is very similar to that of the other ethoxylated nonionic surfactants previously examined.

Alami, E.; Zana, R. (Inst. Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France)); Van Os, N.M.; Jong, B. de; Kerkhof, F.J.M. (Koninklijke/Shell Lab., Amsterdam, (Netherlands)); Rupert, L.A.M. (Thornton Research Centre, Chester, (United Kingdom))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Experimental Determinations of Henry's Law Constants of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) to Evaluate Exposure to Aquatic Biota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

correlated to the degree of chlorine substitution, PCB K Hincreased with ortho- chlorine substitution. In contrast,their high abundance. Both chlorine isotopes (amu 35 and 37)

Charles, M. Judith; Destaillats, Hugo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of benzene to phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzeneof benzene to phenol (and catechol), and toluene toa multi-component PH, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and the meta-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Enantiomeric recognition of organic ammonium salts by chiral crown ethers based on the pyridino-18-crown-6 structure  

SciTech Connect

Enantiomeric recognition by several chiral dimethyl-substituted macrocycles of the pyridino-18-crown-6 type for chiral organic ammonium salts has been studied by titration calorimetry in CH/sub 3/OH, temperature-dependent /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy in CD/sub 2/CL/sub 2/, and selective crystallization. Results from the three procedures are consistent in demonstrating either host-guest recognition or nonrecognition in the systems investigated. Futhermore, enaniomeric recognition by one chiral host for a pair of chiral guests is correlated with X-ray crystallographic data for the same system. The chiral dimethyl-substituted ligands used in the study include three dimethyl diester pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands, dimethyl thiono diester pyridino-18-crown-6, and dimethyl-pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands. All of these ligands exhibited chiral recognition. Dimethylpyridino-18-crown-6 in complexation with (R)- and (S)-(..cap alpha..-(1-naphthyl)ethyl)ammonium perchlorate exhibited the largest ratio of ..delta..G/sub c/+ yet observed by the /sup 1/H NMR technique. A diphenyl-substituted diester pyridino-18-crown-6 where the phenyl substituents are in less rigid portion of the macrocycle failed to show chiral recognition.

Davidson, R.B.; Bradshaw, J.S.; Jones, B.A.; Dalley, N.K.; Christensen, J.J.; Izatt, R.M.

1984-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

216

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Synthesis and Characterization of Phenylethynyl Terminated Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s as Thermosetting Structural Adhesives and Composite Matrices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract High temperature, solvent resistant materials which also display good mechanical properties are desired for use as aerospace structural adhesives and polymer matrix/carbon fiber composites.… (more)

Mecham, Sue Jewel

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Computational Geosciences 1 (1997) 271288 271 Pulsing of multiple nutrients as a strategy to achieve large  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocar- bon and Other Organic Compounds, Vol. 3 (pp 3­18). Battelle Press, Columbus sources of MTBE in groundwater in the United-States, 1993­1994. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 1721

Clement, Prabhakar

219

Impacts of Motor Vehicle Operation on Water Quality in the United States - Clean-up Costs and Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil and oil filter reimbursement checks, so check processing costsCosts of remediating underground storage tank leaks exceed benefits. Oil andOil Companies Pay US EPA to Settle Santa Monica MTBE Cleanup Costs,

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Support vector machine for recognition of bio-products in gasoline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents the application of Support Vector Machine for recognition and classification of the bio-products in the gasoline. We consider the supplement of such bio-products, as ethanol, MTBE, ETBE and benzene. The recognition system contains ...

Kazimierz Brudzewski; Stanis?aw Osowski; Tomasz Markiewicz; Jan Ulaczyk

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Price Incentives for Fuel Switching: Did Price Differences Slow the Phase-Out of Leaded  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, ranging from methanol, ethanol, MTBE, and other gasoline additives to electricity. Under most regulatory gasoline, it did so essentially by requiring that all new cars built after 1975 use only unleaded fuel

California at Berkeley. University of

222

The Impacts of Motor Vehicle Operation on Water Quality: A Preliminary Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MTBE Phase-Out (02-32). Sacramento, CA. Caltrans, 2002. “Quality Handbook. ” Sacramento, CA. http://www.dot.ca.gov/Storage Tank Statistics. Sacramento, CA. October 7. http://

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Final topical report, demonstration of one-step slurry-phase process for the co-production of methanol and isobutanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid phase co-production of methanol and isobutanol (LPIBOH) was de, demonstrated at DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Methanol and isobutanol are key intermediates in a synthesis gas-based route to methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The technology was demonstrated in a new 18 in. slurry bubble-column reactor that was designed to demonstrate higher pressures and temperatures,higher gas superficial velocities, and lower gas hourly space velocities--all of which are conducive to obtaining optimal isobutanol yield. The integration of the new reactor into the AFDU included the addition of a high-pressure synthesis gas compressor, a high-pressure hydrogen feed source, and a closed-loop methanol- solvent absorption system to remove CO{sub 2} from the unconverted synthesis gas. These modifications were completed in January 1994. The LPIBOH run followed after a short turnaround. It employed a cesium- promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories and subsequently scaled up to a production- sized batch. Over a thirteen day campaign on simulated Shell gasifier gas, the catalyst and reactor system were tested at a matrix of pressures (750, 1300, 1735 psig) and space velocities (3000, 5000, 8200 sL/kg-hr), representing numerous first-of-a-kind run conditions for the AFDU. Inlet gas superficial velocities spanned an impressive 0.16 to 1.0 ft/sec. Stable reactor performance for a full twelve-hour data period at 1.0 ft/sec was another significant milestone for the liquid phase technology program. Apart from the catalyst deactivation, the run successfully demonstrated mixed alcohol synthesis in a slurry bubble-column reactor, as well as all of the new equipment installed for the trial. Although the full capabilities of the new oxygenates system will not be tested until future runs, the design objectives for the modifications were met with respect to the LPIBOH run.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(poly (ether ether ketone)) Products ranging from membrane separation filters to heat transfer devices Not-for-profit research company, providing energy and natural gas...

225

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis.

Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California-Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Hanna, Lynn A. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Keen, Carl L. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: clkeen@ucdavis.edu

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

May 2012Volunteer Volunteer 11  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Glutamic acid Anaerobic digestion mass Cellulose Biogas Bio oil Gasoline Diesel Butanol Dimethyl ether

Sharp, Kim

227

AOCS Official Method Ba 3-38  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test.

228

Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

East, Anthony (Madison, NJ); Jaffe, Michael (Maplewood, NJ); Zhang, Yi (Harrison, NJ); Catalani, Luiz H (Carapicuiba, BR)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emission Impacts of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Urban Buses and Farming Tractors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

...................................................................................................................................... 14 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Corn Fields........................................................ 34 Appendix B: Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Corn Fields) LHV lower heating value LPG liquefied petroleum gas LS low-sulfur LSD low-sulfur diesel MTBE methyl

Argonne National Laboratory

230

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/L. For the city's Char- nock well field, an initial review of known and sus- pected petroleum spill sites identified about 10 potential sources that lay within 1 km of the well field, lay above the hydrologic unit (LUFTs) and leaking pipelines, other sources of MTBE in groundwater include tank overfilling and faulty

231

Harnessing microbial activities for environmental cleanup Frank E Lo ffler1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum Institute, Depart- ment of Biotechnology of Petroleum, Eje Central LaÃ?zaro CaÃ?rdenas no. 152, Me; Hong et al., 1997). We described earlier the use of MTBE as sole organic carbon and energy source carbon sources The F- consortium could also use a wide range of hydrocarbons as sole carbon source

Löffler, Frank E.

232

Well-to-Wheels Energy and Emission Impacts of Vehicle/Fuel Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biodiesel Corn Cellulosic Biomass Soybean Various Sources Electricity Flared Gas Landfill Gas Crude Naphtha Petroleum Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas Compressed Natural Gas vs. MTBE #12;Production and Compression Are Key Steps for Centralized G.H2 Pathways NA NG Recovery

Argonne National Laboratory

233

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a given facility were divided by its throughput to develop emissions factors Distribution curves were and Storage (99%) Transportation, Storage, and Distribution of Gasoline (99.5%) MTBE or EtOH for Gasoline.5%) Steam or Electricity Export NA: North American nNA: non-North American NG: natural gas G.H2 Compression

Argonne National Laboratory

234

Occurrence and Potential Human-Health Relevance of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water from Domestic Wells in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Laboratory Reporting Level MCL, Maximum Contaminant Level MRL, Maximum Reporting Level MTBE, Methyl tert Figures 3 #12;Abstract BACKGROUND: As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic concentrations to U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) and Health-Based Screening Levels. RESULTS: VOCs

235

ORNL/TM-2000/165 Ethanol Demand in United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ORNL/TM-2000/165 Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5. THE DEMAND FOR ETHANOL USED IN U.S. REGIONAL OXYGENATE- LIMITED GASOLINE PRODUCTON IN YEAR 2006+III, SUMMER WITH 3 PERCENT MAXIMUM MTBE . . . . . . . . . 54 5.4 PADD I+III, WINTER WITH 3 PERCENT MAXIMUM

236

DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced from any one of a variety of sources (including coal) for the production of a spectrum of alternative fuels (hydrocarbons and oxygenate fuels), octane enhancers, and chemicals and chemical intermediates. In particular, the data from the 1995 LPMEOH{trademark} campaign provided confirmation of assumptions used in the design of the catalyst reduction system at the Kingsport LPMEOH{trademark} Commercial Demonstration Project, and the alternate methanol catalyst has been in use there since late 1998. The kinetic model was also expanded to allow for more accurate prediction of methanol production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) conversion, and more accurate modeling of by-product formation for the alternate methanol catalyst. The outstanding performance results of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process at Kingsport can be attributed in large part to the body of work performed since 1981 in collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products. In addition, a pilot-plant-tested LPDME{trademark} Process has been demonstrated, and the product cost of DME from coal-derived syngas can be competitive in certain locations and applications. The need for liquid fuels will continue to be a critical concern for this nation in the 21st century. Efforts are needed to ensure the development and demonstration of economically competitive, efficient, environmentally responsible technologies that produce clean fuels and chemicals from coal under DOE's Vision 21 concept. These liquids will be a component of the fuel mix that will provide the transition from the current reliance on carbon-based fuels to the ultimate use of H{sub 2} as a means of energy transport. Indirect liquefaction, which converts the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) produced by the gasification of coal to sulfur- and nitrogen-free liquid products, is a key component of the Vision 21 initiative. The results from this current program provide continued support to the objectives for the conversion of domestic coal to electric power and co-produced clean liquid fuels and chemicals in an environmentally superior manner.

Peter J. Tijrn

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

CATALYST ACTIVITY MAINTENANCE FOR THE LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS GAS-TO-DIMETHYL ETHER PROCESS PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AS THE DEHYDRATION CATALYST FOR THE SINGLE-STEP LIQUID PHASE SYNGAS-TO-DME PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the heart of the single-step liquid phase syngas-to-DME process (LPDME{trademark}) is a catalyst system that can be active as well as stable. In the Alternative Fuels I program, a dual-catalyst system containing a Cu-based commercial methanol synthesis catalyst (BASF S3-86) and a commercial dehydration material ({gamma}-alumina) was demonstrated. It provided the productivity and selectivity expected from the LPDME process. However, the catalyst system deactivated too rapidly to warrant a viable commercial process [1]. The mechanistic investigation in the early part of the DOE's Alternative Fuels II program revealed that the accelerated catalyst deactivation under LPDME conditions is due to detrimental interaction between the methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst [2,3]. The interaction was attributed to migration of Cu- and/or Zn-containing species from the synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst. Identification of a dehydration catalyst that did not lead to this detrimental interaction while retaining adequate dehydration activity was elusive. Twenty-nine different dehydration materials were tested, but none showed the desired performance [2]. The search came to a turning point when aluminum phosphate was tested. This amorphous material is prepared by precipitating a solution containing Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with NH{sub 4}OH, followed by washing, drying and calcination. The aluminum phosphate catalyst has adequate dehydration activity and good stability. It can co-exist with the Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst without negatively affecting the latter catalyst's stability. This report documents the details of the development of this catalyst. These include initial leads, efforts in improving activity and stability, investigation and development of the best preparation parameters and procedures, mechanistic understanding and resulting preparation guidelines, and the accomplishments of this work.

Xiang-Dong Peng

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

“BEST VALUES” OF CUP-BURNER EXTINGUISHING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... diesel no. 2 diethyl ether ethanol ethyl acetate ethylene glycol Exxon Turbo Oil gasoline (unleaded) heptane (commercial ...

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

239

Results of Reference List Query  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1991) (54-1333 keV: acetophenone, acetylacetone, bakelite, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, cellulose-triacetate, ethanol, ether, ethylacetoacetate ...

240

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Grease Basics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Silicones Chlorofluorocarbon Alkylated benzene Phosphate esters Polyphenyl ethers Chemical structures are shown in Fig. 4, whereas Table 2

242

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

243

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

hydrogen Go hydrogen Go Hydrogen-stations Hydrogen Fueling Station Locations by State Hydrogen-stations View Map Graph Hydrogen_li_by_state Hydrogen Incentives and Laws, by State Hydrogen_li_by_state View Map Graph Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1c5lrlb Commuter Responses to the 2008 Oil Price Spike Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1c5lrlb Ways that workers changed their commutes in response to high gasoline prices Last update May 2012 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20130810-31804-f64ffe U.S. Consumption of Ethanol and MTBE Oxygenates Generated_thumb20130810-31804-f64ffe Trend of ethanol and MTBE consumption as oxygenates and gasohol blends from 1992-2009 Last update February 2012 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20130810-31804-14nv4j5 AFV Acquisitions by Regulated Fleets (by Fuel Type)

244

1995 world methanol conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 20 papers contained in this volume deal with the global markets for methanol, the production of MTBE, integrating methanol production into a coal-to-SNG complex, production of methanol from natural gas, catalysts for methanol production from various synthesis gases, combined cycle power plants using methanol as fuel, and economics of the methanol industry. All papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas Petrochemicals operates a butane dehydrogenation unit producing MTBE for reformulated gasoline that was originally constructed when energy was cheap and prior to environmental regulation. The process exhausts 900,000 pounds per hour of air at 900 to 1100°F containing CO and VOC. By installing a furnace/heat recovery steam generator, Texas Petrochemicals achieved significant reductions of VOC, CO, and NOx, along with energy savings.

John, T. P.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Multiple Steady States in Azeotropic and Reactive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction . Motivation Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions . The Starting Point . Consolidation . Industrial Applications . Incorporating Reactions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation . Prediction Method . MTBE Process Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Distillation Overview . Ideal binary / multicomponent distillation . Homogeneous azeotropic distillation -- Heavy entrainer (extractive distillation) -- Intermediate entrainer -- "Boundary scheme" (ligh

Thomas E. Güttinger

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Gravity as Archimedes' thrust and a bifurcation in that theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Euler's interpretation of Newton's gravity (NG) as Archimedes' thrust in a fluid ether is presented in some detail. Then a semi-heuristic mechanism for gravity, close to Euler's, is recalled and compared with the latter. None of these two "gravitational ethers" can obey classical mechanics. This is logical since the ether defines the very reference frame, in which mechanics is defined. This concept is used to build a scalar theory of gravity: NG corresponds to an incompressible ether, a compressible ether leads to gravitational waves. In the Lorentz-Poincar\\'e version, special relativity is compatible with the ether, but, with the heterogeneous ether of gravity, it applies only locally. A correspondence between metrical effects of uniform motion and gravitation is assumed, yet in two possible versions (one is new). Dynamics is based on a (non-trivial) extension of Newton's second law. The observational status for the theory with the older version of the correspondence is summarized.

Mayeul Arminjon

2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

248

Radionuclide-binding compound, a radionuclide delivery system, a method of making a radium complexing compound, a method of extracting a radionuclide, and a method of delivering a radionuclide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention pertains to compounds which specifically bind radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexing compounds. In one aspect, the invention includes a radionuclide delivery system comprising: a) a calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, and wherein m is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound comprising at least two ionizable groups; and b) an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of making a radium complexing compound, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising n phenolic hydroxyl groups; b) providing a crown ether precursor, the crown ether precursor comprising a pair of tosylated ends; c) reacting the pair of tosylated ends with a pair of the phenolic hydroxyl groups to convert said pair of phenolic hydroxyl groups to ether linkages, the ether linkages connecting the crown ether precursor to the calix[n]arene to form a calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound, wherein m is an integer greater than 3; d) converting remaining phenolic hydroxyl groups to esters; e) converting the esters to acids, the acids being proximate a crown-[m]-ether portion of the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound; and f) providing a Ra.sup.2+ ion within the crown-[m]-ether portion of the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound.

Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Chen, Xiaoyuan (Moscow, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Aza compounds as anion receptors  

SciTech Connect

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

250

Anion receptor compounds for non-aqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

A new family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

2000-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

251

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Stocks of SPR Crude Oil - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

262

Imports of Total Motor Gasoline - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

263

Exports of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

264

Imports of Crude Oil, Commercial  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

265

Imports of Residual Fuel Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

266

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comparative analysis of biodiesel and FT diesel. Energy and5.9 Schematic flow diagram for biodiesel production fromGas (LPG), ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, Dimethyl Ether (

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Texas Gulf Coast Refinery Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

268

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Petrochemical Feedstocks Net Receipts ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

269

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Reformulated Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

270

Blender Net Input of Reformulated GTAB Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

271

Refinery Net Input of All Other Oxygenates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

272

Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the gasification to Fischer- Tropsch fuel pathway may turnEther Flash Pyrolysis Fischer Tropsch Fuels Renewable Dieselblendstocks (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch fuels, renewable diesel,

Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Matches  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and very expensive. In 1780 the Phosphoric Candle or Ethereal Match -- waxed paper or string tipped with phosphorus, in a sealed glass container -- was produced in France. When...

274

Imports of Fuel Ethanol  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

275

ThermoML Data for TCA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... As"). Title: Effect of temperature on the solvation of 15-crown-5 ether inwater ethanol and water propan-1-ol mixtures. Pages: 122-9. ...

276

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Natural Gas Plant Liquids and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

282

Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

283

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Renewable Diesel Fuel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

284

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

285

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Fuel Ethanol  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

286

Refinery Net Input of Fuel Ethanol  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

287

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

288

Refinery Net Input of Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

289

Refinery Net Input of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

290

From PADD 2 to PADD 3 Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, and Barge  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

291

"MfgCode","MfgName" "1","321 Studios" "10","ADS Tech" "100 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Labs Inc." "1318","e-frontier" "1319","The Farm 51" "132 ... Ethereal, Inc." "1926","Wireshark Foundation" "1927","South Wind Technologies" "1928 ...

2013-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

292

ThermoML Data for JCED  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Title: Liquid Liquid Equilibria of Water + Acetic Acid + Cyclopentyl Methyl Ether ... Title: Effects of Different Organic Acids on Solubility and Metastable ...

293

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Ethane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

294

High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium ...  

Sun, X. and Kerr, J..Synthesis and Characterization of Network Single Ion ConductorsBased on Comb-Branched Polyepoxide Ethers and Lithium Bis(allylmalonato)borate.

295

Exports of Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

296

Exports of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Imports and stocks of RBOB with Ether and RBOB with Alcohol are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, 2010 reporting period. Due to independent ...

297

Imports of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

298

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6): A colorless gas soluble in alcohol and ether, and slightly less soluble in water. It is used as a dielectric in ...

299

Refinery Net Input of Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

300

Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Movements by Pipeline between PAD Districts  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

302

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Movements by Tanker and Barge between PAD ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

303

Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Fuel Oxygenate Production from California Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Historically, more than 90% of the excess agricultural residue produced in California (approximately 10 million dry metric tons per year) has been disposed through open-field burning. Concerns about air quality have prompted federal, state, and local air quality agencies to tighten regulations related to this burning and to look at disposal alternatives. One use of this biomass is as an oxygenated fuel. This report focuses on quantifying and comparing the comprehensive environmental flows over the life cycles of two disposal scenarios: (1) burning the biomass, plus producing and using MTBE; and (2) converting and using ETBE.

Kadam, K. L. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Camobreco, V. J.; Glazebrook, B. E. (Ecobalance Inc.); Forrest, L. H.; Jacobson, W. A. (TSS Consultants); Simeroth, D. C. (California Air Resources Board); Blackburn, W. J. (California Energy Commission); Nehoda, K. C. (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection)

1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

304

A Novel Paradigm in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diesel, low sulfur diesel, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, E-diesel, and biodiesel Battery diesel, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, E-diesel, and biodiesel Spark-Ignition Direct itchgrass #12;23 FT Diesel Can Be Produced from A Variety of Feedstocks Fischer-Tropsch process

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

305

APPENDIX D: CO2 EQUIVALENCY FACTORS An Appendix to the Report, "A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

Delucchi, Mark

306

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Biofuel production technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

307

The outcome of our research can be utilized by metal foam manufacturers to improve their product. An example of this is Recemat International, a producer of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

308

High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

Janke, Christopher J. (Powell, TN); Lopata, Vincent J. (Manitoba, CA); Havens, Stephen J. (Knoxville, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); Moulton, Richard J. (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes - phase V. Topical report, February 1993--October 1994  

SciTech Connect

We have made excellent progress toward a practical route from field butanes to MTBE, the oxygenate of choice for high-octane, clean-burning, environmentally acceptable reformulated gasoline. We have evaluated two proprietary process possibilities with a potential commercial partner and have conducted a joint catalyst evaluation program. The first of the two potential processes considered during the past quarter utilizes a two-step route from isobutane to tert-butyl alcohol, TBA. Not only is TBA an intermediate for MTBE production but is equally applicable for ETBE-an oxygenate which utilizes renewable ethanol in its` manufacture. In the two-step process, isobutane is oxidized in a non-catalytic reaction to a roughly equal mixture of TBA and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. TBHP, eq. 1. We have developed an inexpensive new catalyst system based on an electron-deficient macrocyclic metal complex that selectively converts TBHP to TBA, eq. 2, and meets or exceeds all of the process criteria that we have set.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

VERA version 1.3 user manual and documentation  

SciTech Connect

VERA is a visualization tool for analyzing compiled executables. It is built on an OpenGL framework with the wxWidgets package. The current version is only for use with the Windows XP and higher operating system. This manual will detail the steps that are needed to run and analyze a sample of malware. VERA is meant to be used in conjunction with the Ether hypervisor framework. Ether is a set of patches made to the Xen hypervisor that allows for covert analysis of running processes. It makes an ideal environment to monitor and trace running programs. More information is available from the Ether website.

Quist, Daniel Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

311

AOCS Official Method Ad 6-52  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ad 6-52 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test

312

AOCS Official Method Ag 1-65  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ag 1-65 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test

313

AOCS Official Method Bb 2-38  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Bb 2-38 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the con

314

AOCS Official Method Ad 3-52  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ad 3-52 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads AOCS DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of

315

AOCS Official Method Ad 5-52  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ad 5-52 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test

316

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

413: 353: 340: 289: 2008-2013: RBOB for Blending with Alcohol : 2005-2009: RBOB for Blending with Ether : 2005-2009: GTAB : 2005-2009: Conventional: 173: 117: 246 ...

317

AOCS Official Method Ac 3-44  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ac 3-44 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted from ground soybean seeds by petroleum ether under

318

A new class of photoresponsive surfactants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, a new class of nonionic, photoresponsive surfactants consisting of a polar di(ethylene oxide) head group attached to an alkyl spacer of between two and eight methylene groups, coupled through an ether linkage ...

Shang, Tiangang, 1969-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

PADD 3 Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

320

Stocks of Propane/Propylene - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Stocks of Residual Fuel Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

322

Cushing, Oklahoma Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

323

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank ...  

Radiochemical Science and Engineering Group, ... R OH CF3 R = –H, –CH 3 ... and B. A. Moyer (Unpublished results). O O O O O O 0.05 M crown ether with or without ...

324

AOCS Official Method H 2-41  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum Ether AOCS Official Method H 2-41 Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION   SCOPE 6ADA986E906791AA56A1C6453143C945 MC-H241 2425

325

Preparation of 1-C14-Propene-1 and the Mechanism of Permanganate Oxidation of Propene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

propene, 9% butenes, 9% butanes and pentanes and 1% pentenes0.5/0 propane and 0.5% n-butane. The yield of propene waspropene, 16% butenes f 3% i-butane, 3% ethyl propy:i. ether

Fries, B.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

B24: Structural Characterization of Sintered Recycled Glass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

327

J8: Distribution Behaviors of Light Rare Earths Extracted by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

328

Nonlinear Properties of (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

329

I3: Development of Core-shell Structured Multiferroic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

330

F4: Mechanical Properties of an As-hot Rolled FeAlMnC Alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

331

Electromagnetic Shielding Performance of Nickel-coated Carbon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene Glycol ... The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and the ...

332

E18: Synthesis and Mechanical Property of NaB 5 C Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

333

F8: Study on Lump Ore Decrepitation Behavior Mechanism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

334

I17: Electrochemical Properties and Degradation Behavior of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

335

G11  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

336

A1: 45S5 Bioglass®/Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Scaffolds with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

337

B4: Direct Printing Synthesis of Self-organized Copper Oxide Hollow ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

338

H8  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

339

J26: High Purity Samarium Acetate from Mixed Rare Earth Carbonates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

340

D4: In-situ Characterisation of Silicon-based Anodes for Li-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

C10: Piezoresponse Force Microscopy to study the bio-ferroelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

342

G3: Nitriding Surface Treatments to Improve Water Droplet Erosion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

343

C7: Investigation on the Dielectric Response of PLZT Ferroelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

344

J21: Mechanism of Nanostructures Induced by Femtosecond Laser ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

345

K5: Microwave Sintering of Electrolyte Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

346

J10: Preparation of Rare Earths Oxide by Spray Pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

347

J2: Electron Beam Bead-On-Plate Welding Process for Thick Gauge ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

348

B8: Fabrication of ZrO2-Al2O3 Composite Ceramics Having ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

349

H3: Development of Mechanical Properties in High–elastic Alumium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

350

B33: A H2-D2 Exchange Study on Ni-based Binary-ternary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

351

H18: Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of High-strength Mg-Zn ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

352

J13: Tensile Properties and Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

353

J45: Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Hydraulic Turbine Runner ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

354

H10: Fabrication and Characterization of Al-based In Situ ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

355

B22: Strengthening of E-glass Fibers by Surface Stress Relaxation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

356

J46: Preliminary Investigations of the Precipitation Hardening Alloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

357

E10: Precise Quantification of Charge Mediated Converse ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

358

J49: Effect of Laser Centreline Offset in Dissimilar Joining of NiTi ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

359

J19: Arsenic Adsorption Properties of Porous Iron Oxide Particles ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

360

E9: Low-temperature Spin Spray Deposited Ferrite/Piezoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

H1: Aluminized Multifunctional Coating on Steel in SHS Condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

362

Bioinspired Highly Reversible Carbon-coated SnO2-C Based on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene Glycol ... The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and the ...

363

J57: Hybrid Method for Determination of Thermal Boundary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

364

A9: Multiscale Modelling to Assess Elastic Properties of Cortical Bone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

365

E53: Degradation of Azo Dye Sunset Yellow using Electron-fenton ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

366

D18: Determining Frother-like Properties of Process Water in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

367

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and trends concerning cellulosic materials processed in scCO2 such as cellulose drying to obtain aerogels for cellulose esters and ether synthesis, and fibres and film fabrication. These materials are used in coatings

Recanati, Catherine

368

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions Simon J. Haward1*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-anhydroglucopyranose building blocks are substituted by ethers or esters. 1-4 The extensive inter-chain and intra-chain hydrogen and other desirable properties that drive its use in textile fibers, films, nanoparticles, aerogels

369

The US department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas which can be used as a feedstock to produce value-added products such as methanol, acetic acid, dimethyl ether, and diesel fuel. A fl uidized bed reactor is being used to...

370

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sun, Xiao-Guang Clear All Filters 2005 Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr. "Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate."...

371

AOCS Official Method Bc 3-49  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Bc 3-49 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the con

372

AOCS Official Method Aa 4-38  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Aa 4-38 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under conditions of the test (se

373

Transetherification method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead. 1 fig.

Hearn, D.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

374

Transetherification method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead.

Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Multifunctional gasoline additives  

SciTech Connect

The reaction products of glycidyl ethers, wherein the alkoxy portion contains from about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms, with alkylenediamines, n-alkyl alkylenediamines, and n-alkoxyalkyl alkylenediamines are effective carburetor detergents and reduce deposits on various components of internal combustion engines. An example is the reaction product of the glycidyl ether whose alkoxy group is a mixture of 12-14 carbon atom chains with n-tallow-1,3-propylenediamine.

Childs, M.E.

1981-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

376

Purifying contaminated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, C.G.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

378

EXTRACTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS FROM COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING SAME  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for separating plutonium from the fission products present in masses of neutron irradiated uranium are reported. The neutron irradiated uranium is first dissolved in an aqueous solution of nitric acid. The plutonium in this solution is present as plutonous nitrate. The aqueous solution is then agitated with an organic solvent, which is not miscible with water, such as diethyl ether. The ether extracts 90% of the uraryl nitrate leaving, substantially all of the plutonium in the aqueous phase. The aqueous solution of plutonous nitrate is then oxidized to the hexavalent state, and agitated with diethyl ether again. In the ether phase there is then obtained 90% of plutonium as a solution of plutonyl nitrate. The ether solution of plutonyl nitrate is then agitated with water containing a reducing agent such as sulfur dioxide, and the plutonium dissolves in the water and is reduced to the plutonous state. The uranyl nitrate remains in the ether. The plutonous nitrate in the water may be recovered by precipitation.

Seaborg, G.T.

1957-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

379

Slide 1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Howard Gruenspecht Howard Gruenspecht Deputy Administrator Energy Information Administration 2008 Energy Conference 30 Years of Energy Information and Analysis Washington, DC April 7, 2008 EIA's Mission and Budget: Priority-Setting in the Short Run EIA is the Primary Activity Within DOE Concerned with Current Energy Markets and Issues * When energy issues are front and center, the Nation looks to the Department of Energy to interpret the current energy market situation * EIA is the main DOE entity involved in current energy markets and issues * In many settings, such as the situation following the 2005 hurricanes, the MTBE/ethanol transition in the spring of 2006, and the current oil price increases, both the Congress and the Administration directly rely on and benefit from EIA's role as a trusted source of energy information and

380

Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Legislation and Regulations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Legislation & Regulations Legislation & Regulations Nitrogen Oxide Emission Caps Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions and Diesel Fuel Quality Standards FERC Order 2000 Banning or Reducing the Use of MTBE in Gasoline Updates on State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Renewable Energy Mandates Proposed Changes to RFG Oxygen Standard FERC Order 637 Proposed Limits on Benzene in Gasoline Royalty Rules Low-Emission Vehicle Program Tier 2 Vehicle Emissions and Gasoline Sulfur Standards Appliance Efficiency Standards Petroleum Reserves Introduction Because analyses by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) are required to be policy-neutral, the projections in this Annual Energy Outlook 2001 (AEO2001) are based on Federal, State, and local laws and regulations in effect on July 1, 2000. The potential impacts of pending or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environmental Regulations and Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline * Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Figure 2. Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Table 5. Oxygenated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Table 6. Reformulated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Figure 3. Price Differences Between RFG or MTBE and Conventional Gasoline

382

Net Imports of Total Crude Oil and Products into the U.S. by Country  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Conventional Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reformulated Gasoline Blend. Comp. Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Lubricants Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

383

Microsoft Word - rfsreport.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 1766 March 2002 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Service Reports are prepared by the Energy Information Administration upon special request and are based on assumptions specified by the requestor. ii Contacts This report was prepared by the staff of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler@eia.doe.gov), Director,

384

Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Issues in Focus  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Issues in Focus Issues in Focus Macroeconomic Forecasting with the Revised National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) Phasing Out MTBE in Gasoline World Oil Demand and Prices Distributed Electricity Generation Resources Natural Gas Supply Availability Restructuring of State Retail Markets for Electricity Carbon Dioxide Emissions in AEO2001 Macroeconomic Forecasting with the Revised National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) The NIPA Comprehensive Revision Economic activity is a key determinant of growth in U.S. energy supply and demand. The derivation of the forecast of economic activity is therefore a critical step in developing the energy forecast presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 (AEO2001). In turn, the forecast of economic activity is rooted fundamentally in the historical data series maintained by a

385

No Slide Title  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Summer Fuels Outlook Guy Caruso Administrator, Energy Information Administration 2006 Summer Transportation Fuels Outlook Conference April 11, 2006 Washington, DC Several Key Factors Drive the Short-Term Fuels Forecast 1) Rising world oil consumption; 2) Low global surplus production capacity and tight crude oil supply relative to demand; 3) Supply concerns in international oil markets (such as in Nigeria, Iraq, and Iran); 4) The challenges of:  Stricter sulfur standards under the Tier 2 Gasoline program;  MTBE phase-out;  A shift to ultra low sulfur diesel. All these factors contribute to higher prices for petroleum products, particularly in the coming months. World Oil Consumption Growth Slowed in 2005; Projected to Increase in 2006-2007 Source: EIA, Short-Term Energy Outlook, April 2006

386

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Lubricants Miscellaneous Products Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

387

Environmental Energy Technologies Division News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2000: 2000: Vol. 2, No. 1 Electrochromic Window Tests in U.S. Office Show Promise CLASP Helps Developing Nations Implement Energy Standards EETD Scientists Aid Research Efforts Leading to MTBE Ban Power Outage Study Team Examines Electricity Reliability Research Highlights Sources and Credits PDF of EETD News Electrochromic Window Tests in U.S. Office Show Promise Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to achieve the goal of transforming windows and skylights from an energy liability in buildings to an energy source for the nation's building stock. The glazing can be reversibly switched from clear to a transparent, colored state by applying a low voltage, resulting in dynamically controllable thermal and optical

388

Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

Szpunar, C.B.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Motiva Refinery | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refinery Refinery Motiva Refinery May 18, 2006 - 10:45am Addthis Remarks Prepared for Energy Secretary Bodman Much of my time lately has been devoted to explaining why the price of gasoline has risen so sharply. President Bush understands the pinch this is creating for American consumers and has come forward with a variety of steps to address the problem. Rapid economic growth in emerging economies like China and India-and the growth here in the U.S.-have pushed up demand. Political unrest in some oil-producing regions has tightened supply. The transition from winter gasoline to summer blends, and the phase out of the additive MTBE in favor of ethanol, have increased the pressure on the market. Most significantly, we have very little spare refining capacity in this

391

East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Lubricants Miscellaneous Products Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

392

Standard practice for infrared flash thermography of composite panels and repair patches used in aerospace applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice describes a procedure for detecting subsurface flaws in composite panels and repair patches using Flash Thermography (FT), in which an infrared (IR) camera is used to detect anomalous cooling behavior of a sample surface after it has been heated with a spatially uniform light pulse from a flash lamp array. 1.2 This practice describes established FT test methods that are currently used by industry, and have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of composite structures during post-manufacturing and in-service examinations. 1.3 This practice has utility for testing of polymer composite panels and repair patches containing, but not limited to, bismaleimide, epoxy, phenolic, poly(amide imide), polybenzimidazole, polyester (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(ether ether ketone), poly(ether imide), polyimide (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(phenylene sulfide), or polysulfone matrices; and alumina, aramid, boron, carbon, glass, quartz, or silicon carbide fibers. Typical as-fabricate...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Solid sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams at low temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35.degree. C.

Sirwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

High-energy metal air batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

395

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New low-cost CO2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35 degrees C.

Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

396

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

Molnar, Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA); Hatton, T. Alan (Sudbury, MA); Buchwald, Stephen L. (Newton, MA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

1958-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

398

SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for separating uranium from thorium wherein the ratio of thorium to uranium is between 100 to 10,000. According to the invention the thoriumuranium mixture is dissolved in nitric acid, and the solution is prepared so as to obtain the desired concentration within a critical range of from 4 to 8 N with regard to the total nitrate due to thorium nitrate, with or without nitric acid or any nitrate salting out agent. The solution is then contacted with an ether, such as diethyl ether, whereby uranium is extracted into ihe organic phase while thorium remains in the aqueous phase.

Hellman, N.N.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the adipose tissue and whether these changes occur simul- taneously across lipid fractions. It has previously been found that a HFD, especially a diet rich in SFA, decreases SCD expression in both rat liver and adipose tissue [33,34]. A HFD has also been shown... of petroleum ether containing 0.005% butylated hydroxytolvene after addition of 1.5 ml distilled water. The phases were separated after thorough mixing and centrifugation at 1500 × g for 10 min. The petroleum ether phase was pipetted off and the solvent...

Cedernaes, Jonathan; Alsiö, Johan; Västermark, Åke; Risérus, Ulf; Schiöth, Helgi B

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

400

Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic contaminants. The results from a study with TCE contaminated-clay indicate that electrochemically inducing reductive dechlorination of TCE in a saturated matrix may offer an effective and viable alternative to remediation TCE and other contaminants with potential of being reduced. Another study focused on steel wool oxidation to electrochemically increase population of hydrocarbon-degrading denitrifying bacteria. Significantly larger denitrifying activity was observed in the cathode chamber of a treatment unit setup like an MFC with steel wool as the anode. This enhanced nitrate reduction could be due to direct electron utilization by denitrifying bacteria on the cathode, thereby stimulating microbial denitrification or a combination of electron transfer directly to NO{sub 3}{sup -} and electron transfer to nitrate reducing bacteria, which may serve as a type of bio-catalyst on the cathode for nitrate reduction. Overall, the studies conducted under Task 72 demonstrated different innovative methods to enhance petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and associated contaminants.

Paul Fallgren

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

PRODUCTION OF METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Zirconium nitrate can be separated from hafnium nitrate by mixing the nitrates with ethyl cellulose pulp, eluting the mass with diethyl ether containing nitric acid, and passing the eluent through a column of cellulose pulp the outflow of which is substantially free of hafnium.

Arden, T.V.; Burstall, F.H.; Davies, G.R.; Linstead, R.P.; Wells, R.A.

1958-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

402

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201300762 Three-Dimensional Architectures Incorporating Stereoregular  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

molecules[2] (MIMs) have been incorporated into well-defined, extended architectures[3] of metal­organic p···p stacking of their hydroquinone (HQ) units, are sand- Abstract: We report the synthesis of two- sociated with both the DNP and hydro- quinone (HQ) units present in the crown ether, each catenane can

403

CHM 3320 -Deuxime Partie Formation de liens C-C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM NOBELIUM SAMARIUM EUROPIUM GADOLINIUM TERBIUM DYSPROSIUM HOLMIUM

Charette, André

404

Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM NOBELIUM SAMARIUM EUROPIUM GADOLINIUM TERBIUM DYSPROSIUM HOLMIUM

Ford, James

405

Prepared for the 41st BNL-NCS-68350-01/10-REV IUPAC General Assembly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 PROMETHIUM NEPTUNIUM PLUTONIUM AMERICIUM CURIUM BERKELIUM CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM

Ohta, Shigemi

406

Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry Division Presents Periodic Table of the Elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 PROMETHIUM NEPTUNIUM PLUTONIUM AMERICIUM CURIUM BERKELIUM CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM

Hochberg, Michael

407

LA-14304-ENV Approved for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 PROMETHIUM NEPTUNIUM PLUTONIUM AMERICIUM CURIUM BERKELIUM CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM

408

LA-12973-ENV 4XMW'"' ---= --.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM NOBELIUM SAMARIUM EUROPIUM GADOLINIUM TERBIUM DYSPROSIUM HOLMIUM

409

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Enolization: Catalysis by Hemilabile Ligands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Enolization: Catalysis by Hemilabile Ligands Antonio Ramirez of a lithium diisopropylamide (LDA)-mediated ester enolization. Hemilabile amino ether MeOCH2CH2NMe2, binding-based catalysis are thwarted by the occlusion of the catalyst on the lithium salt products and byproducts (eq 1

Collum, David B.

410

A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage Yuan Yang develop a new lithium/ polysulfide (Li/PS) semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage, with lithium polysulfide (Li2S8) in ether solvent as a catholyte and metallic lithium as an anode. Unlike

Cui, Yi

411

Inhibition of Lithium Dendrites by Fumed Silica-Based Composite Electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inhibition of Lithium Dendrites by Fumed Silica-Based Composite Electrolytes Xiang-Wu Zhang State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905, USA Lithium dendrite formation is investigated via in situ microscopy in a liquid electrolyte containing polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether lithium bis

Khan, Saad A.

412

PoS(EPS-HEP2011)390 Testing fundamental principles with high-energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in models incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF [4, 5 for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon [6, 7]. If a VRF exists, LSV can modify the internal structure. A crucial question is that of the existence of a VRF. Contrary to the old ether, the vacuum of quantum field

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

Testing fundamental principles with high-energy cosmic rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in models incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF [4, 5 for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon [6, 7]. If a VRF exists, LSV can modify the internal structure question is that of the existence of a VRF. Contrary to the old ether, the vacuum of quantum field theory

414

Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INP Toulouse) cole doctorale et discipline ou spcialit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The purpose of the NIPER survey is generally to provide Number of samples Participation National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) survey U

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

A Study of EndtoEnd Web Access Failures Venkata N. Padmanabhan + Sriram Ramabhadran Sharad Agarwal + Jitendra Padhye +  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The purpose of the NIPER survey is generally to provide Number of samples Participation National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) survey U

Padmanabhan, Venkata N.

416

2010 AGU Fall Meeting You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous page, close this  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and Naphtha Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and biodiesel Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Vehicles

Sparks, Donald L.

417

Energy sources for a secure (?) and clean (?) energy future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively are suitable for use in compression ignition engines. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a variety

Hughes, Larry

418

Journal of Catalysis 211, 422433 (2002) doi:10.1006/jcat.2002.3749  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and Naphtha Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and biodiesel Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Vehicles

Iglesia, Enrique

419

AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY e m e r g i n g c e r a m i c s & g l a s s t e c h n o l o g y  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively are suitable for use in compression ignition engines. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a variety

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

420

S M Stoller Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project - 4.5...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ND 4.8 0.96 ugl 218-01-9 Chrysene ND 4.8 0.96 ugl 111-91-1 bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane ND 4.8 0.96 ugl 111-44-4 bis(2-Chloroethyl)ether ND 4.8 1.9 ugl ND Not detected...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Earth system science Page 1 Earth System Science Theme Action Plan 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and coal- bed methane (CBM) together increase from 0.703 EJ in 1995 to 15.120 EJ in 2030. To allow more). Figure 4. Comparison of gas and synthetic liquid fuels. CBM = coal-bed methane; DME = dimethyl ether, a hybrid (bottom-up/top-down) energy- economy model, to test how different policy packages could

Edinburgh, University of

422

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Experimental search for anisotropy in the speed of light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown on the basis of a forgotten nineteenth century principle of Potier and Veltmann that an interferometric experiment cannot demonstrate a first?order ether wind. The relation of the Fresnel drag law to the Einstein velocity composition law is reviewed.

Ronald G. Newburgh; Olivier Costa de Beauregard

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compounds of Th and U are extracted with an organic solvent in the presence of an adsorbent substance which has greater retentivity for impurities present than for the uranium and/or thorium. The preferred adsorbent material is noted as being cellulose. The uranium and thoriumcontaining substances treated are preferably in the form of dissolved nitrates, and the preferred organic solvent is diethyl ether.

Arden, T.V.; Burstall, F.H.; Linstead, R.P.; Wells, R.A.

1955-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

425

Polygeneration Integration of Gasoline Synthesis and IGCC Power Production Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas produced by gasification in a gas turbine. This synthesis gas is also an excellent raw material for a gas turbine in a combined cycle power generation scheme. Coal Residue Gasification Gas Cleaning for chemicals production such as methanol, DiMethyl Ether (DME), gasoline, Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG), hydrogen

426

Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Uptake, translocation, and metabolism of oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and their influence on metolachlor metabolism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The uptake, translocation, and metabolism of the oxime ether safeners oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, var. Funk G-522-DR) were investigated. Following application of ({sup 14}C)oxabetrinil and ({sup 14}C)CGA-133205 to imbibed seeds, it appears that the safeners are conferring protection to grain sorghum by increasing the rate of metolachlor metabolism.

Yenne, S.P.; Hatzios, K.K.; Meredith, S.A. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Mechanistic Study of the Acid Degradation of Lignin Model Compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is a major constituent of biomass, which remains underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in understanding the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Two model dimers with a b-O-4 aryl ether linkage (2-phenoxy-1-phenethanol and 2-phenoxy-1-phenyl-1,3 propanediol) and model dimmers with an a-O-4 aryl ether linkage were synthesized and deconstructed in H2SO4. The major products of the acidolysis of the b-O-4 compounds consisted of phenol and two aldehydes, phenylacetaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. To confirm proposed mechanisms several possible intermediates were studied under similar acidolysis conditions. Although the resonance time for cleavage was on the order several hours, we have shown that the cleavage of the aryl ether linkage affords phenol and aldehydes. We would next like to utilize our mechanism of aryl ether cleavage in actual lignin.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the Technical Progress Report for the fifteenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period January 1 through March 31, 1998. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized 41 process stream samples obtained from HTI Run PB-01 (227-90), in which Black Thunder Mine coal, Hondo VTB resid, municipal solid waste (MSW) plastics, and virgin plastics were co-liquefaction feedstocks with all-dispersed Fe and Mo catalysts. (2) A request was made for samples from the Nippon Coal Oil NEDOL pilot plant in Kashima, Japan. (3) Phenols were extracted from two samples of separator overhead oil from HTI Run PB-03 Periods 10A and 10B. The phenols were converted to ethylphenyl ethers, and the ethers were distilled to produce a sample within the diesel fuel boiling range. The ethers were mixed with diesel fuel to make 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% solutions. The four mixtures and a control sample (0% ether) were tested for diesel fuel properties by Intertek Testing Services, Caleb Brett. (4) Computational studies related to the University of Delaware's resid conversion model were continued on the Hewlett Packard Apollo HP-735 RISC workstation at CONSOL R and D. The Structure Optimization Program and the Structure Once-Through Program were used to generate physicochemical properties and structure models for the 15 coal resid samples which have been under study.

G.A. Robbins; S.D. Brandes; D.J. Pazuchanics; D.G. Nichols; R.A. Winschel

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 �������������������������������°C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in this final report.

James E. McGrath

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in herein.

James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

432

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Cometabolic bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Cometabolic bioremediation is probably the most under appreciated bioremediation strategy currently available. Cometabolism strategies stimulate only indigenous microbes with the ability to degrade the contaminant and cosubstrate e.g. methane, propane, toluene and others. This highly targeted stimulation insures that only those microbes that can degrade the contaminant are targeted, thus reducing amendment costs, well and formation plugging, etc. Cometabolic bioremediation has been used on some of the most recalcitrant contaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine, etc. Methanotrophs have been demonstrated to produce methane monooxygense, an oxidase that can degrade over 300 compounds. Cometabolic bioremediation also has the advantage of being able to degrade contaminants to trace concentrations, since the biodegrader is not dependent on the contaminant for carbon or energy. Increasingly we are finding that in order to protect human health and the environment that we must remediate to lower and lower concentrations, especially for compounds like endocrine disrupters, thus cometabolism may be the best and maybe the only possibility that we have to bioremediate some contaminants.

Hazen, Terry C.

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels.

Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report number 19, October 1--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. After identification and optimization of key catalyst and process characteristics, the commercial potential of the process is to be evaluated by an economic analysis. From independent process variable studies to investigate the conversion of a methanol/ethanol feed to isobutanol, the best performance to date has been achieved with the 2% Pt on Zn/Mn/Zr oxide catalyst. Using Hyprotech Hysim v2.5 process simulation software, and considering both gas and liquid recycle loops in the process flow diagram, the overall carbon conversion is 98% with 22% selectivity to isobutanol. The expected production of isobutanol is 92 MT/day from 500 MT/day of methanol and 172 MT/day of ethanol feed. An additional 13 MT/day of isobutryaldehyde intermediate is recovered in the liquid product and vent streams. Because of the low selectivity (22%) of the methanol conversion catalyst to isobutanol, the process is uneconomical, even if the isobutanol is valued as a solvent ($903/MT) and not as isobutylene for MTBE production ($352/MT).

Spehlmann, B.C.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

ISOBUTANOL FROM SYNGAS IN A THREE PHASE SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With growing interest in oxygenates as octane booster for automotive fuels, various synthesis routes for these chemicals are being investigated. Among others, alternative routes to isobutene, the C4-components in MTBE-synthesis are under investigation. A promising path to isobutene is the heterogeneously catalyzed CO-hydrogenation to isobutanol with following dehydration (Fig. 1). As shown by thermodynamical studies, the heterogeneously catalyzed CO-hydrogenation to isobutanol is not expected to experience any thermodynamic constraints. However, heterogeneous hydrogenation of CO is a very exothermic process, a problem which can only be partly solved when being conducted in a plug flow reactor. When carried out in reaction vessels with moving catalyst bed (e.g. three phase stirred tank), heat transfer problems can be resolved, along with additional benefits connected with this reactor type. Several heterogeneous catalytic systems have been under investigation for their capability of isobutanol synthesis from syngas. Most promising catalysts for an active and selective isobutanol synthesis from CO are modified high temperature methanol catalysts.

Peter Tijrn

2002-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

438

The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability  

SciTech Connect

Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. (AKZO Catalysts, 13000 Bay Park Road, Pasadena, TX (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Ab initio Calculation of Thermodynamic Data for Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Fuels and Radial Breakdown Species: R(OMe)n  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has long been interest in the use of oxygenated hydrocarbon additives to conventional fuels. These oxygenates have been shown to reduce soot emissions in diesel engines and CO emissions in spark-ignition engines; and often allow diesel operation with decreased NO{sub x}. The current widely used additive, MTBE is targeted for elimination as a gasoline additive due to its damaging effects on the environment. This creates a need for alternative oxygenated additives; and more importantly, amplifies the importance to fully understand the thermochemical and kinetic properties on these oxyhydrocarbons fuels and for their intermediate and radical breakdown products. We use CBS-Q and density-functional methods with isodesmic reactions (with group balance when possible) to compute thermodynamic quantities for these species. We have studied hydrocarbons with multiple substituted methoxy groups. In several cases, multioxygenated species are evaluated that may have potential use as new oxygenated fuel additives. Thermodynamic quantities (H{sub 298}{sup 0}, S{sub 298}{sup 0}, C{sub p}(T)) as well as group additivity contributions for the new oxygenated groups are reported. We also report trends in bond-energies with increasing methoxy substitution.

Kubota, A; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Bozzelli, J; Glaude, P-A

2001-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

440

Chemical-Specific Representation of Air-Soil Exchange and Soil Penetration in Regional Multimedia Models  

SciTech Connect

In multimedia mass-balance models, the soil compartment is an important sink as well as a conduit for transfers to vegetation and shallow groundwater. Here a novel approach for constructing soil transport algorithms for multimedia fate models is developed and evaluated. The resulting algorithms account for diffusion in gas and liquid components; advection in gas, liquid, or solid phases; and multiple transformation processes. They also provide an explicit quantification of the characteristic soil penetration depth. We construct a compartment model using three and four soil layers to replicate with high reliability the flux and mass distribution obtained from the exact analytical solution describing the transient dispersion, advection, and transformation of chemicals in soil with fixed properties and boundary conditions. Unlike the analytical solution, which requires fixed boundary conditions, the soil compartment algorithms can be dynamically linked to other compartments (air, vegetation, ground water, surface water) in multimedia fate models. We demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the algorithms in a model with applications to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, MTBE, TCDD, and tritium.

McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

MARKETS: A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces biofuels sectors as energy inputs into the GTAP data base and to the production and consumption structures of the GTAP-Energy model developed by Burniaux and Truong (2002), and further modified by McDougall and Golub (2008). We also incorporate Agro-ecological Zones (AEZs) for each of the land using sectors in line with Lee et al. (2005). The GTAP-E model with biofuels and AEZs offers a useful framework for analyzing the growing importance of biofuels for global changes in crop production, utilization, commodity prices, factor use, trade, land use change etc. We begin by validating the model over the 2001-2006 period. We focus on six main drivers of the biofuel boom: the hike in crude oil prices, replacement of MTBE by ethanol as a gasoline additive in the US, and subsidies for ethanol and biodiesel in the US and EU. Using this historical simulation, we calibrate the key elasticities of energy substitution between biofuels and petroleum products in each region. With these parameter settings in place, the model does a reasonably good job of predicting the share of feedstock in biofuels and related sectors in accordance with the historical evidence between 2001 and

Dileep K. Birur; Thomas W. Hertel; Wallace E. Tyner; Dileep K. Birur; Thomas W. Hertel; Wallace E. Tyner

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Comparative economics of NGV's and other vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The utilization of alternative fuels for transportation applications is now a certainty. The only real questions that remain to be answered involve the type of fuel (or fuels) to be adopted most extensively. While some alternative fuel advocates suggest that a niche will exist for all alternative fuels, the most likely scenario will involve widespread use of only a few major fuel types. Undoubtedly, reformulated gasoline will be a major force as an interim fuel, due to inertia and a predominant bias toward liquid fuels. The prospects for utilization of ethanol, methanol, MTBE, and ETBE appear to be most promising in the area of blending with gasoline to meet the needs of reformulated gasoline and flexible fueled vehicles (FFV's). Propane fueled vehicles will continue to grow in popularity, especially with fleets, but will never become a major force in the transportation market in the US due to unresolvable supply limitations. The clear winner in the alternative fuels transportation market appears to be natural gas. Either in compressed or liquefied form, natural gas enjoys low costs, tremendous availability, and impressive environmental benefits. As shown in this analysis, natural gas competes favorably with gasoline in terms of economics. Natural gas is also preferential to other alternative fuels in terms of safety and health issues as well as operational issues.

Biederman, R.T.; Blazek, C.F.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Why Sequence Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Ethers such as 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and methyl tert-butyl ether are widespread contaminants of groundwater resources. 1,4-Dioxane is widely used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). 1,4-Dioxane is a carcinogen, and causes acute toxic effects on the nervous system, liver, and kidneys. One promising approach for remediating 1,4-dioxane-impacted water supplies is in-situ bioremediation using aerobic bacteria. Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 is a unique bacterial strain that can grow using 1,4-dioxane as a sole source of carbon and energy. It can degrade several other water contaminants and also fix dinitrogen, making it an attractive bioaugmentation culture even for nitrogen-limited

444

Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Area Defense Districts (PADDs) (Figure 9). The model is created by aggregating individual refineries into one linear programmming representation for each PADD. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of conventional and new petroleum products. In order to interact with other NEMS modules with different regional representations, certain PMM inputs and outputs are converted from PADD regions to other regional structures and vice versa. The linear programming results are used to determine

445

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO 2 Capture DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787 S. James Zhou, Shiguang Li, and Howard Meyer, GTI Yong Ding and Ben Bikson, PoroGen NETL CO 2 Capture Technology Meeting July 10, 2013 2  Materials technology company commercially manufacturing products from high performance plastic PEEK (poly (ether ether ketone))  Products ranging from membrane separation filters to heat transfer devices  Not-for-profit research company, providing energy and natural gas solutions to the industry since 1941  Facilities  18 acre campus near Chicago  200,000 ft 2 , 28 specialized labs Introduction to GTI and PoroGen PEEK Fiber + Cartridge + Module = Separation system 3 Project overview  Funding: $3,736 K (DOE: $2,986 K, Cost share: $750 K)

446

Evaluation and Characterization of Membranes for H2SO4/Water and I2/HI/H2O Water Separation and Hydrogen Permeation for the S-I Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report are the findings into three membrane separation studies for potential application to the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle. The first is the removal of water from hydriodic acid/iodine mixtures. In the S-I cycle, iodine is added to the product of the Bunsen reaction to facilitate the separation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) from hydriodic acid (HI). The amount of iodine can be as high as 83% of the overall mass load of the Bunsen product stream, which potentially introduces a large burden on the cycle’s efficiency. Removal of water from the HI and iodine mixture would substantially reduce the amount of required additional iodine. In this work, performance data for Nafion® and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes is shown.

Frederick R. Stewart

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Nano Structured Activated Carbon for Hydrogen Storge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of a nanostructured synthetic carbons materials that have been synthesized by thermal-decomposition of aromatic rich polyether such as poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) is reported. These polymers based nanostructured carbons efficacious for gas adsorption and storage and have Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of more than 3000 m2/g, and with average pore diameter of carbonization temperatures, and the correlation between the activation and carbonization temperatures provides a mechanistic perspective of the pore evolution during activation. Correlations between gas (N2 and H2) adsorption capacity and porous texture of the materials have been established. The materials possess excellent hydrogen storage properties, with hydrogen storage capacity up to 7.4 wt% (gravimetric) and ~ 45 g H2 L-1 (volumetric) at -196oC and 6.0 MPa.

Israel Cabasso; Youxin Yuan

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

448

Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnesium battery is potentially a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited performance and the lack of fundamental understandings of electrolytes. Here, we present a coordination chemistry study of Mg(BH4)2 in ethereal solvents. The O donor denticity, i.e. ligand strength of the ethereal solvents which act as ligands to form solvated Mg complexes, plays a significant role in enhancing coulombic efficiency of the corresponding solvated Mg complex electrolytes. A new and safer electrolyte is developed based on Mg(BH4)2, diglyme and optimized LiBH4 additive. The new electrolyte demonstrates 100% coulombic efficiency, no dendrite formation, and stable cycling performance with the cathode capacity retention of ~90% for 300 cycles in a prototype magnesium battery.

Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Li, Guosheng; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

449

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned concept for coal surface wettability evaluation and modulation. The objective of the work are to study the fundamental surface chemistry feature about the evaluation of the surface of coal, pyrite and coal pyrite, and also establish a new separation strategy which could contribute to the advanced coal cleaning for premium fuel application. In this quarter, the capillary rise of three coals, colorado mineral pyrite, and coal pyrite in butanol, pentanol, and butyl ether have been tested. The test results shown that the kinetic wettability of the five samples in the alcohol homolog are dependent on the carbon chain length, as the length of the carbon chain is shorter, the surface wettability is the better. Another test results shown that the kinetic wettability of coals are better than mineral pyrite and coal pyrite in the butyl ether.

Hu, Weibai

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

Effect of solution additives on the performance of PMAN carbon anodes in 1M LiPF{sub 6}/EC-DMC solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to examine the use of a number of solution additives in 1M LiPF{sub 6}/ethylene carbonate (EC)-dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solutions to improve the performance of carbon anodes derived from polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN)-divinylbenzene (DVB) copolymers. The study goals were to improve the cycle life and reduce the formation of the passivation layer during the first reduction, thereby minimizing the irreversible-capacity losses. Additives studied were 12-crown-4 (12-Cr-4) ether, decalin, and dilithium phthalocyanine (Li{sub 2}Pc). The carbon performance was characterized by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and complex-impedance spectroscopy. Limited success was obtained with 12-Cr-4 ether at 0.25 M and decalin at 1 v/o. Poor results were noted with Li{sub 2}Pc at 0.025 M and 0.5 M.

Guidotti, R.A.; Johnson, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Battery Development Dept.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

A new family of anion receptors and their effects on ion pair dissociation and conductivity of lithium salts in non-aqueous solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new family of anion receptors based on aza-ether compounds have been synthesized. Since the anion complexation of these compounds is not based on either positively charged sites or hydrogen bonding, they have a potential to be used in lithium batteries as electrolyte additives. When these compounds are added into nonaqueous electrolytes using lithium salts, such as LiCl/BF or LiBr/THF, the ionic conductivity can be dramatically increased. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NF-XAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions are completed with the nitrogen groups in these compounds. The increase in ionic conductivity and the degree of complexation, are both related to the number of R=CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} groups that are used to substitute the amine hydrogen atoms in these aza-ether compounds.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Okamoto, Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to a process for extracting technetium from nuclear wastes and more particularly to a process for extracting technetium from alkaline waste solutions containing technetium and high concentrations of alkali metal nitrates. A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate comprises the steps of: contacting the aqueous alkaline solution with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent, the diluent being a water-immiscible organic liquid in which the crown ether is soluble, for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution into the solvent; separating the solvent containing the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution; and stripping the technetium values from the solvent by contacting the solvent with water.

Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

Zaitsev, Boris N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M. (St. Petersburg, RU); Lazarev, Leonard N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Dzekun, Evgeniy G. (Ozersk, RU); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Electrochemical Windows of Sulfone-Based Electrolytes for High-Voltage Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Further development of high-voltage lithium-ion batteries requires electrolytes with electrochemical windows greater than 5 V. Sulfone-based electrolytes are promising for such a purpose. Here we compute the electrochemical windows for experimentally tested sulfone electrolytes by different levels of theory in combination with various solvation models. The MP2 method combined with the polarizable continuum model is shown to be the most accurate method to predict oxidation potentials of sulfone-based electrolytes with mean deviation less than 0.29 V. Mulliken charge analysis shows that the oxidation happens on the sulfone group for ethylmethyl sulfone and tetramethylene sulfone, and on the ether group for ether functionalized sulfones. Large electrochemical windows of sulfone-based electrolytes are mainly contributed by the sulfone group in the molecules which helps lower the HOMO level. This study can help understand the voltage limits imposed by the sulfone-based electrolytes and aid in designing new electrolytes with greater electrochemical windows.

Shao, Nan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

456

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle theories Particle theories Quantum fields, superstrings and all that Scattering matrix "Could you please help me by explaining what is actually meant by S-matrix?" Concept of ether in explaining forces? "Will there be any research carried out in the near or distant future to find a physical relationship between gravity, mass, light, matter/antimatter through something like the idea of ether hundred years ago?" Consequences of the success of superstring theory? "What will be the consequences if superstring theory is successful? Will physics come to an end?" The smallest constituents of matter 1. Do you think the particle model of matter is true? Why? 2. If all matter is made up of particles, then what are particles made up of? Is the top quark the end of the particle line?

458

An approach to catalytic asymmetric electrocyclization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

petroleum ether 40-60 Ph phenyl ppm parts per million Pr propyl q quartet Rf retention factor rt room temperature s singlet sept septet t triplet t tertiary TBAF tetrabutylammonium fluoride TBS tert... demonstrated by Nelson.73 In this case, we observed the formation of lactone 75 by vinyl nucleophile addition to the corresponding aldehydes 71 and 72. We require a less basic source of vinyl anion, or a bulkier ester such as tert-butyl, to prevent any...

Kothari, Abhishek

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

459

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

460

Thermochemistry and reaction barriers for the formation of levoglucosenone from cellobiose.  

SciTech Connect

Cellobiose jumps the barrier: High-level quantum mechanical studies show that the ether bond cleavage in cellobiose occurs through internal hydrogen transfer in the gas phase and that the activation energy required is similar to that required for activating cellulose. The reaction barriers are computed for various pathways for the formation of levoglucosenone from levoglucosan, and the most likely pathway requires a relatively low activation barrier compared to that for the activation of cellobiose.

Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tertiary-butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

462

Electron-donor dopant, method of improving conductivity of polymers by doping therewith, and a polymer so treated  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polymers with conjugated backbones, both polyacetylene and polyaromatic heterocyclic types, are doped with electron-donor agents to increase their electrical conductivity. The electron-donor agents are either electride dopants made in the presence of lithium or dopants derived from alkalides made in the presence of lithium. The dopants also contain a metal such as cesium and a trapping agent such as a crown ether.

Liepins, R.; Aldissi, M.

1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

463

An Analysis of Tantrayana (Vajrayana)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-tanubhir-astabhir- yo bibharti ca - The Tantrika ritual includes the asta-murti puja of Siva in the eight forms of Sarva (Earth), Bhava (Water), Rudra (Fire), Ugra (Air), Bhima (Ether), Pasupati (Yajmana), lsana (Sun), and Mahadev (Moon). The con­ cept of Siva finds... to the homeless life What two? Yocayam kamesu kamasukha, likanuyogo, hino, gammo, pothuJianiko, 26 AN ANALYSIS OFTANTRAYANA anariyo, annatthasamhtio, Yo cayam attakilamathanuyogo dukkho, anariyo, anathha samhito, Ete to bhikkhave ubhoante anuaagmma majjhima...

Yogi,P. G.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1992-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

465

Electron-donor dopant, method of improving conductivity of polymers by doping therewith, and a polymer so treated  

SciTech Connect

Polymers with conjugated backbones, both polyacetylene and polyaromatic heterocyclic types, are doped with electron-donor agents to increase their electrical conductivity. The electron-donor agents are either electride dopants made in the presence of lithium or dopants derived from alkalides made in the presence of lithium. The dopants also contain a metal such as cesium and a trapping agent such as a crown ether.

Liepins, Raimond (Los Alamos, NM); Aldissi, Mahmoud (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

SALICYLATE PROCESS FOR THORIUM SEPARATION FROM RARE EARTHS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of thorium from rare earths is accomplished by forming an aqueous solution of salts of thorium and rare earths and sufficient acetate buffer to provide a pH of between 2 and 5, adding an ammonium salicylate to the aqueous buffered solution, contacting the resultant solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent mixture of an ether and an ester, and separating the solvent extract phase containing thorium salicylate from the aqueous phase containing the rare earths.

Cowan, G.A.

1959-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

470

Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

HCCI in a CFR engine: experiments and detailed kinetic modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Single cylinder engine experiments and chemical kinetic modeling have been performed to study the effect of variations in fuel, equivalence ratio, and intake charge temperature on the start of combustion and the heat release rate. Neat propane and a fuel blend of 15% dimethyl-ether in methane have been studied. The results demonstrate the role of these parameters on the start of combustion, efficiency, imep, and emissions. Single zone kinetic modeling results show the trends consistent with the experimental results.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Smith, R; Torres, J; Girard, J; Dibble, R

1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

472

Siloxane-grafted membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

473

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Antihypertensive neutral lipid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

Snyder, Fred L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blank, Merle L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Computational Mechanistic Studies of Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Model Dimers for Lignin Depolymerization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is a heterogeneous alkyl-aromatic polymer that constitutes up to 30% of plant cell walls, and is used for water transport, structure, and defense. The highly irregular and heterogeneous structure of lignin presents a major obstacle in the development of strategies for its deconstruction and upgrading. Here we present mechanistic studies of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of lignin aryl-ether linkages, combining both experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. Quantum mechanical calculations provide a detailed interpretation of reaction mechanisms including possible intermediates and transition states. Solvent effects on the hydrolysis reactions were incorporated through the use of a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with cluster models including explicit water molecules in the first solvation shell. Reaction pathways were computed for four lignin model dimers including 2-phenoxy-phenylethanol (PPE), 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-ethanol (HPPE), 2-phenoxy-phenyl-1,3-propanediol (PPPD), and 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-1,3-propanediol (HPPPD). Lignin model dimers with a para-hydroxyphenyl ether (HPPE and HPPPD) show substantial differences in reactivity relative to the phenyl ether compound (PPE and PPPD) which have been clarified theoretically and experimentally. The significance of these results for acid deconstruction of lignin in plant cell walls will be discussed.

Kim, S.; Sturgeon, M. R.; Chmely, S. C.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Catalytic conversion of oxygenated compounds to low molecular weight olefins. Progress report, January 1-July 31, 1979. [Methanol from synthesis gas from coal gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An attractive route for producing ethylene and propylene from coal is to gasify the coal to produce synthesis gas, convert the synthesis gas to methanol, and then convert methanol to the olefins. During this report period the reactions of methanol over chabazite ion exchanged with rare earth chlorides have been studied at reciprocal liquid hourly space velocities of 1.5 to 15, at temperatures of 259, 271, 304, 352, and 427/sup 0/C, and at pressure 2.7 atm. At 259 and 271/sup 0/C the principle product was dimethyl ether. As the temperature was increased the conversion of methanol to olefins and alkanes increased to 54% and 32%, respectively. A mixture of dimethyl ether, water, and methanol was fed to the Berty reactor. This mixture was near the equilibrium concentrations for converting pure methanol to dimethyl ether and water at 275/sup 0/C. The Berty reactor temperature was 427/sup 0/C. Initially the yields were similar to those obtained when feeding pure methanol. However, the catalyst activity decreased at a faster rate. Rate models are being developed to correlate the catalyst activity and rate as a function of time on stream and partial pressures. A promising model is presented.

Anthony, R.G.

1979-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

Genetic Engineering of Plants to Improve Phytoremediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Groundwater  

SciTech Connect

I. Mechanism of halogenated hydrocarbon oxidation We are using poplar culture cells to determine the pathway of TCE metabolism. In our earlier work, we found that trichloroethanol (TCEOH) is a major early intermediate. Our studies this year have focused on the steps that follow this toxic intermediate. We did several experiments to track the disappearance of TCEOH after the cells were removed from TCE. We could conclude that TCEOH is not an end-product but is rapidly degraded. Six flasks of poplar liquid suspension cells were exposed to a level of 50 {micro}g/ml TCE for three days. Three of the cultures were subjected to MTBE extractions to quantify the levels of TCEOH produced. The cells of the remaining three cultures were then pelleted and resuspended in fresh medium. After three more days, these were also subjected to MTBE extractions. The samples were analyzed by GC-ECD. After the three days of further metabolism, an average of 91% of the trichloroethanol was gone. When similar experiments were done with intact plants and both free and conjugated TCEOH were quantified, a similar rapid decline in both forms was seen (Shang, 2001). Therefore, it seems probable that similar mechanisms are taking place in both poplar suspension cells and whole poplar plants, so we continued to do our studies with the suspension cells. Metabolism of trichloroethanol may go through trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) prior to dehalogenation. To test this possibility, we exposed cells to TCE and analyzed for TCAA over time. The cultures were analyzed after 4, 5, 6, and 14 days from TCE exposure. We did not detect any significant amount of TCAA above the background in undosed cells. To determine if trichloroethanol itself is directly dehalogenated, we analyzed TCE-exposed cells for the presence of dichloroethanol. Undosed cells did not have any of the DCEOH peak but TCE-dosed cells that produced the highest levels of trichloroethanol did have a small DCEOH peak. Cultures that did not produce high levels of TCEOH did not have the DCEOH peak. This result repeated in two independent experiments. We decided to expose cells directly to TCEOH and look for DCEOH in the cell extracts. After one week of exposure, the culture cells produced consistent levels of DCEOH of approximately 0.02% of the TCEOH dose. However, when we did a control reaction with no cells, DCEOH was present, indicating that the TCEOH degrades in the absence of cells. We are currently conducting the same experiments with newly-purchased chemicals and in darkness (by wrapping the culture flasks in foil). We have had success using tribromoethanol as a surrogate for trichloroethanol in studying the dehalogenation reaction in poplar cells. We had previously shown that tribromoethanol is steadily metabolized over time in poplar culture cells, producing free bromide ion. TBEOH-dosed dead cells and no cell controls did not have any bromide ion production. We are currently using this system to test P450 inhibitors to determine if dehalogenation of TBEOH is through this mechanism. We have recently purchased tribromoethylene as a more easily monitored surrogate for TCE. We will conduct mass balance experiments to determine what percentage of the bromide is released from tribromoethylene.

Strand, Stuart E.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Asymmetric Hydrogenations of Chiral Acyclic Alkenes for Important Chiron Syntheses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of "largely unfunctionalized" alkenes has been an active area of research for about a decade. Many catalysts have been prepared but we noticed that comparatively few substrates have been studied and none of these hydrogenations provided useful chirons for the organic synthesis area. That motivated us to investigate asymmetric hydrogenations of chiral acyclic alkenes, which are seldom used for hydrogenations and usually the reactions are fully substrate controlled. It emerged that such reactions could provide a concise entry points into chirons that can be used to prepare many natural products. Asymmetric hydrogenations of functionalized, but not coordinatively functionalized, alkenes have been used to prepare several chirons for syntheses ofpolyketide natural products using our N,carbene Crabtree's catalyst analog. Starting from optically active starting materials (eg Roche esters, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde dimethyl ketals, amino acids), highly optically active chiral alkenes can be made in several steps with high yield. With the iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations, chiral ethers, 1,3-hydroxymethyl chiron, alpha-methyl-beta-hydroxy-gamma-methyl chiron, alpha-methyl-gamma-alkyl-gamma-amino acid can be obtained with high stereoselectivities. With those well developed methodologies, (-)-dihydromyoporone, (-)-spongidepsin, (-)-invictolide have been prepared with high efficiency. Not like the vinyl acetate, which can be hydrogenated quite well with many Rh catalysts, the alkyl vinyl ether does not have a coordination functional group nearby, hence it is a difficult substrate for asymmetric hydrogenation and there are relatively few iv reports. Also the simple alkyl enol ether is quite acid sensitive and the Pfatlz's type N,PIr catalysts cannot hydrogenate the simple alkyl enol ethers well under the standard hydrogenation conditions. We explored many alkyl enol ethers and found some of them can be hydrogenated efficiently (50 bar H2, 1 mol percent N,carbene-Ir catalyst, 25 degree C) with high enantioselectivities (up to 98 percent ee). This study led us to suspect that more protons were produced when N,P-Ir catalyst precursors were used relative to the corresponding carbene catalyst since the former only gave complex mixture when being used. DF calculations and several other experiments supported this postulation.

Zhu, Ye

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

A novel process for methanol synthesis. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of methanol (MeOH) as a fuel additive and in MTBE production has renewed interest in the search for improved MeOH processes. Commercial processes are characterized by high pressures and temperatures with low per pass conversion (10--12%). Efforts are underway to find improved MeOH synthesis processes. A slurry phase ``concurrent`` synthesis of MeOH/methyl formate (MeF) which operates under relatively mild conditions (100{degrees}C lower than present commercial processes) was the subject of investigation in this work. Evidence for a reaction scheme involving the carbonylation of MeOH to MeF followed by the hydrogenolysis of MeF to two molecules of MeOH -- the net result being the reaction of H{sub 2} with CO to give MeOH via MeF, is presented. Up to 90% per pass conversion and 98% selectivity to methanol at rates comparable to commercial processes have been obtained in spite of the presence of as much as 10,000 ppM CO{sub 2} and 3000 ppM H{sub 2}O in the gas and liquid respectively. The effect of process parameters such as temperature, pressure, H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the reactor, flow rate and catalyst loading were also investigated. The use of temperatures above 170{degrees}C at a pressure of 50 atm results in MeF being the limiting reactant. Small amounts of CH{sub 4} are also formed. Significant MeOH synthesis rates at a pressure in the range of 40--50 atm makes possible the elimination of an upstream shift reactor and the use of an air-blown syngas generator. The nature of the catalysts was studied and correlated with the behavior of the various species in the concurrent synthesis.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Impacts of ethanol fuel level on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from a fleet of gasoline light-duty vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel with a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.

Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zheng, Zhongqing; Villella, Phillip M.; Jung, Hee-Jung

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

482

High-speed four-color infrared digital imaging for study in-cylinder processes in a di diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

The study was to investigate in-cylinder events of a direct injection-type diesel engine by using a new high-speed infrared (IR) digital imaging systems for obtaining information that was difficult to achieve by the conventional devices. For this, a new high-speed-dual-spectra infrared digital imaging system was developed to simultaneously capture two geometrically identical (in respective spectral) sets of IR images having discrete digital information in a (64x64) matrix at rates as high as over 1,800 frames/sec each with exposure period as short as 20 usec. At the same time, a new advanced four-color IR imaging system was constructed. The first two sets of spectral data were the radiation from water vapor emission bands to compute the distributions of temperature and specie in the gaseous mixture and the remaining two sets of data were to find the instantaneous temperature distribution over the cylinder surface. More than eight reviewed publications have been produced to report many new findings including: Distributions of Water Vapor and Temperature in a Flame; End Gas Images Prior to Onset of Knock; Effect of MTBE on Diesel Combustion; Impact of Oxygen Enrichment on In-cylinder Reactions; Spectral IR Images of Spray Plume; Residual Gas Distribution; Preflame Reactions in Diesel Combustion; Preflame Reactions in the End Gas of an SI Engine; Postflame Oxidation; and Liquid Fuel Layers during Combustion in an SI Engine. In addition, some computational analysis of diesel combustion was performed using KIVA-II program in order to compare results from the prediction and the measurements made using the new IR imaging diagnostic tool.

Rhee, K.T.

1995-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

483

Process studies for a new method of removing H/sub 2/S from industrial gas streams  

SciTech Connect

A process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal-derived gas streams has been developed. The basis for the process is the absorption of H/sub 2/S into a polar organic solvent where it is reacted with dissolved sulfur dioxide to form elemental sulfur. After sulfur is crystallized from solution, the solvent is stripped to remove dissolved gases and water formed by the reaction. The SO/sub 2/ is generated by burning a portion of the sulfur in a furnace where the heat of combustion is used to generate high pressure steam. The SO/sub 2/ is absorbed into part of the lean solvent to form the solution necessary for the first step. The kinetics of the reaction between H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ dissolved in mixtures of N,N-Dimethylaniline (DMA)/ Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether and DMA/Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether was studied by following the temperature rise in an adiabatic calorimeter. This irreversible reaction was found to be first-order in both H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/, with an approximates heat of reaction of 28 kcal/mole of SO/sub 2/. The sole products of the reaction appear to be elemental sulfur and water. The presence of DMA increases the value of the second-order rate constant by an order of magnitude over that obtained in the glycol ethers alone. Addition of other tertiary aromatic amines enhances the observed kinetics; heterocyclic amines (e.g., pyridine derivatives) have been found to be 10 to 100 times more effective as catalysts when compared to DMA.

Neumann, D.W.; Lynn, S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Molecular modeling of the pendant chain in Nafion{reg_sign}  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ion transport through perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers such as Nafion{reg_sign} is controlled by both the microstructure of the polymer and the charge and water distribution in the hydrated polymer. The authors present here the results of theoretical calculations on the side chain of Nafion{reg_sign}, establishing microscopic information for the modeling of water modeling of water modeling of water and proton transport in the membrane. Optimized geometries for the trifluoromethane sulfonic acid fragment (CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H), the di-trifluoromethane ether fragment (CF{sub 3}OCF{sub 3}), and the side chain (CF{sub 3}{single_bond}OCF{sub 2}CF(CF{sub 3})OCF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}H) were determined by means of both ab initio Hartree Fock theory with second order Moeller-Plesset electron correlation corrections, and density functional theory with Becke`s three parameter hybrid method. Several rotational potential energy surfaces were calculated to assess chain flexibility and proton accessibility. A probe water molecule was added to each of the fragments to characterize hydrophilic sites. These calculations confirmed that the sulfonic acid group is hydrophilic and the ethers are hydrophobic. Molecular dynamics simulations were then performed on the side chain to check the conditions required to stretch the pendant chain. Thermal averages of several structural parameters assessing the flexibility and stretch of the chain were computed from selected conformations produced in the simulation and these results indicate that although the sulfonate group is free to rotate, the chain stretches little. The construction of a potential energy surface for rotation about the second ether group suggests that the side chain exists in a folded or curled up conformation. A physical continuum dielectric solvent model was used to obtain free energies of electrostatic interaction of the fragments and the full chain with the solvent.

Paddison, S.J.; Zawodzinski, T.A.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Effect of Blending on High-Pressure Laminar Flame Speed Measurements, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Stability of Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas is the primary fuel used in industrial gas turbines for power generation. Hydrocarbon blends of methane, ethane, and propane make up a large portion of natural gas and it has been shown that dimethyl ether can be used as a supplement or in its pure form for gas turbine combustion. Because of this, a fundamental understanding of the physical characteristics such as the laminar flame speed is necessary, especially at elevated pressures to have the most relevance to the gas turbine industry. This thesis discusses the equations governing premixed laminar flames, historical methods used to measure the laminar flame speed, the experimental device used in this study, the procedure for converting the measured data into the flame speed, the results of the measurements, and a discussion of the results. The results presented in this thesis include the flame speeds for binary blends of methane, ethane, propane, and dimethyl ether performed at elevated pressures, up to 10-atm initial pressure, using a spherically expanding flame in a constant-volume vessel. Also included in this thesis is a comparison between the experimental measurements and four chemical kinetic models. The C4 mechanism, developed in part through collaboration between the National University of Ireland Galway and Texas A&M, was improved using the data presented herein, showing good agreement for all cases. The effect of blending ethane, propane, and dimethyl ether with methane in binary form is emphasized in this study, with the resulting Markstein length, Lewis number (Le), and flame stability characterized and discussed. It was noticed in this study, as well as in other studies, that the critical radius of the flame typically decreased as the Le decreased, and that the critical radius of the flame increased as the Le increased. Also, a rigorous uncertainty analysis has been performed, showing a range of 0.3 cm/s to 3.5 cm/s depending on equivalence ratio and initial pressure.

Lowry, William Baugh

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

SEPARATION OF INORGANIC SALTS FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for recovering the nitrates of uranium and plutonium from solution in oxygen-containing organic solvents such as ketones or ethers. The solution of such salts dissolved in an oxygen-containing organic compound is contacted with an ion exchange resin whereby sorption of the entire salt on the resin takes place and then the salt-depleted liquid and the resin are separated from each other. The reaction seems to be based on an anion formation of the entire salt by complexing with the anion of the resin. Strong base or quaternary ammonium type resins can be used successfully in this process.

Katzin, L.I.; Sullivan, J.C.

1958-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

488

Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

489

Viscosity of aqueous solutions of n-methyldiethanolamine and of diethanolamine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous solutions of alkanolamines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), and bis[2-(hydroxyamino)ethyl] ether (DGA) are good solvents for the removal of acid gases such as CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S from the gas streams of many processes in the natural gas, petroleum, ammonia synthesis, and some chemical industries. The viscosity of aqueous solutions of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and of diethanolamine (DEA) have been measured at five temperatures in the range 25--80 C throughout the whole concentration range. The viscosity has been correlated as a function of composition for use in industrial calculations.

Teng, T.T.; Maham, Y.; Hepler, L.G.; Mather, A.E. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook Petroleum Market Module Figure 8. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, and bioesters natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of U.S. refining

491

Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Lignin Model Compounds: Reaction Pathways of Aromatic Methoxy Groups  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Currently, there is interest in utilizing lignin, a major constituent of biomass, as a renewable source of chemicals and fuels. High yields of liquid products can be obtained from the flash or fast pyrolysis of biomass, but the reaction pathways that lead to product formation are not understood. To provide insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds at 500 C. This presentation will focus on the FVP of {beta}-ether linkages containing aromatic methoxy groups and the reaction pathways of methoxy-substituted phenoxy radicals.

Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C., III; Martineau, D.R.

1999-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

492

Supercritical fluid extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

PURIFICATION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent deals with the separation of uranium from molybdenum compounds, and in particular with their separation from ether solutions containing the molybdenum in the form of acids, such as silicomolybdic and phosphomolybdic acids. After the nitric acid leach of pitchblende, the molybdenum values present in the ore are found in the leach solution in the form of complex acids. The uranium bearing solution may be purified of this molybdenum content by comtacting it with activated charcoal. The purification is improved when the acidity of the solution is low ad agitation is also beneficial. The molybdenum may subsequently be recovered from the charcosl ad the charcoal reused.

Wibbles, H.L.; Miller, E.I.

1958-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

494

Charm of Cambridge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

science laboratories and science parks which, like the outer part of a light bulb, give illumination and brilliance to the filament which is at the centre of the city. This bulb shines in the East Anglian gloom and attracts people from all around the world... . Cambridge also has the charm of a place which is not quite real, ethereal. It is light, open, inviting, and yet constantly elusive, like Keats’ maiden after whom the poet or suitor follows ‘in mad pursuit’ but never attains. The day visitor or even...

Macfarlane, Alan

2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

495

Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

Gregg, Brian A. (Golden, CO); Taylor, A. Michael (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two organic cathode materials based on poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) structure with different substitution positions were synthesized and their electrochemical behavior and battery performances were investigated. The substitution positions on the anthraquinone structure, binders for electrode preparation and electrolyte formulations have been found to have significant effects on the battery performances of such organic cathode materials. The substitution position with less steric stress has higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate capability. Polyvinylidene fluoride binder and ether-based electrolytes are favorable for the high capacity and long cycle life of the quinonyl organic cathodes.

Xu, Wu; Read, Adam L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. the linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling. 3 figs.

Zeigler, J.M.